The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.

Human lipodystrophies linked to mutations in A-type lamins and to HIV protease inhibitor therapy are both associated with prelamin A accumulation, oxidative stress and premature cellular senescence. (1/80)

Lipodystrophic syndromes associated with mutations in LMNA, encoding A-type lamins, and with HIV antiretroviral treatments share several clinical characteristics. Nuclear alterations and prelamin A accumulation have been reported in fibroblasts from patients with LMNA mutations and adipocytes exposed to protease inhibitors (PI). As genetically altered lamin A maturation also results in premature ageing syndromes with lipodystrophy, we studied prelamin A expression and senescence markers in cultured human fibroblasts bearing six different LMNA mutations or treated with PIs. As compared to control cells, fibroblasts with LMNA mutations or treated with PIs had nuclear shape abnormalities and reduced proliferative activity that worsened with increasing cellular passages. They exhibited prelamin A accumulation, increased oxidative stress, decreased expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and premature cellular senescence. Inhibition of prelamin A farnesylation prevented cellular senescence and oxidative stress. Adipose tissue samples from patients with LMNA mutations or treated with PIs also showed retention of prelamin A, overexpression of the cell cycle checkpoint inhibitor p16 and altered mitochondrial markers. Thus, both LMNA mutations and PI treatment result in accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A and oxidative stress that trigger premature cellular senescence. These alterations could participate in the pathophysiology of lipodystrophic syndromes and lead to premature ageing complications.  (+info)

CD200 and its receptor, CD200R, modulate bone mass via the differentiation of osteoclasts. (2/80)

Fusion of macrophages is an essential step in the differentiation of osteoclasts, which play a central role in the development and remodeling of bone. Osteoclasts are important mediators of bone loss, which leads, for example, to osteoporosis. Macrophage fusion receptor/signal regulatory protein alpha (MFR/SIRPalpha) and its ligand CD47, which are members of the Ig superfamily (IgSF), have been implicated in the fusion of macrophages. We show that CD200, which is not expressed in cells that belong to the myeloid lineage, is strongly expressed in macrophages at the onset of fusion. By contrast, the CD200 receptor (CD200R), which, like CD200, belongs to the IgSF, is expressed only in cells that belong to the myeloid lineage, including osteoclasts, and in CD4+ T cells. Osteoclasts from CD200-/- mice differentiated at a reduced rate. Activation of the NF-kappaB and MAP kinase signaling pathways downstream of RANK, a receptor that plays a central role in the differentiation of osteoclasts, was depressed in these cells. A soluble recombinant protein that included the extracellular domain of CD200 rescued the fusion of CD200-/- macrophages and their activation downstream of RANK. Conversely, addition of a soluble recombinant protein that included the extracellular domain of CD200R or short-hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of the expression of CD200R prevented fusion. Thus CD200 engagement of the CD200R at the initiation of macrophage fusion regulated further differentiation to osteoclasts. Consistent with in vitro observations, CD200-/- mice contained fewer osteoclasts and accumulated more bone than CD200+/+ mice. The CD200-CD200R axis is therefore a putative regulator of bone mass, via the formation of osteoclasts.  (+info)

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS) with heterogeneity of nuclear grade: prognostic effects of quantitative nuclear assessment. (3/80)

BACKGROUND: Previously, 50% of patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) had more than one nuclear grade, and neither worst nor predominant nuclear grade was significantly associated with development of invasive carcinoma. Here, we used image analysis in addition to histologic evaluation to determine if quantification of nuclear features could provide additional prognostic information and hence impact prognostic assessments. METHODS: Nuclear image features were extracted from about 200 nuclei of each of 80 patients with DCIS who underwent lumpectomy alone, and received no adjuvant systemic therapy. Nuclear images were obtained from 20 representative nuclei per duct, from each of a group of 5 ducts, in two separate fields, for 10 ducts. Reproducibility of image analysis features was determined, as was the ability of features to discriminate between nuclear grades. Patient information was available about clinical factors (age and method of DCIS detection), pathologic factors (DCIS size, nuclear grade, margin size, and amount of parenchymal involvement), and 39 image features (morphology, densitometry, and texture). The prognostic effects of these factors and features on the development of invasive breast cancer were examined with Cox step-wise multivariate regression. RESULTS: Duplicate measurements were similar for 89.7% to 97.4% of assessed image features. For the pooled assessment with approximately 200 nuclei per patient, a discriminant function with one densitometric and two texture features was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with nuclear grading, and provided 78.8% correct jackknifed classification of a patient's nuclear grade. In multivariate assessments, image analysis nuclear features had significant prognostic associations (p +info)

A novel function of plant histone H1: microtubule nucleation and continuous plus end association. (4/80)

In higher plant cells, various microtubular arrays can be seen despite of their lack of structurally defined microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) like centrosomes in animal cells. Little is known about the molecular properties of the microtubule-organizing centers in higher plant cells. The nuclear surface contains one of these microtubule-organizing centers and generates microtubules radially toward the cell periphery (radial microtubules). Previously, we reported that histone H1 possessed the microtubule-organizing activity, and it was suggested that histone H1 localized on the nuclear surfaces in Tobacco BY-2 cells (Nakayama, T., Ishii, T., Hotta, T., and Mizuno, K. J. Biol. Chem. (submitted)). Here we show that histone H1 forms ring-shaped complexes with tubulin, and these complexes nucleated and elongated the radial microtubules continuously (processively) associating with their proximal ends where the incorporation of tubulin occurred. Furthermore, the polarity of radial microtubules was determined to be proximal end plus. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the isolated nuclei revealed that histone H1 localized on the nuclear surfaces, distinct from that in the chromatin. These results indicate that radial microtubules are organized by a novel MTOC that is totally different from MTOCs previously found in either plant or animal cells.  (+info)

Automated learning of generative models for subcellular location: building blocks for systems biology. (5/80)

The goal of location proteomics is the systematic and comprehensive study of protein subcellular location. We have previously developed automated, quantitative methods to identify protein subcellular location families, but there have been no effective means of communicating their patterns to integrate them with other information for building cell models. We built generative models of subcellular location that are learned from a collection of images so that they not only represent the pattern, but also capture its variation from cell to cell. Our models contain three components: a nuclear model, a cell shape model and a protein-containing object model. We built models for six patterns that consist primarily of discrete structures. To validate the generated images, we showed that they are recognized with reasonable accuracy by a classifier trained on real images. We also showed that the model parameters themselves can be used as features to discriminate the classes. The models allow the synthesis of images with the expectation that they are drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the images used to train them. They can potentially be combined for many proteins to yield a high resolution location map in support of systems biology.  (+info)

The human granulocyte nucleus: Unusual nuclear envelope and heterochromatin composition. (6/80)

 (+info)

Epidermal expression of the truncated prelamin A causing Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: effects on keratinocytes, hair and skin. (7/80)

 (+info)

p300 (histone acetyltransferase) biomarker predicts prostate cancer biochemical recurrence and correlates with changes in epithelia nuclear size and shape. (8/80)

 (+info)

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains most of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. The shape of the cell nucleus can vary widely among different cell types and can be influenced by various factors, including the organization of the nuclear envelope, the distribution of chromatin (the complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that makes up chromosomes), and the presence or absence of a nucleolus (a structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized).

The shape of the cell nucleus can be described in several ways, including:

* Spherical: The nucleus has a round, ball-like shape.
* Ellipsoidal: The nucleus has an oval or ellipse-like shape.
* Irregular: The nucleus has a shape that is not easily described as spherical or ellipsoidal and may be lobed, indented, or have other irregularities.

The shape of the cell nucleus can provide important clues about the function and health of a cell. For example, certain diseases and conditions, such as cancer, can cause changes in the shape of the nucleus. In addition, some researchers have suggested that the shape of the nucleus may be related to the mechanical properties of the cell and its ability to migrate or change shape in response to its environment.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Poison Control Centers are specialized organizations that provide immediate, free, and expert advice and treatment recommendations for exposure to potentially harmful substances, also known as poisons. They are staffed by trained healthcare professionals, including medical toxicologists, nurses, pharmacists, and poison information providers. These centers manage a wide range of poisoning cases, from accidental ingestions in children to intentional overdoses and chemical exposures in adults. They offer 24/7 emergency hotline services to the public, healthcare providers, and first responders for poison-related emergencies and provide valuable resources for poison prevention and education. The primary goal of Poison Control Centers is to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with poison exposures and promote overall public health and safety.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

The nuclear envelope is a complex and double-membrane structure that surrounds the eukaryotic cell's nucleus. It consists of two distinct membranes: the outer nuclear membrane, which is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and the inner nuclear membrane, which is closely associated with the chromatin and nuclear lamina.

The nuclear envelope serves as a selective barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, controlling the exchange of materials and information between these two cellular compartments. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are embedded in the nuclear envelope at sites where the inner and outer membranes fuse, forming aqueous channels that allow for the passive or active transport of molecules, such as ions, metabolites, and RNA-protein complexes.

The nuclear envelope plays essential roles in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and chromosome organization. Additionally, it is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle, undergoing disassembly and reformation during mitosis to facilitate equal distribution of genetic material between daughter cells.

Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions essential for the cell's survival and proper functioning. They can be thought of as the "organs" of the cell, and they are typically membrane-bound to separate them from the rest of the cellular cytoplasm. Examples of organelles include the nucleus (which contains the genetic material), mitochondria (which generate energy for the cell), ribosomes (which synthesize proteins), endoplasmic reticulum (which is involved in protein and lipid synthesis), Golgi apparatus (which modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for transport), lysosomes (which break down waste materials and cellular debris), peroxisomes (which detoxify harmful substances and produce certain organic compounds), and vacuoles (which store nutrients and waste products). The specific organelles present in a cell can vary depending on the type of cell and its function.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

... paraspeckles are irregularly shaped compartments in the interchromatin space of the nucleus. First documented in HeLa cells, ... Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a ... "The Nucleus". MBInfo. "Learn about the Cell Nucleus". cellnucleus.com. Website covering structure and function of the nucleus ... of the cell volume.: 178 The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells.: 12 In human cells, the diameter of the nucleus ...
Zooming, note the irregular cell- and nucleus-shapes. IDH1 R132H in anaplastic oligodendroglioma Surgery can help reduce ... Since typically the cells of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma have already migrated into the surrounding healthy brain tissue at ... Anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a neuroepithelial tumor which is believed to originate from oligodendrocytes, a cell type of ... from precursor stem cells of the oligodendrocytes. This tumor occurs primarily in middle adulthood with a frequency peak in the ...
Lans H, Hoeijmakers JH (March 2006). "Cell biology: ageing nucleus gets out of shape". Nature. 440 (7080): 32-34. Bibcode: ... HPGS is caused by mutations that weaken the structure of the cell nucleus, making normal cell division difficult. The histone ... The gene, known as lamin A (LMNA), makes a protein necessary for holding the nucleus of the cell together. When this gene gets ... A study that compared HGPS patient cells with the skin cells from young and elderly normal human subjects found similar defects ...
Cells are cigar-shaped, 7 to 45 μm long and 1 to 8 μm wide. The cells are bundled such that the long axes of cells are parallel ... The tips of the cells are rounded or acutely pointed. Cells contain a single nucleus and one parietal chloroplast; the ... Species identification relies on details of the cell size and shape. See the NCBI webpage on Quadrigula. Data extracted from ... Quadrigula forms colonies of two, four, or cells within a common mucilaginous envelope. ...
One or several chloroplasts may be present in a single cell. The shape of the chloroplast may be star-shaped (in Zygnema), ... Each cell contains a single nucleus. The chloroplasts of the Zygnematophyceae are large, typically axile but sometimes ... In conjugation, cells or filaments of opposite sex line up, and tubes form between corresponding cells. The male cells then ... The cells then meet and fuse to form a zygote, which later undergoes meiosis to produce new cells or filaments. As in land ...
Cell bodies are of medium size and oval- or pyriform-shape. These cells characteristically present coarse Nissl granules and ... The posterior thoracic nucleus, (Clarke's column, column of Clarke, dorsal nucleus, nucleus dorsalis of Clarke) is a group of ... and a sacral nucleus in the middle and lower part of the sacral region. Nerve cells in the posterior thoracic nucleus are most ... It is represented, however, in the other regions by scattered cells, which become aggregated to form a cervical nucleus ...
The cell shape is variable but is mostly obovoid to ellipsoid. The lateral cell margins maybe somewhat angular leading to a ... The nucleus typically lies in the posterior half of the cell. The mitochondria have tubular cristae. Organelles called ... Provided with a nucleus and contracting vesicles. - Carter, 1865 In 1917, it was classified as being one of the "simplest and ... Members of this genus are known to reproduce asexually through cell division. Whether sexual reproduction occurs is currently ...
As the cell matures, it develops multiple parietal chloroplasts along its long axis. Cells have one nucleus (uninucleate) when ... Schroederia consists of solitary cells that are needle- or spindle-shaped. They may be straight or curved. The cells end in ... Schroederia produces zoospores with two flagella, which are released when the mother cell's wall tears open. Zoospores contain ... Species are distinguished from one another by their overall shape and size. Schroederia reproduces excusively by asexual means ...
Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal, or rectangular in shape. Meristematic tissue cells have a large nucleus ... Cells of this type of tissue are roughly spherical or polyhedral to rectangular in shape, with thin cell walls. New cells ... Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent cell nucleus. The dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few ... Parenchyma cells called idioblasts have metabolic waste. Spindle shape fiber also contained into this cell to support them and ...
Each individual thallus consists of a single cell with a single nucleus. There is a holdfast where the alga is attached to the ... Each individual thallus consists of a single cell with a long stipe and a terminal cup-shaped or flattened disc. The umbrella ... Evidence of a polypeptide in whole cells and anucleated cells". Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 55 (1-4): 11-18. doi: ... If the plant is broken in two pieces, each is able to survive and regenerate new parts, even the one that lacks a nucleus, ...
Gametocytes are "kidney-shaped" and are smaller than the host cell nucleus. This species is found in Brazil in the Amazon area ... Infection does not enlarge or distort the host red blood cells. Each infected cell generally yields 4 to 8 new merozoites. ... Blood stages of the parasite are described to occupy at one pole of the host cell. ...
This positioning generates a C-shape around the nucleus of the cell. Surrounding the C-shaped rod is an accessory rod structure ... Bihospites cells contain one indented nucleus, which is associated with the feeding pocket via the C-shaped rod apparatus ... Each cell surface is covered by both rod-shaped and spherical-shaped epibiotic bacteria that may share a commensalistic or ... The rod-shaped epibionts form bands along the cell with rows of spherical-shaped epibionts arranged between each band. Each ...
As single cells, they reproduce asexually by budding. Their nerves have no cell body and no nuclei; nothing to separate them ... The brain is large, shaped long and narrow, and is encased in a bony cage. The skull is one end of this jointless, flexible, ... Kzinti ears are hairless, pink, and shaped liked a segment of a Chinese parasol (or cocktail umbrella); they can fold back flat ... Other Tnuctip inventions were designed to shape Thrint society to weaken it. Sunflowers encouraged a trend for the slavers to ...
Mature cells have multiple nuclei (i.e. are multinucleate). Each cell has multiple chloroplasts lining the outer wall of the ... cell; each chloroplast is angular in shape and lacks pyrenoids. Bracteacoccus reproduces asexually by producing zoospores. The ... Bracteacoccus consists of solitary, typically spherical cells from 4 to 110 μm in diameter. ...
Sporocyte nuclei are large and spherical, with around 4-5 chromosomes in total in a general V-shape, which is typical for ... The nuclei lie around the periphery of the cell. Dinospore movement is via flagellar locomotion. In the forms rich with starch ... The first form consists of small plasmodia that contain a maximum of 8 nuclei, which are assumed to give rise to dinospores. ... What is clear though is that the initial infection site is inside the nucleus of the host. Juvenile trophozoite generally lie ...
... tetras consists of cells in colonies of four in a cross shape. Cells are spindle-shaped, with the base attached to a ... The cell wall is smooth. Cells contain one nucleus and a single, parietal chloroplast with one pyrenoid. Marthea reproduces ... Unusually, the autospores show amoeboid movement for some time, before settling in their usual shape and being released from ... central mass of mucilage, while the apex of the cells are pointed. ...
The schizonts and gametocytes caused hypertrophy and distortion of host cell and nucleus. The nucleus may be displaced. Pigment ... The schizonts are usually polar in position, rounded in shape, and may produce over 100 merozoites. Large schizonts visibly ...
They are cylindrical in shape with folds along the surface of the cell. The nucleus is central. The nucleus is off center. A ... After undergoing syzygy, the cells have two nuclei. This new form migrates to the hepatopancreas via its openings into the ... sp.), a gregarine from the digestive tract of Anaspides tasmaniæ (Thompson). J Cell Sci s2-55: 155-175 v t e (Articles with ... spherical ball like structure may be present at the anterior end of the cell and connected to the body of the cell by a narrow ...
... a large single cell with multiple nuclei. While nutrients are available, the network-shaped plasmodium can grow to a foot or ... and the cell cycle. The two vegetative cell types, amoebae and plasmodia, differ markedly in morphology, physiology and ... For dumbbell-shaped microplasmodia, often termed Amoeboid plasmodia, stiffening of the cortex in the rear versus the front ... In particular, plasmodia placed at entrances to special geometrically shaped mazes would emerge at exits of the maze that were ...
The cells were anaplastic, varying in size and shape; and they appeared to have little cytoplasm. The nuclei of the cells were ... Melittin has a background in research as a possible cancer drug due to its activity against malignant cells. Tumor-associated ... Cannabinoids suppress Lewis lung carcinoma cell growth. The mechanism of this action was shown to be inhibition of DNA ... In large tumor nodules, the cells grew, without patterning, into confluent sheets. The nodules had capillaries predominantly ...
A single, spherical nucleus is present in the anterior region of the cell body. Retortamonas cysts are pear-shaped, and smaller ... forming a cap of the cell with a thickened cyst wall. The cysts also contain a distinct anterior nucleus, but the flagella ... an enlarged feeding groove acting as the mouth of the organism and a small nucleus located in the anterior region of the cell ... Retortamonas is then able to engulf them into the cell and form an internal food vacuole. The cyst stage's main function is to ...
Cells are ovoid in shape, with one nucleus at the base of the cell. There is one central, stellate chloroplast with a pyrenoid ... Characiella rukwae consists of colonies of cells embedded in a gelatinous matrix. ...
Gametocytes, while varying in shape tend to be round or oval, do not exceed the size of the nucleus and stick to it. The type ... Haemamoeba Mature schizonts are larger than the host cell nucleus and commonly displace it. Gametocytes are large, round, oval ... The schizonts apically or lateroapically placed and are rounded or irregularly shaped. The host nucleus may be tilted. The type ... Giovannolaia Schizonts contain plentiful cytoplasm, are larger than the host cell nucleus and frequently displace it. They are ...
... and a cytoskeleton which defines the cell's organization and shape. The nucleus stores the cell's DNA, which is divided into ... The cell wall also prevents over-expansion when water enters the cell. The major polysaccharides making up the primary cell ... Some cell products can leave in a vesicle through exocytosis. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane known as the ... are surrounded by a cell wall. This is a layer outside the cell membrane, providing the cell with structural support, ...
The nucleus can be found in the periphery of the cell. Organic spicules have been found on Raphidiophrys heterophryoidea. ... Axopodia are numerous and connect to a centroplast found in a spherical body shape. Microtubules extend from the centroplast to ... In Raphidiophrys contractilis it has been observed that upon capturing prey, its axopodia will contract toward the cell body, ...
The nucleus is prominently at the centre of the cell. The unusual feature of the cell is that it contains reddish-brown ... Cells have convex dorsal margins and small oval shaped cells and their thecal plates are covered with areolae (circular ... acuminata cells are irregularly egg-shaped, dorsally convex and have large hypothecal plates with a more or less oval shape. ... The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large ...
... spheroidal cells surrounded by a smooth cell wall. Young cells have a single nucleus, but mature cells have nuclei (i.e. are ... Each cell has multiple chloroplasts lining the outer wall of the cell; each chloroplast is saucer-shaped when young and divided ... Cells may have secondary carotenoids present, giving the cells an orange color especially when old. Pseudomuriella reproduces ...
Their colonies consist of 8-20 cells and take on a spiral, star-like shape. They may also occur in a closed ring shape, but ... Within each cell is a nucleus at their center and 6-8 golden-brown chromatophores. Asterionella formosa colonies consist of ... To prevent the fungus from spreading, affected cells in the colony usually induce cell death. A. formosa laboratory models have ... Asterionella formosa has valves (siliceous plate that makes up a half of a diatom cell) that are long and narrow, with capitate ...
Infected cells have large numbers of abnormal chloroplasts, mitochondria and hypertrophied nuclei. Cells of CPsV-EG infected ... which are displaced toward nucleus periphery along the nuclear envelope. Sometimes nucleolus appear abnormally shaped. ... In general CPsV-EG-infection affects the upper epidermis of the leaf which is composed of non-tabular parenchyma cells covered ... Crystal idioblast (CI) containing cells are lacking in the palisade layer and protrude into the epidermis. The oil glands are ...
The infected cells are hypertrophied and distorted and their nuclei are displaced. The schizonts are polymorphic and contain 12 ... nuclei when apparently mature. Prematuration sexual stages may be irregularly shaped and larger than mature gametocytes. The ...
... of cell nuclei segmentation are often adapted to a variety of applications such as the detection of cancerous cell nuclei and ... In this paper, an automated entropy-based thresholding system for segmentation and quantification of cell nuclei from ... effectiveness of the proposed system was tested over 21 histologically stained images containing approximately 1800 cell nuclei ... The segmentation and quantification of cell nuclei are two very significant tasks in the analysis of histological images. ...
... paraspeckles are irregularly shaped compartments in the interchromatin space of the nucleus. First documented in HeLa cells, ... Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a ... "The Nucleus". MBInfo. "Learn about the Cell Nucleus". cellnucleus.com. Website covering structure and function of the nucleus ... of the cell volume.: 178 The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells.: 12 In human cells, the diameter of the nucleus ...
Iris stromal cell nuclei deform to more elongated shapes during pharmacologically-induced miosis and mydriasis. / Rashidi, Neda ... Iris stromal cell nuclei deform to more elongated shapes during pharmacologically-induced miosis and mydriasis. Experimental ... Iris stromal cell nuclei deform to more elongated shapes during pharmacologically-induced miosis and mydriasis. In: ... title = "Iris stromal cell nuclei deform to more elongated shapes during pharmacologically-induced miosis and mydriasis", ...
Histones are structural proteins in the cell nucleus. DNA wraps around histones, giving chromosomes their shape. Histones can ... Epigenetic modifications can be maintained from cell to cell as cells divide and, in some cases, can be inherited through the ... they influence the production of proteins in cells. This regulation helps ensure that each cell produces only proteins that are ... Epigenetics is the study of how cells control gene activity without changing the DNA sequence."Epi-"means on or above in Greek, ...
Loss of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) bears disastrous consequences for the patient, ... show round-shaped nuclei of cells cultivated on structure 1 (f) in contrast to oval-shaped nuclei of control cells (e). B, ... It is well known that the cell cytoplasm and nucleus shape have a strong impact on cell fate. Figure 2A clearly demonstrates ... Detachment of Islets With Correctly Shaped Hexagonal Cells. The above-described islets with polygonal-shaped cells were found ...
... but almost every nucleus is different - in shape, size, molecular composition, spatial organisation, and dynamics through the ... Every eukaryote has a nucleus, a double lipid membrane-bound compartment that encapsulates the genome, ... Each eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus that houses its genome. However, despite this common feature, nuclei can differ ... Every eukaryote has a nucleus, a double lipid membrane-bound compartment that encapsulates the genome, but almost every nucleus ...
Here we combine theory and experiment to analyze the dynamics of euchromatin organization as pluripotent zebrafish cells exit ... DNA is packed inside the cell nucleus in the form of chromatin, which consists of DNA, proteins such as histones, and RNA. ... Higher-order inter-chromosomal Hubs shape 3D genome organization in the nucleus. Cell 174, 744-757 (2018). ... In contrast to zebrafish embryonic cells, nuclei of these cells do contain heterochromatin and nucleoli. Although this hampers ...
8g). In control cells TiJOR of CLDN3 staining slightly increases over time most likely due to changes in cell shape as a result ... In control cells, CLDN3 localized predominantly at the TJ and only a smaller proportion was detected in the nuclei (Fig. 9a-c ... In all cell types, we observe the redirection of CLDN3 from TJs into nuclei and the accumulation of nuclear pSMAD2-C. There was ... TGF-β1 initiates accumulation of pSMAD2-C (pSMAD2) at centrioles of motile cilia and cell nuclei. a-c hBEpC cultivated at ALI ...
Positive cells were found in 4 of 9 blocks of lung tissue. The shape and location of the antigen-positive cells indicated that ... Immunohistochemical analysis showing influenza A antigen-specific staining in nuclei of cells lining the alveoli (A). To ... alveolar epithelial cells and progenitor cells of both type I and type II cells. This cell type has been shown to contain ... Immunohistochemical analysis showing influenza A antigen-specific staining in nuclei of cells lining the alveoli (A). To ...
Nucleus of a human cell: • Chromosomes:Thread-like structures • DNA:Double helix-shaped molecule • Genes:Units of hereditary ... Genetic Foundations of Development • Genes and chromosomes • Mitosis:Cell nucleus duplicates • Meiosis: cell division forms ... Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes Gene: a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the ... Sickle-cell anemia - red blood cells affected • Cystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, spina bifida, Tay-sachs and Huntington ...
Many box-like cells make up each crescent-shaped leaf cross section. And within each cell is a tiny orange nucleus-its central ... This image captures a single human stem cell, which can diversify as needed to form other types of cells. This particular stem ... Some disease-causing toxins and germs can hijack this process, using it to infect cells. Maria Voigt, RCSB Protein Data Bank ... This minute cage-like structure is actually a protein that can help shuttle molecules in and around the cell-and can be broken ...
These cells express a dual epithelial and smooth muscle phenotype and are likely of ectodermal origin. ... Myoepithelial cells are seen in many secretory organs including salivary glands, where they are usually encountered in the ... Spindle cell myoepithelioma. Note the cigar-shaped nuclei and the streaming fascicular pattern. View Media Gallery ... Spindle cell myoepitheliomas have central fusiform/cigar-shaped nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and tapered ends, and they are ...
Study reveals how cells nuclei keep their shape. Scientists discover a protein that keeps cellular nuclei from shriveling, a ... Pioneering Scientific Research Research Areas Behavioral Research Biostatistics Cell & Gene Therapy Cell Biology Data Science ... Rectal Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Sarcoma Sickle Cell Disease Skin Cancer Stomach Cancer Testicular Cancer Thyroid Cancer ... Lymphedema Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Mesothelioma Multiple Myeloma Myelodysplastic Syndrome Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...
The rod cells of nocturnal mammals pack their DNA in a special way that turns the entire cell into a narrow light-collecting ... During this relocation, the cells nucleus changes shape from an ellipse to a sphere, and shrinks by about 40%. ... their rod cells pack their DNA in a special way that turns the nucleus of each cell into a light-collecting lens. Their ... Their retinas are loaded with rod cells, which are more light-sensitive than the cone cells that allow for colour vision. ...
... individual chromosomes are spread out in the cell nucleus. During metaphase, the nucleus dissolves and the cells chromosomes ... DNA is made of two linked strands that wind around each other to resemble a twisted ladder - a shape known as a double helix. ... Somatic Cells. Somatic cells are the cells in the body other than sperm and egg cells (which are called germ cells). In humans ... sperm cells are called germ cells, in contrast to the other cells of the body, which are called somatic cells. MORE ...
Our cells nucleus contains two meters of DNA that must be propagated without error each time a cell divides. When cells go ... This X-shape arrangement of chromosomes is required to ensure that each of the two daughter cells receive an identical copy of ... When cells divide, the DNA becomes packed as tightly organised X-shaped chromosomes that are then evenly distributed to the two ... "It is exciting to finally understand at a molecular and atomic level how the iconic X-shape of chromosomes during cell division ...
It moves between the cell cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it turns on genes that maintain male-typical features. The ... One shape predominates when the receptor is inactive and floating free in the cytoplasm; the other shape forms after an ... That duplex then moves into the nucleus, where it binds to DNA and turns on genes. This how the estrogen receptor is known to ... This shape-shifting ability helps explain some long-standing observations about androgen hormones, including the fact that they ...
Several proteins help shape the ERs structure within the cytoplasm (gel-like fluid) of a cell. Mutations in these ER-shaping ... The ER is a complex structure, reaching from the nucleus to the outer edges of the cell. It has many interconnected but ... One forms a protective membrane surrounding the nucleus. Another, the "peripheral" ER, extends out across the cell. The ... Each small structure, or organelle, inside a cell has a specific function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that ...
A red blood cell is a tiny, disc-like cell (biconcave shape) which has no nucleus. In the cytoplasm of a red blood cell, there ... Cells organisation. You may think that all the cells in your body and the cells in a plant are all alike. Well, that is not the ... Guard cells are cells in between a stoma. They are specialised in such a way that the cell wall in the inner side of the guard ... Root hair cells are actually modified epidermal cells of the roots. A root hair cell has a long and narrow protrusion. A root ...
A surprising finding from USC reveals key details about how cancer cells metastasize and suggests new therapeutic approaches ... cells lacked GRP78 in the nucleus. The green staining depicts the cytoskeletal protein F-actin which controls cell shape and ... But when cells are under stress, the chaperone protein migrates to the cells nucleus, where it alters gene activities and ... they compared lung cancer cells engineered to over-express GRP78 in the nucleus to cells lacking GRP78 in the nucleus in order ...
... have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required ... One of the fundamental properties of the genomes of higher organisms is the non-random arrangement of DNA in the cell nucleus. ... the scientists were able to identify 50 cellular factors that determine the location of genes in the cell nucleus. This list ... have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required ...
... spindle-shaped cells with slender nuclei and lacking visible nucleoli).. * Spindle-B cells (spindle-shaped cells with larger ... Epithelioid cells (larger polygonal cells with one or more prominent nucleoli).. * Intermediate cells (similar to but smaller ... Cell type is the most commonly used predictor of outcome following enucleation, with spindle-A cell melanomas carrying the best ... Most primary intraocular melanomas contain variable proportions of epithelioid, spindle-A, and spindle-B cells (mixed-cell ...
They see how the pattern of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) forms the double helix ladder shape of DNA, ... Expected answers: DNA is found in the nucleus of our cells. It is like a recipe. It is shaped like a double-helix ladder. The ... Cells are in all living things, and contained within each cell is a nucleus. Within the nucleus is genetic information, in the ... The mRNA travels outside the cells nucleus into the cells cytoplasm and then attaches to ribosomes, which are proteins that ...
... the thin membrane surrounding a cells chromosomes, reveal unexpected wrinkles ... sometimes taking on unexpected shapes. - Rachel Tompa, Ph.D. ... SciShots: One happy cell (nucleus). Explorations of the nuclear ... the thin membrane that surrounds the cells nucleus. Each of our cells houses all its chromosomes inside the nucleus, as well ... The cells these scientists work with are human stem cells, derived from an adult donors skin cells and engineered to revert to ...
Tumor cells diffusely arranged, round or irregular in shape, large nucleus, remarkable cell atypia; LCA+, CD45RO+, L26 (-). ... F: Pathological examination showing round or irregular tumor cells, large nucleus (round or irregular), less cytoplasm, ... T-cell lymphoma. 3. 2 years/M/R. Vision: light perception; a diffuse red-purple soft tissue mass(15mm×16mm) in the middle of ... Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a T-cell lymphoma.. Case 3: A 2-year-old male was referred because of a " ...
Popular Sciences 34th annual Best of Whats of New awards include life-saving vaccines-and 99 other technologies shaping our ... The disease occurs when a genetic mutation changes the shape of a protein in the nuclei of a carriers cells. The faulty ... The rig can restore cell service on its own 5G or LTE mobile network, which is powered by a small retractable cell tower and ... Dual-Cell ULED 4K TV U9DG by Hisense: A new way to make on-screen images pop. ...
... spindle cells (sarcomatoid cells) with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval elongated nuclei (white arrows); occasional mitotic ... Discussion: Biopsy of a skin lesion showed (Image E): microvascular proliferation (varying vessel shape and size with vascular ... CD4 cell count at that time was 125 cells/mm3 and a viral load was not obtained. CMX prophylaxis was continued for a few months ... Laboratory Examination (on admission) and Imaging:CD4 cell count: 34 cells/mm3 ; viral load is pending. Hemoglobin: 10.7, ...
Lou, X and Hamprecht, F A (2012). Learning to Segment Dense Cell Nuclei with Shape Prior. CVPR 2012. Proceedings. 1012-1018*DOI ... Sommer, C, Fiaschi, L, Hamprecht, F A and Gerlich, D (2012). Learning-based Mitotic Cell Detection in Histopathological Images ... An Objective Comparison of Cell Tracking Algorithms. Nature Methods. 14 1141-1152*DOI ...
The shape it takes has a profound influence on which genes in a cell are turned on or turned off. And this 3D architecture ... Although DNA is composed of a linear sequence of bases, it doesnt exist inside the cell nucleus in a simple, straight form. ... varies from cell type to cell type and even between cell states. To properly understand how the genome works to coordinate gene ... Paul D. Kaufman, PhD, professor of molecular, cell & cancer biology; Thoru Pederson, PhD, professor of biochemistry & molecular ...
Shape Interpolates between Manhattan and Euclidean distance: (1.000 to 2.000). Lower values give four spikes stars nuclei to ... This filter is found in the image window menu under Filters → Render → Noise → Cell Noise…. ...
  • Given its fundamental and universal functional roles in protecting the DNA and regulating the exchange of information and control machinery between genome and cytoplasm, one might ask the question: why are there so many ways to build and remodel a nucleus? (europa.eu)
  • Several proteins help shape the ER's structure within the cytoplasm (gel-like fluid) of a cell. (nih.gov)
  • In the cytoplasm of a red blood cell, there is a red pigment called haemoglobin. (co.zw)
  • A root hair cell has a large vacuole with lots of mitochondria in the cytoplasm. (co.zw)
  • The presence of mitochondria in large number in the cytoplasm of the root hair cell helps for more absorption of mineral salts by active transport (Remember, active transport will only occur in the presence of energy provided by the mitochondria). (co.zw)
  • Since these lignified cell walls prevent free passage of water and nutrients, the cytoplasm dies. (co.zw)
  • The cell body, also called the soma, contains the neuron's nucleus and most of its cytoplasm, along with molecular machinery for building and transporting proteins critical to the cell's function. (brainfacts.org)
  • Histologically, ALCL is characterized by sheets of large pleomorphic cells with abundant cytoplasm, horseshoe- or wreath-shaped nuclei, and multiple prominent nucleoli. (medscape.com)
  • Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. (coursehero.com)
  • A typical eukaryotic nucleus is separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane. (preservearticles.com)
  • Nucleus is a specialized protoplasmic body which is usually spherical or oval in shape and is much denser than the cytoplasm. (preservearticles.com)
  • In the mature plant cell, with the formation of the vacuole, it lies in the lining layer of the cytoplasm. (preservearticles.com)
  • Wright's stain gives the nucleus a deep purple color and the cytoplasm a pale robin's-egg blue in typical cells. (dictionary.com)
  • The histiocytes display bean shaped indented/grooved nuclei and abundant pink cytoplasm. (dentalcare.com)
  • High power histologic image showing histiocytes with grooved vesicular nuclei and abundant pink cytoplasm. (dentalcare.com)
  • It is distinguished from the area of the CYTOPLASM or CELL NUCLEUS in which virus components are being synthesized and assembled, known as VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES. (bvsalud.org)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA wraps around histones, giving chromosomes their shape. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aneuploidy is an abnormality in the number of chromosomes in a cell due to loss or duplication. (genome.gov)
  • When cells divide, the DNA becomes packed as tightly organised X-shaped chromosomes that are then evenly distributed to the two daughter cells. (le.ac.uk)
  • These iconic X shape chromosomes become visible in the light microscope. (le.ac.uk)
  • Ever since the invention of the first light microscopes more than 100 years ago, scientists have puzzled over how chromosomes receive their X-shape during cell division. (le.ac.uk)
  • This X-shape arrangement of chromosomes is required to ensure that each of the two daughter cells receive an identical copy of the genome. (le.ac.uk)
  • Now, a team of researchers led by Professor Daniel Panne at the University of Leicester and Dr Benjamin Rowland at the Netherlands Cancer Institute have determined at a molecular level how the iconic X-shape of chromosomes is generated during cell division. (le.ac.uk)
  • The team studied a key component of a ring-shaped protein complex called cohesin that is known to be important for holding chromosomes together during cell division. (le.ac.uk)
  • Using biochemical and imaging techniques using a light microscope the team found that when they modified key amino acids, the familiar X-shaped chromosomes could not form any longer. (le.ac.uk)
  • Professor Panne said: "It is exciting to finally understand at a molecular and atomic level how the iconic X-shape of chromosomes during cell division is generated. (le.ac.uk)
  • In addition to addressing basic questions about the mechanisms of how genomes are organized in intact cells, the ability to map gene positions in a large number of samples and cells has already been used to detect very rare chromosome translocation events in cancer and to ask what cellular factors determine where chromosomes break. (nih.gov)
  • In that study researchers used a method derived from HIPMap to probe mechanisms that contribute to the susceptibility of chromosomes to break and form a cancer-causing translocation between the NPM1 gene and the ALK gene in a cancer known as anaplastic large cell lymphoma. (nih.gov)
  • Each of our cells houses all its chromosomes inside the nucleus, as well as many specialized proteins that regulate how our genes switch on or off. (alleninstitute.org)
  • He developed the chromosome conformation capture technologies, biochemical techniques for determining how DNA segments interact and are linked to one another, which are the heart of the "3C," "5C," "Hi-C" and "Micro-C" tools used by researchers worldwide to map the structure and organization of chromosomes inside cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells and have a "true" nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and rod-shaped chromosomes. (coursehero.com)
  • Furthermore, chromosomes are structures within the nucleus that are made up of DNA, the genetic material. (coursehero.com)
  • Chromosomes are condensed DNA strands bunched together in different shapes which help keep DNA tidy in a cell's nucleus. (zmescience.com)
  • They used CRISPR to manipulate the chromosomes contained by a unique reproductive stem cell - the mouse which they created specifically for this experiment. (zmescience.com)
  • Genes are contained in chromosomes in the cell nucleus and mitochondria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In humans, somatic (nongerm) cell nuclei normally have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A karyotype illustrates the full set of chromosomes in a person's cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Germ cells (egg and sperm) divide through meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes to 23-half the number in somatic cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the cell's genetic material, contained in chromosomes within the cell nucleus and mitochondria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Except for certain cells (for example, sperm and egg cells and red blood cells), the cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the complete set of DNA in a cell (genome), all of the modifications that regulate the activity (expression) of the genes is known as the epigenome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because epigenetic changes help determine whether genes are turned on or off, they influence the production of proteins in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Using a sophisticated form of RNA sequencing they compared lung cancer cells engineered to over-express GRP78 in the nucleus to cells lacking GRP78 in the nucleus in order to learn which genes were affected. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To our big surprise, we found that the key genes being regulated by GRP78 in the nucleus are mainly involved with cell migration and invasion," Lee said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • ID2 typically suppresses genes (including EGFR), many of which allow cells to migrate. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our scientists pursue every aspect of cancer research-from exploring the biology of genes and cells, to developing immune-based treatments, uncovering the causes of metastasis, and more. (mskcc.org)
  • Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper three-dimensional (3D) positioning of genes. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have long known that most genes occupy preferred 3D positions in the nucleus and that the location of genes matters for their function, but it has been difficult to determine the molecular players and mechanisms that determine the positions. (nih.gov)
  • In the study, NCI researchers, led by Tom Misteli, Ph.D., associate director, NCI Center for Cancer Research, used HIPMap and a method known as RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to screen nearly 700 proteins in the nucleus to identify those that are involved in the 3D positioning of several human genes. (nih.gov)
  • By collecting data continuously from automated microscopes for 27 days and then analyzing more than three million data points, the scientists were able to identify 50 cellular factors that determine the location of genes in the cell nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • They see how the pattern of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) forms the double helix ladder shape of DNA, and serves as the code for the steps required to make genes. (teachengineering.org)
  • The shape it takes has a profound influence on which genes in a cell are turned on or turned off. (umassmed.edu)
  • DNA sequences are replicated by the cell prior to cell division and may include genes, intergenic spacers, and regions that bind to regulatory proteins. (wordnik.com)
  • Twenty-two of the pairs, chromosome numbers 1 to 22, the autosomes, are normally homologous (identical in size, shape, and position and number of genes). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Accurate results of cell nuclei segmentation are often adapted to a variety of applications such as the detection of cancerous cell nuclei and the observation of overlapping cellular events occurring during wound healing process in the human body. (hindawi.com)
  • Bringing together comparative genomics, phylogenetics, quantitative cell biology and experimental evolution in multiple microbial model systems drawn from across the eukaryotic tree, we set out to elucidate the genomic, biophysical and evolutionary factors that determine nuclear dynamics and remodelling - karyodynamics - within the context of cellular architecture and function. (europa.eu)
  • This triggered an increase in paracellular permeability via cellular redistribution of claudin 3 (CLDN3) from TJs into cell nuclei followed by disruption of epithelial integrity and formation of epithelial lesions. (springer.com)
  • Myoepithelioma is a benign salivary gland tumor that consists entirely of myoepithelial cells with variable cellular morphologies including spindle, epithelioid, plasmacytoid, or clear cells. (medscape.com)
  • The research centers on a cellular chaperone protein known as GRP78, which helps regulate the folding of other proteins inside cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biologists at the Allen Institute have further engineered these stem cells to tag certain proteins or cellular structures with glowing fluorescent labels. (alleninstitute.org)
  • Therefore, the nucleus houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes, the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis. (coursehero.com)
  • These organelles are often called the "energy factories" of a cell because they are responsible for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy-carrying molecule, by conducting cellular respiration. (coursehero.com)
  • Proteolytic degradation is critical to the maintenance of appropriate levels of short-lived and regulatory proteins as important and diverse as those involved in cellular metabolism, heat shock and stress response, antigen presentation, modulation of cell surface receptors and ion channels, cell cycle regulation, transcription, and signalling factors. (novusbio.com)
  • To address these issues, we expressed Reelin ectopically in the developing mouse cortex, and the results showed that Reelin caused the leading processes of migrating neurons to assemble in the Reelin-rich region, which in turn induced their cell bodies to form cellular aggregates around Reelin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Histopathology revealed a densely cellular, expansive, poorly delimited neoplasm composed of malignant mesenchymal cells arranged in islands and cords, interspersed by numerous areas of irregularly mineralized osteoid matrix. (bvsalud.org)
  • The findings may yield new insights for genetic diseases affecting proteins that help shape the endoplasmic reticulum. (nih.gov)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that makes and distributes many substances the cell needs, such as proteins, lipids, and sugars. (nih.gov)
  • Typically, GRP78 resides in a part of the cell called the endoplasmic reticulum . (medicalxpress.com)
  • But the chaperone protein was long thought to exist primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The nucleus stores chromatin (DNA plus proteins) in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm.The nucleolus is a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs.The boundary of the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope.It consists of two phospholipid bilayers: an outer membrane and an inner membrane.The nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.Nuclear pores allow substances to enter and exit the nucleus. (coursehero.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum consists of peripheral tubular networks connected to sheet-like domains surrounding the nucleus. (scivee.tv)
  • A muscle cell is generally elongated and elastic containing mitochondria in large number. (co.zw)
  • Mitochondria are oval-shaped, double membrane organelles that have their own ribosomes and DNA. (coursehero.com)
  • This means that these key amino acids are required to form the X-shaped chromosome. (le.ac.uk)
  • Using chromosome conformation capture technologies in conjunction with advanced computational modeling and a range of imaging methods, the center will generate three-dimensional models of the human genome inside fibroblast cells during metaphase and interphase, as well as in embryonic stem cells in undifferentiated and differentiated states. (umassmed.edu)
  • What is the difference between Nucleus and Chromosome? (preservearticles.com)
  • The difference between Nucleus and Chromosome are Nucleus is a cell organelle Chromosome whereas is present in the nucleus. (preservearticles.com)
  • Through this approach, they managed to create a new species which, despite having a completely different chromosome package in their cells compared to natural mice, appears to be completely healthy and show normal behavior. (zmescience.com)
  • While some techniques only perform the task of cell nuclei segmentation and quantification, techniques that are capable of further detecting and classifying abnormal tumors (cell nuclei) that cause various types of cancer have also been proposed. (hindawi.com)
  • A myoepithelioma can be composed of one or a mixture of the above cell types, and a variable stromal component can be seen in these tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Analysis of mitosis and antimitotic drug responses in tumors by in vivo microscopy and single-cell pharmacodynamics. (nature.com)
  • Mason s trichrome and Van Geison s stains are specific for muscle cells and collagen fibers whereas Mallory s Phosphotungstic Acid (PTAH) and positive IHC marker desmin may aid to differentiate leiomyoma from other spindle cell tumors such as myofibroblastoma 4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Nuclear shape alteration in ocular tissues, which can be used as a metric for overall cell deformation, may also lead to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis that could affect the biomechanics of the tissue extracellular matrix. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Upon phosphorylation, R-SMADs recruit the co-SMAD SMAD-4 to form protein complexes that translocate into the nucleus and exhibit transcriptional activity. (springer.com)
  • This minute cage-like structure is actually a protein that can help shuttle molecules in and around the cell-and can be broken down when unneeded. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • In a cell, antisense DNA serves as the template for producing messenger RNA (mRNA), which directs the synthesis of a protein. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC used imaging techniques to study how the protein GRP78 controls cancer cell behavior. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The green staining depicts the cytoskeletal protein F-actin which controls cell shape and motility and the blue staining depicts the nucleus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • But when cells are under stress, the chaperone protein migrates to the cell's nucleus, where it alters gene activities and changes the behavior of the cell, allowing the cancer cells to become more mobile and invasive. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) have glimpsed never-before-seen details of the human androgen receptor - the protein inside of cells that responds to male-typical hormones like testosterone. (mskcc.org)
  • The protein labeled in these cells, known as lamin B1, is a key part of the nuclear envelope. (alleninstitute.org)
  • The disease occurs when a genetic mutation changes the shape of a protein in the nuclei of a carrier's cells. (popsci.com)
  • reveal that, upon platelet activation, the motor protein dynein slides microtubules apart, inducing marginal band coiling and the conversion of platelets to a spherical shape. (scivee.tv)
  • We examined the correlation between nuclear deformation and cell functions such as cell proliferation, transfection and extracellular matrix protein type I collagen production. (cdc.gov)
  • A polyhedral or ovocylindrical shaped matrix composed of a single crystalline protein (OCCLUSION BODY MATRIX PROTEINS) in which VIRIONS are embedded. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using affinity purification-mass spectrometry and global phosphoproteomic and protein abundance analyses using three IAV strains (pH1N1, H3N2, H5N1) in three human cell types (A549, NHBE, THP-1), we map 332 IAV-human protein-protein interactions and identify 13 IAV-modulated kinases. (cdc.gov)
  • In eukaryotes, DNA is packed inside the cell nucleus in the form of chromatin, which consists of DNA, proteins such as histones, and RNA. (nature.com)
  • The two forms of chromatin are found in different areas, with euchromatin spread throughout the nucleus and heterochromatin concentrated at its edges. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The nucleoplasm is the semi-solid fluid inside the nucleus where we find the chromatin and the nucleolus. (coursehero.com)
  • Nucleus has nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromatin network and nucleolus but choromosomes have two chromatids, which are held at cetromere. (preservearticles.com)
  • The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. (cytojournal.com)
  • These techniques allowed them to identify the signal within GRP78 that enables it to enter the nucleus and confirm that when GRP78 is present in the nucleus, it stimulates EGFR gene activity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The nuclear composition is expressed in terms of the neutrons and protons in the nucleus, or, as the atomic number (Z) and mass number (A). The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom represents the atomic number of the atom. (preservearticles.com)
  • GRP78 could also bind to other proteins in the nucleus critical for cancer, opening up a new line of research in cancer biology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 650 Each NPC contains an eightfold-symmetric ring-shaped structure at a position where the inner and outer membranes fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The segmentation and quantification of cell nuclei are two very significant tasks in the analysis of histological images. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, an automated entropy-based thresholding system for segmentation and quantification of cell nuclei from histologically stained images has been presented. (hindawi.com)
  • for example, the quantification of total cells and abnormal cells was performed through manual hand counting. (hindawi.com)
  • Adapting to robust automated image processing techniques for primary tasks such as cell nuclei segmentation and quantification will not only prove to be time efficient for pathologists, but these techniques will also be capable of producing consistent results. (hindawi.com)
  • Quantification of cells remaining after optic nerve crush showed that 86.8±7.9% cells remained in the wild-type ganglion cell layer, but only 68.3±3.4% survived in the Sigmar1 −/− , demonstrating a significant difference between the wild-type and the Sigmar1 −/− in crush-induced ganglion cell loss. (molvis.org)
  • Quantification of cell-cycle state at a single-cell level is essential to understand fundamental three-dimensional (3D) biological processes such as tissue development and cancer. (nature.com)
  • PL: nuclei) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus contains nearly all of the cell's DNA, surrounded by a network of fibrous intermediate filaments called the nuclear matrix, and is enveloped in a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14 Embedded within the inner membrane, various proteins bind the intermediate filaments that give the nucleus its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because human mesenchymal stem cells are known to be sensitive to their mechanical environments, we investigated the mechanotransductive potential of Descemet membrane-like microtopography (DLT) to differentiate human mesenchymal stem cells into CEC-like cells. (lww.com)
  • Artificial reproduction of Descemet membrane with respect to topography and similar stiffness offers a potential innovative way to bioengineer a functional CEC monolayer from autologous stem cells. (lww.com)
  • Every eukaryote has a nucleus, a double lipid membrane-bound compartment that encapsulates the genome, but almost every nucleus is different - in shape, size, molecular composition, spatial organisation, and dynamics through the cell cycle. (europa.eu)
  • One forms a protective membrane surrounding the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • These cells, in an image captured by scientist Chris Frick , Ph.D., are engineered with a label that marks the nuclear envelope, the thin membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. (alleninstitute.org)
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are distinguished from other lymphomas by their anaplastic cytology and constant membrane expression of the CD30 antigen (an activation marker for B or T cells). (medscape.com)
  • A eukaryotic cell has a true membrane-bound nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. (coursehero.com)
  • Having complex cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. (coursehero.com)
  • Because a eukaryotic cell's nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a "true nucleus. (coursehero.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which means the cell's DNA is surrounded by a membrane. (coursehero.com)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double-membrane structure that constitutes the outermost portion of the nucleus. (coursehero.com)
  • Other than the fact that vacuoles are somewhat larger than vesicles, there is a very subtle distinction between them: the membranes of vesicles can fuse with either the plasma membrane or other membrane systems within the cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Early Drosophila embryos undergo 13 rounds of rapid nuclear division before enclosing each nucleus into an individual, membrane-bound cell. (scivee.tv)
  • describe how the phosphoinositides PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 control the resulting cell shapes by coordinating actomyosin contractility with plasma membrane expansion. (scivee.tv)
  • Membrane blebs can help the leading edge of migrating cells protrude forwards, but the contribution of blebs to the motility of Dictyostelium cells is unclear. (scivee.tv)
  • The membrane-bound nucleus is the most prominent feature of the eucaryotic cells. (preservearticles.com)
  • a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters. (dictionary.com)
  • The nuclear envelope separates the fluid inside the nucleus, called the nucleoplasm, from the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the nuclear matrix, a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Images were analyzed to determine the nuclear aspect ratio (NAR) using both three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the nuclear surfaces as well as projections of the same 3D reconstruction into flat two-dimensional (2D) shapes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • however, nuclear accumulations of pSMAD2-C and CLDN3 redistribution were observed with similar time course in ciliated and non-ciliated cells. (springer.com)
  • In most stem cells, the nuclear envelope is smooth, but wrinkles can occasionally form in its thin surface - sometimes taking on unexpected shapes. (alleninstitute.org)
  • Nanotopographical modulation of cell function through nuclear deformation. (cdc.gov)
  • We, herein, engineered nanotopographies of various shapes (gratings and pillars) and dimensions (feature size, spacing and height), and thoroughly investigated cell spreading, focal adhesion organization and nuclear deformation of human primary fibroblasts as the model cell grown on the nanotopographies. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, we demonstrated that cell proliferation, transfection, and type I collagen production were strongly associated with the nuclear volume, indicating that the nucleus serves as a critical mechanosensor for cell regulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study delineated the relationships between focal adhesions, nucleus and cell function and highlighted that the nanotopography could regulate cell phenotype and function by modulating nuclear deformation. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings, just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could represent a paradigm shift for cell biology, and have implications for cancer therapeutics research, Lee said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Science Explorer interviews Angeline Lim, an Applications Scientist at Molecular Devices, to learn more about Cell Painting and the impact it is having on cell biology research and drug discovery. (moleculardevices.com)
  • from the May 12, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with senior author Stefano. (scivee.tv)
  • from the April 14, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with authors Dylan Burnette (Vanderbilt University School of. (scivee.tv)
  • from the February 17, 2014, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and. (scivee.tv)
  • from the December 23, 2013, issue of The Journal of Cell Biology and includes an interview with. (scivee.tv)
  • In eukaryotes the nucleus in many cells typically occupies 10% of the cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as the result of recent advancements in microscopic imaging technology and computational image processing techniques [ 1 ], there has been significant growth of research towards translational computational systems that can detect, analyze, classify, and quantify cell nuclei from microscopic images. (hindawi.com)
  • At a magnification of 2858X, this 2005 scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image revealed a number of red blood cells found enmeshed in a fibrinous matrix on the luminal surface of an indwelling vascular catheter. (cdc.gov)
  • ALCL was recognized in 1985, when tumor cells consistently demonstrated labeling by the monoclonal antibody Ki-1, a marker later shown to recognize the CD30 antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Tumor cells invade through extracellular matrices by forming actin-rich structures called invadopodia, which contain the transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. (scivee.tv)
  • It combines image analysis and machine learning methods for automated 3D segmentation and cell-cycle state identification of individual cell-nuclei with widely varying morphologies embedded in complex tumor environments. (nature.com)
  • Microscopically, it was a well circumscribed tumor constituting of spindle shaped cells ( figure 2 ), which had elongated blunt ended nuclei. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fascicles of these tumor cells were arranged in whorls and intersecting each other. (bvsalud.org)
  • For further diagnostic confirmation, Masson s trichrome, a special histochemical stain was used and an immunohistochemical (IHC) study revealed a positive expression of vimentin ( figure 3 ) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) within the tumor cells ( figure 4 ), whereas expression of cytokeratin, desmin and S-100 was negative. (bvsalud.org)
  • Superresolution imaging reveals that the peripheral ER is made of densely clustered tubule-shaped structures. (nih.gov)
  • The peripheral ER is conventionally described as an interconnected series of tubule- and sheet-shaped structures. (nih.gov)
  • Superresolution imaging across the ER revealed that proteins and lipids are packed into a dense network of tubular-shaped structures―even in areas that have been conventionally classified as sheets. (nih.gov)
  • From these, Dekker and colleagues hope to uncover similarities between the genomic structures that point to general rules that govern how and why genomes fold in all cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cell body contains structures such as the nucleus. (brainfacts.org)
  • While all eukaryotic cells contain the aforementioned organelles and structures, there are some striking differences between animal and plant cells. (coursehero.com)
  • The term nucleus is also used in zoology for a few other structures, such as the digestive organs of salpa. (sacklunch.net)
  • The above findings indicate that Reelin signaling is capable of inducing the formation of the dendrite-rich, cell-body-sparse MZ and a birthdate-dependent "inside-out" alignment of neurons independently of other factors/structures near the MZ. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we combine theory and experiment to analyze the dynamics of euchromatin organization as pluripotent zebrafish cells exit mitosis and begin transcription. (nature.com)
  • Here, we combine experiments in pluripotent zebrafish cells and theory to show that euchromatin is organized in line with an active microemulsion model. (nature.com)
  • This circle of pictures shows the different stages of a stem cell splitting inside the brain of a zebrafish before it hatches. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • The cell nucleus contains nearly all of the cell's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus that houses its genome. (europa.eu)
  • But it's completely opposite to the usual genome packaging in the rods of day-living animals like primates, pigs and squirrels, and indeed, in almost all other eukaryotic cells. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • More like a ball of cooked spaghetti, the genome folds and loops back on itself so it can fit inside the tight confines of the nucleus. (umassmed.edu)
  • 649 Together, these membranes serve to separate the cell's genetic material from the rest of the cell contents, and allow the nucleus to maintain an environment distinct from the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sickle cell anemia is an example of an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. (genome.gov)
  • Mutations in these ER-shaping proteins have been linked to diseases such as hereditary spastic paraplegia-a group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive weakness and stiffness of the legs. (nih.gov)
  • From a neurologic point of view, we work on a class of genetic diseases where the patients have mutations in proteins that control the shape of ER," Blackstone says. (nih.gov)
  • They work by harnessing messenger RNA, the genetic bits of code that tell our cells how to make proteins. (popsci.com)
  • Those energy-producing organelles are inherited from a mother and have their own DNA, distinct from the genetic information - from both parents - that's stored in a cell's nucleus . (dictionary.com)
  • noun A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. (wordnik.com)
  • In an atom, the protons and neutrons hang out in the center, or nucleus . (dictionary.com)
  • The familiar protons and neutrons that make up the atomic nucleus are examples of baryons. (dictionary.com)
  • Alternatively, the detector might contain a minute amount of tritium, a radioactive form of hydrogen with two neutrons in its nucleus . (dictionary.com)
  • We applied our workflow to quantify cell-cycle effects of three antimitotic cancer drugs over 8 d in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma xenografts in living mice using a data set of 38,000 cells and compared the induced phenotypes. (nature.com)
  • Though rounded when the cell is not dividing, it becomes spindle-shaped, and is then constricted into two spindle-shaped parts before dividing, whilst the granules of the protoplasm group themselves in plume-like lines radiating from its extremities like iron-filings in the magnetic field. (sacklunch.net)
  • Previous studies from the same team, led by Amy S. Lee, Ph.D., professor of biochemistry and molecular medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, have shown that when cells are under stress (due to COVID-19 or cancer ), GRP78 gets hijacked, allowing viral invaders to replicate, and cancers to grow and resist treatment. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their research, published April 20, 2022, in the journal Molecular Cell , identifies unique features of the receptor that distinguish it from other hormone receptors and provide clues to how androgen signaling goes awry in prostate cancer . (mskcc.org)
  • What would you say is the advantage of using Molecular Devices high-content imaging systems in particular for Cell Painting? (moleculardevices.com)
  • The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent, multisubunit (~31), barrel-shaped molecular machine with an apparent molecular weight of ~2.5 MDa. (novusbio.com)
  • Recent advances in understanding the molecular characteristics of medulloblastoma cells allowed for sub-typing based on abnormalities seen at the molecular level. (medscape.com)
  • Although nanotopography has been shown to be a potent modulator of cell behavior, it is unclear how the nanotopographical cue, through focal adhesions, affects the nucleus, eventually influencing cell phenotype and function. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, current methods to apply nanotopography to regulate cell behavior are basically empirical. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary tasks involved in the analysis of histologically stained tissue sections are cell nuclei counting, detecting abnormal cell nuclei, and the presence of antigens within the target cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Sixty percent of cases express 1 or more T-cell antigens (CD3 + , CD43, or CD45RO). (medscape.com)
  • 178 The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each small structure, or organelle, inside a cell has a specific function. (nih.gov)
  • It's very important for us to understand what normal is so that we can start to assess what sort of changes these patients have and how it might impact the function of this really critical organelle in the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Typically, the nucleus is the most prominent organelle in a cell. (coursehero.com)
  • It is the principal organelle of the cell. (preservearticles.com)
  • Each contains a single round or oval nucleus , often located eccentrically. (dictionary.com)
  • small glial cells only have about a few hundred, with large Purkinje cells having around 20,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Master molds with inverted DLT were produced by 2-photon lithography (2-PL). To measure the mechanotransductive potential of DLT, mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on silicone or collagen imprints with DLT. (lww.com)
  • Lee and her colleagues have now made an unexpected discovery that may eventually enable scientists to protect cells from that hostile takeover. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The study, by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, appeared August 13, 2015, in Cell . (nih.gov)
  • The cells these scientists work with are human stem cells, derived from an adult donor's skin cells and engineered to revert to a more "naive" state. (alleninstitute.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histopathologic Findings The histologic sections of the biopsy showed an infiltrate composed predominantly of histiocytes with interspersed eosinophils, lymphocytes and rare plasma cells (Figure 3). (dentalcare.com)
  • Occasional multinucleated giant cell were present (Figure 4). (dentalcare.com)
  • The prominent spherical structure present within a living cell is the nucleus, which is controlling center of the cell. (preservearticles.com)
  • This regulation helps ensure that each cell produces only proteins that are necessary for its function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our bodies quickly destroy the errant mRNA instructions, but not before our cells build the corresponding proteins. (popsci.com)
  • The tissue sections were stained with DAPI for nucleus, and z-stacks were acquired using confocal microscopy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In recent years, numerous image processing techniques have been proposed for cell nuclei segmentation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A cell nuclei segmentation algorithm incorporating unsupervised color clustering, morphological operations, and local thresholding has been proposed to distinguish the cancerous and noncancerous areas in histologically stained images and then segment the clustered cell nuclei [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • K-means clustering is implemented as unsupervised color clustering technique for cell nuclei segmentation in [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Another technique that uses contour detection and contour optimization combined with local gradient information and color deconvolution has been used to detect the optimal threshold values for nuclei segmentation [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Entropic-based thresholding methods for cell nuclei segmentation are proposed by Wang and Gudla et al. (hindawi.com)
  • An adaptive-attention-window-(AAW-) based cell nuclei segmentation technique that exploits quadtree decomposition is proposed by Ko et al. (hindawi.com)
  • Figure 2: Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei. (nature.com)
  • The ER is a complex structure, reaching from the nucleus to the outer edges of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • They are specialised in such a way that the cell wall in the inner side of the guard cells is thicker than the outer side. (co.zw)
  • Next, the researchers set out to learn more about what happens in a cell after GRP78 enters the nucleus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Allen Institute for Cell Science researchers photograph thousands and thousands of different cells under the microscope. (alleninstitute.org)
  • Researchers have been trying to interfere with this process to help address such errors when they happen, but we've had extremely limited success - and what success we did have was only using single-cell organisms like yeast. (zmescience.com)
  • In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of bladder. (cytojournal.com)
  • Urine cytology for screening of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has been used for long time. (cytojournal.com)
  • Dogs with digit or foot pad malignant melanoma (n = 4), osteosarcoma (n = 2), hemangiosarcoma (n = 1), transitional cell carcinoma (n = 1), nasal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), B-cell lymphoma (n = 1), or undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 2) were treated with 2 or 5 mg/kg c4G12 every 2 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ependymal cells make the cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the brain inside the skull, and oligodendrocytes improve neuron function by wrapping axons in a fatty sheath called myelin. (brainfacts.org)
  • The difference between Nucleus and Nucleolus is that Nucleus is a large spherical structure present in the cell whereas Nucleolus is very small and is present inside the nucleus. (preservearticles.com)
  • Seeing GRP78 in the nucleus controlling gene expression is a total surprise," said Lee, the study's senior author and the Judy and Larry Freeman Chair in Basic Science research at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Lung epithelial cells form a barrier that lines airway and alveolar surfaces and constitute an air-liquid interface. (springer.com)
  • Once a region of the plant has ceased growing, the end walls of these cells are digested away to form a continuous fine tube. (co.zw)
  • Let's see how cells are specialised to form tissues, organs and organ systems. (co.zw)
  • These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (teachengineering.org)
  • Although DNA is composed of a linear sequence of bases, it doesn't exist inside the cell nucleus in a simple, straight form. (umassmed.edu)
  • reveal that blebs form at the front of chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells, particularly when the cells are faced with a mechanically resistant environment, and that this process is guided by a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway. (scivee.tv)
  • a mass of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord in which nerve fibers form connections. (dictionary.com)
  • To win you have to start winning and these very attractive candidates could help form a nucleus to rebuild the Party. (dictionary.com)
  • The Russian people should form the state at the center, "a nucleus around which other peoples are gathered. (dictionary.com)
  • Root hairs are another type of tip-growing plant cell that must withstand physical obstacles in the environment, in the form of packed soil particles ( Figure 1B ). (jove.com)
  • The division of the protoplasm in cell division is generally preceded by that of the nucleus, and it has been observed that, whilst a mass of protoplasm escaping from a broken cell of the alga Vaucheria, if it contain a nucleus, will form a cell wall and grow into a new plant, if it contain no nucleus it will simply decompose. (sacklunch.net)
  • Every animal begins life as a simple cell [Embryology and Cell], while some animals (all in the phylum Protozoa) remain permanently in this form. (sacklunch.net)
  • The results showed that ectopic Reelin caused the leading processes of migrating neurons to assemble in the Reelin-rich region, which in turn induced their cell bodies to form aggregates, and the late-born neurons migrated past their predecessors, resulting in a birthdate-dependent "inside-out" alignment within the aggregates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Confocal microscopy revealed that ER-shaping proteins called ATL GTPases, which are characteristic of tubules, are also found scattered throughout sheets. (nih.gov)
  • To confirm their hypothesis, Liu, Lee and their colleagues used confocal microscopy , which offers high-resolution 2D and 3D imaging, coupled with an advanced technique for capturing images of live cells, to directly observe GRP78 in the nucleus of lung cancer cells, as well as normal cells under stress. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The hair-like structure which is long and narrow helps the root hair cell to penetrate in between soil particles in search of water and mineral salts. (co.zw)
  • Having no electric charge, the neutron was the ideal bullet to shoot into an atom, able to penetrate the nucleus and destabilize it. (dictionary.com)
  • It is believed that TGF-β1 signalling is involved in controlling epithelial cell proliferation, to drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and it plays a major role in lung fibrosis and emphysema. (springer.com)
  • Any epithelial cell may be so granular from degenerative changes that the nucleus is obscured. (dictionary.com)
  • This ulcerated nodule of localized primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma is relatively nonspecific in appearance. (medscape.com)
  • The effectiveness of the proposed system was tested over 21 histologically stained images containing approximately 1800 cell nuclei, and the overall performance of the algorithm was found to be promising, with high accuracy and precision values. (hindawi.com)
  • Some authors believe that myoepitheliomas are a monomorphic, single-cell type variant of pleomorphic adenomas (in this case, myoepithelial cells). (medscape.com)
  • eg, canalicular adenoma) at one end, and myoepitheliomas (composed of myoepithelial cells only) at the other end-with pleomorphic adenomas offering a diverse range of mixture of cells and stroma in between. (medscape.com)
  • A surprising finding from USC reveals key details about how cancer cells metastasize and suggests new therapeutic approaches for halting their spread. (medicalxpress.com)
  • As the first step towards understanding the mutual role of the biomechanics and deformation of the iris on the activity of its constituent stromal cells, we conducted an ex-vivo study in freshly excised porcine eyes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Since the iris undergoes large deformations in response to ambient light, this study suggests that the iris stromal cells are subjected to a biomechanically active micro-environment during their in-vivo physiological function. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 2 Despite having high metabolic activity, human CECs (hCECs) do not proliferate in vivo because these cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (lww.com)
  • Here, we present an integrated workflow for quantitative in vivo cell-cycle profiling. (nature.com)
  • Single-cell and subcellular pharmacokinetic imaging allows insight into drug action in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Note the biconcave cytomorphologic shape of each erythrocyte, which increases the surface area of these hemoglobin-filled cells, thereby, promoting a greater degree of gas exchange, which is their primary function in an in vivo setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Epigenetic modifications can be maintained from cell to cell as cells divide and, in some cases, can be inherited through the generations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Upper values give circular nuclei. (gimp.org)
  • Despite their close apposition around much of the nucleus, the two membranes differ substantially in shape and contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 In human cells, the diameter of the nucleus is approximately six micrometres (µm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Epigenome Toolset from Baylor College of Medicine allows for comparison of the epigenomes of many species and cell types. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Herein we elaborated effects of TGF-β1 on TJs of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • In the top row, human lung cancer cells were engineered to over-express GRP78 in the nucleus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Bone is the basic unit of the human skeletal system and provides the framework for and bears the weight of the body, protects the vital organs, supports mechanical movement, hosts hematopoietic cells, and maintains iron homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • This study provides a comprehensive network model of IAV infection in human cells, identifying functional host targets for pan-viral HDT. (cdc.gov)