Cell Nucleus Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.United StatesVaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Electroencephalography Phase Synchronization: Adjustment of BRAIN WAVES from two or more neuronal groups within or across a brain structure (e.g., cortical and limbic brain structures) to become uniform in EEG oscillation patterns in response to a stimulus. It is interpreted as a brain integration sign during many processes such as learning, memory, and perception and involves reciprocal neural connections.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Badnavirus: A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Nyctaginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.Cestrum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins and cause CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1 ALPHA,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.GermanyMolecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Nuclear morphometry in columnar cell lesions of the breast: is it useful? (1/41)

AIMS: To evaluate the nuclear morphometric features of breast columnar cell lesions (CCLs) observed on mammotome core biopsies, to determine if there are significant measurable differences between those with atypia and those without. Correlation with follow-up open excision specimens was made. METHODS: Mammotome core biopsies performed on patients that contained CCLs were derived from the departmental case files. Histological material was reviewed and foci of CCLs demarcated for nuclear morphometric assessment, which was accomplished using an imaging system. Nuclear parameters studied were nuclear area and perimeter, circularity factor and feret's diameter. Statistical analysis used the GraphPad Prism software, with p<0.05 indicating significance. RESULTS: On examination of core biopsies of 40 patients with CCLs, 8 lesions were benign, 4 showed atypical lobular hyperplasia, 8 showed CCLs with nuclear atypia, 19 disclosed atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and 1 showed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The nuclear area, perimeter and feret's diameter of CCLs with atypia were significantly greater than those without (p = 0.04, 0.03 and 0.019, respectively), whereas no difference was observed in the circularity factor. Follow-up open excision biopsy specimens in 24 patients showed upgrading to DCIS in 40% of cases diagnosed initially with ADH on core biopsy compared with 20% of CCLs with atypia. CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear morphometry in CCLs confirms nuclear size as the key parameter in the assessment of nuclear atypia. Whether it can be potentially used as an adjunctive tool depends on the establishment of appropriate cut-offs.  (+info)

Resistance to Alzheimer's pathology is associated with nuclear hypertrophy in neurons. (2/41)

This study focuses on the morphometric changes of neurons in asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), a state characterized by the presence of AD lesions in subjects without cognitive impairment. In autopsy brains, we used stereological methods to compare the cell body and nuclear volumes of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and CA1 hippocampal neurons in asymptomatic AD subjects (n=9), subjects with AD dementia (AD, n=8), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=9), and age-matched controls (controls, n=9). In ACG, we observed a significant decrease in the neuronal volume of MCI and AD compared to controls; by contrast, no atrophy was present in asymptomatic AD. Moreover, we found a significant increase in nuclear volume in asymptomatic AD compared to controls (P<0.001), MCI (P<0.01) and AD (P<0.001) brains. Similar results were found in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This nuclear hypertrophy may represent an early neuronal reaction to Abeta or Tau, or a compensatory mechanism which forestalls the progression of AD and allows the brain to resist the development of dementia.  (+info)

Developmental effects on myonuclear domain size of rat diaphragm fibers. (3/41)

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Nuclear swelling occurs during premature senescence mediated by MAP kinases in normal human fibroblasts. (4/41)

Excess thymidine induced premature senescence in normal human fibroblasts (TIG-7), with induction of typical senescence markers. Nuclear swelling, as well as cell swelling, was clearly observed in these senescent cells. Simultaneous addition of MAP kinase inhibitors, U0126, SB203580, and SP60025, effectively suppressed induction of premature senescence and senescence markers.  (+info)

A dynamin-related protein required for nuclear remodeling in Tetrahymena. (5/41)

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Beta-cell proliferation, but not neogenesis, following 60% partial pancreatectomy is impaired in the absence of FoxM1. (6/41)

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Genome size and wing parameters in passerine birds. (7/41)

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Migratory localization of cyclin D2-Cdk4 complex suggests a spatial regulation of the G1-S transition. (8/41)

The association of the cyclin D-Cdk (DC) complex with retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is required for the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin synthesis, nuclear localization and degradation are control mechanisms for the transition, but regulation of the DC complex nuclear import also contributes to the transition. Analysis of the timing of the G1-S transition in mammalian cell lines revealed acceleration with overexpression of cyclin D2 and Cdk4. Immunolocalization assays revealed that cyclin D2 and Cdk4 formed a complex in the cytoplasm and approached the nucleus. They accumulated on the cytosolic surfaces of the nuclear pores and then were arrested at the nuclear membrane before the nucleus reached a critical size. Finally, the complex was released into the nucleus and colocalized with pRb there, which led to pRb phosphorylation and DNA synthesis. The translocalization depended on the G1-S transition. In contrast, a truncated cyclin D2 that was not able to fully associate with Cdk4 lost the ability for release into the nucleus. This pattern of translocalization suggests a spatial separation of the cyclin D-Cdk complex from pRb and DNA in the nucleus to regulate the G1-S transition.  (+info)

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Stem Cells, Human, Cells, Germ Layers, Growth, Cell, Cancer, Regulation, Epidermal Growth Factor, Drosophila, Tumor, Kinase, and Mammals
BACKGROUND: The presence of tumor cells at the margins of breast lumpectomy specimens is associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral tumor recurrence. Twenty to 30 % of patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery require second procedures to achieve negative margins. This study evaluated the adjunctive use of the MarginProbe device (Dune Medical Devices Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) in providing real-time intraoperative assessment of lumpectomy margins. METHODS: This multicenter randomized trial enrolled patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies. The study evaluated MarginProbe use in addition to standard intraoperative methods for margin assessment. After specimen removal and inspection, patients were randomized to device or control arms. In the device arm, MarginProbe was used to examine the main lumpectomy specimens and direct additional excision of positive margins. Intraoperative imaging was used in both arms; no intraoperative pathology assessment was permitted. RESULTS: In total, 596 patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ. T2 - Precision and implications. AU - Sigal-Zafrani, B.. AU - Klimberg, Vicki. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4944266356&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4944266356&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:4944266356. VL - 15. SP - 312. EP - 313. JO - Breast Diseases. JF - Breast Diseases. SN - 1043-321X. IS - 3. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this study we report on the variation in nuclear and cytoplasmic size of intermediate cells in normal cervical smears, in relationship to the week of the menstrual cycle and in relationship to the mode of contraception. A total of 18000 cells from 360 different women was studied. A significant difference in nuclear size of intermediate cells in smears from ovulating women not using contraception was found in comparison with intermediate cells in smears from women using contraceptive pills (ANOVA: F(1.312) = 4.98, p less than 0.02). Also a significant difference in the nuclear size of intermediate cells in smears from women using norgestrel- (or levonorgestrel)-containing formulas compared with lynestrenol-containing formulas was found (ANOVA: F(1.232) = 5.82, p less than 0.01). The influence of exogenous and endogenous hormones on cell populations in cervical smears is discussed. It is concluded that in studies on intermediate cells in cervical smears the contraceptive status of the women has to be
Author: R. THAMIL SELVI , P.R. REKHA P.M. SUBRAMANIAM , P.G. KONAPUR , K.R.RAMKUMAR , PAMMY SINHA. Category: Pathology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Aim & Objective;. 1. To evaluate the morphometric variation in cytology of breast lesions.. 2. To correlate cytologic grade with nuclear morphometry in breast carcinomas.. Methods and Materials :-. A retrospective study of thirty seven patients of breast lesions diagnosed clinically, were sampled for FNAC in the Department of Pathology, Vinayaka Mission's Krubananda variyar Medical College, Salem, from Jan 2008 to Dec 2008. Cases were subclassified as benign and malignant, and those which were malignant cytological Grading and histologic grading were done by Robinson's criteria and Elston's modification of the Bloom- Richardson system respectively. Grading was intern compared with nuclear morphometric studies.. Results:. Our study showed, 9 cases of benign and 15 cases of malignant breast lesions. The mean nuclear diameter were ...
The goal of this research is to develop a minimally invasive technology with the capability of rapidly assessing surgical margins for breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy ...
At Erasmus, our vision is to become the leading Professional Congress Organiser in Greece and one of the top ten Professional Congress Organisers globally, while conducting our business with professionalism, ethics and responsibility towards our people (personnel), our clients and the society ...
Sobczyk GJ, Wang J, Weijer CJ (2014) SILAC-based proteomic quantification of chemoattractant-induced cytoskeleton dynamics on a second to minute timescale. Nat Commun. 2014 Feb 26;5:3319. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4319. Chuai M, Hughes D, Weijer CJ (2012) Collective Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell Migration during Early Embryogenesis. Current Genetics 13 (2012) 267-27. Sandersius SA, Chuai M, Weijer CJ, Newman TJ. (2011) A chemotactic dipole mechanism for large-scale vortex motion during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo. Phys Biol. Aug;8(4):045008. Epub 2011 Jul 12.. Sandersius SA, Chuai M, Weijer CJ, Newman TJ (2011) Correlating cell behavior with tissue topology in embryonic epithelia. PLoS One Apr 29;6(4):e18081.. Davidson L, Maccario H, Perera NM, Yang X, Spinelli L, Tibarewal P, Glancy B, Gray A, Weijer CJ, Downes CP and Lesie NR (2010) Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN. Oncogene ...
Aspiration smears were highly cellular with cohesive clusters and sheets of ductal epithelial cells along with groups of mildly enlarged ductal epithelial cells with increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, mild variation of nuclear size, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Cells had a small to moderate amount of amphophilic cytoplasm. No significant loss of cohesion within the groups of ductal cells was noticed. Scattered bare oval myoepithelial cell nuclei, histiocytes, thin proteinaceous material, and stromal fragments were present. The on-site assessment diagnosis was fibrocystic changes, proliferative type, with atypia . A core biopsy was recommended and was immediately performed. It revealed a proliferation of tubular structures with round and slit-like lumens lined by ductal epithelial cells without significant atypia. The tubules were arranged around fibrillary elastoid material in an infiltrative pattern. Some of the lumens demonstrated florid usual ductal hyperplasia. Cystically dilated ducts ...
Fig. 3. CIZ1 promotes CM mono-nucleation and DNA replication. (A) Proportion of mono-, bi-, tri- and tetra-nucleated CMs in WT (white) and Tg (green) hearts at 12 weeks (n=,500 CM/mouse, four mice/group), with representative examples of GFP-positive (green) Tg nuclei. (B) Examples of partially divided GFP-positive nuclei (arrows). (C) Hearts of 2-week-old Tg mice had threefold more replicating CMs than WT, detected following incorporation of EdU for 48 h (n=10-12 sections/mouse, ,1000 nuclei, three mice/group). A slight decrease was observed in replicating NMs. (D) Examples of replicating Tg NMs (short arrow) and CMs (long arrow). Cell identity was based on nuclear size/position relative to WGA-stained membrane (Frentzou et al., 2015). (E) CM:NM ratio during development from neonate to young adulthood, in WT (white) and Tg (green) mice. Scale bar=20 μm. Data represented as mean±s.e.m. *P≤0.05, ***P≤0.001 by two-tailed t-test. ...
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Hematological profiles are routinely used to assess the health status of animals. Several methods have been developed for blood-cell counting, but typically they are expensive and/or time-consuming. Here, a free image-processing software, Mizutama, developed for counting cells in photographs of blood smears is presented. Mizutama uses the thresholding method to transform original photographs into grayscale trinary images. Following a number of parameters, Mizutama searches in the image for cells of a given size, with a nucleus size relative to cytoplasm surface area. The software is not only easy, versatile, and intuitive to handle, but is also fast when counting cells in photographs. Moreover, it is highly accurate, failing to detect only c. 1.4% of avian red cells in ordinary microscopic photographs. The Mizutama application may greatly facilitate the counting of erythrocytes and other blood cells in physiological studies, saving time and money. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Ochoa et al (2019) ...
The Gibbs laboratory is focused on the development of novel fluorophores and fluorescence imaging technologies to improve cancer detection and treatment. The main research focuses of the group are on fluorophore development for image-guided surgery, fluorescent labeling of small molecule therapeutics to improve understanding of effective cancer therapy and development of highly multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging technologies to permit deep multiplexed imaging on tissues. Current projects in the Gibbs laboratory include (1) development of near infrared nerve-specific fluorophore to improve nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy, (2) contrast agent and imaging methodology development to improve breast cancer margin assessment in the operating room, (3) design and synthesis of fluorescently labeled small molecule therapeutics for personalized therapy prediction in cancer, and (4) development of improved cyclic immunofluorescence methods to permit up to 50 color staining on a single tissue ...
Alltogether 25200 nuclear volumes of the kidneys of 63 castrated rats after different treatment with estradiol and actinomycin were estimated. 1. An increase of 14% of nuclear volume in the straight...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative characterization of preneoplastic progression using single-cell computed tomography and three-dimensional karyometry. AU - Nandakumar, Vivek. AU - Kelbauskas, Laimonas. AU - Johnson, Roger. AU - Meldrum, Deirdre. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The development of morphological biosignatures to precisely characterize preneoplastic progression necessitates high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) cell imagery and robust image processing algorithms. We report on the quantitative characterization of nuclear structure alterations associated with preneoplastic progression in human esophageal epithelial cells using single-cell optical tomography and fully automated 3D karyometry. We stained cultured cells with hematoxylin and generated 3D images of individual cells by mathematically reconstructing 500 projection images acquired using optical absorption tomographic imaging. For 3D karyometry, we developed novel, fully automated algorithms to robustly segment the cellular, ...
Background and objective: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common adult renal neoplasm. Staging and grading of RCC are important predictors of survival. Fuhrman nuclear grading is widely used for CCRCC, the subjective nature of which has prompted more objective methods to evaluate nuclear features. Furthermore, Ki-67, a reliable marker of cellular proliferation may provide another variable for assessment of the biological behavior of RCC. The aim of this research was to study nuclear morphometry and Fuhrman nuclear grading of clear cell RCC, and to assess their relationship with the Ki-67 index. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin slides of forty cases of CCRCC were retrieved and studied for pathologic variables, including Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathological tumor and node stage. Nuclear morphometric analysis was performed using computer-assisted image analysis. The relationship between Fuhrman nuclear grading, pathologic stage, tumor size, nuclear morphometry and proliferative index were
These images are intended for educational purposes and may be freely used for such as long as the Papanicolaou Society and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is credited ...
The p53-ull mammary epithelial model differs from the traditional mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis in several fundamental biological properties (5 , 6) . The traditional mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis, which are induced by mouse mammary tumor virus standard, arise from alveolar hyperplasias. These alveolar hyperplasias are negative for ER at the onset and generate ER-negative, hormone-independent tumors. In chemical carcinogen-treated mice, tumors arise from both alveolar hyperplasias and ductal hyperplasias. However, tumors are primarily hormone independent. Because the p53-null normal mammary epithelium and the serially transplanted, immortalized ductal outgrowths were ER positive, it was of interest to determine the hormonal dependency of preneoplastic progression in these cells.. The hormonal dependency of the p53-null normal mammary epithelium is indistinguishable from that of the p53 wild-type epithelium. Previous results demonstrated that growth and morphogenesis in ...
Subjective assessment of flat urothelial lesions has often resulted in an under- or overdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in situ. To identify reproducible morphologic objective criteria, the authors used an image analysis system to measure several nuclear features (area, diameter, roundness, ellipticity, and optical density) in 20 cases each of CIS, urothelial dysplasia, and normal urothelium with adjacent lymphocyte controls. They did not analyze reactive urothelial lesions and umbrella cells. The most useful, statistically significant morphologic parameter was mean nuclear area of the largest 25 percent of nuclei. The mean upper quartile nuclear area relative to lymphocytes was 2.2 times (range, 1.4 to 2.8 times) in normal urothelium, 2.9 times (range, 1.8 to 3.6 times) in urothelial dysplasia, and 4.9 times (range, 4.0 to 7.6 times) in CIS. The nuclear size measurements for urothelial dysplasia and normal urothelium overlapped, but the separation between CIS and urothelial dysplasia was ...
TSC and CNI genome sizes based on the sum of chromosome sizes are close to GGA, but these sizes are smaller than those in the database [1]. The larger genome sizes were obtained from the measurement of nuclear DNA content at cellular level. Both methods differ from DNA sequencing in that they require a DNA reference point from another species. When the reference species used for nuclear measurement is distantly related from the target species, the result may be influenced by varying fluorescence intensity owing to species variation in cell or nuclear sizes. In contrast to cells, chromosome structure shows little variation between species, and human chromosomes can be used as a reference for many species, even for zebrafish [6]. Our measurement of 1.15 Gb for GGA is consistent with 1.05 Gb of the assembled sequence [19], showing that chromosome measurement has a high accuracy. Therefore, our method is to be preferred where whole-genome sequence is unavailable. Our data refine previous ...
Implementation of an intraoperative UV-PAM system for breast tumor excision could be transformative. Our UV-PAM system was able to image fixed, unprocessed breast tumors with an image quality comparable to that of conventional histology using processed, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and H&E-stained specimens (Figs. 3 and 4 and fig. S4). Although fixed breast tumors were imaged in this study to maintain tissue integrity during relatively long intervals between surgery and processing for histology, fresh breast tumors are expected to provide similar imaging contrast (33). With relevant information regarding such tissue features as the average nuclear size and internuclear distance (Fig. 5), typically obtained from histology, UV-PAM images could be used to detect cancer cell clusters at the margins of tissue specimens during a surgical procedure, allowing immediate action to achieve clear margins. Although benign breast epithelial cells are too few in the UV-PAM images to be compared with cancer ...
The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of PGCCs in colon cancer cells and identify mechanisms of formation. Treatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the hypoxia mimic CoCl2 induced the formation of cells with larger cell and nuclear size (PGCCs), while the cells with normal morphology were selectively eliminated. Cytometric analysis showed that CoCl2 treatment induced G2 cell cycle arrest and the generation of a polyploid cell subpopulation with increased cellular DNA content. Polyploidy of hypoxia-induced PGCCs was confirmed by FISH analysis. Furthermore, CoCl2 treatment effectively induced the stabilization of HIF-1α, the differential
... steady signal of the level of a cells structural growth and could end up being utilized simply because a straightforward parameter of granule cell advancement. As a result, additional research could make use of our doublecortin-staging program and nuclear size dimension to perform inspections of morphological Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4A16 advancement in mixture with useful research of adult-born granule cells. Furthermore, the Thy1-GFP transgenic mouse model can end up being utilized as an extra analysis device because the news reporter gene brands granule cells that are 4 weeks or old, while extremely youthful cells could end up being visualized through the premature gun doublecortin. This will enable comparison studies regarding the function and structure between young immature and older matured granule cells. Launch Adult neurogenesis is certainly a procedure in which brand-new neurons are produced from sensory control ...
We offer clinical cancer updates, treatment guidance, and research news to the oncology nursing community. Visit us often for drug therapy testing results, patient care information and more. Download our FREE app today.
5) p By clustered MDS 1. The size reduction of liposomes with a high pressure homo- genizer (MicrofluidizerOМ). 17.1999; Anderson et al.
This publication describes the procedures for calculating the margins of nuclear power plants in relation to human induced external hazards. It focuses on plant and systems performance evaluations. A two level approach for margin assessment is provided. The first level consists of a deterministic procedure in which for each scenario the existence of at least one undamaged success path to comply with the fundamental safety function is investigated. This procedure can be subsequently extended to calculate probability measures such as conditional core damage probability and the conditional probability of spent fuel damage. In the most elaborated stage probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques are introduced giving consideration to the probabilistic aspects of the hazards and of the capacity of structures systems and components (fragility). Event tree and fault tree models are used to compute PSA metrics such as core damage frequency large early release frequency and frequency of spent fuel ...
Parakeratosis is a mode of keratinization characterized by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum. In mucous membranes, parakeratosis is normal. In the skin, this process leads to the abnormal replacement of annular squames with nucleated cells. Parakeratosis is associated with the thinning or loss of the granular layer and is usually seen in diseases of increased cell turnover, whether inflammatory or neoplastic. Parakeratosis is seen in the plaques of psoriasis and in dandruff. Granular parakeratosis (originally termed axillary granular parakeratosis) is an idiopathic, benign, nondisabling cutaneous disease that manifests with intertriginous erythematous, brown or red, scaly or keratotic papules and plaques. It presents in all age groups and has no established clinical associations. Skin lesion Skin disease List of skin diseases Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul (2010) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Saunders. Page 1170. ISBN 978-1-4160-3121-5. ...
Summary A measurement of the 2S-2P transition frequencies (Lamb shift) in the muonic helium-3 and 4 ions by means of laser spectroscopy is proposed. This will lead to a ten times more accurate determination of the root-mean-square (rms) charge radii of the He-3 and He-4 nuclei. The radius of the magnetic moment distribution inside the He-3 nucleus will result from the hyperfine structure in muonic 3He. In the muonic helium ion, a single negative muon orbits the helium nucleus. The muon is a point-like lepton, just as the electron, except it is about 200 times heavier. This gives a factor of 200^3 = 10^7 enhancement of nuclear finite size effects on the energy levels of muonic vs. regular (electonic) Helium ions. Muonic helium is the ideal sytem to study the He nuclear size. The CREMA project has four main aims: (1) Solve the proton size puzzle created by our recently completed muonic hydrogen project [R. Pohl et al., The size of the proton, Nature 466, 213 (2010)]. Our tenfold ...
Abstract. Keratinocytes in skin epidermis, which have. bright cytoplasmic contrast and dark nuclear contrast in reflectance. confocal microscopy (RCM), were modeled with. a simple error function reflectance profile: erf( ). Fortytwo. example keratinocytes were identified as a training. set which characterized the nuclear size a = 8.6±2.8. μm and reflectance gradient b = 3.6±2.1 μm at the nuclear/. cytoplasmic boundary. These mean a and b parameters. were used to create a rotationally symmetric erf( ) mask. that approximated the mean keratinocyte image. A computer. vision algorithm used an erf( ) mask to scan RCM. images, identifying the coordinates of keratinocytes. Applying. the mask to the confocal data identified the positions. of keratinocytes in the epidermis. This simple model. may be used to noninvasively evaluate keratinocyte populations. as a quantitative morphometric diagnostic in skin. cancer detection and evaluation of dermatological cosmetics.. C2011 Society of Photo-Optical ...
For speedy, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to steer staged cancers excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic check picture wide surgical margins (approximately 1?cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is definitely to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, […]. ...
The resection rate is defined as the fraction of patients that proceed to planned surgery with removal of primary tumor (R0/R1) following neoadjuvant treatment with gemcitabine plus erlotinib.The resection rate will be estimated by the binomial point estimate, i.e. as the number of patients that undergo the planned surgery with removal of the primary tumor following neoadjuvant treatment with gemcitabine plus erlotinib divided by the number of evaluable patients. This quantity will also be estimated with a 95% binomial confidence interval.. Curative resection (R0) is defined as macroscopically and microscopically complete resection (with microscopic surgical margin assessment according to AJCC Staging Principles).. An R1 resection is defined as macroscopically complete tumor removal with any positive microscopic surgical margin (bile duct, pancreatic parenchyma, or SMA margins). ...
Archival paraffin embedded material was used to examine whether additional quantitative criteria would be helpful to discriminate between histologically benign and malignant rat mammary tumours. To this end nuclear DNA content expressed as DNA ploidy index (DI) was measured using flow cytometry (FCM). A total of 63 benign and malignant mammary tumours were investigated. Thirteen out of 38 (34%) mammary carcinomas were DNA aneuploid against 0 out of 25 benign mammary tumours. Aneuploidy was not significantly increased in tumours showing histological signs of greater malignancy such as cribriform-comedo type or invasive growth. In addition to DI other quantitative criteria indicative for malignancy, such as mitotic count and nuclear morphometric characteristics, were estimated in 24 benign and malignant tubulopapillary tumours, a category where the histological classification may be difficult. It appeared that five out of nine noninvasive tubulopapillary carcinomas and six out of seven invasive ...
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The secondary electron emission from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to determine that the pore spaces of seven sandstones and four dolomites exhibited fractal behavior over certain length scales. Data from the SEM measurements produced log-log plots that not only verified the fractal nature of the rocks, but also allowed for the determination of their fractal dimensions. To model the transport properties of fractal lattices, a two dimensional model known as the Sierpinski Carpet was used as a starting point. Results developed for the petrophysical properties of such fractal lattices, such as porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, et. are presented here. Although the results cannot be directly compared with experiments, they demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to three dimensional lattices as well. A variation of a three dimensional fractal structure known as the Menger Sponge was used to model the pore spaces in rocks in an attempt to determine transport properties of rocks
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Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz) can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were
Background: Brain imaging studies suggest that volume reductions and compromised white matter integrity occur in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the cellular correlates have not yet been identified. To address this issue we assessed oligodendrocyte, astrocyte and microglial populations in postmortem white matter from schizophrenia, BD and nonpsychiatric control samples. Methods: The density, areal fraction and spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1)-expressing microglia as well as the density, nuclear size and spatial distribution of Nissl-stained oligodendrocytes were quantified in postmortem white matter adjacent to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) in schizophrenia, BD and control samples (n = 20). In addition, the oligodendrocyte-associated proteins myelin basic protein and 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) were quantified in the ...
Latest information about hyperkeratosis parakeratosis Find article, review, images and graphics related with hyperkeratosis parakeratosis here.
0004] Standard assessment of a resection is performed by inking the outside of the excised tissue, freezing it and then examining the edge of specimen sections by light microscopy (known as frozen section analysis). The presence of tumor cells at the inked margin, which is referred to as a positive margin, indicates that tumor cells remain behind in the tumor bed. Although margin assessment of a frozen section can take place during surgery, time constraints normally limit this assessment to small areas of the tumor. Therefore, this approach is prone to sampling error. The remaining excised tissue is fixed in formalin and it may take several days before the pathologist can complete the analysis to identify a positive margin. If a positive margin is identified, patients most often require a repeat surgical resection, leading to increased patient morbidity and higher healthcare costs. Other intraoperative cancer detection technologies have been developed including radio-frequency (RF) spectroscopy ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of Parakeratosis. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
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sciencehabit writes In a new study, researchers find that a single number that describes the complexity of feather patterns on bird chests, a parameter called the fractal dimension, is linked to whether a bird has a strong immune system or is malnourished. When scientists restricted the food of red...
Hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, irregular acanthosis, exocytosis, spongiosis, extravasated erythrocytes and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration in d
To understand the lineage relationship between BMI1+ and LGR5+ cells in asymmetric pairs, we derived and characterized CCIC lines (CCIC-1 and CCIC-2) from two colorectal cancer patients as previously described (4, 26) and performed a pair-cell assay (17, 31). Single CCICs were monitored through approximately 36 hours followed by immunofluorescence of cell pairs (Supplementary Fig. S1A) for markers, including BMI1, LGR5, NOTCH1, and others. Coimmunofluorescence for LGR5 and BMI1 confirmed that CCICs could divide into asymmetric BMI1+/LGR5+ daughter cell pairs; in addition, a notable difference was observed in the longest nuclear diameters of the BMI1+ CCIC and its LGR5+ counterpart (Supplementary Fig. S1B). The presence of these BMI1+/LGR5+ asymmetric cell pairs in CCIC is consistent with what we observed in primary colorectal cancer s. In approximately 5% of newly divided pairs, asymmetric division was identified producing daughter cell pairs that exhibited the specific cellular and nuclear ...
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2015714crusher size reduction ratio calculation methodrusher size reduction ratio is the ratio of raw material particle size and particle size of crushing.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory action of the pineal gland on the nuclear volume of thyroid follicular cells in male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). AU - Lewinski, A.. AU - Vaughan, M. K.. AU - Champney, T. H.. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Smith, N. K.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Karyometric investigations of thyroid follicular cells were performed in four groups of adult male gerbils [I. sham-operated (Sham PX) + short photoperiod (SPP)-exposed; II. Sham PX + long photoperiod (LPP)-exposed; III. pinealectomized (PX) + SPP-exposed; IV. PX + LPP-exposed]. The mean nuclear volume (MNV) of thyroid cells was significantly higher in both PX groups (III and IV) when compared to Sham PX controls (I and II). In Sham PX gerbils the maintenance of animals in SPP (10 h light : 14 h darkness) for 13 weeks resulted in significant decrease of MNV of thyroid follicular cells in comparison to that in Sham PX animals kept in LPP (14 h light : 10 h darkness). Lighting conditions did not significantly affect the MNV of ...
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Advances in Civil Engineering, CEBM 2011: Air-Entraining Concrete Bubble Distribution Fractal Dimension and Anti-Chloride Ion Diffusion Characteristics
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This application note discusses the importance of companies needing to offer a selection of size reduction equipment, as there is a trend to smaller samples with more controlled particle size. This application note also describes the applications of different kinds of mill.
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For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo þ R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In this paper the controversial educational topic of class size reduction is addressed. Controlling for a large number of observable characteristics and potential endogeneity in the class size variable, an educational production function is estimated using a quantile regression technique. The conventional wisdom that class size reduction is a viable means to increase scholastic achievement is discounted. Rather, the results point towards a far stronger peer effect through which class size reduction may play an important role. Due to heterogeneity in the newly identified peer effect, class size reduction is shown to be a potentially regressive policy measure.
This is starting to become really stressful for me, partially because it involves such a hard decision, as one can see above. As time goes on, any sort of transition will become harder, other things may come up, and in any case there will be more progress wasted if i do stop it (the upper body workout that is) entirely. Id rather start making progress towards my preferred look as soon as possible, but its deadlocked by this indecision. However, further research has shown me that muscle strength without increasing bulk is possible (low reps, high weight). Personally I think this would be a good compromise for now; I wouldnt feel as if Id lost progress if I kept up my strength, and I need my arms to be in good shape anyway (for boxing). Ive asked around and apparently if i were to start going for entirely strength building - i.e. building muscle itself rather than sarcoplasm, which is what increases the size iirc - my exterior would simply cease to grow, rather than becoming smaller... Which ...
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A detailed experimental study of breakage kinetics in a batch rodmill indicates that while the system is inherently nonlinear, the feed disappearance kinetics for the finer sizes and the coarser sizes at high holdups is well represented by first-order behavior. A linearized grinding model that results from the first-order taylors series expansion of the breakage rate expression was found to give
Principal Investigator:Shinkai Soya, Project Period (FY):2016-04-01 - 2018-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:System genome science
Steady state laser light propagation in diffuse media such as biological cells generally provide bulk parameter information, such as the mean free path and absorption, via the transmission profile. The accompanying optical speckle can be analyzed as a random spatial data series and its fractal dimension can be used to further classify biological media that show similar mean free path and absorption properties, such as those obtained from a single population. A population of yeast cells can be separated into different portions by centrifuge, and microscope analysis can be used to provide the population statistics. Fractal analysis of the speckle suggests that lower fractal dimension is associated with higher cell packing density. The spatial intensity correlation revealed that the higher cell packing gives rise to higher refractive index. A calibration sample system that behaves similar as the yeast samples in fractal dimension, spatial intensity correlation and diffusion was selected. Porous ...
A role for dMyc in regulating both organismal size and the size of mitotically dividing cells has been previously reported (Johnston et al., 1999). We show that in endoreplicating cells ectopic expression of dMyc results in increased cytoplasmic and nuclear volume, as well as in enlarged nucleoli, as detected by increased anti-fibrillarin staining (Fig. 4H-K). Fibrillarin has been implicated as a Myc target gene in both vertebrate and Drosophila cells (Coller et al., 2000; Orian et al., 2003) and its augmented expression is consistent with the notion that dMyc/Myc promotes ribosome biogenesis (Tollervey et al., 1993). The pitchoune gene, which encodes a putative RNA-helicase localized to the nucleolus, is also induced by ectopic dMyc, and pit null mutants have a severe larval growth defect similar to dm4 mutants (Zaffran et al., 1998). The mammalian ortholog of pit, MrDB (DDX18), has been identified as a direct target of c-Myc (Grandori et al., 1996). In addition, many other known and suspected ...
The intro now claims (since 19 October 2011) that He-2 has a half-life of 3x10-27 sec. Where does this number come from, please? I will mark it "citation needed".. Such a short half-life would seem to violate the speed limit of the universe. The time to separate two protons by a nuclear diameter of 10-15m cannot be less than 10-15m / c = 3 x 10-24s, so the claimed half-life implies that the protons are separating at 1000 times the speed of light.. Also there is a measurement problem here. Extremely short half-lives cannot be measured directly, but are deduced from the width of some resonance. Here the width would be ħ / 10-27s = 107 J = 1 TeV. Real measured widths are much smaller than that.. If these simple arguments are incorrect for some reason, we need to see the evidence.. Also in the section on He-2, the last two paragraphs are not properly referenced. One cannot just say that "The best evidence of He-2 was found in 2008 at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, in Italy." We need a ...
For many years now, homeopathy is considered to be an alternative and more physical way of treatment compared to traditional medicine. Though, little has yet been scien..
Download AGB Brochure. Simple to operate and maintain Low power requirements for significant size reduction Will process a mix of glass and other materials - ...
A010059 abs(dX), count1bits(N)+1 mod 2 A010060 abs(dY), count1bits(N) mod 2, being Thue-Morse A000120 direction, being total turn, count 1-bits A179868 direction 0to3, count 1-bits mod 4 A035263 turn 0=straight or 180, 1=left or right, being (count low 0-bits + 1) mod 2 A096268 next turn 1=straight or 180, 0=left or right, being count low 1-bits mod 2 A007814 turn-1 to the right, being count low 0-bits A003159 N positions of left or right turn, ends even num 0 bits A036554 N positions of straight or 180 turn, ends odd num 0 bits A146559 X at N=2^k, being Re((i+1)^k) A009545 Y at N=2^k, being Im((i+1)^k) A131064 right boundary length to odd power N=2^(2k-1), being 5*2^n-4n-4, skip initial 1 A027383 right boundary length differences A038503 number of East segments in N=0 to N=2^k-1 A038504 number of North segments in N=0 to N=2^k-1 A038505 number of West segments in N=0 to N=2^k-1 A000749 number of South segments in N=0 to N=2^k-1 A191689 fractal dimension of the interior ...
po akcijskoj cijeni! Mogućnost narudžbe Fractal Design kućišta za računala i dostave pouzećem! Slike i cijene sa detaljnim opisima Fractal Design kućišta za računala na akciji.
Replication takes place in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of host cells. Firstly, the viral genome enters the cytoplasm. The ... The size of the genome is usually between 6000-8000 base pairs. Depending on the virus, DNA can contain either one open reading ... This DNA can then reenter the nucleus for amplification. As replication requires the use of RNA intermediate, viruses from the ... The type of nucleocapsid incorporated into the virus structure determines the size of the virus. Bacilliform nucleocapsid ...
... these nuclei are segregated into separate cells by cytokinesis to producing 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells and an egg cell ... Reduced male parts, three cells. The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of ... The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. As the zygote develops into an ... involving two successive cell divisions) to produce four cells (megaspores) with haploid nuclei.[60] One of these four cells ( ...
"The size of the nucleus increases as yeast cells grow". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 18 (9): 3523-32. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-10- ... That Start transit requires the attainment of a threshold cell size directly implies that yeast cells measure their own size, ... The elucidation of the mechanisms by which it regulates Start has revealed a means for it to link cell size to cell cycle ... A favored model for how yeast cells, as well as cells of other species, measure their size relies on the detection of overall ...
The asexual stages rarely disturb the host cell. The gametocytes may distort the cell or displace the nucleus. Mature schizonts ... Schizonts tend to lie lateral to the nucleus. The mature gametocytes vary in size: 5.0 - 12.0 x 2.0 - 6.0 micrometres and tend ... are 4.0 - 6.0 micrometres x 1.5 - 3.0 micrometres in size and give rise to 4-6 merozoites. ...
The young ascus develops from this penultimate cell in which the two nuclei fuse following a rapid increase in the size of the ... The penultimate cell of this row contains two large nuclei; while the other cells of the row have one nucleus each. ... The cell wall between these organs is dissolved at the time of fertilization and the male and female nuclei unite, and a fresh ... The cell in which the egg nucleus develops and is fertilized (the carpogonium) elongates, divides and a curved row of 5 or 6 ...
Although the size varies, they are larger than the cell's nucleus. The organism stains a basophilic colour and has a ... They are unicellular organisms which are parasitic in the red blood cells. Haemogregarina infects lower vertebrates (fish and ... They are elongate to fusiform oval organisms found in the red blood cells. ... and have been described in the red blood cells of desert tortoises. ...
Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in birds retain their nucleus. The avian circulatory system is driven by a ... Wing shape and size generally determine a bird's flight style and performance; many birds combine powered, flapping flight with ... Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. Birds are descendants ... The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size. The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the ...
They can be differentiated from adipocyte-like cells by their cytoplasm and nucleus; ballooned cells have their nucleus in the ... The name is derived from the fact that the cells undergoing this form of cell death increase in size (balloon). It is generally ... centre (unlike adipocyte-like cells, which have it peripherally). Also, ballooned cells have (small) pyknotic nuclei or nuclei ... Ballooned cells are typically two to three times the size of adjacent hepatocytes and are characterized by a wispy cleared ...
Replication occurs in the nucleus of secretory epithelial cells of the salivary gland. Transmission is either horizontally (per ... The genome is a circular double stranded DNA molecule ranging in size from 120 to 190 kilobases. The G+C ratio varies between ... The virons contain at least 35 polypeptides which range in size from 10 to 200 kiloDaltons. ...
Yeast mitochondrial RRF (mtRRF) is encoded by a gene in the cell nucleus. Loss of function of this gene leads to mitochondrial ... The most striking revelation was that RRF is a near-perfect structural mimic of tRNA, in both size and dimensions. One view of ... It has been suggested that ribosomes bind proteins (or protein domain) of similar shape and size to tRNA, and this, rather than ... Ribosome Recycling Factor (RRF) is a protein found in bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic organelles, specifically ...
The host cell was not enlarged and no displacement of the nucleus was noted. This species infects mature cells only. The ... The size of the more mature schizonts was 3 by 6 µm. The female gametocytes were elongate, measuring 5 by 10 µm. The nucleus ... The host cell is not enlarged and the nucleus is not displaced.". Today, it is known to be infecting reptiles only. This ... The nucleus was reddish-purple and the cytoplasm stained mauve with the dark pigments in granules of different sizes scattered ...
... the size of the parasite, the degree of host nucleus displacement and the degree of host cell enlargement. Plasmodium ... Gametocytes, while varying in shape tend to be round or oval, do not exceed the size of the nucleus and stick to it. The type ... Bennettinia Schizonts contain scant cytoplasm, are often round, do not exceed the size of the host nucleus and stick to it. ... Haemamoeba Mature schizonts are larger than the host cell nucleus and commonly displace it. Gametocytes are large, round, oval ...
Due to the extremely small size of the algae cells, the average burst size was found to be 25 virus particles per cell. Viral ... Most genera under this family enter the cell of the host by cell receptor endocytosis and replicate in the nucleus. ... Burst size ranges from 400-1000 particles per cell. A cluster of sphingolipid producing genes have been identified in EhV-86. ... Estimates for burst sizes range from 320 to 600 viruses per cell. Members of the genus Prasinovirus infect small unicellular ...
The schizonts are less than or equal to the host cell nucleus in size. Each schizont produces four to eight merozoites. The ... Gametocytes are elongate and equal to or slightly larger than host cell nuclei, and are found diagonally across one end of the ... host cell. This species is found in Tanzania (Dar-es-Salaam and Morogoro). This species infects the African striped skink ( ...
The replication of this virus takes place in the nucleus of the host cell. When it replicates, it causes the nucleus to ... This is a double stranded DNA virus with its size being 610 kilobases log. The genome is estimated to code for 476 open reading ... The replication cycle of this virus begins in the nucleus of the host and end in the cytoplasm. Some families of this virus are ... Like other giant viruses, it affect the host's nucleus and can take up to 15 hours to start infecting. Although it is found in ...
Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles ... This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and a function is called cellular differentiation. Cells of meristematic ... Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape. Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ...
"The DNA in the cell nucleus contains the master copy of the software, in duplicate. This software seems to control by " ... Nutrition is necessary but not sufficient to account for growth in size as genetics is the governing factor. At some point, ... In 1982, American biochemist Albert Lehninger argued that the "order" produced within cells as they grow and divide is more ... Schrödinger, Erwin (1944). What is Life - the Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42708- ...
... red blood cells. Chromatin allows the very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus. During cell division chromatin ... The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs ... Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, fungi, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes ... These tables give the total number of chromosomes (including sex chromosomes) in a cell nucleus. For example, most eukaryotes ...
The gametocytes are elongate or oval and have dispersed pigment averaging twice the size of host cell nuclei in size. In ... The schizonts are usually round, oval or oblong, exceed the host cell nuclei in size and produce 8-20 merozoites. ... gametocytes may become rounded and cause both host cell and nucleus to shrink. This species is found in the Uluguru Mountains, ...
Mature gametocytes are elongate averaging 3 times the host cell nucleus size and have dispersed pigment. This species is found ... Mature schizonts are polymorphic, are usually larger than host cell nuclei, and give rise to 6-26 merozoites. Immature ...
The host cells are not altered in either shape or size by the asexual stages of the parasite. Pigment is rare and a vacuole may ... They tend to encircle the nucleus and the host cell tends to become oval in shape. Male gametocytes measure 20 micrometres x 2 ...
Schizonts are oblong or formed as rosettes and are approximately the same size as the host cell nucleus. Each produces 8-18 ... Gametocytes are elongate and are approximately twice the size of host cell nuclei. They have prominent and irregular pigment ... Young gametocytes and the asexual stages almost always occupy marginal positions in host cells. Maturing gametocytes contain ...
Mature gametocytes are usually oval and approximate the host cell nuclei in size. Their pigment granules concentrated in a ... Mature schizonts are smaller than the host cell nuclei, produce 4-12 merozoites and are usually arranged as a fan. Immature ...
Cell nucleus#Splicing speckles are subnuclear structures that are enriched in pre-messenger RNA splicing factors Berezney, ... They usually appear as irregularly shaped structures that vary in size and number. They can be observed by immunofluorescence ... An interchromatin granule is a cluster in the nucleus of a mammal cell which is enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors. ... Interchromatin granules are located in the interchromatin regions of the mammalian Cell nuclei. ...
Most cells have numerous nuclei, with some vegetative cells possessing more than 100. Various asexual genetic factors, such as ... In the absence of meiosis, chromosome plasticity is the norm, and different strains have different numbers and sizes of ... While wild strains are highly adaptable and may be heterokaryotic (contain nuclei of dissimilar genotype within a single ... nuclei are all genetically similar or identical). This, coupled with tight control of variation through genetic drift, allows ...
... in size and shape). Anaplastic cells display marked pleomorphism. The cell nuclei are characteristically extremely ... Additionally, the nuclei of anaplastic cells are usually unnaturally shaped or oversized. Cells can become anaplastic in two ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... the nucleus might have the same size as the cytoplasm of the cell (nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio may approach 1:1, instead of the ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Dishware, silverware, drinkware, and cookware come in a wide array of forms and sizes. ...
The nucleus is prominently at the centre of the cell. The unusual feature of the cell is that it contains reddish-brown ... The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large ... The cell has two flagella for locomotion. Reproduction is by simple binary fission. In lateral view D. acuminata cells are ... Cells have convex dorsal margins and small oval shaped cells and their thecal plates are covered with areolae (circular ...
Replication takes place in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of host cells. Firstly, the viral genome enters the cytoplasm. The ... The size of the genome is usually between 6000-8000 base pairs. Depending on the virus, DNA can contain either one open reading ... This DNA can then reenter the nucleus for amplification. As replication requires the use of RNA intermediate, viruses from the ... The type of nucleocapsid incorporated into the virus structure determines the size of the virus. Bacilliform nucleocapsid ...
Ponto-geniculo-occipital-wave suppression amplifies lateral geniculate nucleus cell-size changes in monocularly deprived ... the A1-lamina cells retained their size and the non-occluded eye-related, A-lamina cells tended to be larger than after MD- ... LGN interlaminar cell-size disparity increased in the PGO-wave-suppressed animals as it had in behaviorally REM sleep-deprived ... amplification of the effects of solely the 2-week MD on cell-size in the binocular segment of the lateral geniculate nucleus ( ...
n avergae prokaryote and eukaryote cell. The size of the nucleus, how large is a mitochondria is and so ... Intro to cell biology (lec 2) from BIO 1140 at University of Ottawa. ... This provides major constrate on the cell size. 3) Adequate concentartion or Synthetic capacity. As cell size increases the # ... Unformatted text preview: n avergae prokaryote and eukaryote cell. The size of the nucleus, how large is a mitochondria is and ...
Cells, Germ Layers, Growth, Cell, Cancer, Regulation, Epidermal Growth Factor, Drosophila, Tumor, Kinase, and Mammals ... Nature cell biology. The Hippo pathway in organ size control, tissue regeneration and stem cell self-renewal. Abstract ... Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology. 09/03/2013. 7.50. Science signaling. Angiomoting YAP into the nucleus for cell ... Cell. The Hippo transducer TAZ confers cancer stem cell-related traits on breast cancer cells. Abstract ...
This size selectively allows the passage of small water-soluble molecules while preventing larger molecules, such as nucleic ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cells ... Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
... nuclear and cell size. Interphase nuclei of G. nigrocaulis and of related species with small genomes, G. aurea (133 Mbp, 2n ≈ ... nuclear and cell size. Interphase nuclei of G. nigrocaulis and of related species with small genomes, G. aurea (133 Mbp, 2n=104 ... is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. This is ... is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. This is ...
... fixed nuclei. Most strikingly, linc1-1 linc2-1 nuclei were ∼20% of the size of wild-type nuclei (wild type = 100 ± 2.6 μm2, ... Figures 5A to 5D show representative nuclei from 2-week-old root epidermal cells and anther filament cells. Nuclei in linc1-1 ... A variety of cell types, including epidermal and leaf hair (trichomes), depend on endoreduplication for normal cell size and ... We found that the epidermal cells of linc1-1 linc2-1 are approximately one-fourth the size of wild-type epidermal cells (see ...
... size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding ... What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. ... Q: What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the ... What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton ...
Size of the actin region in unbudded cells with single nucleus (A7-1_A) standard. YPD. hap a. 4,715 Quantitative ... Size of the actin region in unbudded cells with single nucleus (A7-1_A). observable. morphology. cellular morphology. ohya. ...
Biology at West - The Cell 4A - Cell Size. Concepts: cell, cell theory, cell membrane, nucleus, eukaryote, prokaryote. (15:49) ... Biology at West - The Cell 4C - The Cell. Concepts: nucleus, DNA, prokaryote, eukaryote ------------------- If you like this ... Biology at West - The Cell 4B - Cell Types. Concepts: Animal, Plant, Prokaryotic, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleus, membrane ...
Immunofluorescence is a technique using antibodies to attach fluorescent dyes to cells. Magnification: x624 at 6x4.5cm size. - ... The round structures are the nuclei, the control centres of the individual cells. Within the nuclei are the nucleoli. These ... Immunofluorescent light micrograph of cultured fibroblast cells showing nuclei with nucleolar necklaces. ... This helps to maintain the shape of the cell. ... the control centres of the individual cells. Within the nuclei ...
... of a glandular cell, showing nucleus, chromatin (magenta), which appears as dense aggregations of small granules, and ... interstices of the nucleolus and the genes for messenger RNA and transfer RNA that are directing the synthesis of the cells ... Uncompressed file size: 50.0MB Downloadable file size: 10.3MB. Price image ... Keywords: biology, cell, cell biology, chromatin, coloured, dna, electron micrograph, em, enhanced, gene, genetic, glandular ...
Thibault G. Texture indexes and gray level size zone matrix. Application to cell nuclei classification. In: Proc. Pattern ... Intrinsic dependencies of CT radiomic features on voxel size and number of gray levels. Med Phys. 2017;44(3):1050-62.CrossRef ... Chow S, Shao J, Wang H. Sample size calculations in clinical research. Chapman and Hall/CRC biostatistics series, 2nd ed. Boca ... Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. ...
B) Size and Shape of the Cells Nucleus. The shape and size of the nucleus of a cancer cell are often not normal. The nucleus ... A) Shape and Size of the Cells. It has been observed that the overall shape and size of cells in the tissues are mostly normal ... i) Nucleus Area (A). The nucleus area can be represented by nucleus region containing total number of pixels; it is shown in ... The nuclei of cancer cells are larger than the normal cells and deviated from the centre of the mass. The nucleus of cancer ...
Transmission electron micrograph of a cell from grade III nucleus pulposus. Note the significant difference in size and the ... Cells from (A) grade I and (B) grade III nuclei pulposi. Green: actin; red: cell nuclei. Note the large inclusions in the cells ... cell nuclei). Connexin-43 was scattered over the entire cell surface, with a concentration in the vicinity of cell-cell ... very few cells could be found in the grade III nucleus (arrows, D). Cell clusters in grade I nuclei appeared to be surrounded ...
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... Paraspeckle Size., E-mail Correspondence. 2007-03-07. *^ Goebel, H.H.; I Warlow (January 1997). "Nemaline myopathy with ... Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ...
Princeton University have achieved an unprecedented look at a virus-like particle as it tries to break into and infect a cell. ... can be degraded in the cell nucleus of liver cells, consequently allowing ... ... Video of virus-sized particle trying to enter cell. February 25, 2014, Princeton University Tiny and swift, viruses are hard to ... Degradation of viral DNA in the cell nucleus opens new Hepatitis B treatment possibilities. February 21, 2014 Scientists from ...
Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Chloroplasts / physiology, ultrastructure. DNA, Chloroplast / pharmacology. DNA, ... Because of the uniformity of the cell suspension model, we could further show that growth rate, selection scheme, particle size ... The suspension cell system will be useful as a model for understanding transformation in those plant species that utilize dark- ... Particle Size. Plastids / physiology*, ultrastructure. Tobacco / cytology, genetics*, physiology. Transformation, Genetic. ...
5B, similar-sized bands were detected in three breast cell lines (MCR7, BT-474, and SK-BR-3) as compared with the prostate cell ... TARP exists in the nuclei of breast cancer cells. Western blot of nuclear extracts derived from LNCaP, MCF7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, ... Preparation of Cell Extracts.. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared as follows. Growing cells (5 × 106) from each cell ... glioblastoma cell line IMR32, colon cell line COLO 205, gastric cell line KATO III, or kidney cell lines COS7 and 293 (Fig. 4A ...
Bone Defect Healing Using PLGA Scaffolds Seeded with Extracorporeal-shock-wave-treated Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells ( ... Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells regenerate bone in a critical-sized canine segmental defect. . J Bone Joint Surg Am 85-A, ... The nuclei of the transplanted cells were stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar, 50 μm; n = 5/group/time point. ... Control of stem cell fate by physical interactions with the extracellular matrix. . Cell Stem Cell 5, 17-26 (2009). ...
... early stages of infection EMCV are also characterized by the tendency to increase in the size of the nuclei of infected cells, ... Then there is an increase in RNA content in the nucleus, roughly coinciding with the increased content of RNA in the nucleoli. ... we have identified the changes in the nucleus and of some intranuclear compartments in the early stages of infection with ... early stages of infection EMCV are also characterized by the tendency to increase in the size of the nuclei of infected cells, ...
This size selectively allows the passage of small water-soluble molecules while preventing larger molecules, such as nucleic ... Nuclei per cell. Most eukaryotic cell types usually have a single nucleus, but some have no nuclei, while others have several. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ...
Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden devote their research to discovering how cell division and cell ... which structures can be found in cell organelles and how cells exchange information and materials. ... Cell and developmental biologists at the Max Planck ... During cell division, cell nuclei have to be positioned at the ... For example, they could be used as molecule-sized robots that build up and manipulate nanostructures, detect chemicals or sort ...
n. 1. The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the ... The number and shape of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Scientists prepare karyotypes by staining cell nuclei, placing ... Biology) the appearance of the chromosomes in a somatic cell of an individual or species, with reference to their number, size ... the chromosomes of a cell, usu. displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size. ...
  • The viral DNA forms supercoiled mini-chromosome structures upon entering the host nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The principal neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CN), the sole output of the olivo-cerebellar system, receive a massive inhibitory input from Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellar cortex. (uzh.ch)
  • This work establishes CN glycinergic neurons as a significant source of inhibition to CN principal cells, forming contacts molecularly distinct from, but functionally similar to, Purkinje cell synapses. (uzh.ch)
  • A section through a whole organoid stained for neurons in green and neural stem cells in red. (news-medical.net)
  • Nerve cells, or neurons, can range from .004 millimeters to .1 millimeters in diameter. (reference.com)
  • Different types of nerve cells include sensory neurons and motoneurons, among others. (reference.com)
  • Nerve cells, or neurons, receive electrochemical signals, process them and transmit them to other cells. (reference.com)
  • This gene, named ARHGAP11B, causes the so-called basal brain stem cells to expand in number and to eventually increase the production of neurons, leading to a bigger and more folded brain in the end. (bionity.com)
  • From the first days of the tiny lab-grown organs' development, primitive "progenitor cells" romped out of their birthplaces in the deep interior and quickly turned into neurons and glia, specialized cells that do the brain's heavy lifting, from thinking and feeling and moving to boring old neurological housekeeping. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Experiments with both simple collections of neurons growing in lab dishes as well as cerebral organoids grown from the stem cells of Huntington's patients, and therefore harboring the DNA stutters, are now undermining that belief. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since the mutation is with you from conception, it makes sense that there could be deleterious effects on the brain from the beginning," said biologist Virginia Mattis, who led studies at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles of lab-grown neurons produced from Huntington's patients' stem cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Onuf's nucleus is a distinct group of neurons located in the ventral part ( laminae IX ) of the anterior horn of the sacral region of the human spinal cord involved in the maintenance of micturition and defecatory continence, as well as muscular contraction during orgasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • While working in New York City in 1899, Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz discovered this group of unique cells and originally identified it as "Group X." "Group X" was considered distinct by Onufrowicz because the cells were different in size from the surrounding neurons in the anterolateral group, suggesting that they were independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons in Onuf's nucleus are motoneurons, and like most motoneurons they are characterized by their mulipolarity and large Nissl bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of Onuf's nucleus are responsible for controlling external sphincter muscles of the anus and urethra in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor neurons of Onuf's nucleus innervate striated musculature ( rhabdosphincter muscle) which is controlled voluntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that Onuf nucleus cells have the same cytoskeletal abnormalities as alpha-motor neurons in motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onuf's nucleus cells are anatomically linked with the sacral parasympathetic motor neurons and have many peptidergic nerve terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in Onuf's nucleus resemble autonomic neurons and do not receive afferents from adjacent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) provide a favorable system for experimental investigation of neurotrophic support by presynaptic cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • All parts of the nervous system are made of nervous tissue, which contains the two main categories of cells: neurons and supporting glia cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nerves are large enough to have been recognized by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, but their internal structure was not understood until it became possible to examine them using a microscope (Finger 2000).The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves-their cell bodies reside within the brain, central cord, or peripheral ganglia (Kandel et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • neurons and glial cells . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Neurons, also known as neurones and nerve cells, are electrically excitable cells that process and transmit information. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Neurons have a wide variety of structures, sizes, and electrochemical properties. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2 Neurodegeneration associated with POAG is thus not restricted to the retinal ganglion cells and extends to the target neurons in the LGN. (ajnr.org)
  • Colour enhanced Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of a glandular cell, showing nucleus, chromatin (magenta), which appears as dense aggregations of small granules, and heterochromatin, occurring in irregular clumps adjacent to the nuclear envelope and around the nucleolus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • C. C. Morton, J. A. Brown, W. M. Holmes, W. E. Nance and B. Wolf, "Stain Intensity of Human Nucleolus Organizer Region Reflects Incorporation of Uridine in to Mature Ribosomal RNA," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1983, pp. 405-413. (scirp.org)
  • This is the nucleolus of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • The nucleolus is prominent within the nucleus. (scribd.com)
  • Tissue Types Histology is the branch of biological science concerned with the study of cells and the extracellular matix of animal and plant tissues. (einet.net)
  • the size of a normal yeast can be like 3-4 micrometers. (answers.com)
  • He joined the faculty at UC Santa Cruz in 1987 and has focused on snRNA processing, structure, and function in yeast and mammalian cells. (cshlpress.com)
  • These processes resemble hyphal growth in filamentous fungi in that they involve polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and localized cell wall synthesis. (genetics.org)
  • The NP is populated by chondrocyte-like cells, therefore, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), stimulated to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage could be used to promote NP regeneration. (uminho.pt)
  • Electron microscope analysis confirmed that the suspension cells carry plastids that are significantly smaller (approximately 50-fold less in volume) and have a very different subcellular localization and developmental state than leaf cell chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Repeat to add on five to six green ovals, which represent the chloroplasts of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • 8. Human cheek cells and epidermal cells of onions do not have chloroplasts. (bartleby.com)
  • Nuclei are remarkably dynamic and differentiate into an array of shapes and sizes within a single organism. (plantcell.org)
  • Several morphological and functional characteristics differentiate the two cell types. (mathworks.com)
  • Within a tumor, there is a small subset of cells with a unique cell surface marker signature (e.g., up-regulation of CD44 and down-regulation of CD24) as well as characteristics similar to stem cells such as the ability to self-renew, differentiate and they have been shown to be chemo-and radiation resistant - . (plos.org)
  • The flow cytometry and microscope observations allowed us to differentiate the populations of pollen nuclei present in the diploid and euploid genotypes analyzed, showing that citrus has binuclear pollen. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in DCN fusiform cells suggests that a neural code for phantom sounds emerges in this brainstem location and likely contributes to the formation of the tinnitus percept. (jneurosci.org)
  • The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in subcortical nuclei suggests that perceptual binding by means of synchronous neural activity is processed early and diffusely in the auditory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Morphological evidence suggests that CN principal cells are also contacted by inhibitory interneurons, but the properties of this connection are unknown. (uzh.ch)
  • That cancer cell function can be correlated with deformations in the nucleus suggests that major challenges in particle-based, nuclear-targeted therapy can be overcome,' says Odom. (nanowerk.com)
  • This suggests nuclei increase in size in the neoplastic cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Our recent finding that Mer also resides in the nucleus suggests there may be additional ways that Mer is promoting cancer from within the cell," he says. (innovations-report.com)
  • In combination with CAG-eGFP-anillin-mice, the cell cycle status of CMs can be monitored in detail enabling screening for proliferation-inducing substances in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Heart regeneration is commonly analyzed with proliferation markers localized in the nucleus, such as PCNA, Ki-67, or pHH3 or Thymidine analogs such as BrdU or 3 H-Thymidine. (springer.com)
  • Cells overexpressing miR301-inhibitor and Akt, exhibited increased migration and proliferation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Akt1 is a key player in PI3K-AktmTOR pathway that is vital for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • As a result, there is increased interest in developing cancer drugs that target EMT in addition to drugs that target cell proliferation and survival. (mathworks.com)
  • CD44 repression via NF-κB inhibition consequently decreased proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. (plos.org)
  • Smith SM, Lyu YL, Cai L (2014) NF-κB Affects Proliferation and Invasiveness of Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating CD44 Expression. (plos.org)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway is well known for the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and some metabolic routes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Stolz 6 observed changes in the mean cross-sectional area of the nucleus between malignant melanomas and benign compound nevi (pigmented moles). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Furthermore, spindle-shaped nuclei were found in differentiated root epidermal and cortex tissue, oriented along the long axis of the cell, and rod-like nuclei were located within vascular tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 1 , 2 , 3 Currently, the best method of treatment is surgery, where malignant cells are physically removed. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 4 The surgical treatment option relies on early detection of malignant cells such that minimal tissue is removed and the chance of metastasis is reduced. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • We have identified in the "CSO" tangor an additional nuclei population composed by the vegetative plus generative nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • 10. Cells wall and plasma membranes are fully permeable. (bartleby.com)
  • While the outer membrane of a cell protects the cell well on a microscopic level, large cells would require exceptionally thick membranes. (reference.com)
  • As these membranes thicken enough to hold larger cells, they suffer from decreased permeability. (reference.com)
  • On top of the membranes, plant cells have rigid walls made of cellulose. (ehow.com)
  • In the older disc, the gelatinous nucleus had been replaced by fibrous material and there was a loss of annular-nuclear demarcation. (nih.gov)
  • By the methods of quantitative cytophotometry, we have identified the changes in the nucleus and of some intranuclear compartments in the early stages of infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). (scirp.org)
  • Vacuoles are storage compartments found in a cell. (answers.com)
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need to find additional interventions to better promote the curative effect of stem cells. (nature.com)
  • In this technical report, we describe the generation and characterization of embryonic stem cells and transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein of human histone 2B and the red fluorescence protein mCherry under control of the CM specific αMHC promoter. (springer.com)
  • Established cancer treatment protocols fail to eliminate populations of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which develop resistance against the chemotherapeutic drugs and lead to cancer recurrence. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this latest experiment, the team used a new method of growth from the human stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • These stem cells are capable of turning into any specialized cell and it was found that these stem cells could grow into a sophisticated and complex organoid. (news-medical.net)
  • What is the definition of stem cells? (reference.com)
  • In this way, ARHGAP11B can trigger basal brain stem cells to form a larger pool of stem cells. (bionity.com)
  • Thus, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human brain by inducing a cancer-like metabolism in the basal brain stem cells for a limited period during brain development. (bionity.com)
  • Studies have shown that human acute myeloid leukemic stem cells can be eradicated by targeting CD44 . (plos.org)
  • Neural stem cells, which are proliferating cells utilize both repair methods. (news-medical.net)
  • Bristol to benefit from new £3M Blood and Transplant Research Unit 11 September 2015 A new £3 million NIHR Blood and Transplant Research Unit [BTRU] to advance pioneering research on the manufacture of red blood cells from stem cells and their translation from the lab to human trials has been announced today [11 September (bristol.ac.uk)
  • used a nucleus-targeted green fluorescent protein to investigate the shapes and sizes of living nuclei from several Arabidopsis tissues and cell types via confocal microscopy. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we show that this prostate-specific transcript is also expressed in three breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. (pnas.org)
  • How do cells form tissues? (mpg.de)
  • Cells and tissues are analyzed in the laboratory to look for the presence or effects of diseases, including cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • The nervous system is the network of specialized cells , tissues , and organs in a multicellular animal that coordinates the body's interaction with the environment, including sensing internal and external stimuli, monitoring the organs, coordinating the activity of muscles , initiating actions, and regulating behavior. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • All plants, and their cells, share some basic characteristics. (ehow.com)
  • While plant cells share some characteristics with the cells found in the human body, such as a plasma layer, they are also different in many important ways. (ehow.com)
  • All plant cells share the same key components and characteristics, even though like humans, plants have many different kinds of cells specialized at carrying out different functions. (ehow.com)
  • Ponto-geniculo-occipital-wave suppression amplifies lateral geniculate nucleus cell-size changes in monocularly deprived kittens. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously shown that during the post-natal critical period of development of the cat visual system, 1 week of instrumental rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (IRSD) during 2 weeks of monocular deprivation (MD) results in significant amplification of the effects of solely the 2-week MD on cell-size in the binocular segment of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) [36, (nih.gov)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They noted that spherical nuclei-the most abundant type overall and the predominant nuclear shape in the meristems-were just one of many nuclear shapes found within the epidermal and pavement cells. (plantcell.org)
  • We found that transient downregulation of XIAP by siRNAs resulted in an increase of apoptosis and a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and sensitized PCa cells to cisplatin. (nature.com)
  • from Latin [ nucleus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) or [ nuculeus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) , "little nut" or kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Everything you need to make a Play-Doh plant cell can be found at any toy shop or craft store. (ehow.com)
  • Forms spindle fibers, aids in cell division, and only found in animal cells? (sporcle.com)
  • They found that this increased the number of local deformations in the nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Surprisingly, the sensitive portions of the photoreceptor cells are found on the hind side of the retina, meaning that light needs to travel through living neural tissue before it can be detected. (bionity.com)
  • I found nuclein in every cell type I tested. (dnalc.org)
  • DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid - is found mainly in the nucleus. (dnalc.org)
  • The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5±0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38±0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The 3 things found in all cells are the 3 C's, the Chromosome, The Cell Membrane, & The Cytoplasm. (answers.com)
  • A University of Colorado Cancer Center study, recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, found another home for Mer - inside cancer cells' nuclei - and perhaps another role for this protein that can point the way to novel, targeted treatments. (innovations-report.com)
  • Also, Onuf's nucleus is found almost symmetrically on both sides of the ventral horn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism of Onuf's nucleus has been found in dogs, monkeys, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the new study, the researchers studied three types of brain cells and found that among the cells, the Zika virus has more severe damages to astrocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • They found that in fetal astrocytes, there are marked signs of inflammation, showing that these cells are the major targets of the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer surgery or biopsy collection could influence disease progression 2 July 2015 Scientists at Bristol Biochemistry studying the body's inflammatory response to wounds following cancer surgery or biopsy have found that these procedures may cause growth signals to be delivered to any remaining cancer or pre-cancerous cells which may negatively influence disease progression. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The large majority of what are commonly called nerves (which are actually axonal processes of nerve cells) are considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Our observations indicate that PI3-K/Akt pathways have a dual role in both survival and cell death processes depending on the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is expressed in all animal cells and plays a key regulatory role in many diverse physiological processes. (washington.edu)
  • For instance, it has been shown that often less than 1% of the administered drug molecules during chemotherapy enter tumor cells and bind to the nuclear DNA. (nanowerk.com)
  • By blocking several functions of nucleolin, AS1411 can ultimately result in tumor cell death. (nanowerk.com)
  • Wieland Huttner, who supervised the study, highlights the perspectives of these findings: "An increase in glutaminolysis is a hallmark of highly proliferating cells, notably tumor cells. (bionity.com)
  • In recent years, the up-regulation of CD44 has served as a marker for tumor initiating cells in breast cancer and other cancer types. (plos.org)
  • These cells, known as cancer stem-like cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), have been observed in other cancers including prostate, pancreatic, brain and leukemia - , making CD44 an important target for cancer therapies. (plos.org)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • This represents the golgi body of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered, and was first described by Franz Bauer in 1802. (bionity.com)
  • This organelle contains its own DNA and is the powerhouse of the cell? (sporcle.com)
  • This organelle is involved with synthesis of steroids (gland cells), regulate calcium levels in muscle cells, breaks down toxic substances in the liver? (sporcle.com)
  • Isolates from a grade I nucleus pulposus after 24 h in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Injectable hydrogels loaded with cells can be used as substitute material for the inner part of the IVD, the nucleus pulposus (NP), and provide an opportunity for minimally invasive treatment of IVD degeneration. (uminho.pt)
  • In the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana , differentiated nuclei are common and thus provide a good system to study this highly dynamic process. (plantcell.org)
  • In some cases, a few cells are so close together that their nuclei appear to be touching one another, and they cannot be distinguished as separate nuclei. (mathworks.com)
  • The cells are just visible as small spherical bodies (arrows). (nih.gov)
  • X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a suppressor of apoptosis that supports an increased survival and resistance to chemotherapy of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells. (nature.com)
  • 21. The movement of substances across the plasma membrane is important for the survival of cells. (bartleby.com)
  • We've known that leukemic B and T cells have a lot of Mer on their surface, while normal lymphocytes have none, and that this protein promotes cancer cell survival," says Justine Migdall, MD/PhD candidate working in the lab of Douglas Graham, MD, PhD, CU Cancer Center investigator and associate professor of pediatrics and immunology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Specifically, I'm investigating a cell-survival process called autophagy, in which a cell eats part of itself as a way of maintaining quality control and recycling cell contents. (utdallas.edu)
  • Survivin expression in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from E15.5 to P21, assessed by immunofluorescent staining of pancreatic tissue isolated from wild-type mice, using antibodies to survivin, β-catenin, Isl1, insulin (Ins), glucagon (Gluc), and somatostatin (Som). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Elevated markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase activation, and neuroepithelial cell apoptosis (causal events in type 1 diabetic embryopathy) were observed in embryos of DM dams. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Next, the particle was studded with protein segments known as Tat peptides, derived from the HIV-1 virus, which help the particle find the cell. (phys.org)
  • These results demonstrate that an alternative protein product is encoded by the TCRγ locus in cells other than T lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • In this paper, we report that these transcripts encode a 7-kDa nuclear protein derived from an alternative reading frame different from the original TCRγ reading frame and are present in prostate and breast cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report the generation of a reporter system that directly visualizes CM nuclei in vitro and in vivo, by fusing the red fluorescence protein mCherry (mCh) to human histone 2B (H2B) and expressing it in CMs by use of the αMHC (Myh6) promoter. (springer.com)
  • Hollow protein tubules that aid in cell support and forming spindle fibers? (sporcle.com)
  • Type of protein that forms channels for substances to pass through the cell membrane? (sporcle.com)
  • AS1411 has been tested as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its ability to strongly bind to nucleolin, a protein that is over expressed in cancerous cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Glia cells express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) upon activation, increasing the number of GFAP-expressing cells following injury ( 16 ). (physiology.org)
  • Since the mid-1990s, doctors have had the protein Mer in their sights - it coats the outside of cancer cells, transmitting signals inside the cells that aid their uncontrolled growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • We show that this mechanism resides outside of the chloroplast by demonstrating that the protein that makes the greatest contribution to this mechanism resides in the cytoplasm and nucleus and that the trafficking of this protein between the cytoplasm and nucleus may regulate this mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • Stem cell therapy has been used extensively for bone tissue engineering, however, when the cells were transplanted, most cells cannot escape apoptosis without which limits tissue repair 13 . (nature.com)
  • Levels of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members were shown to be increased in PCa compared with normal prostate epithelium 6 and were present in cultured PCa cell lines. (nature.com)
  • 8 , 9 The IAP family member survivin was also shown to interfere with hormonal therapy 10 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) contributed to the resistance of circulating prostate cells to anoikis. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we document a novel role for the PI3-K/Akt pathway during cell death induced by apoptin, a tumour-selective inducer of apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nuclear Akt acts as apoptosis stimulator rather than as a repressor, as it likely gains access to a new set of substrates in the nucleus. (diva-portal.org)