Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell: A group of disorders resulting from the abnormal proliferation of and tissue infiltration by LANGERHANS CELLS which can be detected by their characteristic Birbeck granules (X bodies), or by monoclonal antibody staining for their surface CD1 ANTIGENS. Langerhans-cell granulomatosis can involve a single organ, or can be a systemic disorder.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Langerhans Cell Sarcoma: Rare malignant neoplasm of dendritic LANGERHANS CELLS exhibiting atypical cytology, frequent mitoses, and aggressive clinical behavior. They can be distinguished from other histiocytic and dendritic proliferations by immunohistochemical and ultrastructure studies. Cytologically benign proliferations of Langerhans cells are called LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Eosinophilic Granuloma: The most benign and common form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis which involves localized nodular lesions predominantly of the bones but also of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by EOSINOPHILS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Histiocytosis: General term for the abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood. Based on the pathological features of the cells involved rather than on clinical findings, the histiocytic diseases are subdivided into three groups: HISTIOCYTOSIS, LANGERHANS CELL; HISTIOCYTOSIS, NON-LANGERHANS-CELL; and HISTIOCYTIC DISORDERS, MALIGNANT.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Dermatitis, Photoallergic: A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Histiocytes: Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile: Benign disorder of infants and children caused by proliferation of HISTIOCYTES, macrophages found in tissues. These histiocytes, usually lipid-laden non-Langerhans cells, form multiple yellow-red nodules most often in the skin, the eye, and sometimes in the viscera. Patients appear to have normal lipid metabolism and are classified as a normolipemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Picryl Chloride: A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell SeparationCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Skin DiseasesCoculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Mice, Inbred C3HOrbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Gene Knock-In Techniques: Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Mice, Inbred ACautery: The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Our work has clearly shown that histiocytomas have the phenotype of epidermal Langerhans cells. They express CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, ... and poorly differentiated mast cell tumors. Cutaneous histiocytoma = Langerhans cells: CD1+, CD11c+, MHCII+, CD86+, E-cad+, ... Amongst leukocytes, E-cadherin expression is unique to Langerhans cells. Langerhans cells utilize E-cadherin to localize in the ... derived from specialised epidermic dendritic cells, the Langerhans cells) 2. Reactive histiocytosis (immunohistochemical ...
... intact apoptotic cells, as well as cell debris by phagocytes. The complement system can be activated through three pathways: ... "C-type lectin Langerin is a beta-glucan receptor on human Langerhans cells that recognizes opportunistic and pathogenic fungi ... "Mannose-binding lectin-deficient mice display defective apoptotic cell clearance but no autoimmune phenotype". J. Immunol. 174 ... Another important function of MBL is that this molecule binds senescent and apoptotic cells and enhances engulfment of whole, ...
Not to be confused with the cells of the islets of Langerhans, found in the pancreas, or Langhans giant cell. Langerhans cells ... characterization of cellular phenotypes producing interleukin-10 in cervical neoplastic lesions". Immunology. 146 (1): 113-121 ... Langerin is a protein found in Langerhans cells, and other types of dendritic cells. In the rare disease Langerhans cell ... The Langerhans cell is named after Paul Langerhans, a German physician and anatomist, who discovered the cells at the age of 21 ...
... myeloid cells: the case of the Langerhans cell". Trends Immunol. 31 (12): 438-45. doi:10.1016/j.it.2010.09.003. "S12C3- ... phenotype, and size. Macrophages are highly variable in size and morphology, their cytoplasm contains numerous acid phosphatase ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... Some sources consider Langerhans cell derivatives to be histiocytes. The Langerhans cell histiocytosis embeds this ...
Hyperactivated Notch causes a reduction in the number of secretory cell types (i.e. goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and ... which drives differentiation of endocrine cell types that will form the islets of Langerhans. The absence of Hes1 in the ... This phenotype resembles Alagille syndrome, a hallmark of which is mutations in Jagged1. Therefore, Hes-Notch interactions also ... HES1 is expressed in both neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, both neural stem cells. Hes1 expression, along with ...
... and Langerhans cells. Within the pilosebaceous unit, S100A15 is found in the inner and external root sheath and the basal layer ... Today, the protein is of further interest because of its role in antimicrobial defence, innate immunity, epidermal cell ... suggesting involvement in the lesional phenotype of the disease, Koebner phenomenon. ... In the dermis, koebnerisin (S100A15) is produced by dendritic cells, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, as well as ...
Despite this, UVB damages the immune system even in darker skinned individuals due to its effect on Langerhans cells. The ... Pigment Cell Research / Sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society ... Due to their similar phenotype and the location of New Guinea being in the migration route taken by Indigenous Australians, it ... Folate is used in the formation of myelin, the sheath the covers nerve cells and makes it possible to send electrical signals ...
They do this by presenting beta cell derived peptides using MHC II receptors to T-cells in the islet. Once activated, T-cells ... Islet resident macrophages are the predominant myeloid cell of the pancreatic islets of langerhans. The islet resident ... As a unique population in terms of developmental origin, these resident macrophages have a unique phenotype in which they are ... islet resident progenitors come from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of the definitive hematopoiesis. These cells are seen in ...
In airway epithelial cells, the cilia exist in between the cell's apical surface and mucus in a layer known as airway surface ... The pancreas contains the islets of Langerhans, which are responsible for making insulin, a hormone that helps regulate blood ... Usually, no other GI complications occur in pancreas-sufficient phenotypes, and in general, such individuals usually have ... "Functional repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients". Cell Stem Cell. 13 (6 ...
Non-hereditary recurrent pneumothorax and/or pulmonary cysts can occur with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and ... When this occurs, the result is that these cells have no functional copies of the FLCN gene, allowing the cells grow out of ... Less severe skin phenotypes are seen in women and people of both sexes who have a late onset of skin symptoms. Birt-Hogg-Dubé ... it is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. If it develops in someone with BHD, ...
Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. Other regulatory immune cells include T cell subsets ... which is responsible for the suppressive phenotype of these cells. It was assumed that, since the presence of the Treg cells ... the T cell did not encounter in the thymus (such as, tissue-specific molecules like those in the islets of Langerhans, brain, ... Usually, Treg cells, TR1, and Th3 cells at mucosal surfaces suppress type 2 CD4 helper cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, ...
... and is the result of autoimmune damage to the Islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. The level of adult onset T1D plus ... In GSE, it appears to be associated with the IgA-less phenotype. Unlike other forms of megaloblastic anemia, GSEA MA is not a ... Mäkelä M, Oling V, Marttila J, Waris M, Knip M, Simell O, Ilonen J (2006). "Rotavirus-specific T cell responses and cytokine ... RCD 1 involves precancerous tissues in which transformed T-cells continue to produce a response even though gluten is no longer ...
Cells are most susceptible to Zika infection when levels of IFITM3 are low. Once the cell has been infected, the virus ... skin fibroblasts in the skin and the Langerhans cells. The pathogenesis of the virus is hypothesized to continue with a spread ... worsen the microcephaly phenotype and/or enhance damage during pregnancy, but it is unknown whether this occurs in humans[64][ ... A longitudinal study shows that 6 hours after cells are infected with Zika virus, the vacuoles and mitochondria in the cells ...
There are two major cell morphologies in the LAM lesion: small spindle-shaped cells and cuboidal epithelioid cells. LAM cells ... consistent with a proliferative phenotype. Compared with cigar-shaped normal smooth muscle cells, spindle-shaped LAM cells ... VEGF-D serum levels are increased in LAM compared to other cystic lung diseases, including pulmonary Langerhans cell ... LAM cells behave, in many ways, like metastatic tumor cells. LAM cells appear to arise from an extrapulmonary source and ...
Dendritic cells were first described by Paul Langerhans (hence "Langerhans cells") in the late nineteenth century. The term " ... IL-12 is a signal that helps send naive CD4 T cells towards a Th1 phenotype. The ultimate consequence is priming and activation ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ... concurrent interaction of all three cell types, namely CD4+ T helper cells, CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells, seems to be ...
T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell receptors (TCRs), such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells exhibit ... where they are often called Langerhans cells), and the inner mucosal lining of the nose, lungs, stomach, and intestines. They ... component of adaptive immunity in that they rearrange TCR genes to produce junctional diversity and develop a memory phenotype ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ...
The type of T-cell help raised is determined by the differentiated state of antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells can ... subsequent research revealed that other cells (such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and epithelial Langerhans cells) could also ... can ensure the success of the immune response to the encoded antigen and drive the immune response toward a TH1 phenotype. This ... which are potent B-cell stimulators. T-cells can be stimulated by similar, germinal centre dendritic cells. FDC are able to ...
... necessary for cellular processes such as cell division, cell signalling, cell surface receptor function, apoptosis, DNA ... confirming the homozygous nature of the JBS phenotype. Variability of the phenotype, associated with residual ubiquitin ligase ... The islets of Langerhans are ducts in the pancreas where endocrine activity such as the release of hormones glucagon, ... Baker RT, Varshavsky A (February 1991). "Inhibition of the N-end rule pathway in living cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 88 (4 ...
Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. Other regulatory immune cells include T cell subsets ... the T cell did not encounter in the thymus (such as, tissue-specific molecules like those in the islets of Langerhans, brain, ... A more specific depletion and reconstitution experiment established the phenotype of these cells as CD4+ and CD25+. Later in ... Usually, Treg cells, TR1, and Th3 cells at mucosal surfaces suppress type 2 CD4 helper cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, ...
"Generation of functional human pancreatic β cells in vitro". Cell. 159 (2): 428-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.040. PMC 4617632 ... pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans are destroyed, decreasing endogenous insulin production. This distinguishes ... "Structural Properties of Gene Promoters Highlight More than Two Phenotypes of Diabetes". PLOS One. 10 (9): e0137950. Bibcode: ... Pluripotent stem cells can be used to generate beta cells but previously these cells did not function as well as normal beta ...
The presence of EET's relax vascular smooth muscle cells by hyperpolarizing the cell membrane, thus highlighting the protective ... "Cytochrome P450 Promotes the neoplastic phenotype of carcinoma cells and is Up-regulated in Human Tumors". Cancer Research. 65 ... "Predominant expression of an arachidonate epoxygenase in islets of Langerhans cells in human and rat pancreas". Endocrinology. ... Increased detection of CYP2J2 mRNA and protein were evident in 77% of patient carcinoma cell lines. Cell proliferation was ...
Some applications are impaired by the immature phenotype of the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs)-derived cell type, which limits ... cell type affected in diseases are a major focus of research, this includes hepatocytes, Langerhans islet beta-cells, ... co-culture with stromal cells or feeder cells, and on specific culture substrates: support cells and matrices provide ... introduced in the cells. The starting material can be either pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), or either differentiated cell type ...
... and is the result of autoimmune damage to the Islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. The level of adult onset T1D plus ... RCD 2 involves neoplastic tissues that the lack of surface expression of usual T-cell markers.[109] *Increased expression of: ... it appears to be associated with the IgA-less phenotype.[24] Unlike other forms of megaloblastic anemia, GSEA MA is not a form ... Clonal T-cell expansion in RCD2 is not manageable with steroids (see: RCD 1) and sometimes manageable with chemotherapeutic ...
NOS M9752/1 Langerhans cell histiocytosis, unifocal Langerhans cell granulomatosis, unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis, ... NOS M8013/3 Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M8014/3 Large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype M8015/3 Glassy cell ... NOS M8001/3 Tumor cells, malignant M8002/3 Malignant tumor, small cell type M8003/3 Malignant tumor, giant cell type M8004/3 ... multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis, poly-ostotic M9754/3 Langerhans cell histiocytosis, disseminated Langerhans cell ...
Langerhans RB, DeWit TJ (2002). "Plasticity constrained: Over-generalized induction cues cause maladaptive phenotypes". ... To compensate for this, mice increase the total mass of mucosal cells, cells responsible for glucose transport, in the ... such as changes in the lipid composition of cell membranes. Temperature change influences the fluidity of cell membranes by ... their phenotype to different environments. If the optimal phenotype in a given environment changes with environmental ...
... dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions),[20] they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells ... MCs originate from a bone marrow progenitor and subsequently develop different phenotype characteristics locally in tissues. ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, ...
Expansion of regulatory T cells in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PLoS Med. 2007, 4 (8): e253-10.1371/journal. ... Bronchoscopy with BAL was performed in all patients for diagnostic reasons as previously reported [13-15]. Lymphocyte phenotype ... Pulmonary Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterized by clusters of Langerhans ... Cigarette smoking-induced changes in the number and differentiated state of pulmonary dendritic cells/Langerhans cells. Am Rev ...
... is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells with a Langerhans cell phenotype, which comprises a wide ... During diagnostic processing, infiltrates of Langerhans cells (S-100+, CD1a+) in the epidermis, intestinal mucosa and bone ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells with a Langerhans cell ... Patne S, Dwivedi S, Katiyar R, Gupta V, Gupta A. Langerhans cell histiocytosis diagnosed by FNAC of lymph nodes. J Can Res Ther ...
Possible causes include Langerhans-Cell Histiocytosis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our ... Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis & Pediatric Disorder & Thrombocytopenia Symptom Checker: ... Tumours derived from Langerhans cells a)Langerhans cell histiocytosis b)Langerhans cell sarcoma 3)Indeterminate dendritic cell ... a rare case of sea-blue histiocytosis associated with a mild phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B in a 44-year-old ...
Notch-mediated generation of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells: Phenotype and function ... For vaccine testing, an easily accessible cell platform would be desirable as an alternative to the time-consuming purification ... Notch-mediated generation of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells: Phenotype and function Bellmann, L., Zelle-Rieser, C., Milne, P ... 2020). Notch-mediated generation of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells: Phenotype and function. Journal of Investigative ...
Such bias was also observed in B cells and myeloid cells of Ubow mice crossed to reporter mice in which those cell types ... Deletion of the developmentally essential gene ATR in adult mice leads to age-related phenotypes and stem cell loss. Cell Stem ... Origin, homeostasis and function of Langerhans cells and other langerin-expressing dendritic cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8:935- ... The dermis contains langerin+ dendritic cells that develop and function independently of epidermal Langerhans cells. J. Exp. ...
E) LCs promote T cell differentiation towards IFNγ-IL-4+ Type 2 T cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells cultured for 6 d with each in vitro ... Dermal CD1a+ DCs show an intermediate phenotype compared to LCs and dermal CD14+ DCs.. (D) Cytokine production by CD40L- ... We showed that CD14(+) DCs primed CD4(+) T cells into cells that induce naive B cells to switch isotype and become plasma cells ... Functional specializations of human epidermal Langerhans cells and CD14+ dermal dendritic cells.. Klechevsky E1, Morita R, Liu ...
Phenotype of human DC subsets. This figure summarizes the phenotype and pathogen receptor expression profile location of human ... epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), red pulp macrophages (MFs), and blood monocytes. Red represents high and blue represents low ... on naive T cells (tissue imprinting), thereby promoting T cell migration to gut tissue. cDCs also promote T cell-dependent ... The dendritic cell lineage: ontogeny and function of dendritic cells and their subsets in the steady state and the inflamed ...
48.67 cell/mm,sup,2,/sup,) than in controls (20.57 ± 21.04 cell/mm,sup,2,/sup,). There was no difference in the peripheral LC ... density (124.78 ± 165.39 versus 78.00 ± 39.51 cell/mm,sup,2,/sup,). LCM was higher in SLE patients in the centre (1.43 ± 0.79) ... i,Purpose,/i,. Investigation of dry eye and corneal Langerhans cells (LCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ,i,Methods,/i ... P. Hamrah, Y. Liu, Q. Zhang, and M. R. Dana, "Alterations in corneal stromal dendritic cell phenotype and distribution in ...
Our work has clearly shown that histiocytomas have the phenotype of epidermal Langerhans cells. They express CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, ... and poorly differentiated mast cell tumors. Cutaneous histiocytoma = Langerhans cells: CD1+, CD11c+, MHCII+, CD86+, E-cad+, ... Amongst leukocytes, E-cadherin expression is unique to Langerhans cells. Langerhans cells utilize E-cadherin to localize in the ... derived from specialised epidermic dendritic cells, the Langerhans cells) 2. Reactive histiocytosis (immunohistochemical ...
Epidermal barrier function is impaired in Langerhans cell-depleted mice Thu, 2018-11-15 00:00 ... Resident memory and recirculating memory T cells cooperate to maintain disease in a mouse model of vitiligo Sat, 2018-11-10 00: ... Transglutaminase 1 Replacement Therapy Successfully Mitigates the ARCI Phenotype in Full-Thickness Skin Disease Equivalents Thu ... Role of Chemokine Receptor CCR4 and Regulatory T Cells in Wound Healing of Diabetic Mice Mon, 2018-11-19 00:00 ...
... the presence of dendritic cells (DCs) in teleosts has been addressed only briefly, and the identification of a specific DC ... Langerhans Cells / immunology* * Langerhans Cells / metabolism* * Mice * Molecular Sequence Data * Phagocytosis * Phenotype ... In mice, DCs expressing CD8α(+) in lymphoid tissues have the capacity to cross-present extracellular Ags to T cells through MHC ... Identification of Teleost Skin CD8α+ Dendritic-like Cells, Representing a Potential Common Ancestor for Mammalian Cross- ...
Thymic dendritic cell precursors: relationship to the T lymphocyte lineage and phenotype of the dendritic cell progeny. J Exp ... T cells, B cells, thymic lymphoid CD8+ DCs, and myeloid cells. The percentage of Ly 5.2+ donor cells and of the different cell ... Langerhans cells (LCs) are specialized dendritic cells (DCs) strategically located in stratified epithelia, such as those of ... B cells, and CD8+ lymphoid DCs but not myeloid cells, because neither Gr-1+ nor Mac-1+ nor F4/80+ donor-derived cells were ...
... we could not detect any cells with this phenotype from Cbfb2m/2m mice. By P7, nearly all LC-lineage CD45+CD3−CD11b+F4/80+ cells ... dendritic epidermal T cell. dpc. day postcoitus. EpCAM. epithelial cell adhesion molecule. LC. Langerhans cell. VDR. vitamin D ... A role for TGFβ1 in langerhans cell biology. Further characterization of the epidermal Langerhans cell defect in TGFβ1 null ... Langerhans cells and more: Langerin-expressing dendritic cell subsets in the skin. Immunol. Rev. 234:120-141. doi:10.1111/j. ...
The absence of Langerhans cells in the pathology specimens distinguishes this from LCH, which can also involve the pons, ... Central nervous system disease in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Hemat Oncol Clin N Am 1998;12:287-305. ... other autoimmune diseases and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) as possible causes of the radiological abnormalities ... or less of the inflammatory cells (G: 200×, case No 3). CD20 positive B cells comprise a minority of lymphocytes (H: 200×, case ...
... and muscular phenotype. Here we demonstrate that bone marrow-derived cells populate pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Bone ... of bone marrow-derived cells into differentiated cell phenotypes. ... Bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to ... In vivo derivation of glucose-competent pancreatic endocrine cells from bone marrow without evidence of cell fusion. ... In vivo derivation of glucose-competent pancreatic endocrine cells from bone marrow without evidence of cell fusion. ...
Not to be confused with the cells of the islets of Langerhans, found in the pancreas, or Langhans giant cell. Langerhans cells ... characterization of cellular phenotypes producing interleukin-10 in cervical neoplastic lesions". Immunology. 146 (1): 113-121 ... Langerin is a protein found in Langerhans cells, and other types of dendritic cells. In the rare disease Langerhans cell ... The Langerhans cell is named after Paul Langerhans, a German physician and anatomist, who discovered the cells at the age of 21 ...
Cultured human Langerhans cells resemble lymphoid dendritic cells in phenotype and function. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93: 600- ... CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell reactivity by dendritic cells loaded with HIV-1 X4-infected apoptotic cells. J Virol. 2002;76: 3007-3014. ... cells, or CD8+ T cells (Table 2). As compared with whole PBMCs and on a per million cells basis, CD8+ T cells were similarly ... cells, and CD8+ T cells). Similar to hHxB-2 gag, autologous v-gag or pv-gag induced fewer SFCs per 106 CD4+ T cells as compared ...
... there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse ... there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse ... Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune responses, and are thus key targets in cancer vaccine ... Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune responses, and are thus key targets in cancer vaccine ...
However, the parasite is able to persist in host myeloid cells by evading, delaying and manipulating host immunity in order to ... However, the parasite is able to persist in host myeloid cells by evading, delaying and manipulating host immunity in order to ... Macrophages are the main host cells where the parasites grow and divide. However, macrophages are also the main effector ... Macrophages are the main host cells where the parasites grow and divide. However, macrophages are also the main effector ...
The expression profile of the T cells was that of an activated regulatory T-cell phenotype with increased expression of FOXP3, ... Evidence that Langerhans cells in adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are mature dendritic cells: importance of the ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a dendritic cell disease. Comprehensive gene expression array data analysis on LCH cells ... Rolland A, Guyon L, Gill M, et al.: Increased blood myeloid dendritic cells and dendritic cell-poietins in Langerhans cell ...
... during maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Adenosine, an immunomodulatory molecule, is unstable in vitro; ... Langerhans Cells / physiology * Lymph Nodes / physiology * Phenotype * Picryl Chloride / pharmacology * Receptors, Purinergic ... Importantly, all other features of dendritic cells tested--phenotype, antigen uptake, cytokine production, T cell activation, ... Adenosine slows migration of dendritic cells but does not affect other aspects of dendritic cell maturation J Invest Dermatol. ...
NK cells, and brain microglia under control of the endogenous ,em,Cx3cr1,/em, locus. They may be useful in studies of leukocyte ... mammalian phenotype. *immune system phenotype*Normal - normal dendritic cell migration and IL-12 production in response to a ... Normal - normal Langerhans cell migration and APC function in response to contact sensitizer (oxazolone) ... Tissue/Cell Markers: transplantation marker for embryonic and adult tissue. *Tissue/Cell Markers: cell marker for bone marrow ...
Langerhans cells acquire a CD8+ dendritic cell phenotype on maturation by CD40 ligation. J. Leukocyte Biol. 67: 206. ... The cell surface of mouse dendritic cells: FACS analyses of dendritic cells from different tissues including thymus. Cell. ... Mouse plasmacytoid cells: long-lived cells, heterogeneous in surface phenotype and function, that differentiate into CD8+ ... dendritic cells, but cross-presented to CD8 T cells by CD8+ dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 166: 5327. ...
Antigen-bearing Langerhans cells in skin draining lymph nodes: phenotype and kinetics of migration. J. Invest. Dermatol. 103: ... Inhibition of Langerhans cell antigen-presenting function by IL-10. A role for IL-10 in induction of tolerance. J. Immunol. 151 ... naive Th cells in lymph nodes vs effector cells in peripheral nonlymphoid tissues, such as primed Th cells, NK cells, and CD8+ ... Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and direct the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. J. Immunol. 10: 5071. ...
... cell-surface phenotype, and function (2-5). Seminal studies using purified DCs demonstrated their ability to induce T-cell ... In 1868, Paul Langerhans made the first description of dendritic cells (DCs) found in human skin that he regarded as " ... Cell Preparation.. Single-cell suspensions of WKM were prepared from adult zebrafish as previously described (31). IPEX cells ... 1998) Monocyte-derived dendritic cells have a phenotype comparable to that of dermal dendritic cells and display ...
  • In mice, DCs expressing CD8α(+) in lymphoid tissues have the capacity to cross-present extracellular Ags to T cells through MHC I, similarly to tissue-derived CD103(+) DCs and the human CD141(+) DC population. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow cells from male mice that express, using a CRE-LoxP system, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) if the insulin gene is actively transcribed were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient female mice. (jci.org)
  • Neither bone marrow cells nor circulating peripheral blood nucleated cells of donor or recipient mice had any detectable EGFP. (jci.org)
  • CX3CR1-GFP mice express EGFP in monocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells, and brain microglia under control of the endogenous Cx3cr1 locus. (jax.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells identified a subset of green fluorescent cells not observed in wildtype mice. (jax.org)
  • The same subset of peripheral blood cells isolated from heterozygote mice express detectable levels of EGFP. (jax.org)
  • Since the first descriptions of DCs in humans and mice, this cell type has been identified in other mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not in fish ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Epidermal cell suspensions were generated by limited trypsinization of human skin obtained during plastic surgery ( 51 ), and from trunk skin of female C57/BL6 mice ( 40 ) (Harlan Winkelmann, Boechen, Germany). (rupress.org)
  • The chemokine SDF-1 activates the integrins LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-5 on immature human CD34 + cells: role in transendothelial/stromal migration and engraftment of NOD/SCID mice. (nature.com)
  • major-resistant mice have revealed complexities in the mechanisms responsible for acquired immunity, which necessitate the redesign of vaccines against Leishmania and other pathogens that require sustained cell-mediated immune responses. (labome.org)
  • Explore different dendritic cell lineages and subsets in humans and mice. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • To test the consequences of this, Langerhans cells were induced into the cornea before Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in BALB/c mice that are normally resistant (the cornea heals) and in C57BL/6 mice that are susceptible (the cornea perforates) to bacterial challenge. (arvojournals.org)
  • A series of small studies in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( EAE ), an animal model of MS, suggested a way those cells may communicate with the CNS. (msdiscovery.org)
  • Notably, mice in which the Langerhans cells were eliminated did not display the UVB-induced phenotype-that is, skin changes involving greater immune regulation that can (reversibly) educate Tregs. (msdiscovery.org)
  • CCR2-null mice had lower numbers of DCs in the spleen, and this was primarily due to a reduction in the CD8α + T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing subset of DCs. (uthscsa.edu)
  • We propose that these DC defects, in conjunction with increased expression of B lymphocyte chemoattractant, a B cel - specific chemokine, may collectively contribute to the striking B cell outgrowth and Th2 cytokine - biased nonhealing phenotype that we observed in CCN2-deficient mice infected with L. major. (uthscsa.edu)
  • This disease phenotype in mice with an L. major - resistant genetic background but lacking CCN2 is strikingly reminiscent of that observed typically in mice with an L. major - susceptible genetic background. (uthscsa.edu)
  • By crossing mice deficient in Batf3 with atherosclerosis-prone low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr\(^{−/-}\))-deficient mice we here aimed to further address the contribution of Batf3-dependent CD8α\(^{+}\) and CD103\(^{+}\) antigen-presenting cells to atherosclerosis. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • We demonstrate that deficiency in Batf3 entailed mild effects on the immune response in the spleen but did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aorta or aortic root, nor affected plaque phenotype in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed a high fat diet. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • T-cell immunity against tumors and bacterial or viral infections relies essentially on the recognition of an antigen peptide processed and presented to the T cell by an antigen-presenting cell. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Since the 2010 FDA approval of the first cancer DC-based vaccine ( Sipuleucel-T ), there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo primed T cells reactive to a wide range of melanoma-specific tumor-associated antigens are detectable in tumors, in tumor-draining lymph nodes, and in the blood of patients with melanoma, and most importantly, their frequency can be increased by tumor-associated antigen-specific vaccination ( 1 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently reported on the dendritic cell (DC)-modulatory effects of intradermal injections of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) around the excision site of stage I melanoma tumors, resulting in significantly increased numbers and activation state of MDC in the paracortical T cell areas of the SLN ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of miR-378 was analyzed in ovarian cancer cell lines and human tumors vs. normal ovarian epithelial cells by qRT-PCR. (cancerindex.org)
  • MiR-378 was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells and tumors vs. normal ovarian epithelial cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Ontak) may serve as a useful strategy to deplete Treg cells and break tolerance against neoplastic tumors in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have recently identified HOP hoemobox (HOPX) as a tumor suppressor gene candidate, characterized by tumor-specific promoter DNA hypermethylation in human cancers, and it can remarkably inhibit tumors' aggressive phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of dendritic cells (DCs) as a distinct lineage of mononuclear phagocytes, specialized in antigen presentation to T cells and the initiation and control of immunity ( 2 ), revealed additional roles of these cells in shaping the immune response to pathogens, vaccines, and tumors, as well as additional heterogeneity. (sciencemag.org)
  • DCs are the sentinels of our immune system which, in case of danger (e.g. viral or bacterial infections, inflammation or tumor growth), become activated and release factors that recruit other immune cells to contribute to an effective anti-tumor immune response. (vumc.com)
  • Ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm), like that in sunlight, suppresses inflammation and disease progression in mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS). The migration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from the skin's peripheral lymph nodes to the CNS could be a mechanism for this soothing effect on the immune system, according to recent research. (msdiscovery.org)
  • The Breuer group demonstrated the possibility of a vitamin-D-independent series of steps leading from UVB-irradiated skin to inflammation-suppressing Treg cells in the CNS. (msdiscovery.org)
  • In accordance with these findings, the pathologic histiocyte or LCH cell has a gene expression profile closely resembling that of a myeloid dendritic cell. (oncolink.org)
  • Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP), but not the endogenous gene, is expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells, and brain microglia - mimicking endogenous gene expression. (jax.org)
  • To better characterize these cells, we used global gene analysis to determine gene expression patterns among murine CD11c high DC subsets. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gene Ontology and literature mining analyses of genes expressed differentially among DC subsets indicated strong associations with immune response parameters as well as cell differentiation and signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • The MAP2K1 gene mutations that cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome are germline mutations, which means that they are present in cells throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Somatic mutations in the MAP2K1 gene have been reported in several forms of blood cell cancer (leukemia and lymphoma), lung cancer, and a form of skin cancer called melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cohesin complex is essential for cell survival, owing to its well-established roles in cell division, DNA repair and gene expression. (otago.ac.nz)
  • When bred onto a strain carrying a homozygous floxed gene, that gene is efficiently excised in virtually all epidermal Langerhans cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The resulting phenotype depends of which gene is ablated. (cancer.gov)
  • 5 Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and Institute for Immunology, Icahn Medical Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • A few illustrative examples in humans include the following: significant increases in levels of antigen-specific IgA and/or IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in saliva, tonsils, or vaginal or oral fluids after systemic immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT), inactivated or subvirion influenza vaccines, meningococcal and pneumococcal polysaccharides, and Haemophilus influenzae capsular polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest reduced placental kisspeptin production, with consequent impaired kisspeptin-dependent β cell compensation, may be a factor in the development of GDM in humans. (jci.org)
  • Hence, DC in humans and dogs are best defined by their abundant expression of molecules essential to their function as antigen presenting cells. (vin.com)
  • These results indicate that bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent pancreatic endocrine β cells and that represent a source for cell-based treatment of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
  • Bone marrow: An extra-pancreatic hideout for the elusive pancreatic stem cell? (jci.org)
  • Upon confluence, they are able to differentiate into cells that express liver and exocrine pancreas markers, such as α-fetoprotein and pancreatic amylase, and display a ductal/endocrine phenotype with expression of CK19, neural-specific cell adhesion molecule, insulin, glucagon, and the pancreas/duodenum specific homeodomain transcription factor, IDX-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The NIP cells that also reside in the pancreatic ducts may be contributors to the established location of islet progenitor cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pancreatic β-cell expansion throughout the neonatal period is essential to generate the appropriate mass of insulin-secreting cells required to maintain blood glucose homeostasis later in life. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Defective expression of HOPX which is consistent with promoter DNA hypermethylation may explain aggressive phenotype of pancreatic cancer, and intense expression of HOPX in the Langerhans cells may in turn uniquely contribute to pancreatic carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pancreatic cancer cell lines, PK-8, KLM-1, and NOR-P1 were kindly provided from the Cell Resource Centre for Biomedical Research Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In autoimmune diabetes, several elements of the secretory pathway of pancreatic β-cells, such as insulin and protein islet tyrosine phosphatase-like protein (IA-2), are targeted by autoantibody and T-cell responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IA-2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the tyrosine phosphatase-like protein family, which is localized in the insulin-secretory granules of the pancreatic β-cell. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During its natural life cycle, HPV16 infects the basal cells of the epithelium and interacts with Langerhans cells within the epithelial layer, which are responsible for initiating immune responses against epithelial invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune systems in the skin as a model for immune function at epithelial-cell interfaces with the environment. (scribd.com)
  • A key element of this defence is the deployment of rapid response elements at the most probable sites of attack, which are the epithelial-cell boundaries between the body and the environment in the skin, gut and lungs. (scribd.com)
  • In the chronic progressive stage of the disease, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells become progressively more dysfunctional, and CTLs against new and previously targeted epitopes do not fully mature to effector stage, 4 resulting in increasing viral load and clinical immunodeficiency. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It was shown that a T-cell inflamed tumor microenvironment phenotype is associated with clinical responses to therapeutic cancer vaccines ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Saskia Santegoets received a Clinical Young Investigator Award from the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) for her research on DC and T cell functions in men with prostate cancer, who received the Prostate GVAX vaccine combined with the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab. (vumc.com)
  • The clinical phenotype of systemic mastocytosis is variable. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mean clinical scores, slit lamp examination, adenosine diphosphatase (ADPase), and acid phosphatase staining as well as immunostaining with DEC-205, B7-1, CD4, and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) antibodies and histopathologic, RT-PCR, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) analyses were used to examine the effects on bacterial disease after polystyrene bead induction of Langerhans cells into the cornea before bacterial challenge. (arvojournals.org)
  • Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) typically presents as cytologic atypia and clinical aggressiveness and may involve multiple organs during the progression of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding the interactions between Leishmania and the host myeloid cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches and improved vaccination to leishmaniases, an important worldwide health problem in which current therapeutic or preventive approaches are limited. (frontiersin.org)
  • Myeloid cells are unique cell types as regards their content of high amounts of esterified arachidonic acid (AA) and the enzymes necessary to metabolize free AA into different products via cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings offer a clear indication of the ability of effector T cells to control melanoma development locally. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although fish constitute the most ancient animal group in which an acquired immune system is present, the presence of dendritic cells (DCs) in teleosts has been addressed only briefly, and the identification of a specific DC subset in teleosts remained elusive because of the lack of specific Abs. (nih.gov)
  • The variable array of pattern receptor expression in different cells of the innate immune system explains the induction of distinct patterns of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • The Immunotherapy laboratory of the Department of Medical Oncology of the VU University Medical Center studies the possibility to exploit the immune system to specifically recognize, attack and eradicate tumor cells. (vumc.com)
  • The immune system has evolved to protect the host against invasive microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, and against malignant cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Immunotherapies have the potential to harness the immune system in order to target and clear cancer cells. (otago.ac.nz)
  • T1D is due to a complex interplay between the β-cell, the immune system, and the environment in genetically susceptible individuals. (mcponline.org)
  • DCs (dendritic cells) function as sentinels of the immune system. (psu.edu)
  • In 1995, a milestone study demonstrated psoriatic plaque resolution following selective apoptosis of activated T cells, without affecting KC survival or activation, thus demonstrating the crucial role of the immune system, particularly of T cells, in the disease [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The existence of Langerhans-like cells within the spleen helps to identify the components of the immune system within the African catfish. (sciencematters.io)
  • Expression of a number of molecules involved in dendritic cell migration (CCR5, MIP-3beta/CCL19, and MDR-1) was reduced. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we show that CD44 isoforms are differentially modulated during the activation and migration of LC, and participate in their migration out of skin, their adhesion to the paracortical T cell zones of peripheral LN, and the LC-dependent sensitization phase of contact hypersensitivity. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, recent studies indicate that formulating parenteral vaccines with mucosal trafficking-targeted components induces homing receptor expression on T cells and B cells and their subsequent migration to mucosal compartments. (asm.org)
  • Previous experimental studies have shown that extended-wear contact lens usage results in a centripetal migration of Langerhans cells from the conjunctiva into the central cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although Langerhans cells do not normally reside in the central cornea, 1 almost any stimulus, 2 3 4 5 including extended-wear contact lens usage, 6 results in the centripetal migration of the cells from the adjacent conjunctival epithelium into the cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • Thus, CCN2 is an important determinant of not only DC migration and localization but also the development of protective cell-mediated immune responses to L. major. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Dendritic cells differentiate into potent APC during this migration and change their surface phenotype accordingly. (vin.com)
  • Heterogeneity among spleen DC became apparent as early as 1989 ( 9 ), and on the basis of CD8α and CD11b expression, these cells were later subdivided into CD11b low CD8α + and CD11b high CD8α − DC ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fig. 3: Dendritic cell infiltrate in a spleen section of a DC specific LAMTOR2 knockout mouse model at the age of three months. (i-med.ac.at)
  • Unique characterization of Langerhans cells in the spleen of the African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ). (sciencematters.io)
  • Transmission electron micrograph of catfish spleen showing Langerhans-like cells (ll), Birbeck-like granules (arrow head), rough endoplasmic reticulum (r), ribosomes (s), nucleus (n) and erythrocytes (e) and lysosomes (y). 3000X Mag, scale bar represents 500 nm. (sciencematters.io)
  • Light photomicrograph of the catfish spleen depicting locations of S100 DAB immunostaining, indicative of Langerhans-like cells distributed throughout the spleen including in the red pulp and around blood vessels. (sciencematters.io)
  • Additionally, there was a block in the Leishmania major infection-induced relocalization of splenic DCs from the marginal zone to the T cell areas. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Studies have also demonstrated that the BRAF V600E mutation can be identified in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and cell-free DNA, usually in patients with disseminated disease. (oncolink.org)
  • Moreover, hHXB-2 gag mRNA-electroporated DCs also triggered IFN-γ secretion by autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD4 + T cells, and CD8 + T cells from all patients tested. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mononuclear cells in human lung parenchyma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Identification of a point mutation in the catalytic domain of the protooncogene c-kit in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients who have mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder. (prolekare.cz)
  • We also assessed the ability of IA-2ec-derived peptides to elicit CD4 + T-cell responses by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 18) and HLA-matched healthy subjects ( n = 13) with peptides and staining with the peptide/DQ8-specific tetramers, observing disease-associated responses to previously unreported epitopes within IA-2ec. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2016. An optimized multiplex flow cytometry protocol for the analysis of intracellular signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (uib.no)
  • 2013. Effective polyethylene glycol passivation for the inhibition of surface interactions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets. (uib.no)
  • The group maintains close collaborative ties with the departments of Hematology, Rheumatology, Dermatology, Surgical Oncology and Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology: all concerning the function of DCs and T cells in the anti-tumor immune response. (vumc.com)
  • Although early studies of angiogenesis focused on endothelial cells, the importance of other compartments of the microenvironment in vascular growth, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating leukocytes, is evolving. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been put forward for this association: Impaired expression of genes regulating cholesterol metabolism in cartilage, impaired blood flow to bone from endothelial cell damage caused by hypertension, high glucose concentrations leading to reactive oxygen species in chondrocytes, and abnormalities in leptin production by osteoblasts leading to cartilage destruction. (blogspot.com)
  • The histiocytic diseases in children and adults are caused by an abnormal accumulation of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system. (oncolink.org)
  • This leads to enhanced activity of the normal JH1 kinase activity of JAK2, which makes the mutated hematopoietic stem cells hypersensitive to the hematopoietic growth factors thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor-1, stem cell factor, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, resulting in trilinear myeloproliferation. (tjh.com.tr)