Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Goosecoid Protein: Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Otx Transcription Factors: A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.AxisNodal Signaling Ligands: Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Left-Right Determination Factors: Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Metencephalon: The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Twins, ConjoinedFibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS of DNA.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyTectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neural Plate: The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCentral Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.TailDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.WingCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Medication Systems: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Fibroblast Growth Factor 3: A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Granuloma, Pyogenic: A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Diosmin: A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65: Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Once blastoderm cells have covered almost half of the yolk cell, thickening throughout the margin of deep cells occurs. The ... Wnt8 induces ventral, lateral, and posterior regions of embryonic tissue. Wnt also has inhibitors like noggin to allow for the ... In order to aid in proper development fish have an organizer center called the Nieuwkoop center. Anterior and posterior axis ... Presumpive ectoderm or epiblast cells do not interalize but the deep cells (inner layer of cells) do and they become the ...
This signaling results in a region of cells known as the grey crescent, which is a classical organizer of embryonic development ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ... "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (2): 345-55. ...
"Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 1 regulates the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro and in vivo". ... "Spatially distinct head and heart inducers within the Xenopus organizer region". Curr Biol. 9: 800-809. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822( ... "Dickkopf1 is required for embryonic head induction and limb morphogenesis in the mouse". Developmental Cell. 1 (3): 423-34. doi ... "The Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 is required for reentry into the cell cycle of human adult stem cells from bone marrow ...
"Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 153 (6): 1228-38. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.006. ... De Robertis, Edward M. (2006). "Spemanns organizer and self-regulation in amphibian embryos". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... The similar network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ...
Katoh M, Katoh M (May 2006). "CER1 is a common target of WNT and NODAL signaling pathways in human embryonic stem cells". ... Schneider VA, Mercola M (August 1999). "Spatially distinct head and heart inducers within the Xenopus organizer region". ... In human embryonic development, Cerberus and the protein coded by GREM3 inhibit NODAL in the Wnt signaling pathway during the ... "Cerberus is a head-inducing secreted factor expressed in the anterior endoderm of Spemann's organizer". Nature. 382 (6592): 595 ...
... including involvement in public policy for biomedical issues involving recombinant DNA and embryonic stem cells and publishing ... Berg is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists [1]. He was also an organizer of the ...
"Induction of Embryonic Primordia by Implantation of Organizers from a Different Species." After earning her PhD in zoology, ... The general effect she demonstrated is known as embryonic induction, that is, the capacity of some cells to direct the ... 1935 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the embryonic organizer, "one of the very few doctoral theses ... she showed that the amphibian organizer did not form the extra axis by itself, but recruited host tissue to form the twin ( ...
... including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. Fgf8 is important and ... "organizer" in development, like the Spemann "organizer" of the gastrulating embryo. Fgf8 is expressed in the region where Otx2 ... Cell Biol. 32 (5): 489-97. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00145-4. PMID 10736564. Xu J, Liu Z, Ornitz DM (2000). "Temporal and ... Once expressed, the Fgf8 induces other transcription factors to form cross-regulatory loops between cells, thus the border is ...
... secondary embryonic primordia regardless of location. Spemann called these areas "organiser centres" or "organisers". Later he ... He succeeded in dividing the cells with a noose of baby hair. Spemann found that one half could indeed form a whole embryo, but ... His theory of embryonic induction by organisers is described in his book Embryonic Development and Induction (1938). He died of ... In 1928 he was the first to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos - one of the first moves towards ...
These cells express goosecoid consistent with their role as the organizer. The function of the organizer in chick embryos is ... The embryonic shield has the same function as the dorsal lip of the blastopore and acts as the organizer. When transplanted, it ... There are two cells, the P1 cell and the AB cell. The P1 cell was able make all of its fated cells while the AB cell could only ... At the two cell stage, the anterior cell is the AB cell while the posterior cell is the P1 cell. The dorsal/ventral axis of the ...
Posterior to the node is the primitive pit, where the cells of the epiblast (the upper layer of embryonic cells) initially ... Overview at nature.com Overview at Northwestern University Embryonic Organizers at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... expands posteriorly into the primitive groove as the cells layers continue to move into the space between the embryonic cells ... first identified the organizer in 1924.) In chick development, the primitive knot starts as a regional knot of cells that forms ...
Beddington, R. S.; Robertson, E. J. (1989). "An assessment of the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells in the ... including two years as co-organiser with Robertson. Beddington was the meetings secretary for the British Society for ... Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo. 1981. Beddington, R. S. (1994). "Induction of a ... the potential of embryonic stem cells for the study of genetic manipulation after demonstrating the ability of these cells to ...
He developed methods to guide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into forming brain cortex, eyes, and other organs in tissue ... A novel dorsalizing factor activated by organizer-specific homeobox genes". Cell. 79 (5): 779-90. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94) ... In 2012, Sasai became the first stem cell researcher to grow an optic cup from human cells. On August 5, 2014, he was found ... "A ROCK inhibitor permits survival of dissociated human embryonic stem cells". Nature Biotechnology. 25 (6): 681-686. doi: ...
Later on in embryonic development, Fgf8 expression localizes to the rostral most Gbx2 expressing cells (caudal region of the ... In cells that express both Otx2 and Irx1, En1 is activated by Fgf8 signaling. En1 expression in cells that express both Pax2 ... The isthmic organizer, also known as the midbrain/hindbrain boundary (MHB), is a secondary organizer region that develops at ... Fgf8 expression leads to the activation of En1 in cells that express both Irx1 and Otx2. Fgf8 was shown to be an organizing ...
"Neural specification from human embryonic stem cells". In Odorico, John S. et al. Human embryonic stem cells. Garland Science. ... It is important to note that while the organizer is the dorsal lip the blastopore, this is not one set of cells but rather is a ... Neural crest cells will migrate through the embryo and will give rise to several cell populations, including pigment cells and ... At any given time during gastrulation there will be different cells at the organizer. Subsequent work on inducers by scientists ...
Niehrs, C. (2001). "MEDAL REVIEW: The Spemann organizer and embryonic head induction". The EMBO Journal. 20 (4): 631-637. doi: ... Briscoe, J. (2009). "Making a grade: Sonic Hedgehog signalling and the control of neural cell fate". The EMBO Journal. 28 (5): ... Gorlich, D. (1998). "Transport into and out of the cell nucleus". The EMBO Journal. 17 (10): 2721-2727. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.10 ... On transferring genes into stem cells and mice". The EMBO Journal. 9 (10): 3024-32. PMC 552026 . PMID 2209535. Lanzavecchia, A ...
... away from the embryonic pole, to line the blastocoele, the remaining cells of the inner cell mass, situated between the ... The primitive knot is situated at the anterior end of the primitive streak and serves as the organizer for gastrulation, ... During gastrulation, migrating epiblast cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition in order to lose cell-cell adhesion (E- ... In mammalian embryogenesis, differentiation and segregation of cells composing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst yields two ...
The microtubules and microfilaments are in mechanical opposition in a proposed embryonic organelle they called the cell state ... more complex than predicted in the original model however it did originate from the precise location of the Spemann organizer ... If the cell has experienced contraction, one signal is sent and if the cell has experienced expansion then another signal is ... Ultrastructural analysis of the cell state splitter in ectoderm cells differentiating to neural plate and epidermis during ...
If cell movement in the PMZ is blocked, primitive streak does not form. Thus, the PMZ acts as an organizer. Cells in marginal ... and from this they demonstrated the fact that embryonic regulation is a result of the spatial distribution of Koller's sickle ... "The homeobox gene goosecoid and the origin of organizer cells in the early chick blastoderm". Cell. 74 (4): 645-59. doi:10.1016 ... They determined that cells move to the center of the epiblast following the activation of the Wnt planar cell polarity pathway ...
Otx2 is a group of homeobox genes that are typically described as a head organizer in the primitive streak stage of embryonic ... Cell. 134 (3): 508-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.05.054. PMID 18692473. Millet S, Bloch-Gallego E, Simeone A, Alvarado-Mallart RM ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Heimbucher T, Murko C, Bajoghli B, Aghaallaei N, Huber A ... Initially involved in embryonic head formation, Otx2 is re-expressed during the critical period of rats (>P23) and regulates ...
Embryonic organoids) culture techniques using Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These are ... The localization of the cell adhesion and signaling molecule beta-catenin is critical to the proper formation of the organizer ... "A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells". Nature Methods. 11 (8): 847-854. ... cells in the body are either organized into sheets of connected cells (as in epithelia), or as a mesh of isolated cells, such ...
... by devising both the sterile technique to eliminate bacteria and Holtfreter's medium to allow the developing embryonic cells to ... Here, Holtfreter followed up on the research his old advisor (Spemann) did on the concept of an "organizer," or a part of the ... Needham, the English researcher who was also interested in the organizer, was able to ensure Holtfreter's escape from the Nazi ... Holtfreter researched in Rochester until retiring in 1969, and his focus was once again the "organizer" examined by Spemann and ...
The oblique muscle organizer in Hirudo medicinalis, an identified cell projecting multiple parallel growth cones in an orderly ... In mouse retina the majority of ganglion cells are born at E17 (embryonic stage/day 17). At this age the retina has reached 25 ... shows that removal of ganglion cells doesn't decrease the retinal ganglion cell types and that position of these cells isnot ... Destruction of ganglion cells gives the chance to their neighboring cells to extend their dendritic projections. They proposed ...
"The homeobox gene goosecoid and the origin of organizer cells in the early chick blastoderm". Cell. 74 (4): 645-59. doi:10.1016 ... Due to its role as a transcription factor in cell migration during embryonic development, GSC has been looked into as a ... Gsc gene promotes the formation of Spemann's Organizer. This organizer prevents BMP-4 from inducing the ectoderm in the future ... "Goosecoid promotes head organizer activity by direct repression of Xwnt8 in Spemann's organizer". Development. 128 (15): 2975- ...
... a novel dorsalizing factor activated by organizer-specific homeobox genes". Cell. 79 (5): 779-90. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94) ... De Robertis as a key developmental protein that dorsalizes early vertebrate embryonic tissues. The polypeptide is 941 amino ... It is expressed in the anterior cells of Koller's sickle, which form the anterior cells of the primitive streak, a key ... "The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development". Nature. 403 (6770): 658-61. doi:10.1038 ...
cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... Spemann organizer formation. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ...
... demonstrating sorting of dissociated cells from different embryonic layers in amphibians. Cells from different germ layers ... The organizer was shown to correspond with the presumptive notochord region and to have a differential effect at different ... not only on independent cell differentiation of individual cells, but also on interactions between cells, both in the early ... The importance of the egg for embryonic development was established by von Baer (1827, Fig. 3), the cell theory was advanced, ...
Embryonic FAP+ lymphoid tissue organizer cells generate the reticular network of adult lymph nodes.. Denton AE1,2,3, Carr EJ4,2 ... FAP+ cells of the LN anlagen express lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), but not ... Using a novel fate-mapping mouse model, we trace the developmental origin of mesenchymal LN stromal cells (mLNSCs) to a ... intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), suggesting they are early mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer (mLTo) cells. Clonal ...
The clash between research advocates and religious groups over the use of embryonic stem cells could be resolved by using ... Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are obtained only by destroying human embryos, these cells can be extracted from the same ... Not only do amniotic epithelial cells lack the controversy of embryonic stem cells, but they also do not generate the tumors ... Placentas may Break Embryonic Stem Cell Deadlock. August 8th, 2005 Nicholas Genes Society ...
1996) A cluster of noninvoluting endocytic cells at the margin of the zebrafish blastoderm marks the site of embryonic shield ... 1998) A novel homeobox gene, dharma, can induce the organizer in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Genes Dev 12, 2345-2353. ... 1997) Formation and function of Spemanns organizer. Annu Rev. Cell Dev. Biol 13, 611-667. ... a homeodomain protein essential for induction of gastrula organizer and dorsoanterior embryonic structures ...
1989) Ectopic expression of the proto-oncogene int-1 in Xenopus embryos leads to duplication of the embryonic axis. Cell 58: ... Cell surface levels of endogenous Lrp6 protein detected by a cell membrane-impermeable Biotin reagent in HEK293T cells on ice ... 2009) Spemanns organizer and the self-regulation of embryonic fields. Mech Dev 126:925-941. ... 2005) Regulation of ADMP and BMP2/4/7 at opposite embryonic poles generates a self-regulating morphogenetic field. Cell 123: ...
Organizers: IRB BarcelonaDate: Thursday, 12th December, 14:30hPlace: Fèlix Serratosa, Parc Cientific de Barcelona Host: Jens ... Organizers: IRB Barcelona. Date: Thursday, 12th December, 14:30h. Place: Fèlix Serratosa, Parc Cientific de Barcelona ... Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be maintained in a pluripotent state in medium containing inhibitors of the ... Role of the microtubule plus-end tracking protein CLASP2 in the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency. 12 Des ...
cell numbers at maturity to the kinetics of embryonic stem cell proliferation. Different durations of retinogenesis change the ... The organizer is an essential signaling center required for axial formation during vertebrate embryonic development. In the ... Stem Cells Track and monitor developments in stem cell research and commercial development. Follow the tabs above to read the ... clinical trials on stem cells and follow companies active in the stem cell industry. BioPort... ...
Journal Article] Proviral silencing in embryonic stem cells requires the histone methyltransferase ESET.2010. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Proviral silencing in embryonic stem cells requires the histone methyltransferase ESET2010. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Offspring from oocytes derived from in vitro primordial germ cell-like cells in mics2012. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotentstem cells2011. *. Author ...
... inducer cells, and organizer cells. The various abbreviations for these cells have included LTin (lymphoid tissue initiator), ... although at least in PPs the ltini cells are CD11c positive (60). Such CD45+CD4−CD3−IL-7R−CDllc+ cells in the mouse embryonic ... 82). Stromal cells with characteristics of lto cells have been described in mature LNs (68). CD45+CD4+CD3− ltind cells are rare ... RANKL expression has been noted in lto stromal cells (40, 66, 68, 69), ltind cells (35, 70, 71), and both cell types (72). At ...
Cell culture and transfection. HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells and the human breast carcinoma cell lines T-47D and BT- ... 60-kDa Hsp organizer protein) binds to the Hsp40/Hsp70-client early complex to form an intermediate complex. The intermediate ... Preparation of cell lysates. Subconfluent HEK-293-FLAG-PTK6 cells were washed twice with ice-cold PBS. Unless specified ... Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) was identified as a PTK6-interacting protein in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells ...
1984) Analysis of embryonic induction by using cell lineage markers. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 307, 331-336. ... 1998) A novel homeobox gene, dharma, can induce the organiser in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Genes Dev 12, 2345-2353. ... 1997) Frzb-1 is a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling expressed in the Spemann organiser. Cell 88, 747-756. ... 1997) Frzb, a secreted protein expressed in the Spemann organiser, binds and inhibits Wnt-8. Cell 88, 757-766. ...
... a targeted deletion of the Lim1 gene was generated in embryonic stem cells. Embryos homozygous for the null allele lacked ... Lim1 is a homeobox gene expressed in the organizer region of mouse embryos. To investigate the role of Lim1 during ... Requirement for Lim1 in head-organizer function.. Shawlot W1, Behringer RR. ...
2008) Lhx2 selector activity specifies cortical identity and suppresses hippocampal organizer fate. Science 319:304-309. ... 2005) Radial glial cells defined and major intermediates between embryonic stem cells and CNS neurons. Neuron 46:369-372. ... 2006) Development and differentiation of neural rosettes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Rev 2:67-77. ... 2008) Germline competent embryonic stem cells derived from rat blastocysts. Cell 135:1299-1310. ...
Cell reprogramming is the process used for converting cells from one particular type to another. Over the past six decades, ... The cells responsible for embryonic differentiation and determination are called as the Spemann organizer. Subsequently, ... In 2001: Stem cells of an embryo were used in reprogramming somatic stem cells. These reprogrammed cells and pluripotent cells ... Invention of Spemanns organizer is based on Harveys work on embryonic cell division. ...
Organizer. 日本再生医療学会. *. Place of Presentation. 大阪国際会議場(大阪府・大阪市) ... Presentation] Generation of Lung Organ from Embryonic Stem cells via Blastocyst Complementation in Mice2017. *. Author(s). ... GENERATION OF LUNG ORGAN FROM EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS VIA BLASTOCYST COMPLEMENTATION IN MIC. Research Project ... Journal Article] nhibition of Glutaminolysis inhibits cell growth and promotes autophagy and inhibits cell growth
... specialized group of dorsal mesodermal cells, termed the organizer, which instructs the adjacent ectodermal cells to adopt a ... ES cell minimal condition assays. ES cells were dissociated into a single-cell suspension and plated at ≤10 cells/μL on laminin ... Therefore, single dissociated R1 ES cells were plated at low cell densities (≤10 cells/μl; 2,600 cells/cm2) in chemically ... Embryonic stem cells assume a primitive neural stem cell fate in the absence of extrinsic influences. Simon R. Smukler, Susan B ...
Small molecules have the potential to impact stem cell research. This symposium will explore the intersection of these ... Stem cells are increasingly important as a research tool and therapeutic option for degenerative diseases. ... Human pluripotent stem cells (human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) have the ability to self-renew ... Organizers. Eric Chiao, PhD. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.. Dr. Eric Chiao received his PhD from Columbia University, where he used ...
NIH-funded Human Embryonic Stem Cell Workshop UGA Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga., July 16- ... Organizer and mentoring talks at the Annual Cellular Biology Retreat, 2004, 2006 ... Nodal signals mediate interactions between the extra-embryonic and embryonic tissues in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 15;310(2): 363-78 ... Cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, and cancer biology Interests. To investigate the role of Kruppel-Like ...
... human embryonic kidney; HOP, 60-kDa Hsp organizer protein; Hsc, heat-shock cognate; Hsp, heat shock protein; MAPK, mitogen- ... Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) was identified as a PTK6-interacting protein in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells ... Hsp90 rescues PTK6 from proteasomal degradation in breast cancer cells. Shin-Ae Kang, Hyun-Soo Cho, Jong Bok Yoon, In Kwon ... Hsp90 rescues PTK6 from proteasomal degradation in breast cancer cells. Shin-Ae Kang, Hyun-Soo Cho, Jong Bok Yoon, In Kwon ...
Figure 1: Embryonic self-regulation. The entire early embryo constitutes a self-organizing morphogenetic field, in which cells ... A square of organizer tissue is excised, with the help of a tungsten needle and forceps, in a freehand operation. The organizer ... The Chordin/BMP biochemical pathway explains cell differentiation along the D-V axis. However, embryonic morphology is also ... Isolating the molecules involved in these cell-cell inductions has been the Holy Grail of embryology. Using the frog Xenopus, ...
Advances in gene editing have driven an explosion of pre-clinical cell-based therapies. This event addresses the need to ... insulin-secreting cells. The renewable starting material for cell product manufacturing is human embryonic stem cells that are ... Organizers. Jane S. Lebkowski, PhD. Asterias Biotherapeutics. Jane Lebkowski has been actively involved in the development of ... Mahendra Rao is wisely known for his research involving human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), iPSC, and other somatic stem cells ...
Once blastoderm cells have covered almost half of the yolk cell, thickening throughout the margin of deep cells occurs. The ... Wnt8 induces ventral, lateral, and posterior regions of embryonic tissue. Wnt also has inhibitors like noggin to allow for the ... In order to aid in proper development fish have an organizer center called the Nieuwkoop center. Anterior and posterior axis ... Presumpive ectoderm or epiblast cells do not interalize but the deep cells (inner layer of cells) do and they become the ...
... s organizer, a cluster of cells coordinating embryonic development. Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (ADMP), a BMP-like ... Molecular interactions continuously define the organizer during the cell movements of gastrulation. 1999, Pubmed Lee, Embryonic ... ALK2 is expressed in the organizer and is required for organizer establishment. The anti-organizer function of ADMP is mediated ... e-h, j To determine the receptor mediating the organizer-repressive activity of ADMP, four-cell-stage embryos were injected in ...
It involves virtually every aspect of cell and developmental biology and results in the formation of fundamental structural ... Gastrulation is a fundamental process of early embryonic development. ... Culture of Embryonic Cells for Analysis of Amphibian and Mammalian Early Embryogenesis ... Organizing the Xenopus Organizer John Gerhart, Tabitha Doniach, Ronald Stewart. Pages 57-77 ...
Organizers play important roles during the embryonic development of many animals. The most famous example is the Spemann ... While all of the control cell clones (A-D) form long and thin stretched cell clones at stage 8 of embryonic development, the Pt ... To mark the membranes of the embryonic cells and to visualize the delamination process of the Pt-Ets4 positive cell clones, ... The Pt-Ets4 positive cell clone delaminates at stage 4 (B). Cells stop dividing and start to disperse as soon as the cells of ...
  • Subsequently, Spemann organizer formed the base to various molecular embryonic researches that are conducted to find the factors that are responsible for deciding the fate of the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK and NF kappa beta signaling in the maintenance of human embryonic stem celll pluripotency and viability highlighted by transcriptional profiling and functional analysis," Human Molecular Genetics15:1460-2083,2006. (patentgenius.com)
  • Over the next two hours she'll sample a bit of cell biology, molecular biology and, her favorite, neurodegenerative diseases. (michigandaily.com)
  • Classical concepts in embryology such as organizers (groups of cells producing instructive signals) and competence (ability of cells to respond) can now be analyzed in molecular terms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unfortunately, relatively little is understood of the basic cell and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes because, unlike the deuterostomes and ecdysozoans, lophotrochozoans have not been widely used in modern cell and molecular biology studies, partly due to the lack of well-developed model systems. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The molecular basis behind stem cell interpretation of Nodal/Activin signaling gradients and the undertaking of disparate cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. (prolekare.cz)
  • Combined with well-developed genetic and molecular biology tools, it therefore provides an ideally tractable system for understanding recruitment of stem cells during normal homeostasis and in the context of regeneration. (tu-dresden.de)
  • A great deal is now known both about the specification of compartmental cells and their impact on patterning, but much remains to be learned especially about the molecular basis of cell segregation. (els.net)
  • Talks will include speakers that teach a variety of courses with inter-related topics including Genetics, Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, and Bioinformatics. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • These unique expressions of sugar on the cell surface may one day enable stem cell therapy to repair brain injury or disease by helping stem cells navigate the relative "jungle" of the adult brain, says Dr. Robert K. Yu, director of the Institute of Neuroscience and the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Genetics at the Medical College of Georgia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular basis of the first cell fate determination in mouse embryogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neuronal specification is dependent on molecular signaling in the embryonic neuroepithelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings demonstrate BMP4 sufficiency to instruct CPEC fate, expand the repertoire of stem cell-derived neural derivatives in culture, and herald dCPEC-based therapeutic applications aimed at the unique interface between blood, CSF, and brain governed by CPECs. (jneurosci.org)
  • and the conclusion that transcription factors are mainly responsible for deciding the cell fate. (news-medical.net)
  • Factor-mediated cell fate conversion was the second stage in this research line, which was established by Harold Weintraub. (news-medical.net)
  • We used mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to explore the fundamental issue of how an uncommitted, pluripotent mammalian cell will self-organize in the absence of extrinsic signals and what cellular fate will result. (rupress.org)
  • It was thought that organizer/node-derived signals were necessary for the process of neural induction and that in their absence the ectoderm would adopt an epidermal fate. (rupress.org)
  • The fate of the first cells, called blastomeres, is determined by its location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The control of their oxidative activity allows cells to remain far enough to the thermodynamic equilibrium and consequently the balance between respiration and ageing is a major regulation parameter of cell's fate. (u-psud.fr)
  • The premise is that each cell has a positional value that specifies its position, and it is the interpretation of positional information that dictates cell fate ( Wolpert, 1989 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Dorsoventral patterning of the embryonic axis relies upon the mutual antagonism of competing signaling pathways to establish a balance between ventralizing BMP signaling and dorsal cell fate specification mediated by the organizer. (nih.gov)
  • During metazoan development one cell gives rise to thousands of daughter cells, each acquiring a particular fate depending on their temporal and spatial coordinates within the organism. (prolekare.cz)
  • Alberi, Lavinia 2004-09-01 00:00:00 As for any other cell population, the development, cell fate, and properties of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons are ultimately controlled at the transcriptional level. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bighead protein bound specifically to the Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), leading to its removal from the cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • The microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking protein CLASP2 is a potent MT growth promoting factor in vitro, and has been shown to selectively stabilize MTs in regions of cells where GSK3 is locally inactivated. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Down-regulation of PTK6 reduces proliferation in breast carcinoma cells [ 8 ] as well as decreasing EGF- or heregulin-dependent migration and proliferation by inhibiting phosphorylation of Erk5 and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) [ 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein ( ADMP ), a BMP-like transforming growth factor beta ligand, negatively affects the formation of the organizer , although it is robustly expressed within the organizer itself. (xenbase.org)
  • 2004, "BMP4 Supports Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells by Inhibiting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways," PNAS, 101(16):6027-6032. (patentgenius.com)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine protein kinase regulated by and mediating cAMP signaling in cells. (genecards.org)
  • CEH-2 protein is restricted to the nuclei of one type of small muscle cell, one type of epithelial cell, and three types of neurons in the anterior pharynx in the head. (sdbonline.org)
  • After they were given the protein BMP4, the gastruloids then began to create the germ layers indicative of early embryonic development. (lozierinstitute.org)
  • CPEC specification by BMP4 was restricted to an early time period after neural induction in culture, with peak CPEC competency correlating to neuroepithelial cells rather than radial glia. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mechanisms governing the emergence of the earliest mammalian neural cells during development remain incompletely characterized. (rupress.org)
  • Individual ES cells were found to rapidly transition directly into neural cells, a process shown to be independent of suggested instructive factors (e.g., fibroblast growth factors). (rupress.org)
  • Further, we provide evidence that the default neural identity is that of a primitive neural stem cell (NSC). (rupress.org)
  • These findings led to the development of the currently more widely accepted model, the default model, which states that each individual ectodermal cell has an intrinsic default program to become a neural cell ( Munoz-Sanjuan and Brivanlou, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • Neurulation, the formation of the central nervous system, is different in fishes than in most other chordates.Convergence and extension in the epiblast recruits presumptive neural cells from the epiblast towards the midline where they form a neural keel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five ALS patients have since volunteered to receive injections of neural stem cells into their spinal cords. (michigandaily.com)
  • Located on the ventral midline of the embryonic neural tube, the floor plate is a specialized glial structure that spans the anteroposterior axis from the midbrain to the tail regions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organizing center consisting of a small group of cells located at the ventral midline of the neural tube that influences the development of the nervous system, governing the specification of neuronal cell types and directing axonal trajectories. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Specific populations of neural crest cells that contribute to the skeletal elements in the head have been identified in mapping studies (Couly et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Establishment of a neural stem cell niche in the postnatal subependymal zone (SEZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) is required for postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulbs (OB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Morrison directs the University's Center for Stem Cell Biology Research as well as the International Society for Stem Cell Research. (michigandaily.com)
  • In cell biology, particular Importance is given to developing new methods of sample preparation that will achieve a more natural appearance of samples in the microscope. (u-psud.fr)
  • During this presentation, I will outline the history of this particular EM technique and describe different methodologies and key applications in cell biology with a particular emphasis on visualization of actin filament networks at the cell cortex. (u-psud.fr)
  • The formation of a complex multicellular organism from a single cell is one of the most amazing processes of biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers hope that this tool, whose utility they recently demonstrated in a report in Nature Cell Biology , will make it possible to further elucidate the processes that guide embryonic growth, and ultimately lead to innovations that promote healthy pregnancies. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Address correspondence to: M. Albert Basson, Department of Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology, Floor 27, Guy's Hospital Tower Wing, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. (jci.org)
  • Journal of Cell Biology. (illinois.edu)
  • Methods in Cell Biology, 60: 133-148. (tsinghua.edu.cn)
  • Studies on Chordin, Cerberus, Frzb-1, and Crescent have contributed to the current realization that growth factor antagonists secreted into the extracellular space mediate the formation of embryonic signaling gradients. (hhmi.org)
  • The Wnt pathway activates expression of two transactivators, Siamois (Sia) and Twin (Twn), which mediate organizer formation downstream of Wnt. (upenn.edu)
  • The anti- organizer function of ADMP is mediated by ACVRL1 ( ALK1 ), a putative ADMP receptor expressed in the lateral regions flanking the organizer that blocks expansion of the organizer . (xenbase.org)
  • Olfactory bulb neurons are generated in the embryonic lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) and its rostral extension in the olfactory ventricular zone (OVZ) ( Kriegstein and Alvarez-Buylla, 2009 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In spiders, a group of BMP secreting mesenchymal cells (the cumulus) functions as an organizer of the dorsoventral axis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Motivated by apparent discrepancies in the literature we sought to test the axis-inducing activity of the embryonic shield. (zfin.org)
  • During development, monociliated cells that comprise the KV undergo region-specific shape changes along the anterior-posterior axis that are critical for KV function: anterior cells become long and thin, while posterior cells become short and squat. (arxiv.org)
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse Sonic hedgehog gene shows that Shh plays a critical role in patterning of embryonic tussues, including the brain and spinal cord, the axial skeleton and limbs. (sdbonline.org)
  • If it is ensured that both halves contain part of the dorsal organizer region, two perfect identical twins are obtained (an intact sibling is shown at the top of the figure). (hhmi.org)
  • This symposium will highlight core pathways that govern the metabolism of innate and adaptive immune cells with an emphasis on potential therapeutic targets. (nyas.org)
  • These processes are genetically controlled and depend both on the history of cells, their lineage, and on the activities of signaling pathways, which coordinate the cell interactions leading to organogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wnts can bind to multiple receptor complexes and trigger several downstream signaling cascades [including the so-called canonical WNT/β-catenin dependent signaling pathway, the non-canonical WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP), and the WNT/Ca 2+ pathways], illustrating how the same signal can elicit diverse cellular responses depending on the cell type, context, and developmental timing. (frontiersin.org)
  • According to this view, floor plate cells would thereafter become able to produce Shh, which plays a critical role in the specification of motoneurons ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Vatican has canceled a stem cell research conference whose speaker lineup included scientists whose work involves human embryonic stem cells, a practice opposed by church teaching. (telegram.com)
  • I am disappointed that the decision was made to cancel the conference because it offered the opportunity for a constructive dialogue on all types of stem cell research," Trounson said in a statement released by the institute. (telegram.com)
  • They take part in the regionalization event, which gives rise to the neuroepithelium that provides the precursor cells in the ventral midbrain with the fibroblast growth factor 8 signal necessary for their induction. (deepdyve.com)
  • In vivo studies with Clasp2 knockout mice revealed an important role for CLASP2 in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • EGFPposotive ES cells were injected into blacystocyte of Fgf10-/- mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • R&D systems, Cytokine bulletin 2007: TGF-beta Superfamily Signaling in ES cells (Mice are Not Men) p. 1-3. (patentgenius.com)