The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Relating to the size of solids.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.

Nuclear morphometry in columnar cell lesions of the breast: is it useful? (1/41)

AIMS: To evaluate the nuclear morphometric features of breast columnar cell lesions (CCLs) observed on mammotome core biopsies, to determine if there are significant measurable differences between those with atypia and those without. Correlation with follow-up open excision specimens was made. METHODS: Mammotome core biopsies performed on patients that contained CCLs were derived from the departmental case files. Histological material was reviewed and foci of CCLs demarcated for nuclear morphometric assessment, which was accomplished using an imaging system. Nuclear parameters studied were nuclear area and perimeter, circularity factor and feret's diameter. Statistical analysis used the GraphPad Prism software, with p<0.05 indicating significance. RESULTS: On examination of core biopsies of 40 patients with CCLs, 8 lesions were benign, 4 showed atypical lobular hyperplasia, 8 showed CCLs with nuclear atypia, 19 disclosed atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and 1 showed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The nuclear area, perimeter and feret's diameter of CCLs with atypia were significantly greater than those without (p = 0.04, 0.03 and 0.019, respectively), whereas no difference was observed in the circularity factor. Follow-up open excision biopsy specimens in 24 patients showed upgrading to DCIS in 40% of cases diagnosed initially with ADH on core biopsy compared with 20% of CCLs with atypia. CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear morphometry in CCLs confirms nuclear size as the key parameter in the assessment of nuclear atypia. Whether it can be potentially used as an adjunctive tool depends on the establishment of appropriate cut-offs.  (+info)

Resistance to Alzheimer's pathology is associated with nuclear hypertrophy in neurons. (2/41)

This study focuses on the morphometric changes of neurons in asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), a state characterized by the presence of AD lesions in subjects without cognitive impairment. In autopsy brains, we used stereological methods to compare the cell body and nuclear volumes of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and CA1 hippocampal neurons in asymptomatic AD subjects (n=9), subjects with AD dementia (AD, n=8), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=9), and age-matched controls (controls, n=9). In ACG, we observed a significant decrease in the neuronal volume of MCI and AD compared to controls; by contrast, no atrophy was present in asymptomatic AD. Moreover, we found a significant increase in nuclear volume in asymptomatic AD compared to controls (P<0.001), MCI (P<0.01) and AD (P<0.001) brains. Similar results were found in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This nuclear hypertrophy may represent an early neuronal reaction to Abeta or Tau, or a compensatory mechanism which forestalls the progression of AD and allows the brain to resist the development of dementia.  (+info)

Developmental effects on myonuclear domain size of rat diaphragm fibers. (3/41)

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Nuclear swelling occurs during premature senescence mediated by MAP kinases in normal human fibroblasts. (4/41)

Excess thymidine induced premature senescence in normal human fibroblasts (TIG-7), with induction of typical senescence markers. Nuclear swelling, as well as cell swelling, was clearly observed in these senescent cells. Simultaneous addition of MAP kinase inhibitors, U0126, SB203580, and SP60025, effectively suppressed induction of premature senescence and senescence markers.  (+info)

A dynamin-related protein required for nuclear remodeling in Tetrahymena. (5/41)

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Beta-cell proliferation, but not neogenesis, following 60% partial pancreatectomy is impaired in the absence of FoxM1. (6/41)

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Genome size and wing parameters in passerine birds. (7/41)

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Migratory localization of cyclin D2-Cdk4 complex suggests a spatial regulation of the G1-S transition. (8/41)

The association of the cyclin D-Cdk (DC) complex with retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is required for the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin synthesis, nuclear localization and degradation are control mechanisms for the transition, but regulation of the DC complex nuclear import also contributes to the transition. Analysis of the timing of the G1-S transition in mammalian cell lines revealed acceleration with overexpression of cyclin D2 and Cdk4. Immunolocalization assays revealed that cyclin D2 and Cdk4 formed a complex in the cytoplasm and approached the nucleus. They accumulated on the cytosolic surfaces of the nuclear pores and then were arrested at the nuclear membrane before the nucleus reached a critical size. Finally, the complex was released into the nucleus and colocalized with pRb there, which led to pRb phosphorylation and DNA synthesis. The translocalization depended on the G1-S transition. In contrast, a truncated cyclin D2 that was not able to fully associate with Cdk4 lost the ability for release into the nucleus. This pattern of translocalization suggests a spatial separation of the cyclin D-Cdk complex from pRb and DNA in the nucleus to regulate the G1-S transition.  (+info)

Nuclear size scales with cell size across a wide range of cell types. The mechanism by which this scaling is maintained in growing cells remains unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of nuclear size homeostasis in the simple eukaryote fission yeast, by monitoring the recovery of aberrant nuclear volume to cell volume (N/C) ratios following perturbation. We demonstrate that both high and low N/C ratios correct rapidly, maintaining nuclear size homeostasis. We assess the kinetics of nuclear and cellular growth and of N/C ratio correction and demonstrate that nuclear and cellular growth rates are not directly coupled. We propose that the mechanism underlying nuclear size homeostasis, involves multiple limiting factors implicated in processes including nucleocytoplasmic transport, lipid biogenesis and RNA processing. We speculate that these link cellular size increases to changes in nuclear contents, which in turn lead to changes in nuclear membrane surface area. Our study reveals that there is ...
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Stem Cells, Human, Cells, Germ Layers, Growth, Cell, Cancer, Regulation, Epidermal Growth Factor, Drosophila, Tumor, Kinase, and Mammals
BACKGROUND: The presence of tumor cells at the margins of breast lumpectomy specimens is associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral tumor recurrence. Twenty to 30 % of patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery require second procedures to achieve negative margins. This study evaluated the adjunctive use of the MarginProbe device (Dune Medical Devices Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) in providing real-time intraoperative assessment of lumpectomy margins. METHODS: This multicenter randomized trial enrolled patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies. The study evaluated MarginProbe use in addition to standard intraoperative methods for margin assessment. After specimen removal and inspection, patients were randomized to device or control arms. In the device arm, MarginProbe was used to examine the main lumpectomy specimens and direct additional excision of positive margins. Intraoperative imaging was used in both arms; no intraoperative pathology assessment was permitted. RESULTS: In total, 596 patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ. T2 - Precision and implications. AU - Sigal-Zafrani, B.. AU - Klimberg, Vicki. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4944266356&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4944266356&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:4944266356. VL - 15. SP - 312. EP - 313. JO - Breast Diseases. JF - Breast Diseases. SN - 1043-321X. IS - 3. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this study we report on the variation in nuclear and cytoplasmic size of intermediate cells in normal cervical smears, in relationship to the week of the menstrual cycle and in relationship to the mode of contraception. A total of 18000 cells from 360 different women was studied. A significant difference in nuclear size of intermediate cells in smears from ovulating women not using contraception was found in comparison with intermediate cells in smears from women using contraceptive pills (ANOVA: F(1.312) = 4.98, p less than 0.02). Also a significant difference in the nuclear size of intermediate cells in smears from women using norgestrel- (or levonorgestrel)-containing formulas compared with lynestrenol-containing formulas was found (ANOVA: F(1.232) = 5.82, p less than 0.01). The influence of exogenous and endogenous hormones on cell populations in cervical smears is discussed. It is concluded that in studies on intermediate cells in cervical smears the contraceptive status of the women has to be
Author: R. THAMIL SELVI , P.R. REKHA P.M. SUBRAMANIAM , P.G. KONAPUR , K.R.RAMKUMAR , PAMMY SINHA. Category: Pathology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Aim & Objective;. 1. To evaluate the morphometric variation in cytology of breast lesions.. 2. To correlate cytologic grade with nuclear morphometry in breast carcinomas.. Methods and Materials :-. A retrospective study of thirty seven patients of breast lesions diagnosed clinically, were sampled for FNAC in the Department of Pathology, Vinayaka Mission's Krubananda variyar Medical College, Salem, from Jan 2008 to Dec 2008. Cases were subclassified as benign and malignant, and those which were malignant cytological Grading and histologic grading were done by Robinson's criteria and Elston's modification of the Bloom- Richardson system respectively. Grading was intern compared with nuclear morphometric studies.. Results:. Our study showed, 9 cases of benign and 15 cases of malignant breast lesions. The mean nuclear diameter were ...
The goal of this research is to develop a minimally invasive technology with the capability of rapidly assessing surgical margins for breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy ...
At Erasmus, our vision is to become the leading Professional Congress Organiser in Greece and one of the top ten Professional Congress Organisers globally, while conducting our business with professionalism, ethics and responsibility towards our people (personnel), our clients and the society ...
Sobczyk GJ, Wang J, Weijer CJ (2014) SILAC-based proteomic quantification of chemoattractant-induced cytoskeleton dynamics on a second to minute timescale. Nat Commun. 2014 Feb 26;5:3319. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4319. Chuai M, Hughes D, Weijer CJ (2012) Collective Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell Migration during Early Embryogenesis. Current Genetics 13 (2012) 267-27. Sandersius SA, Chuai M, Weijer CJ, Newman TJ. (2011) A chemotactic dipole mechanism for large-scale vortex motion during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo. Phys Biol. Aug;8(4):045008. Epub 2011 Jul 12.. Sandersius SA, Chuai M, Weijer CJ, Newman TJ (2011) Correlating cell behavior with tissue topology in embryonic epithelia. PLoS One Apr 29;6(4):e18081.. Davidson L, Maccario H, Perera NM, Yang X, Spinelli L, Tibarewal P, Glancy B, Gray A, Weijer CJ, Downes CP and Lesie NR (2010) Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN. Oncogene ...
Aspiration smears were highly cellular with cohesive clusters and sheets of ductal epithelial cells along with groups of mildly enlarged ductal epithelial cells with increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, mild variation of nuclear size, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Cells had a small to moderate amount of amphophilic cytoplasm. No significant loss of cohesion within the groups of ductal cells was noticed. Scattered bare oval myoepithelial cell nuclei, histiocytes, thin proteinaceous material, and stromal fragments were present. The on-site assessment diagnosis was fibrocystic changes, proliferative type, with atypia . A core biopsy was recommended and was immediately performed. It revealed a proliferation of tubular structures with round and slit-like lumens lined by ductal epithelial cells without significant atypia. The tubules were arranged around fibrillary elastoid material in an infiltrative pattern. Some of the lumens demonstrated florid usual ductal hyperplasia. Cystically dilated ducts ...
Fig. 3. CIZ1 promotes CM mono-nucleation and DNA replication. (A) Proportion of mono-, bi-, tri- and tetra-nucleated CMs in WT (white) and Tg (green) hearts at 12 weeks (n=,500 CM/mouse, four mice/group), with representative examples of GFP-positive (green) Tg nuclei. (B) Examples of partially divided GFP-positive nuclei (arrows). (C) Hearts of 2-week-old Tg mice had threefold more replicating CMs than WT, detected following incorporation of EdU for 48 h (n=10-12 sections/mouse, ,1000 nuclei, three mice/group). A slight decrease was observed in replicating NMs. (D) Examples of replicating Tg NMs (short arrow) and CMs (long arrow). Cell identity was based on nuclear size/position relative to WGA-stained membrane (Frentzou et al., 2015). (E) CM:NM ratio during development from neonate to young adulthood, in WT (white) and Tg (green) mice. Scale bar=20 μm. Data represented as mean±s.e.m. *P≤0.05, ***P≤0.001 by two-tailed t-test. ...
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Hematological profiles are routinely used to assess the health status of animals. Several methods have been developed for blood-cell counting, but typically they are expensive and/or time-consuming. Here, a free image-processing software, Mizutama, developed for counting cells in photographs of blood smears is presented. Mizutama uses the thresholding method to transform original photographs into grayscale trinary images. Following a number of parameters, Mizutama searches in the image for cells of a given size, with a nucleus size relative to cytoplasm surface area. The software is not only easy, versatile, and intuitive to handle, but is also fast when counting cells in photographs. Moreover, it is highly accurate, failing to detect only c. 1.4% of avian red cells in ordinary microscopic photographs. The Mizutama application may greatly facilitate the counting of erythrocytes and other blood cells in physiological studies, saving time and money. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Ochoa et al (2019) ...
The Gibbs laboratory is focused on the development of novel fluorophores and fluorescence imaging technologies to improve cancer detection and treatment. The main research focuses of the group are on fluorophore development for image-guided surgery, fluorescent labeling of small molecule therapeutics to improve understanding of effective cancer therapy and development of highly multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging technologies to permit deep multiplexed imaging on tissues. Current projects in the Gibbs laboratory include (1) development of near infrared nerve-specific fluorophore to improve nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy, (2) contrast agent and imaging methodology development to improve breast cancer margin assessment in the operating room, (3) design and synthesis of fluorescently labeled small molecule therapeutics for personalized therapy prediction in cancer, and (4) development of improved cyclic immunofluorescence methods to permit up to 50 color staining on a single tissue ...
Alltogether 25200 nuclear volumes of the kidneys of 63 castrated rats after different treatment with estradiol and actinomycin were estimated. 1. An increase of 14% of nuclear volume in the straight...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative characterization of preneoplastic progression using single-cell computed tomography and three-dimensional karyometry. AU - Nandakumar, Vivek. AU - Kelbauskas, Laimonas. AU - Johnson, Roger. AU - Meldrum, Deirdre. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The development of morphological biosignatures to precisely characterize preneoplastic progression necessitates high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) cell imagery and robust image processing algorithms. We report on the quantitative characterization of nuclear structure alterations associated with preneoplastic progression in human esophageal epithelial cells using single-cell optical tomography and fully automated 3D karyometry. We stained cultured cells with hematoxylin and generated 3D images of individual cells by mathematically reconstructing 500 projection images acquired using optical absorption tomographic imaging. For 3D karyometry, we developed novel, fully automated algorithms to robustly segment the cellular, ...
Background and objective: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common adult renal neoplasm. Staging and grading of RCC are important predictors of survival. Fuhrman nuclear grading is widely used for CCRCC, the subjective nature of which has prompted more objective methods to evaluate nuclear features. Furthermore, Ki-67, a reliable marker of cellular proliferation may provide another variable for assessment of the biological behavior of RCC. The aim of this research was to study nuclear morphometry and Fuhrman nuclear grading of clear cell RCC, and to assess their relationship with the Ki-67 index. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin slides of forty cases of CCRCC were retrieved and studied for pathologic variables, including Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathological tumor and node stage. Nuclear morphometric analysis was performed using computer-assisted image analysis. The relationship between Fuhrman nuclear grading, pathologic stage, tumor size, nuclear morphometry and proliferative index were
These images are intended for educational purposes and may be freely used for such as long as the Papanicolaou Society and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is credited ...
The p53-ull mammary epithelial model differs from the traditional mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis in several fundamental biological properties (5 , 6) . The traditional mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis, which are induced by mouse mammary tumor virus standard, arise from alveolar hyperplasias. These alveolar hyperplasias are negative for ER at the onset and generate ER-negative, hormone-independent tumors. In chemical carcinogen-treated mice, tumors arise from both alveolar hyperplasias and ductal hyperplasias. However, tumors are primarily hormone independent. Because the p53-null normal mammary epithelium and the serially transplanted, immortalized ductal outgrowths were ER positive, it was of interest to determine the hormonal dependency of preneoplastic progression in these cells.. The hormonal dependency of the p53-null normal mammary epithelium is indistinguishable from that of the p53 wild-type epithelium. Previous results demonstrated that growth and morphogenesis in ...
Subjective assessment of flat urothelial lesions has often resulted in an under- or overdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in situ. To identify reproducible morphologic objective criteria, the authors used an image analysis system to measure several nuclear features (area, diameter, roundness, ellipticity, and optical density) in 20 cases each of CIS, urothelial dysplasia, and normal urothelium with adjacent lymphocyte controls. They did not analyze reactive urothelial lesions and umbrella cells. The most useful, statistically significant morphologic parameter was mean nuclear area of the largest 25 percent of nuclei. The mean upper quartile nuclear area relative to lymphocytes was 2.2 times (range, 1.4 to 2.8 times) in normal urothelium, 2.9 times (range, 1.8 to 3.6 times) in urothelial dysplasia, and 4.9 times (range, 4.0 to 7.6 times) in CIS. The nuclear size measurements for urothelial dysplasia and normal urothelium overlapped, but the separation between CIS and urothelial dysplasia was ...
Cells were established and maintained in Leibowitz medium, with 20% fetal calf serum diluted to 60% with H2O at 24°C. Determinations of nuclear diameter by phase-contrast microscopy, of height by electron microscopy, and of pore frequency by freeze-etching were done on cells during the exponential growth phase (48 h after plating). For determination of nuclear size the short and long axis of 50 live cells were measured and averaged separately ...
Simultaneous use of cell-permeant and impermeant fluorescent nuclear dyes is a common method to study cell viability and cell death progression. Although these assays are usually conducted as end-point studies, time-lapse imaging offers a powerful technique to distinguish temporal changes in cell viability at single-cell resolution. SYTO 13 and Hoechst 33342 are two commonly used cell-permeant nuclear dyes; however their suitability for live imaging has not been well characterized. We compare end-point assays with time-lapse imaging studies over a 6 h period to evaluate the compatibility of these two dyes with longitudinal imaging, using both control neurons and an apoptotic neuron model. In longitudinal assays of untreated neurons, SYTO 13 addition caused acute necrosis within 3 h, whereas neurons imaged with Hoechst remained viable for at least 6 h. In a staurosporine-induced apoptotic model of neurotoxicity, determinations of the mode of cell death and measurements of nuclear size were identical
TSC and CNI genome sizes based on the sum of chromosome sizes are close to GGA, but these sizes are smaller than those in the database [1]. The larger genome sizes were obtained from the measurement of nuclear DNA content at cellular level. Both methods differ from DNA sequencing in that they require a DNA reference point from another species. When the reference species used for nuclear measurement is distantly related from the target species, the result may be influenced by varying fluorescence intensity owing to species variation in cell or nuclear sizes. In contrast to cells, chromosome structure shows little variation between species, and human chromosomes can be used as a reference for many species, even for zebrafish [6]. Our measurement of 1.15 Gb for GGA is consistent with 1.05 Gb of the assembled sequence [19], showing that chromosome measurement has a high accuracy. Therefore, our method is to be preferred where whole-genome sequence is unavailable. Our data refine previous ...
Implementation of an intraoperative UV-PAM system for breast tumor excision could be transformative. Our UV-PAM system was able to image fixed, unprocessed breast tumors with an image quality comparable to that of conventional histology using processed, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and H&E-stained specimens (Figs. 3 and 4 and fig. S4). Although fixed breast tumors were imaged in this study to maintain tissue integrity during relatively long intervals between surgery and processing for histology, fresh breast tumors are expected to provide similar imaging contrast (33). With relevant information regarding such tissue features as the average nuclear size and internuclear distance (Fig. 5), typically obtained from histology, UV-PAM images could be used to detect cancer cell clusters at the margins of tissue specimens during a surgical procedure, allowing immediate action to achieve clear margins. Although benign breast epithelial cells are too few in the UV-PAM images to be compared with cancer ...
The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of PGCCs in colon cancer cells and identify mechanisms of formation. Treatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the hypoxia mimic CoCl2 induced the formation of cells with larger cell and nuclear size (PGCCs), while the cells with normal morphology were selectively eliminated. Cytometric analysis showed that CoCl2 treatment induced G2 cell cycle arrest and the generation of a polyploid cell subpopulation with increased cellular DNA content. Polyploidy of hypoxia-induced PGCCs was confirmed by FISH analysis. Furthermore, CoCl2 treatment effectively induced the stabilization of HIF-1α, the differential
Adult neurogenesis is studied in the mouse hippocampus frequently. was a steady signal of the level of a cells structural growth and could end up being utilized simply because a straightforward parameter of granule cell advancement. As a result, additional research could make use of our doublecortin-staging program and nuclear size dimension to perform inspections of morphological Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4A16 advancement in mixture with useful research of adult-born granule cells. Furthermore, the Thy1-GFP transgenic mouse model can end up being utilized as an extra analysis device because the news reporter gene brands granule cells that are 4 weeks or old, while extremely youthful cells could end up being visualized through the premature gun doublecortin. This will enable comparison studies regarding the function and structure between young immature and older matured granule cells. Launch Adult neurogenesis is certainly a procedure in which brand-new neurons are produced from sensory control ...
Segmentation of nuclei in cervical cytology pap smear images is a crucial stage in automated cervical cancer screening. The task itself is challenging due to the presence of cervical cells with spurious edges, overlapping cells, neutrophils, and artifacts. After the initial preprocessing steps of adaptive thresholding, in our approach, the image passes through a convolution filter to filter out some noise. Then, contours from the resultant image are filtered by their distinctive contour properties followed by a nucleus size recovery procedure based on contour average intensity value. We evaluate our method on a public (benchmark) dataset collected from ISBI and also a private real dataset. The results show that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in nucleus segmentation on the ISBI dataset with a precision of 0.978 and recall of 0.933. A promising precision of 0.770 and a formidable recall of 0.886 on the private real dataset indicate that our algorithm can effectively detect and
In the nuclear area, the proportion of microtubule-dependent, directed movement actually increases. Microtubules are not known to exist in interphase nuclei, so the authors suggest that the virus is travelling along invaginations in the nuclear envelope that have been observed by others. These invaginations may provide rapid access to the nuclear volume for both cellular materials and virus particles. Indeed, the speed of infection (with nuclear entry as an endpoint) is fast. Previous estimates of a two-hour infection were limited by the need to detect multiple virus particles. The new methods yield a figure of just 15 min.Bräuchle says the method can be used to track any virus, and might help gene therapists understand where their virus of choice is getting held up during the infection process. Meanwhile, he has made virus labeled on both capsid and DNA, so that he can track the exact location and kinetics of viral disassembly. ▪ ...
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I have mentioned the fact that, as the % of voids in the crushing chamber decreases, the production of fines by attrition increases. This is like saying that, as the Crusher Reduction Ratio in any given crusher is increased, the % of fines in the product will increase, even though the discharge setting remains unchanged. Both of these statements are true, but the degree to which the product is .... ...
5) p By clustered MDS 1. The size reduction of liposomes with a high pressure homo- genizer (MicrofluidizerOМ). 17.1999; Anderson et al.
This publication describes the procedures for calculating the margins of nuclear power plants in relation to human induced external hazards. It focuses on plant and systems performance evaluations. A two level approach for margin assessment is provided. The first level consists of a deterministic procedure in which for each scenario the existence of at least one undamaged success path to comply with the fundamental safety function is investigated. This procedure can be subsequently extended to calculate probability measures such as conditional core damage probability and the conditional probability of spent fuel damage. In the most elaborated stage probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques are introduced giving consideration to the probabilistic aspects of the hazards and of the capacity of structures systems and components (fragility). Event tree and fault tree models are used to compute PSA metrics such as core damage frequency large early release frequency and frequency of spent fuel ...
Parakeratosis is a mode of keratinization characterized by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum. In mucous membranes, parakeratosis is normal. In the skin, this process leads to the abnormal replacement of annular squames with nucleated cells. Parakeratosis is associated with the thinning or loss of the granular layer and is usually seen in diseases of increased cell turnover, whether inflammatory or neoplastic. Parakeratosis is seen in the plaques of psoriasis and in dandruff. Granular parakeratosis (originally termed axillary granular parakeratosis) is an idiopathic, benign, nondisabling cutaneous disease that manifests with intertriginous erythematous, brown or red, scaly or keratotic papules and plaques. It presents in all age groups and has no established clinical associations. Skin lesion Skin disease List of skin diseases Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul (2010) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Saunders. Page 1170. ISBN 978-1-4160-3121-5. ...
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Summary A measurement of the 2S-2P transition frequencies (Lamb shift) in the muonic helium-3 and 4 ions by means of laser spectroscopy is proposed. This will lead to a ten times more accurate determination of the root-mean-square (rms) charge radii of the He-3 and He-4 nuclei. The radius of the magnetic moment distribution inside the He-3 nucleus will result from the hyperfine structure in muonic 3He. In the muonic helium ion, a single negative muon orbits the helium nucleus. The muon is a point-like lepton, just as the electron, except it is about 200 times heavier. This gives a factor of 200^3 = 10^7 enhancement of nuclear finite size effects on the energy levels of muonic vs. regular (electonic) Helium ions. Muonic helium is the ideal sytem to study the He nuclear size. The CREMA project has four main aims: (1) Solve the proton size puzzle created by our recently completed muonic hydrogen project [R. Pohl et al., The size of the proton, Nature 466, 213 (2010)]. Our tenfold ...
Abstract. Keratinocytes in skin epidermis, which have. bright cytoplasmic contrast and dark nuclear contrast in reflectance. confocal microscopy (RCM), were modeled with. a simple error function reflectance profile: erf( ). Fortytwo. example keratinocytes were identified as a training. set which characterized the nuclear size a = 8.6±2.8. μm and reflectance gradient b = 3.6±2.1 μm at the nuclear/. cytoplasmic boundary. These mean a and b parameters. were used to create a rotationally symmetric erf( ) mask. that approximated the mean keratinocyte image. A computer. vision algorithm used an erf( ) mask to scan RCM. images, identifying the coordinates of keratinocytes. Applying. the mask to the confocal data identified the positions. of keratinocytes in the epidermis. This simple model. may be used to noninvasively evaluate keratinocyte populations. as a quantitative morphometric diagnostic in skin. cancer detection and evaluation of dermatological cosmetics.. C2011 Society of Photo-Optical ...
Particle Size Reduction Pharmaceutics, Particle Size Reduction Pharmaceutics, Particle size reduction, There are several strategies and delivery technologies that use particle size reduction as a route to successful dosage formulation, Quay Pharma have working partnerships with a number of companies who specialise in reducing particle size in APIs.
For speedy, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to steer staged cancers excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic check picture wide surgical margins (approximately 1?cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is definitely to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, […]. ...
The resection rate is defined as the fraction of patients that proceed to planned surgery with removal of primary tumor (R0/R1) following neoadjuvant treatment with gemcitabine plus erlotinib.The resection rate will be estimated by the binomial point estimate, i.e. as the number of patients that undergo the planned surgery with removal of the primary tumor following neoadjuvant treatment with gemcitabine plus erlotinib divided by the number of evaluable patients. This quantity will also be estimated with a 95% binomial confidence interval.. Curative resection (R0) is defined as macroscopically and microscopically complete resection (with microscopic surgical margin assessment according to AJCC Staging Principles).. An R1 resection is defined as macroscopically complete tumor removal with any positive microscopic surgical margin (bile duct, pancreatic parenchyma, or SMA margins). ...
Breast cancer often requires surgical treatment including breast-conserving surgical resection. However, with current post-surgical histological margin analysis, one-quarter of breast cancer patients undergo re-excision to achieve negative margins corresponding to decreased local recurrence and better outcomes. Therefore, a method with high resolution and specificity for intraoperative margin assessment is needed.
Archival paraffin embedded material was used to examine whether additional quantitative criteria would be helpful to discriminate between histologically benign and malignant rat mammary tumours. To this end nuclear DNA content expressed as DNA ploidy index (DI) was measured using flow cytometry (FCM). A total of 63 benign and malignant mammary tumours were investigated. Thirteen out of 38 (34%) mammary carcinomas were DNA aneuploid against 0 out of 25 benign mammary tumours. Aneuploidy was not significantly increased in tumours showing histological signs of greater malignancy such as cribriform-comedo type or invasive growth. In addition to DI other quantitative criteria indicative for malignancy, such as mitotic count and nuclear morphometric characteristics, were estimated in 24 benign and malignant tubulopapillary tumours, a category where the histological classification may be difficult. It appeared that five out of nine noninvasive tubulopapillary carcinomas and six out of seven invasive ...
List of %result_count% doctors offering Breast size reduction in Hawthorn East. Check out patient reviews, addresses and book a visit!
Lezione 8 del corso elearning di Equipment and Industrial Plants for Food Industries. Prof. Fabrizio Sarghini. Università di Napoli Federico II. Argomenti trattati: Size reduction.
Particle Size and Standard Deviation - CPMProduct 15 - 40 . . to particle size reduction. Increasing energy costs, increasing customer awareness of . choice for particle size reduction (grinding) applications. . For certain special applications such as high moisture grain, some form of a raked tooth with different . In many cases, this reduction in noise means a roller.dental grinding particle size customer case,Particle Grinding & Milling Services- Woodbury, MinnesotaAVEKAs particle grinding and milling services are useful for a variety of industries . Using Multiple Processes To Solve a Customers Needs · Milling and size . In each case, media, typically larger than the material to be ground, is added to a.Particle Size Reduction Solutions - PraterMany decades and 6,000 customers later, Praters products are some of the most versatile and . Prater Particle Size Reduction Application Case Studies.. ...
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The secondary electron emission from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to determine that the pore spaces of seven sandstones and four dolomites exhibited fractal behavior over certain length scales. Data from the SEM measurements produced log-log plots that not only verified the fractal nature of the rocks, but also allowed for the determination of their fractal dimensions. To model the transport properties of fractal lattices, a two dimensional model known as the Sierpinski Carpet was used as a starting point. Results developed for the petrophysical properties of such fractal lattices, such as porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, et. are presented here. Although the results cannot be directly compared with experiments, they demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to three dimensional lattices as well. A variation of a three dimensional fractal structure known as the Menger Sponge was used to model the pore spaces in rocks in an attempt to determine transport properties of rocks
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Replication takes place in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of host cells. Firstly, the viral genome enters the cytoplasm. The ... The size of the genome is usually between 6000-8000 base pairs. Depending on the virus, DNA can contain either one open reading ... This DNA can then reenter the nucleus for amplification. As replication requires the use of RNA intermediate, viruses from the ... The type of nucleocapsid incorporated into the virus structure determines the size of the virus. Bacilliform nucleocapsid ...
"The size of the nucleus increases as yeast cells grow". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 18 (9): 3523-32. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-10- ... That Start transit requires the attainment of a threshold cell size directly implies that yeast cells measure their own size, ... The elucidation of the mechanisms by which it regulates Start has revealed a means for it to link cell size to cell cycle ... A favored model for how yeast cells, as well as cells of other species, measure their size relies on the detection of overall ...
The asexual stages rarely disturb the host cell. The gametocytes may distort the cell or displace the nucleus. Mature schizonts ... Schizonts tend to lie lateral to the nucleus. The mature gametocytes vary in size: 5.0 - 12.0 x 2.0 - 6.0 micrometres and tend ... are 4.0 - 6.0 micrometres x 1.5 - 3.0 micrometres in size and give rise to 4-6 merozoites. ...
The young ascus develops from this penultimate cell in which the two nuclei fuse following a rapid increase in the size of the ... The penultimate cell of this row contains two large nuclei; while the other cells of the row have one nucleus each. ... The cell wall between these organs is dissolved at the time of fertilization and the male and female nuclei unite, and a fresh ... The cell in which the egg nucleus develops and is fertilized (the carpogonium) elongates, divides and a curved row of 5 or 6 ...
Although the size varies, they are larger than the cell's nucleus. The organism stains a basophilic colour and has a ... They are unicellular organisms which are parasitic in the red blood cells. Haemogregarina infects lower vertebrates (fish and ... They are elongate to fusiform oval organisms found in the red blood cells. ... and have been described in the red blood cells of desert tortoises. ...
Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in birds retain their nucleus. The avian circulatory system is driven by a ... Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5.5 cm (2.2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) ostrich. There are ... Wing shape and size generally determine a bird's flight style and performance; many birds combine powered, flapping flight with ... The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size. The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the ...
They can be differentiated from adipocyte-like cells by their cytoplasm and nucleus; ballooned cells have their nucleus in the ... The name is derived from the fact that the cells undergoing this form of cell death increase in size (balloon). It is generally ... centre (unlike adipocyte-like cells, which have it peripherally). Also, ballooned cells have (small) pyknotic nuclei or nuclei ... Ballooned cells are typically two to three times the size of adjacent hepatocytes and are characterized by a wispy cleared ...
Yeast mitochondrial RRF (mtRRF) is encoded by a gene in the cell nucleus. Loss of function of this gene leads to mitochondrial ... The most striking revelation was that RRF is a near-perfect structural mimic of tRNA, in both size and dimensions. One view of ... It has been suggested that ribosomes bind proteins (or protein domain) of similar shape and size to tRNA, and this, rather than ... Ribosome recycling factor or ribosome release factor (RRF) is a protein found in bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic ...
The cells were anaplastic, varying in size and shape; and they appeared to have little cytoplasm. The nuclei of the cells were ... Melittin has a background in research as a possible cancer drug due to its activity against malignant cells. Tumor-associated ... Cannabinoids suppress Lewis lung carcinoma cell growth. The mechanism of this action was shown to be inhibition of DNA ... In large tumor nodules, the cells grew, without patterning, into confluent sheets. The nodules had capillaries predominantly ...
... these nuclei are segregated into separate cells by cytokinesis to producing 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells and an egg cell ... Reduced male parts, three cells. The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of ... The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. As the zygote develops into an ... involving two successive cell divisions) to produce four cells (megaspores) with haploid nuclei.[60] One of these four cells ( ...
Eukaryotic cells have nucleus with multiple organelles and more DNA arranged in linear chromosomes. We also see that the size ... We take from this that prokaryotic cells are simpler in structure, they have no nucleus, organelles, and very little of DNA, in ... The average eukaryotic cell has about 25 times more DNA than a prokaryotic cell does. Replication occurs much faster in ... prokaryotic cells than in eukaryotic cells; bacteria sometimes only take 40 minutes, while animal cells can take up to 400 ...
The host cell was not enlarged and no displacement of the nucleus was noted. This species infects mature cells only. The ... The size of the more mature schizonts was 3 by 6 µm. The female gametocytes were elongate, measuring 5 by 10 µm. The nucleus ... The host cell is not enlarged and the nucleus is not displaced.". Today, it is known to be infecting reptiles only. This ... The nucleus was reddish-purple and the cytoplasm stained mauve with the dark pigments in granules of different sizes scattered ...
... the size of the parasite, the degree of host nucleus displacement and the degree of host cell enlargement. Plasmodium ... Gametocytes, while varying in shape tend to be round or oval, do not exceed the size of the nucleus and stick to it. The type ... Bennettinia Schizonts contain scant cytoplasm, are often round, do not exceed the size of the host nucleus and stick to it. ... Haemamoeba Mature schizonts are larger than the host cell nucleus and commonly displace it. Gametocytes are large, round, oval ...
Larger genomes require a larger nucleus, which typically translates to a larger cell size. For this reason, many bird genomes ... There is a lot of variation in prokaryotic genome size, with the smallest free-living cell's genome being roughly ten times ... It has also been proposed that having a smaller genome can help minimize overall cell size, which increases a prokaryotes ... Chen B, Liu H (March 2010). "Relationships between phytoplankton growth and cell size in surface oceans: Interactive effects of ...
Due to the extremely small size of the algae cells, the average burst size was found to be 25 virus particles per cell. Viral ... Most genera under this family enter the host cell by cell receptor endocytosis and replicate in the nucleus. Phycodnaviridae ... Burst size ranges from 400-1000 particles per cell. A cluster of sphingolipid-producing genes have been identified in EhV-86. ... Estimates for burst sizes range from 320 to 600 viruses per cell. Members of the genus Prasinovirus infect small unicellular ...
The replication of this virus takes place in the nucleus of the host cell. When it replicates, it causes the nucleus to ... This is a double stranded DNA virus with its size being 610 kilobases long. The genome is estimated to code for 476 open ... These viruses are referred to as nucleocytoplasmic because they are often able to replicate in both the host's cell nucleus and ... The replication cycle of this virus begins in the nucleus of the host and end in the cytoplasm. Some viruses of this family are ...
The schizonts are less than or equal to the host cell nucleus in size. Each schizont produces four to eight merozoites. The ... Gametocytes are elongate and equal to or slightly larger than host cell nuclei, and are found diagonally across one end of the ... host cell. This species is found in Tanzania (Dar-es-Salaam and Morogoro). This species infects the African striped skink ( ...
Typical size ~ 1-5 µm[16] ~ 10-100 µm[16] Type of nucleus nucleoid region; no true nucleus true nucleus with double membrane ... Cell nucleus: A cell's information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Cell wall. Further information: Cell wall. Many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. The cell wall acts ...
The nucleus is prominently at the centre of the cell. The unusual feature of the cell is that it contains reddish-brown ... The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large ... The cell has two flagella for locomotion. Reproduction is by simple binary fission. In lateral view D. acuminata cells are ... Cells have convex dorsal margins and small oval shaped cells and their thecal plates are covered with areolae (circular ...
"The DNA in the cell nucleus contains the master copy of the software, in duplicate. This software seems to control by ... Nutrition is necessary but not sufficient to account for growth in size, as genetics is the governing factor. At some point, ... Schrödinger, Erwin (1944). What is Life - the Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521- ... ISBN 978-0-691-12327-1. Schrödinger, Erwin (1944). What is Life - the Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Cambridge University ...
They have a size between 5 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Neoblasts represent about 30 percent of all cells in planaria. They are not ... Neoblasts have little cytoplasm and a huge nucleus which is a characteristic of pluripotent cells. They are the only dividing ... They also lead to cells that become zeta neoblasts. Zeta neoblasts then develop the other epidermal cell types. Neoblasts have ... It used to be thought that old cells dedifferentiated and produced a regeneration blastema of undifferentiated cells to form ...
Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, fungi, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes ... The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs ... These tables give the total number of chromosomes (including sex chromosomes) in a cell nucleus. For example, most eukaryotes ... Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell ...
2017), who interpret these structures as likely cell nuclei. A study testing the suggested link between the appearance of large ... 2017). A study on the evolution of eye size in early tetrapods and in fish belonging to the lineage that gave rise to tetrapods ... A study on changes of the size of fossil marine shells and predatory drill holes in those shells during the Phanerozoic, as ... Dan Lü; Xue-Ping Ma (2017). "Small-sized brachiopods from the Upper Frasnian (Devonian) of central Hunan, China". Palaeoworld. ...
... is an interferon stimulated antigen found in the cell nuclei of many human and higher animal cells. ... Cells grown in the presence of interferons (α, β, and γ) revealed an increase both in size and number of the Sp100 protein- ... Histologically Sp100 'dots' regions of the cell nucleus. Viral infection and mitogens affect the expression of the Sp100 ... Kamei H (1997). "Cystine starvation induces reversible large-body formation from nuclear bodies in T24 cells". Exp. Cell Res. ...
The nucleus of the temple plan is the shrine containing the garbhagrhiha cell. The width of this cell is the basic module of ... The size of the mandapa is decided by the width of the shrine cell. The pavilion in its simplest form has four corner pillars; ... there is a cell with a single doorway to the cell. But in the sandhara shrine the cell has twin wells leaving a passage in ... tomb cells and megaliths. The rock cut tomb cells are generally located in the laterite zones of central Kerala, for example at ...
The gametocytes are elongate or oval and have dispersed pigment averaging twice the size of host cell nuclei in size. In ... The schizonts are usually round, oval or oblong, exceed the host cell nuclei in size and produce 8-20 merozoites. ... gametocytes may become rounded and cause both host cell and nucleus to shrink. This species is found in the Uluguru Mountains, ...
Mature gametocytes are elongate averaging 3 times the host cell nucleus size and have dispersed pigment. This species is found ... Mature schizonts are polymorphic, are usually larger than host cell nuclei, and give rise to 6-26 merozoites. Immature ...
As the bud elongates, the parent cell's nucleus divides and one nucleus migrates into the bud. Cell wall material is filled in ... eventually the bud is separated to form a daughter cell of unequal size. Z. bailii cell size varies within a range of (3.5 - ... one viable cell per package of any size), (iii) moderate osmotolerance (in comparison to Zygosaccharomyces rouxii). Therefore, ... the buds can arise from various sites on the cells. During the budding process, a parent cell produces a bud on its outer ...
The host cells are not altered in either shape or size by the asexual stages of the parasite. Pigment is rare and a vacuole may ... They tend to encircle the nucleus and the host cell tends to become oval in shape. Male gametocytes measure 20 micrometres x 2 ...
... s have no cell nucleus; they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, ... The smear is used to examine platelets for size, shape, qualitative number, and clumping. A healthy adult typically has 10 to ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death". Cell Signalling Biology ... "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. PMID ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Dishware, silverware, drinkware, and cookware come in a wide array of forms and sizes. ...
Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally ... The larger the size and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... with the goal of later forming commune-sized units twice that size.[230] Communal kitchens were also introduced so that all ... forming the nucleus of a future Cambodian regime.[325] The Cambodian government also readied itself for war. Plans for a ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ...
... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... about the size of a laptop and solar-powered, allows testing to be done in remote areas.[260] ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast,[32] up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ... This section needs expansion with: Genome size differences between algae and land plants, chloroplast stuff coded by the ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ...
T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... "Levothyroxine treatment reduces thyroid size in children and adolescents with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis". The Journal of ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric ... aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young age, small in size, present ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... The tracheids of earlywood formed at the beginning of a growing season have large radial sizes and smaller, thinner cell walls ... Finally, the latewood tracheids are formed, with small radial sizes and greater cell wall thickness. This is the basic pattern ...
They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... Both the genomes of B. natans and G. theta display evidence of genome reduction besides elimination of genes and tiny size, ... nucleus of host cell and nucleomorph). The model cryptomonad Guillardia theta became an important focus for scientists studying ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ...
Markov, A. V.; Anisimov, V. A.; Korotayev, A. V. (2010). "Relationship between genome size and organismal complexity in the ... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... Since the effective population size in eukaryotes (especially multi-cellular organisms) is much smaller than in prokaryotes,[22 ... "Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ...
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ... As the atoms increase in size going down the group (because their atomic radius increases), the nuclei of the ions move further ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ...
... in size and shape). Anaplastic cells display marked pleomorphism. The cell nuclei are characteristically extremely ... Additionally, the nuclei of anaplastic cells are usually unnaturally shaped or oversized. Cells can become anaplastic in two ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... the nucleus might have the same size as the cytoplasm of the cell (nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio may approach 1:1, instead of the ...
cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... these follow-up studies lacked the sample size and statistical power to make any definitive conclusions, due to the rarity of ... epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ... After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds ...
Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... measuring the size of each small fragment using size-exclusion chromatography, and using that information to determine where ... FISH is used by examining the cellular reproduction cycle, specifically interphase of the nuclei for any chromosomal ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ...
International Size Acceptance Association - ISAA. International Size Acceptance Association. [2009-01-13]. (原始内容存档于2009-01-05). ... ventromedial nucleus);第二群則表現鴉片黑皮質素原(POMC)與古柯鹼-安非他命關聯轉錄因子(英语:cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript)(CART),並會刺激下視丘腹中核(英语: ... Cell (Review). 2004, 116 (2): 337-50. PMID 14744442. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674
Internal cell structure. No membrane-bound organelles (questioned[56]) or nucleus. No membrane-bound organelles or nucleus. ... The tiny 490,885 base-pair genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans is one-tenth of this size and the smallest archaeal genome known; it ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ...
Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... Most testing methods for LDL do not actually measure LDL in their blood, much less particle size. For cost reasons, LDL values ... Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ...
The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. ... and a great increase in the size of the corpus callosum.[82] These fibers join together the left and right hemispheres and ... Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ...
For example, viroplasms of mimivirus have a similar size to the nucleus of its host, the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga. A virus ... Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... They may be thought of as viral factories in the cell. There are many viroplasms in one infected cell, where they appear dense ... The viroplasm formation is caused by the interactions between the virus and the infected cell, where viral products and cell ...
... and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes.[10] Prokaryotic cells, ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ...
Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus, and most have no organelles with membranes around them. Most have a cell wall. They do ... Bacteria vary widely in size and shape, but in general they are at least ten times larger than viruses. A typical bacterium is ... There are about ten times as many bacterial cells as human cells in each of our bodies. Some bacteria can cause diseases, but ... Bacteria are made up of one cell, so they are a kind of unicellular organism. They are among the simplest single-celled ...
cell nucleus. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial matrix. • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Biological process. • ... The entire human complex is 9.5 MDa in size, and has been described as 60-meric, meaning there are over 60 components that are ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983.. *. Caruso M, Maitan MA, Bifulco G, et al. (2001). "Activation and mitochondrial ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
Indeed, the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in humans are the hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear (no relation to the ... In somatosensory transduction, the afferent neurons transmit messages through synapses in the dorsal column nuclei, where ... Because of its relatively large size, a single lamellar corpuscle can be isolated and its properties studied. Mechanical ... A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory cell that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. There are ...
Clinical manifestations of intraparenchymal hemorrhage are determined by the size and location of hemorrhage, but may include ... Glioblastomas are the most common primary malignancies to hemorrhage while thyroid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung ... or apraxia Caudate nucleus - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, or confusion Brain stem - ... Hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct Cerebral venous thrombosis Sympathomimetic drug abuse Moyamoya Sickle cell ...
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... BDNF appears to be critical for the morphological development such as dendrite orientation and number along with soma size.[88] ... TrkB inhibition results in a 2-3 fold increase in cortical precursors displaying EGFP-positive condensed apoptotic nuclei and a ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ... meaning that the two gametes that combine during fertilization differ greatly in size. By convention, the larger gametes are ... 9] All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism ... Most cells are only formed when a syncytium of approximately 6000 nuclei are present.. ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: ... Zonneveld, B. J. M. (2010). "New Record Holders for Maximum Genome Size in Eudicots and Monocots". Journal of Botany 2010: 1-4 ... "Three-Dimensional Maps of All Chromosomes in Human Male Fibroblast Nuclei and Prometaphase Rosettes". PLoS Biology 3 (5): e157 ... "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering.". ...
Besides the nuclear DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondria in the cells also have their own genetic material termed the ... Child's DNA sample should contain a mixture of different size DNA bands of both parents. In this case person #1 is likely the ... The DNA test is performed by collecting buccal (cheek) cells found on the inside of a person's cheek using a buccal or cheek ... The collector rubs the inside of a person's cheek to collect as many buccal cells as possible, which are then sent to a ...
Every neuron has a nucleus, which is the trophic center of the cell (The part which must have access to nutrition). If the cell ... Neurons are cells differentiable from other tissues in the body.. *Neurons differ in size, shape, and structure according to ... A cell membrane isolates the inside of the cell from its environment. Neurons do not communicate via direct cytoplasm to ... Although the axon can conduct in both directions, in tissue there is a preferred direction of transmission from cell to cell. ...
It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud. The nucleus is made ... The transfer of energy from one chemical substance to another depends on the size of energy quanta emitted from one substance. ... Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging ...
Ponto-geniculo-occipital-wave suppression amplifies lateral geniculate nucleus cell-size changes in monocularly deprived ... the A1-lamina cells retained their size and the non-occluded eye-related, A-lamina cells tended to be larger than after MD- ... LGN interlaminar cell-size disparity increased in the PGO-wave-suppressed animals as it had in behaviorally REM sleep-deprived ... amplification of the effects of solely the 2-week MD on cell-size in the binocular segment of the lateral geniculate nucleus ( ...
n avergae prokaryote and eukaryote cell. The size of the nucleus, how large is a mitochondria is and so ... Intro to cell biology (lec 2) from BIO 1140 at University of Ottawa. ... This provides major constrate on the cell size. 3) Adequate concentartion or Synthetic capacity. As cell size increases the # ... Unformatted text preview: n avergae prokaryote and eukaryote cell. The size of the nucleus, how large is a mitochondria is and ...
Cells, Germ Layers, Growth, Cell, Cancer, Regulation, Epidermal Growth Factor, Drosophila, Tumor, Kinase, and Mammals ... Nature cell biology. The Hippo pathway in organ size control, tissue regeneration and stem cell self-renewal. Abstract ... Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology. 09/03/2013. 7.50. Science signaling. Angiomoting YAP into the nucleus for cell ... Cell. The Hippo transducer TAZ confers cancer stem cell-related traits on breast cancer cells. Abstract ...
Experimental glaucoma and cell size, density, and number in the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. Investigative Ophthalmology ... Neurons receiving input from the normal eye also were reduced in size (4 -26%). No differential effect in cell size was seen ... Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis. Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique ... papers/experimental-glaucoma-and-cell-size-density-and/10798652. ... Elevation of IOP resulted in an increase in cell density in all ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
... from the rest of the cell. The size of the nucleus depends on the size of the cell it is contained in, with a nucleus typically ... "The Nucleus". MBInfo. "Learn about the Cell Nucleus". cellnucleus.com. Website covering structure and function of the nucleus ... Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... The cell nucleus contains all of the cells genome, except for the small amount of mitochondrial DNA and, in plant cells, ...
... fixed nuclei. Most strikingly, linc1-1 linc2-1 nuclei were ∼20% of the size of wild-type nuclei (wild type = 100 ± 2.6 μm2, ... Figures 5A to 5D show representative nuclei from 2-week-old root epidermal cells and anther filament cells. Nuclei in linc1-1 ... A variety of cell types, including epidermal and leaf hair (trichomes), depend on endoreduplication for normal cell size and ... We found that the epidermal cells of linc1-1 linc2-1 are approximately one-fourth the size of wild-type epidermal cells (see ...
... nuclear and cell size. Interphase nuclei of G. nigrocaulis and of related species with small genomes, G. aurea (133 Mbp, 2n ≈ ... nuclear and cell size. Interphase nuclei of G. nigrocaulis and of related species with small genomes, G. aurea (133 Mbp, 2n=104 ... is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. This is ... is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. This is ...
Size of the actin region in unbudded cells with single nucleus (A7-1_A) standard. YPD. hap a. 4,715 Quantitative ... Size of the actin region in unbudded cells with single nucleus (A7-1_A). observable. morphology. cellular morphology. ohya. ...
The oleoresins altered the host cell environment by modulation of ROS, IL-6, and MIF production in BeWo cells. Also, Copaifera ... Oleoresins from C. reticulata, C. duckei, C. paupera, and C. pubiflora were used to treat human trophoblastic cells (BeWo cells ... We observed an irreversible concentration-dependent antiparasitic action in infected BeWo cells, as well as parasite cell cycle ... Anti-T. gondii effects triggered by the oleoresins are associated with immunomodulation of the host cells, as well as, direct ...
... size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding ... What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. ... Q: What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the ... What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton ...
Biology at West - The Cell 4A - Cell Size. Concepts: cell, cell theory, cell membrane, nucleus, eukaryote, prokaryote. (15:49) ... Biology at West - The Cell 4C - The Cell. Concepts: nucleus, DNA, prokaryote, eukaryote ------------------- If you like this ... Biology at West - The Cell 4B - Cell Types. Concepts: Animal, Plant, Prokaryotic, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleus, membrane ...
Biology at West - The Cell 4A - Cell Size. Concepts: cell, cell theory, cell membrane, nucleus, eukaryote, prokaryote. (15:49) ... Biology at West - The Cell 4B - Cell Types. Concepts: Animal, Plant, Prokaryotic, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleus, membrane ...
Immunofluorescence is a technique using antibodies to attach fluorescent dyes to cells. Magnification: x624 at 6x4.5cm size. - ... The round structures are the nuclei, the control centres of the individual cells. Within the nuclei are the nucleoli. These ... Immunofluorescent light micrograph of cultured fibroblast cells showing nuclei with nucleolar necklaces. ... This helps to maintain the shape of the cell. ... the control centres of the individual cells. Within the nuclei ...
... of a glandular cell, showing nucleus, chromatin (magenta), which appears as dense aggregations of small granules, and ... interstices of the nucleolus and the genes for messenger RNA and transfer RNA that are directing the synthesis of the cells ... Uncompressed file size: 50.0MB Downloadable file size: 10.3MB. Price image ... Keywords: biology, cell, cell biology, chromatin, coloured, dna, electron micrograph, em, enhanced, gene, genetic, glandular ...
Thibault G. Texture indexes and gray level size zone matrix. Application to cell nuclei classification. In: Proc. Pattern ... Intrinsic dependencies of CT radiomic features on voxel size and number of gray levels. Med Phys. 2017;44(3):1050-62.CrossRef ... Chow S, Shao J, Wang H. Sample size calculations in clinical research. Chapman and Hall/CRC biostatistics series, 2nd ed. Boca ... Evaluating variability in tumor measurements from same-day repeat CT scans of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. ...
B) Size and Shape of the Cells Nucleus. The shape and size of the nucleus of a cancer cell are often not normal. The nucleus ... A) Shape and Size of the Cells. It has been observed that the overall shape and size of cells in the tissues are mostly normal ... i) Nucleus Area (A). The nucleus area can be represented by nucleus region containing total number of pixels; it is shown in ... The nuclei of cancer cells are larger than the normal cells and deviated from the centre of the mass. The nucleus of cancer ...
Prokaryotic cells, however, do not possess any membrane-bound cellular compartments. ... Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane. ... Structure of a eukaryotic cell. (Arisa_J / Shutterstock). Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell size. ... Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus bound by a double membrane. It contains the DNA-related functions of the large cell in a ...
Transmission electron micrograph of a cell from grade III nucleus pulposus. Note the significant difference in size and the ... Cells from (A) grade I and (B) grade III nuclei pulposi. Green: actin; red: cell nuclei. Note the large inclusions in the cells ... cell nuclei). Connexin-43 was scattered over the entire cell surface, with a concentration in the vicinity of cell-cell ... very few cells could be found in the grade III nucleus (arrows, D). Cell clusters in grade I nuclei appeared to be surrounded ...
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... Paraspeckle Size., E-mail Correspondence. 2007-03-07. *^ Goebel, H.H.; I Warlow (January 1997). "Nemaline myopathy with ... Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ...
Princeton University have achieved an unprecedented look at a virus-like particle as it tries to break into and infect a cell. ... can be degraded in the cell nucleus of liver cells, consequently allowing ... ... Video of virus-sized particle trying to enter cell. February 25, 2014, Princeton University Tiny and swift, viruses are hard to ... Degradation of viral DNA in the cell nucleus opens new Hepatitis B treatment possibilities. February 21, 2014 Scientists from ...
Finally, we have utilized the BBB spheroids to screen and identify BBB-penetrant cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). This robust ... and use their platform to identify cell-penetrating peptides that can cross the BBB. ... The spheroid core is comprised mainly of astrocytes, while brain endothelial cells and pericytes encase the surface, acting as ... Cell nuclei were labelled with Hoechst dye (blue). Scale bar: 50 μm in lower-magnification images; 10 μm in magnified images. ( ...
... ganglion cell layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; nu, nucleus of retinal vascular endothelial cell; ... However, the sample size of the AH6809 + STZ group in our study was not large enough to draw an irrefutable conclusion ... It has been reported that activated PKA transfers into the cell nucleus and phosphorylates the transcription factor CREB ... PKA transfers into the cell nucleus and phosphorylates the transcription factor CREB, upregulating the transcription of NLRP3 ...
... early stages of infection EMCV are also characterized by the tendency to increase in the size of the nuclei of infected cells, ... Then there is an increase in RNA content in the nucleus, roughly coinciding with the increased content of RNA in the nucleoli. ... we have identified the changes in the nucleus and of some intranuclear compartments in the early stages of infection with ... early stages of infection EMCV are also characterized by the tendency to increase in the size of the nuclei of infected cells, ...
Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Chloroplasts / physiology, ultrastructure. DNA, Chloroplast / pharmacology. DNA, ... Because of the uniformity of the cell suspension model, we could further show that growth rate, selection scheme, particle size ... The suspension cell system will be useful as a model for understanding transformation in those plant species that utilize dark- ... Particle Size. Plastids / physiology*, ultrastructure. Tobacco / cytology, genetics*, physiology. Transformation, Genetic. ...
5B, similar-sized bands were detected in three breast cell lines (MCR7, BT-474, and SK-BR-3) as compared with the prostate cell ... TARP exists in the nuclei of breast cancer cells. Western blot of nuclear extracts derived from LNCaP, MCF7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, ... Preparation of Cell Extracts.. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared as follows. Growing cells (5 × 106) from each cell ... glioblastoma cell line IMR32, colon cell line COLO 205, gastric cell line KATO III, or kidney cell lines COS7 and 293 (Fig. 4A ...
This size selectively allows the passage of small water-soluble molecules while preventing larger molecules, such as nucleic ... Nuclei per cell. Most eukaryotic cell types usually have a single nucleus, but some have no nuclei, while others have several. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ...
n. 1. The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the ... The number and shape of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Scientists prepare karyotypes by staining cell nuclei, placing ... Biology) the appearance of the chromosomes in a somatic cell of an individual or species, with reference to their number, size ... the chromosomes of a cell, usu. displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size. ...
2), defined by the multiplication of NA and NB over the number of bins (n). Bin size was constant at 0.3 ms (Voigt and Young, ... 2015) Single granule cells excite Golgi cells and evoke feedback inhibition in the cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 35:4741-4750, ... 2004) Cell-specific, spike timing-dependent plasticities in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Nat Neurosci 7:719-725, doi:10.1038/ ... 2012) Acoustic over-exposure triggers burst firing in dorsal cochlear nucleus fusiform cells. Hear Res 283:98-106, doi:10.1016/ ...
  • In addition to harboring the chromosomes and supporting the coordinated expression of a host of genes, the nucleus also participates in the transport of a variety of macromolecules to and from the cytoplasm. (plantcell.org)
  • The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome , except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA , organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins , such as histones , to form chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus contains polytene chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To classify and array (the chromosome complement of an organism or a species) according to the arrangement, number, size, shape, or other characteristics of the chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the chromosomes of a cell, usu. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The number and shape of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Images of the chromosomes can then be grouped by size using a computer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the aggregate of morphological characteristics of the chromosomes in a cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The number, size and form of the chromosomes are usually constant for each species. (fao.org)
  • 5. The nucleus consists of chromosomes and a nucleolus. (bartleby.com)
  • Chromatin forms chromosomes during cell division, packages DNA, reduces DNA volume, protects DNA from damage, and controls gene expression and DNA replicat. (reference.com)
  • It is triploid (each cell has three sets of chromosomes), being derived from the fusion of one of the male gametes from the germinated pollen grain and two of the haploid nuclei in the embryo sac. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That is, a genome is equivalent to the complete genetic sequence on one of the two sets of chromosomes of the somatic cells of a diploid individual, or the total genetic sequence in the single chromosome of a bacteria , or the sequence of RNA in an RNA virus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The DNA, which carries genetic information in cells , is normally packaged in the form of one or more large macromolecules called chromosomes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It functions to: Store genes on chromosomes Organize genes into chromosomes to allow cell division. (einet.net)
  • There are 46 human chromosomes inside most cells. (brighthub.com)
  • The chromosomes are all of different sizes and contain varying number of genes. (brighthub.com)
  • Preserved inside the cells, in addition to nuclei and nucleoli, are cytoplasm, cytosol granules, and chromosomes caught in flagrante divisio . (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the images above, you can see the various phases of nuclear cell division, as the chromosomes condense and the nucleolus disintegrates (D-F), line up along the cell's equator (G and H), and finally pull apart toward the two future daughter cells (I and J). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Molecular genetic methods are used to study abnormalities in chromosomes (the part of a cell that contains genetic information) or the DNA of cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Eukaryotic cells are about 10 times the size of their counterparts, and the DNA in the nucleus is organized into chromosomes. (ehow.com)
  • The function of the nucleus as carrier of genetic information became clear only later, after mitosis was discovered and the Mendelian rules were rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century: the chromosome theory of heredity was developed. (bionity.com)
  • On the left, a cell is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because yeast cells undergo closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Apical cells have active mitotic cycles, whereas subapical cells are arrested for growth and mitosis until branch formation reinitiates tip growth and nuclear divisions. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, loss of hypA or hypB function lead to a cessation of apical cell growth but activated isotropic growth and mitosis in subapical cells. (nih.gov)
  • The inferred functions of hypA and hypB suggest a mechanism for coordinating apical growth, subapical cell arrest, and mitosis in A. nidulans. (nih.gov)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its nucleus has disintegrated in preparation of division. (wikidoc.org)
  • Processes such as mitosis or meiosis (cell division) cause an increase in density of chromatin strands. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Nuclear envelope (NE) is a cell cycle dependent structure that disperses at the onset of mitosis (late prophase) and reassembles around the reforming nucleus in the late telophase. (scribd.com)
  • These cells accumulated abnormal DNA content, suggesting a defect in mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cell division -- or mitosis , as you may recall from high school biology -- is the process by which cells copy and divide their DNA and then physically split the cell in two. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A prokaryotic cell is simpler and requires far fewer genes to function than the eukaryotic cell. (news-medical.net)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • To better understand this process, it is important to determine genes that are specifically expressed in prostate cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression -the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature shift analysis revealed that hypD and hypE play general roles in hyphal morphogenesis, since inactivation of these genes resulted in a general widening of apical and subapical cells. (nih.gov)
  • A microscopic, usually rod-like, body present in the cell nucleus and carrying the genes. (fao.org)
  • In this report we show that in permissive cells that are poor expressors of transfected genes (HEp-2, U2OS, etc. (pnas.org)
  • ICP0 is not retained in transfected/infected cells that efficiently express transfected genes (HEK293, rabbit skin cells). (pnas.org)
  • The retention of ICP0 in the nucleus is concordant with failure to degrade PML and disperse ND10 structures, and delays in the transition to post α genes expression, translocation of components of the CoREST/REST/HDAC1 complex and histone relocation in the infected cell. (pnas.org)
  • This function is independent of response elements embedded in the DNA and ( ii ) transfection-resistant cells do take up DNA but process it differently than cells that readily express transfected genes. (pnas.org)
  • ICP0 interacts with many diverse cellular and viral proteins and acts as a promiscuous transactivator of genes introduced into cells by transfection or infection ( 1 - , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cells differ with respect to their ability to express the transfected genes and hence cell lines are frequently classified into "transfectable" (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Cell Nucleus Structure/function correlations The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it forms the package for our genes and their controlling factors. (einet.net)
  • Genome-wide transcription profiling revealed 55 genes with consistent changes in siTop1 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only eukaryotes possess a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles such as the mitochondria, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes and ER. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria - generates the energy necessary to sustain cell life by breaking down nutrients and transforming them into "food" molecules for the cell. (worldatlas.com)
  • Place the orange oval onto the cytoplasm, which represents the mitochondria of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • 6. Organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell include the nucleus, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. (bartleby.com)
  • They show that the ARHGAP11B protein is located in the powerhouse of the cell - the mitochondria - and induces a metabolic pathway in the brain stem cells that is characteristic of cancer cells. (bionity.com)
  • He found that the ARHGAP11B protein is located in mitochondria, the organelles that generate most of the cell's source of chemical energy and hence are often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • Some organelles found in plant cells include the ribosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts. (ehow.com)
  • Mitochondria convert energy from glucose into adenosine triphosphate, which is necessary for normal cell function. (ehow.com)
  • During infection, the mitochondria in the astrocytes, which is the powerhouse of the cell and responsible for cellular respiration, changes and starts to produce free radicals, triggering oxidative stress. (news-medical.net)
  • Efforts to understand nuclear organization in plant cells have received little assistance from the better-studied animal nuclei, because plant proteomes do not contain recognizable counterparts to the key animal proteins involved in nuclear organization, such as lamin nuclear intermediate filament proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Very little is known about the proteins or pathways that lead to the observed diversity in nuclear morphology or about the mechanisms that link the differentiated state of a cell to changes in nuclear morphology. (plantcell.org)
  • Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • This genetic material is needed to regulate and inform cell function through the creation of RNA by transcription, followed by the generation of proteins through translation. (news-medical.net)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-delineated bodies, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and DNA conglomerates. (bionity.com)
  • In addition to simply viewing the particle's antics, the researchers can use the technique to map the contours of the cell surface , which is bumpy with proteins that push up from beneath the surface. (phys.org)
  • A. G. Aminev, S. P. Amineva and A. C. Palmenberg, "Encephalomyocarditis Virus (EMCV) Proteins 2A and 3BCD Localize to Nuclei and Inhibit Cellular mRNA Transcription but Not rRNA Transcription," Virus Research, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 59-73. (scirp.org)
  • Interestingly, recent studies have provided specific examples of DNA- or RNA-binding proteins that exhibit rapid mobility within the nucleus ( 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • p 46 Diagrams of phospholipid bilayer and some details of cell membrane with integral proteins. (gsu.edu)
  • p 152 "Alternate splicing allows the cell to produce several different proteins from the same mRNA. (gsu.edu)
  • Also identifying CM nuclei is challenging in cardiac sections in which CM cytoplasm is identified either by immunohistological staining for structural proteins or by transgenic CM-specific overexpression of fluorescence proteins. (springer.com)
  • 3. The main organic compounds in cell are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. (bartleby.com)
  • This organelle exports proteins in the cell? (sporcle.com)
  • Proteins on interior and exterior surface of the cell membrane? (sporcle.com)
  • Cell membranes are, at their most basic, composed of a phospholipid bilayer with some surface proteins embedded around the surface. (reference.com)
  • Animation 15: DNA and proteins are key molecules of the cell nucleus. (dnalc.org)
  • Therefore, proteins come in many different shapes and sizes. (dnalc.org)
  • The restoration of small intestinal barrier function requires a complex set of events that are initiated within minutes of injury and are characterized by epithelial cell restitution and reassembly of tight junction proteins to close the paracellular space ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • Specialized cell agents enter the nucleus, copy the pages then translat … e them outside the nucleus, resulting into proteins, these proteins do most of cell's work. (answers.com)
  • Migdall and Graham think it's likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence "gene expression" - helping to decide which parts of the cells' DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • These tiny structures are found inside the cell nucleus and consist of DNA and proteins. (brighthub.com)
  • This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
  • At right in (C), you can see cells complete with nuclei -- cells' DNA storage compartments -- and the tiny dots inside them of nucleoli , the structures inside nuclei where ribosomes are built ( ribosomes make proteins for cells). (scientificamerican.com)
  • These techniques use a very specific antigen-antibody reaction to identify proteins in tissues or cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Ribosome -- structure in which the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made. (playkidsgames.com)
  • First, Top1 may directly interact with many host cell proteins, including DNA repair factors, transcription factors, RNA splicing factors, cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-related proteins, and viral proteins, 6 suggesting the involvement of Top1 in a variety of physiologic processes mediated by those factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BBB is a highly evolved microvasculature system comprised of brain endothelial cells (ECs) lining the vascular lumen, pericytes in the basal lamina, and associating astrocytic end-feet, microglia and neurons. (nature.com)
  • However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The principal neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CN), the sole output of the olivo-cerebellar system, receive a massive inhibitory input from Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellar cortex. (uzh.ch)
  • This work establishes CN glycinergic neurons as a significant source of inhibition to CN principal cells, forming contacts molecularly distinct from, but functionally similar to, Purkinje cell synapses. (uzh.ch)
  • A section through a whole organoid stained for neurons in green and neural stem cells in red. (news-medical.net)
  • Nerve cells, or neurons, can range from .004 millimeters to .1 millimeters in diameter. (reference.com)
  • Different types of nerve cells include sensory neurons and motoneurons, among others. (reference.com)
  • Nerve cells, or neurons, receive electrochemical signals, process them and transmit them to other cells. (reference.com)
  • This gene, named ARHGAP11B, causes the so-called basal brain stem cells to expand in number and to eventually increase the production of neurons, leading to a bigger and more folded brain in the end. (bionity.com)
  • From the first days of the tiny lab-grown organs' development, primitive "progenitor cells" romped out of their birthplaces in the deep interior and quickly turned into neurons and glia, specialized cells that do the brain's heavy lifting, from thinking and feeling and moving to boring old neurological housekeeping. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Experiments with both simple collections of neurons growing in lab dishes as well as cerebral organoids grown from the stem cells of Huntington's patients, and therefore harboring the DNA stutters, are now undermining that belief. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since the mutation is with you from conception, it makes sense that there could be deleterious effects on the brain from the beginning," said biologist Virginia Mattis, who led studies at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles of lab-grown neurons produced from Huntington's patients' stem cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Onuf's nucleus is a distinct group of neurons located in the ventral part ( laminae IX ) of the anterior horn of the sacral region of the human spinal cord involved in the maintenance of micturition and defecatory continence, as well as muscular contraction during orgasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] While working in New York City in 1899, Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz discovered this group of unique cells and originally identified it as "Group X." "Group X" was considered distinct by Onufrowicz because the cells were different in size from the surrounding neurons in the anterolateral group, suggesting that they were independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons in Onuf's nucleus are motoneurons, and like most motoneurons they are characterized by their mulipolarity and large Nissl bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of Onuf's nucleus are responsible for controlling external sphincter muscles of the anus and urethra in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor neurons of Onuf's nucleus innervate striated musculature ( rhabdosphincter muscle) which is controlled voluntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that Onuf nucleus cells have the same cytoskeletal abnormalities as alpha-motor neurons in motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onuf's nucleus cells are anatomically linked with the sacral parasympathetic motor neurons and have many peptidergic nerve terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in Onuf's nucleus resemble autonomic neurons and do not receive afferents from adjacent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) provide a favorable system for experimental investigation of neurotrophic support by presynaptic cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • All parts of the nervous system are made of nervous tissue, which contains the two main categories of cells: neurons and supporting glia cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nerves are large enough to have been recognized by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, but their internal structure was not understood until it became possible to examine them using a microscope (Finger 2000).The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves-their cell bodies reside within the brain, central cord, or peripheral ganglia (Kandel et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • neurons and glial cells . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Neurons, also known as neurones and nerve cells, are electrically excitable cells that process and transmit information. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Neurons have a wide variety of structures, sizes, and electrochemical properties. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2 Neurodegeneration associated with POAG is thus not restricted to the retinal ganglion cells and extends to the target neurons in the LGN. (ajnr.org)
  • The central and rightmost cell are in interphase , thus their entire nuclei are labeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spherical in interphase and becomes dumbbell shaped during mitotic division to facilitate the transfer of one nucleus to the daughter cell. (biologists.org)
  • After septation, subapical cells cease growth and nuclei arrest in interphase. (genetics.org)
  • They do not possess membrane-bound cellular compartments, such as nuclei. (news-medical.net)
  • It contains the DNA-related functions of the large cell in a smaller enclosure to ensure close proximity of materials and increased efficiency for cellular communication and functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Due to the larger size of the eukaryotic cells, confining certain cellular process to a smaller area also increases the efficiency of functions by improving communication and movement within the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • The main structural elements of the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and keeps its contents separated from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (bionity.com)
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animals. (bionity.com)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope , a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina ), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton , which supports the cell as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the cellular status can be monitored by the refractive index of the cell and used as a diagnostic indicator. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Cytoplasm Cellular Biology Cells are the structural units of all living things (with the possible exceptions of viruses and prions). (einet.net)
  • They shrink after every cell division and there has been a great deal of research interest into the relationship between telomere length and cellular senescence and theories about the possibilities of increasing life spans if telomere length can be maintained. (brighthub.com)
  • Having multiple nuclei seems to make it easier for bigger cells to properly manage their relatively large cellular bodies. (listverse.com)
  • CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, is involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. (plos.org)
  • Previous studies in a type 1/insulin-deficient diabetic embryopathy model demonstrated that oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and cellular stress-induced cell apoptosis ( 8 - 16 ) are causative events in NTD formation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of excitable cell called a neuron (or "nerve cell") that transmits impulses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Previously, we identified the expression of a prostate-specific form of T cell receptor γ chain ( TCRγ ) mRNA in the human prostate and demonstrated that it originates from epithelial cells and not from infiltrating T lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • However, the TCRγ transcript found in the prostate originates from epithelial cells of the prostate and not from infiltrating T lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • By RNA in situ hybridization, we showed that TCRγ mRNA is highly expressed in epithelial cells within the acinar ducts of the prostate, whereas the stromal cells and other cell types in the prostate are negative ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In humans and other vertebrates, there are two basic cell types: epithelial and mesenchymal. (mathworks.com)
  • For example, epithelial cells depend on cell-to-cell contact for survival. (mathworks.com)
  • In EMT, cells lose their epithelial traits and acquire mesenchymal traits. (mathworks.com)
  • Because mesenchymal tumor cells are more mobile, and thus more invasive, than epithelial tumor cells, scientists believe that they facilitate metastasis , or the spread of tumor cells. (mathworks.com)
  • EMT also diminishes the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments that target epithelial cells. (mathworks.com)
  • This is supported by the work of Backman, 7 who also observed the enlargement, crowding, and increased chromatin content of nuclei in the epithelial cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Are mouse lens epithelial cells more sensitive to γ-irradiation than lymphocytes? (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this pilot study we compared for the first time the radiation sensitivity of mouse lens epithelial cells (LECs) and mouse lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Epithelial cell benign tumor2. (brainscape.com)
  • Epithelial cells form ducts3. (brainscape.com)
  • The cancer is composed of bizarre epithelial cells. (pathguy.com)
  • Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane, making up one of the three domains of life, Eukaryota. (news-medical.net)
  • Around 1838, an animal physiologist, Theodor Schwann, and a botanist, Matthias Schleiden, put forth the unprecedented work on the concept of cells as the building blocks of all living organisms. (worldatlas.com)
  • Whether we are looking at multicellular organisms or those containing one single cell, all of them will be manifesting the same features necessary to support life. (worldatlas.com)
  • 1. The cell is the basic unit of life for all organisms. (bartleby.com)
  • All the structural characteristics of a rose, an orange, a sparrow, a tiger or a human being are present in the nuclei of the cells that comprise these organisms. (harunyahya.com)
  • It is true of humans, and of the cells of which we and all complex organisms are made. (einet.net)
  • MULTICELLULAR organisms use a variety of molecular signals to establish patterns of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation, and cell death. (genetics.org)
  • Some cell types and organisms (e.g. (scribd.com)
  • Various chiefly aquatic, eukaryotic (containing a membrane-bound nucleus) photosynthetic organisms, ranging in size from single-cell forms to large kelps. (eduplace.com)
  • Genlisea nigrocaulis , with 86 Mbp one of the smallest plant genomes, and the 18-fold larger genome of G. hispidula (1,550 Mbp) possess identical chromosome numbers (2 n = 40) but differ considerably in chromatin organization, nuclear and cell size. (frontiersin.org)
  • Colour enhanced Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of a glandular cell, showing nucleus, chromatin (magenta), which appears as dense aggregations of small granules, and heterochromatin, occurring in irregular clumps adjacent to the nuclear envelope and around the nucleolus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • B. R. Zirkin, "A cytochemical Study of the Nonhistone Protein Content of Condensed and Extended Chromatin," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1973, pp. 394-398. (scirp.org)
  • What Does Chromatin Do in an Animal Cell? (reference.com)
  • Changes in chromatin content directly affect the refractive index of the cell nucleus. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • An atypical myeloid cell with clumped chromatin in a large, often bizarre, immature nucleus, and relatively mature cytoplasm. (brainscape.com)
  • The round structures are the nuclei, the control centres of the individual cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The three-dimensional architecture of the notochordal nucleus pulposus: novel observations on cell structures in the canine intervertebral disc. (nih.gov)
  • The architecture of cell structures--from the tissue scale down to subcellular scale--was reported. (nih.gov)
  • These observations demonstrate unique cell structures, which may influence our understanding of the differences between notochordal and chondrocytic cells in the nucleus pulposus. (nih.gov)
  • There are several different small structures inside the cell itself, called organelles, each with a specific function. (worldatlas.com)
  • Plasma membrane - just like in plant cells, this structure allows for molecule movement through the cell itself and protects the internal structures of the cell, that is, other organelles. (worldatlas.com)
  • Cell and developmental biologists at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden devote their research to discovering how cell division and cell differentiation work, which structures can be found in cell organelles and how cells exchange information and materials. (mpg.de)
  • The viral DNA forms supercoiled mini-chromosome structures upon entering the host nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the most part, ICP0 was initially trapped in ND10 structures and later filed the nucleus, but was not exported. (pnas.org)
  • The retention of ICP0 in ND10 structures was of particular interest in light of reports that DNA introduced into cells by transfection or infection colocalizes with or adjacent to ND10 structures ( , 12 , , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Special stains are used to identify cell and tissue structures based on their chemical properties. (cancer.ca)
  • Vaculoes are large structures within plant cells. (ehow.com)
  • C. C. Morton, J. A. Brown, W. M. Holmes, W. E. Nance and B. Wolf, "Stain Intensity of Human Nucleolus Organizer Region Reflects Incorporation of Uridine in to Mature Ribosomal RNA," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1983, pp. 405-413. (scirp.org)
  • The nucleus is organized into various subcompartments, with the nucleolus being the most prominent. (biologists.org)
  • This is the nucleolus of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • The nucleolus is prominent within the nucleus. (scribd.com)
  • He recently was appointed as Director at the the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, and the Klaus-Tschira Chair of the Systems Biology Center in Dresden. (mpg.de)
  • Kai Simons, founding director of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) and managing director of Lipotype GmbH, receives the Robert Koch Medal in Gold for his lifetime achievements, in particular for his characterization of membrane-forming lipids and the development of the lipid raft concept. (mpg.de)
  • 14th Swiss Plant Molecular and Cell Biology Conference, March 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Even though the mammalian heart has been investigated for many years, there are still uncertainties in the fields of cardiac cell biology and regeneration with regard to exact fractions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) at different developmental stages, their plasticity after cardiac lesion and also their basal turnover rate. (springer.com)
  • Animal Cell Biology Form 4 Chapter 2 - Cell Structure and Organisation Cell Components - 1. (bartleby.com)
  • Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. (diva-portal.org)
  • 5 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA. (jci.org)
  • How nanoparticles interact with the cell nucleus, for example, will have implications not only for the fundamentals of cancer biology but also for the design of translational therapeutic agents. (nanowerk.com)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) in Dresden now uncovered its mode of action. (bionity.com)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology Online, an informational resource for cell and molecular biologists. (einet.net)
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their solutions to the problem of size Prokaryotes For review, see http://salinella.bio.uottawa.ca/BIO1130/Lectures/PDF/BIO1130_lct03_STDNTVERX3.pdf Solution stay small, typically 1-5 µm Simple structure: cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm that lacks organelles (cyanobacteria possess photosynthetic membranes), ribosomes, nucleoid, flagellum prokaryotes Ribosomes Cytoplasm Nucleoid Plasma membrane Cell wall Bacteri. (coursehero.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain many membrane-enclosed, large, complex organelles in the cytoplasm whereas prokaryotic cells do not contain these membrane-bound organelles. (news-medical.net)
  • These organelles are found in both types of cells discussed here, with many of them identical in function. (worldatlas.com)
  • Chloroplasts/plastids - also found only in plant cells, these organelles enable photosynthesis when exposed to sunlight. (worldatlas.com)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein might exert such plus-end-directed forces on MTs and centrosomes by anchoring on membranous organelles, including the nuclear membrane or cell cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Plant cells contain a variety of different organelles, or microscopic organs, each performing different functions. (ehow.com)
  • Tissue Types Histology is the branch of biological science concerned with the study of cells and the extracellular matix of animal and plant tissues. (einet.net)
  • Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells both use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the basis for their genetic information. (news-medical.net)
  • He particularly points to the origin of the genetic code (Ch 9) and the emergence of cell membranes(Ch 12) as areas that imply design. (gsu.edu)
  • HGPIN is characterized by architecturally benign prostatic acini and ducts lined with atypical cells whose morphologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and genetic changes are similar to those of prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
  • 8. Nucleic acids contain genetic information to control all the activities of the cell. (bartleby.com)
  • The plasmids of plants and algae, such as chloroplasts , carry genetic material within their membranes, separate and distinct from that of the nucleus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Genetic ablation of enteric glia cells results in severe inflammation and fatal hemorrhagic necrosis of the gut, highlighting the critical role of the enteric glia in maintaining intestinal integrity ( 5 ). (physiology.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information needed to construct cells. (answers.com)
  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic instructions contained within the nucleus of your cells. (answers.com)
  • Your dna is the result of the genetic material from your mother's egg and your father's sperm combining and copyi … ng itself as you gain more and more cells. (answers.com)
  • most of the genetic information and regulatory machinery responsible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics. (scribd.com)
  • Yeast genetic studies have identified cdc2 as an essential gene for cell division in yeast. (scribd.com)
  • This technique, when coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), whole genome amplification and genotyping (WGA), opens up new opportunities for genetic studies of individualized nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • This strategy was used to analyze the genetic composition of single pollen nuclei of different citrus species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genotyping of this nuclei population revealed that vegetative and generative nuclei show the same genetic configuration. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genotyping of individualized pollen grain nuclei opens up new opportunities in different areas of research such as the ecology of pollination, genetic, and genomic studies ( Isagi and Suyama, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although many plants are prone to duplicating or hybridizing their genomes, inflating their size, the ferns in this family all have a identical and low chromosome count, suggesting long term genetic stability. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This means that their DNA, or genetic material, is contained within the nucleus of cells. (ehow.com)
  • Ribosomes facilitate RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • however the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic ribosomes i.e. 80S compared to 70S. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, Arabidopsis behaves genetically as a diploid, but vegetative adult tissues are composed of a mixture of cells with nuclei ranging in ploidy levels from 2C (where C = haploid genome complement) to 64C. (plantcell.org)
  • Genomic amplification is a robust method for haploid nuclei genotyping with several molecular markers, whereas in diploid nuclei using heterozygous markers showed a bias towards one of the two alleles, limiting the use of this tool in this type of nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • These processes resemble hyphal growth in filamentous fungi in that they involve polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and localized cell wall synthesis. (genetics.org)
  • Bacteria and Archaea, the other two domains of life, are prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Eukaryotic cells are ordinarily larger (10 - 100um) than prokaryotic cells (1 - 10um). (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast, the smaller prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. (news-medical.net)
  • Structure of a prokaryotic cell. (news-medical.net)
  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is contained within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. (answers.com)
  • The other type of cells, called prokaryotic, do not have a nucleus. (ehow.com)
  • By the methods of quantitative cytophotometry, we have identified the changes in the nucleus and of some intranuclear compartments in the early stages of infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). (scirp.org)
  • Within the nuclei are the nucleoli. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Then there is an increase in RNA content in the nucleus, roughly coinciding with the increased content of RNA in the nucleoli. (scirp.org)
  • Section through the rhizome of a fossilized fern that looks for all the world like a living royal fern (A), complete with nuclei, nucleoli, and cell membranes (arrow) still visible (B) Fig. 1 from Bomfleur et al. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thus, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human brain by inducing a cancer-like metabolism in the basal brain stem cells for a limited period during brain development. (bionity.com)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
  • The Cln3 protein is a budding yeast G1 cyclin that controls the timing of Start, the point of commitment to a mitotic cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three G1 cyclins collaborate to drive yeast cells through the G1-S transition, i.e. to enter S-phase and begin DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discussed above, Cln3 was originally identified as a regulator of budding yeast cell size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of cell size control in budding yeast began in earnest in the mid 1970s, when the regulation of the budding yeast cell cycle was first being elucidated by Lee Hartwell and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seminal work in 1977 found that yeast cells maintain a constant size by delaying their entry into the cell cycle (as assayed by budding) until they have grown to a threshold size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus bound by a double membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • This is a key difference because it allows a high level of intracellular division of labor and contributes to the greater complexity characteristic of eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (bionity.com)
  • from Latin [ nucleus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) or [ nuculeus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) , "little nut" or kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • In the vegetative mycelium, only tip growing cells contain actively dividing nuclei, which have synchronous mitotic cycles. (genetics.org)
  • We have identified in the "CSO" tangor an additional nuclei population composed by the vegetative plus generative nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • Septa may play a variety of roles, such as preventing loss of cytoplasm during hyphal damage ( R ichle and A lexander 1965 ) and partitioning cell growth and differentiation ( G ull 1978 ). (genetics.org)
  • Electron microscope analysis confirmed that the suspension cells carry plastids that are significantly smaller (approximately 50-fold less in volume) and have a very different subcellular localization and developmental state than leaf cell chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Repeat to add on five to six green ovals, which represent the chloroplasts of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • 8. Human cheek cells and epidermal cells of onions do not have chloroplasts. (bartleby.com)
  • HeLa cells stained for nuclear DNA with the blue fluorescent Hoechst dye . (wikipedia.org)
  • To address this question, fluorescence photobleaching experiments were performed using HeLa cells and B cells expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct of either Ku70 or Ku86. (jimmunol.org)
  • HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. (wikidoc.org)
  • the nuclear envelope was extremely deformed in over 60% of the tumour (HeLa) cells with nanoconstructs. (nanowerk.com)
  • Nuclei are remarkably dynamic and differentiate into an array of shapes and sizes within a single organism. (plantcell.org)
  • Several morphological and functional characteristics differentiate the two cell types. (mathworks.com)
  • Within a tumor, there is a small subset of cells with a unique cell surface marker signature (e.g., up-regulation of CD44 and down-regulation of CD24) as well as characteristics similar to stem cells such as the ability to self-renew, differentiate and they have been shown to be chemo-and radiation resistant [1] - [6] . (plos.org)
  • The flow cytometry and microscope observations allowed us to differentiate the populations of pollen nuclei present in the diploid and euploid genotypes analyzed, showing that citrus has binuclear pollen. (frontiersin.org)
  • The NP is populated by chondrocyte-like cells, therefore, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), stimulated to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage could be used to promote NP regeneration. (uminho.pt)
  • The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in DCN fusiform cells suggests that a neural code for phantom sounds emerges in this brainstem location and likely contributes to the formation of the tinnitus percept. (jneurosci.org)
  • The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in subcortical nuclei suggests that perceptual binding by means of synchronous neural activity is processed early and diffusely in the auditory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Morphological evidence suggests that CN principal cells are also contacted by inhibitory interneurons, but the properties of this connection are unknown. (uzh.ch)
  • That cancer cell function can be correlated with deformations in the nucleus suggests that major challenges in particle-based, nuclear-targeted therapy can be overcome,' says Odom. (nanowerk.com)
  • This suggests nuclei increase in size in the neoplastic cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Our recent finding that Mer also resides in the nucleus suggests there may be additional ways that Mer is promoting cancer from within the cell," he says. (innovations-report.com)
  • They noted that spherical nuclei-the most abundant type overall and the predominant nuclear shape in the meristems-were just one of many nuclear shapes found within the epidermal and pavement cells. (plantcell.org)
  • The cells are just visible as small spherical bodies (arrows). (nih.gov)
  • Aspergillus nidulans grows by apical extension of multinucleate cells called hyphae that are subdivided by the insertion of crosswalls called septa. (nih.gov)
  • Stolz 6 observed changes in the mean cross-sectional area of the nucleus between malignant melanomas and benign compound nevi (pigmented moles). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The spheroid core is comprised mainly of astrocytes, while brain endothelial cells and pericytes encase the surface, acting as a barrier that regulates transport of molecules. (nature.com)
  • The mammalian heart is composed of different cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes (CMs). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the materials did not induce pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. (uminho.pt)
  • In this technical report, we describe the generation and characterization of embryonic stem cells and transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein of human histone 2B and the red fluorescence protein mCherry under control of the CM specific αMHC promoter. (springer.com)
  • This fluorescence label allows unequivocal identification and quantitation of CM nuclei and nuclearity in isolated cells and native tissue slices. (springer.com)
  • Here, we report the generation of a reporter system that directly visualizes CM nuclei in vitro and in vivo, by fusing the red fluorescence protein mCherry (mCh) to human histone 2B (H2B) and expressing it in CMs by use of the αMHC (Myh6) promoter. (springer.com)
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enables the separation of nuclei according to their optical properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, spindle-shaped nuclei were found in differentiated root epidermal and cortex tissue, oriented along the long axis of the cell, and rod-like nuclei were located within vascular tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 1 , 2 , 3 Currently, the best method of treatment is surgery, where malignant cells are physically removed. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 4 The surgical treatment option relies on early detection of malignant cells such that minimal tissue is removed and the chance of metastasis is reduced. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
  • If we truly have two distinct mechanisms through which Mer acts - cancer cell signaling and regulation of gene expression within the nucleus - then we would have additional ways to target this cancer-causing agent," Graham says. (innovations-report.com)
  • In plants, only a provisional body plan is established in the embryo, and asymmetric cell divisions and highly localized patterns of gene expression continually establish new organs as the plant grows ( M eyerowitz 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • qRT-PCR was employed to determine the gene expression profile of DCs or the mixed cells, and an ELISA was used to measure cytokine levels in the supernatants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated that CR1 has the ability to direct reporter gene expression in a cell-specific manner. (plos.org)
  • Site directed mutagenesis of the NF-κB and AP-1 binding sites diminished the ability of CR1 to direct reporter gene expression in breast cancer cells [13] . (plos.org)
  • Infiltration of tumor tissue by immune cells was reflected by gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue. (scirp.org)
  • 10. Cells wall and plasma membranes are fully permeable. (bartleby.com)
  • While the outer membrane of a cell protects the cell well on a microscopic level, large cells would require exceptionally thick membranes. (reference.com)
  • As these membranes thicken enough to hold larger cells, they suffer from decreased permeability. (reference.com)
  • In addition to the clearly visible cell walls in C, you can also see at the head of the black arrow the cell's actual cell membrane, which evidently shrank away from the wall during fossilization (normally, plant cell membranes are flush against their cell walls due to a phenomenon called Turgor pressure that holds plants upright when it's operational and causes them to wilt when it isn't). (scientificamerican.com)
  • On top of the membranes, plant cells have rigid walls made of cellulose. (ehow.com)
  • In the older disc, the gelatinous nucleus had been replaced by fibrous material and there was a loss of annular-nuclear demarcation. (nih.gov)
  • As cell size increases the # of molecules that have to be synthesized in order for reaction to occur gets larger.You have to have some basic concentration of substrate for a reaction to occur. (coursehero.com)
  • The larger the cell, the more molecules that need to be synthesized, and the cell is unable to provide that many molecules to acheive the concentration. (coursehero.com)
  • For instance, it has been shown that often less than 1% of the administered drug molecules during chemotherapy enter tumor cells and bind to the nuclear DNA. (nanowerk.com)
  • Information about all the living things around you is concealed within this miniaturized data bank inside every cell of every organism. (harunyahya.com)
  • The absence of nuclear division leads to larger endoreduplicated nuclei with expanded nuclear envelopes. (plantcell.org)
  • Use of Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei and nuclear envelopes in nucleocytoplasmic transport studies. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase activation, and neuroepithelial cell apoptosis (causal events in type 1 diabetic embryopathy) were observed in embryos of DM dams. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apical cells vary in length and number of nuclei, whereas subapical cells are typically 40 microm long with three to four nuclei. (nih.gov)
  • used a nucleus-targeted green fluorescent protein to investigate the shapes and sizes of living nuclei from several Arabidopsis tissues and cell types via confocal microscopy. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we show that this prostate-specific transcript is also expressed in three breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. (pnas.org)
  • How do cells form tissues? (mpg.de)
  • Cells and tissues are analyzed in the laboratory to look for the presence or effects of diseases, including cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • The nervous system is the network of specialized cells , tissues , and organs in a multicellular animal that coordinates the body's interaction with the environment, including sensing internal and external stimuli, monitoring the organs, coordinating the activity of muscles , initiating actions, and regulating behavior. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Prior to this work, he said, the only way to see small objects at a similar resolution was to use a technique called electron microscopy, which requires killing the cell. (phys.org)
  • What Kevin has done that is really different is that he can capture a three-dimensional view of a virus-sized particle attacking a living cell, whereas electron microscopy is in two-dimensions and on dead cells," Yang said. (phys.org)
  • We demonstrate a recently introduced holographic technique, digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), to provide a sensitive measure of this relative size parameter. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Microscopy methods and flow cytometry also allow the pathologist to see different aspects of the cells. (cancer.ca)
  • siTop1 cells also show rDNA and nucleolar alterations and increased nuclear volume. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ponto-geniculo-occipital-wave suppression amplifies lateral geniculate nucleus cell-size changes in monocularly deprived kittens. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously shown that during the post-natal critical period of development of the cat visual system, 1 week of instrumental rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (IRSD) during 2 weeks of monocular deprivation (MD) results in significant amplification of the effects of solely the 2-week MD on cell-size in the binocular segment of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) [36,40]. (nih.gov)
  • The video reveals a virus-like particle zipping around in a rapid, erratic manner until it encounters a cell, bounces and skids along the surface, and either lifts offagain or, in much less time than it takes to blink an eye, slips into the cell's interior. (phys.org)
  • It is like a big book containing all the information of a being, you find it in every cell's nucleus. (answers.com)
  • A drawback to this method is that details of the cell's surroundings cannot be examined because tissue needs to be broken down into single cells. (cancer.ca)
  • The nucleus is the most visible organelle of the eukaryotic cell and, in terms of function, arguably the most critical. (plantcell.org)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered, and was first described by Franz Bauer in 1802. (bionity.com)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • This organelle contains its own DNA and is the powerhouse of the cell? (sporcle.com)
  • This organelle is involved with synthesis of steroids (gland cells), regulate calcium levels in muscle cells, breaks down toxic substances in the liver? (sporcle.com)
  • Reporting in Developmental Cell, Hara and Merten (2015) apply the use of microfabrication and in vitro analysis in cell-free extracts to the old problem of nuclear size control. (nih.gov)
  • In combination with CAG-eGFP-anillin-mice, the cell cycle status of CMs can be monitored in detail enabling screening for proliferation-inducing substances in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Enteric glia becomes activated in response to inflammation, with increased GFAP expression from enteric glia cells after the in vitro addition of either proinflammatory cytokines or LPS ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells , have no nuclei , and a few others including osteoclasts have many . (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA starts within an intron directly upstream of the Jγ1.2 gene segment, contains three exons from the Cγ1 segment, and lacks a Vγ gene segment (Fig. 1 A ). In addition, the TCRγ transcripts found in the prostate have different sizes than the transcripts found in the thymus, spleen, and blood leukocytes ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • These cell walls aren't found in cells within the animal kingdom - we'll look at that in just a bit. (worldatlas.com)
  • Cell wall - different from a membrane by being found only in plant cells where it encompasses the cell membrane. (worldatlas.com)
  • Everything you need to make a Play-Doh plant cell can be found at any toy shop or craft store. (ehow.com)
  • However, it was later found that WHI1 was in fact a positive regulator of Start, as its deletion caused cells to delay in G1 and grow larger than wild-type cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forms spindle fibers, aids in cell division, and only found in animal cells? (sporcle.com)
  • These stem cells are capable of turning into any specialized cell and it was found that these stem cells could grow into a sophisticated and complex organoid. (news-medical.net)
  • They found that this increased the number of local deformations in the nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • A certain gene that is only found in humans triggers brain stem cells to form a larger pool of stem cells. (bionity.com)
  • Surprisingly, the sensitive portions of the photoreceptor cells are found on the hind side of the retina, meaning that light needs to travel through living neural tissue before it can be detected. (bionity.com)
  • I found nuclein in every cell type I tested. (dnalc.org)
  • DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid - is found mainly in the nucleus. (dnalc.org)
  • The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5±0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38±0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A University of Colorado Cancer Center study, recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, found another home for Mer - inside cancer cells' nuclei - and perhaps another role for this protein that can point the way to novel, targeted treatments. (innovations-report.com)
  • Also, Onuf's nucleus is found almost symmetrically on both sides of the ventral horn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism of Onuf's nucleus has been found in dogs, monkeys, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • While plant cells share some characteristics with the cells found in the human body, such as a plasma layer, they are also different in many important ways. (ehow.com)
  • In the new study, the researchers studied three types of brain cells and found that among the cells, the Zika virus has more severe damages to astrocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • They found that in fetal astrocytes, there are marked signs of inflammation, showing that these cells are the major targets of the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Between 1876 and 1878 Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • It develops from nuclei in the embryo sac and its cells are triploid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Previous reports showed that the synergid cell of the embryo sac is essential for pollen tube guidance. (plantcell.org)
  • Therefore, the necessity of the sperm nucleus for fertilization was discussed for quite some time. (bionity.com)
  • The sperm cell of flowering plants cannot migrate unaided and must be transported by the pollen tube cell of the male gametophyte to achieve successful fertilization. (plantcell.org)
  • Established cancer treatment protocols fail to eliminate populations of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which develop resistance against the chemotherapeutic drugs and lead to cancer recurrence. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this latest experiment, the team used a new method of growth from the human stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • What is the definition of stem cells? (reference.com)
  • How the gene functions within the basal brain stem cells has been unknown so far. (bionity.com)
  • In this way, ARHGAP11B can trigger basal brain stem cells to form a larger pool of stem cells. (bionity.com)
  • Studies have shown that human acute myeloid leukemic stem cells can be eradicated by targeting CD44 [9] . (plos.org)
  • Neural stem cells, which are proliferating cells utilize both repair methods. (news-medical.net)
  • By blocking several functions of nucleolin, AS1411 can ultimately result in tumor cell death. (nanowerk.com)
  • Wieland Huttner, who supervised the study, highlights the perspectives of these findings: "An increase in glutaminolysis is a hallmark of highly proliferating cells, notably tumor cells. (bionity.com)
  • In recent years, the up-regulation of CD44 has served as a marker for tumor initiating cells in breast cancer and other cancer types. (plos.org)
  • These cells, known as cancer stem-like cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), have been observed in other cancers including prostate, pancreatic, brain and leukemia [7] - [9] , making CD44 an important target for cancer therapies. (plos.org)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • This represents the golgi body of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
  • Cytokinesis - responsible for the division of cytoplasm while the cell is dividing. (worldatlas.com)
  • Isolates from a grade I nucleus pulposus after 24 h in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Injectable hydrogels loaded with cells can be used as substitute material for the inner part of the IVD, the nucleus pulposus (NP), and provide an opportunity for minimally invasive treatment of IVD degeneration. (uminho.pt)
  • In some cases, a few cells are so close together that their nuclei appear to be touching one another, and they cannot be distinguished as separate nuclei. (mathworks.com)
  • Heart regeneration is commonly analyzed with proliferation markers localized in the nucleus, such as PCNA, Ki-67, or pHH3 or Thymidine analogs such as BrdU or 3 H-Thymidine. (springer.com)
  • Cells overexpressing miR301-inhibitor and Akt, exhibited increased migration and proliferation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Akt1 is a key player in PI3K-AktmTOR pathway that is vital for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • As a result, there is increased interest in developing cancer drugs that target EMT in addition to drugs that target cell proliferation and survival. (mathworks.com)
  • CD44 repression via NF-κB inhibition consequently decreased proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. (plos.org)
  • Smith SM, Lyu YL, Cai L (2014) NF-κB Affects Proliferation and Invasiveness of Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating CD44 Expression. (plos.org)
  • Small clusters of dye-retaining material could be seen in the nucleus (arrows), which upon further examination () appeared to be clusters of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant β-cells with enlarged nuclei are indicated by arrows. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The monophyletic carnivorous genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. (frontiersin.org)
  • discovered that some of its members possess the smallest nuclear genome size so far recorded for Angiosperms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genlisea aurea and G. margaretae were described to have a genome size of 63.6 and 63.4 Mbp/1C, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • p59 Estimates of essential genome size. (gsu.edu)
  • Flow cytometry is widely used to determine genome size and ploidy level in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Flow cytometry has become a widely used technique for genome size estimation and ploidy analysis in plant research because of its high throughput, accuracy and resolution as well as low operating cost per sample. (frontiersin.org)
  • So pristine is the fossil, reported scientists from the Swedish Museum of Natural History in the journal Science in March , that it is possible for them to estimate its genome size from the size of its cell nuclei -- and that it has remained substantially unchanged from its living descendants since the early Jurassic. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Their function is to arrange the formation of microtubules - structural polymers of the cell. (worldatlas.com)
  • Cilia - microtubules that assist in locomotion of the cell. (worldatlas.com)
  • p81 Dynein as the molecular motor in eukaryotic flagella and an agent in the transfer of cargo along microtubules in the cell. (gsu.edu)
  • A prominent feature of the siTop1 cells is genomic instability, with chromosomal aberrations and histone γ-H2AX foci associated with replication defects. (aacrjournals.org)