Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Trityl CompoundsBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.United StatesComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Manuscripts, MedicalEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cautery: The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.PaintingsBreast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)Lentigo: Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.DNA, Cruciform: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.Recombinational DNA Repair: Repair of DNA DAMAGE by exchange of DNA between matching sequences, usually between the allelic DNA (ALLELES) of sister chromatids.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.GermanyMolecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Mice, Inbred C57BLMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Quinazolinones: Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.CaliforniaDose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Schools: Educational institutions.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Brenner Tumor: A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.

The arithmetic of centrosome biogenesis. (1/86)

How do cells regulate centrosome number? A canonical duplication cycle generates two centrosomes from one in most proliferating cells. Centrioles are key to this process, and molecules such as centrins, SAS-4 and ZYG-1 govern daughter centriole formation. Cdk2 activity probably couples centrosome duplication with the S phase, and a licensing mechanism appears to limit centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. However, such mechanisms must be altered in some cells--for example, spermatocytes--in which centrosome duplication and DNA replication are uncoupled. There are also alternative pathways of centrosome biogenesis. For example, one centrosome is reconstituted from two gametes at fertilization; in this case, the most common strategy involves differential contributions of centrioles and pericentriolar material (PCM) from each gamete. Furthermore, centrioles can sometimes form de novo from no apparent template. This occurs, for instance, in the early mouse embryo and in parthenogenetic species and might rely on a pre-existing seed that resides within PCM but is not visible by ultrastructural analysis.  (+info)

Cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization of yeast RNase III is required for efficient cell division. (2/86)

Members of the double-stranded RNA-specific ribonuclease III (RNase III) family were shown to affect cell division and chromosome segregation, presumably through an RNA interference-dependent mechanism. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the RNA interference machinery is not conserved, an orthologue of RNase III (Rnt1p) is required for progression of the cell cycle and nuclear division. The deletion of Rnt1p delayed cells in both G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Nuclear division and positioning at the bud neck were also impaired in Deltarnt1 cells. The cell cycle defects were restored by the expression of catalytically inactive Rnt1p, indicating that RNA cleavage is not essential for cell cycle progression. Rnt1p was found to exit from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm in the G2/M phase, and perturbation of its localization pattern delayed the progression of cell division. A single mutation in the Rnt1p N-terminal domain prevented its accumulation in the nucleoplasm and slowed exit from mitosis without any detectable effects on RNA processing. Together, the data reveal a new role for a class II RNase III in the cell cycle and suggest that at least some members of the RNase III family possess catalysis-independent functions.  (+info)

Thiamine prevents X-ray induction of genetic changes in human lymphocytes in vitro. (3/86)

The effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) on the level of spontaneous or radiation-induced genetic changes in human lymphocytes in vitro were studied. Cultured lymphocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of thiamine (0-500 microg/ml) and irradiated with X-rays. The DNA damage was estimated as the frequency of micronuclei and apoptotic or necrotic morphological changes in fixed cells. The results show that thiamine alone did not induce genetic changes. A significant decrease in the fraction of apoptotic and necrotic cells was observed in lymphocytes irradiated in the presence of vitamin B1 at concentrations between 1-100 microg/ml compared to those irradiated in the absence of thiamine. Vitamin B1 at 1 and 10 microg/ml decreased also the extent of radiation-induced formation of micronuclei. Vitamin B1 had no effect on radiation-induced cytotoxicity as measured by nuclear division index. The results indicate that vitamin B1 protects human cells from radiation-induced genetic changes.  (+info)

A beta-tubulin mutation selectively uncouples nuclear division and cytokinesis in Tetrahymena thermophila. (4/86)

The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila contains two distinct nuclei within a single cell-the mitotic micronucleus and the amitotic macronucleus. Although microtubules are required for proper division of both nuclei, macronuclear chromosomes lack centromeres and the role of microtubules in macronuclear division has not been established. Here we describe nuclear division defects in cells expressing a mutant beta-tubulin allele that confers hypersensitivity to the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Macronuclear division is profoundly affected by the btu1-1 (K350M) mutation, producing cells with widely variable DNA contents, including cells that lack macronuclei entirely. Protein expressed by the btu1-1 allele is dominant over wild-type protein expressed by the BTU2 locus. Normal macronuclear division is restored when the btu1-1 allele is inactivated by targeted disruption or expressed as a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence studies reveal elongated microtubular structures that surround macronuclei that fail to migrate to the cleavage furrows. In contrast, other cytoplasmic microtubule-dependent processes, such as cytokinesis, cortical patterning, and oral apparatus assembly, appear to be unaffected in the mutant. Micronuclear division is also perturbed in the K350M mutant, producing nuclei with elongated early-anaphase spindle configurations that persist well after the initiation of cytokinesis. The K350M mutation affects tubulin dynamics, as the macronuclear division defect is exacerbated by three treatments that promote microtubule polymerization: (i) elevated temperatures, (ii) sublethal concentrations of paclitaxel, and (iii) high concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) with 3-methyladenine or wortmannin also induces amacronucleate cell formation in a btu1-1-dependent manner. Conversely, the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 has no effect on nuclear division in the btu1-1 mutant strain. These findings provide new insights into microtubule dynamics and link the evolutionarily conserved PI 3-kinase signaling pathway to nuclear migration and/or division in Tetrahymena.  (+info)

A mitotic kinesin-like protein required for normal karyokinesis, myosin localization to the furrow, and cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. (5/86)

Dictyostelium mitotic kinesin Kif12 is required for cytokinesis. Myosin II localization to the cleavage furrow is severely depressed in Kif12-null (Deltakif12) cells, which accounts in part for the cytokinesis failure. Myosin II-null cells, however, undergo mitosis-coupled cytokinesis when adhering to a surface, whereas the Deltakif12 cells cannot. During mitosis, the rate of change of internuclear separation in Deltakif12 cells is reduced compared with wild-type cells, indicating multiple roles of this molecular motor during mitosis and cytokinesis. GFP-Kif12, which rescues wild-type behavior when expressed in the Deltakif12 strain, is concentrated in the nucleus in interphase cells, translocates to the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis, appears in the centrosomes and spindle, and later is concentrated in the spindle midbody. Given these results, we hypothesize a mechanism for myosin II translocation to the furrow to set up the contractile ring.  (+info)

A requirement for breast-cancer-associated gene 1 (BRCA1) in the spindle checkpoint. (6/86)

BRCA1-associated breast cancer exhibits significantly higher levels of chromosomal abnormalities than sporadic breast cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding the roles of BRCA1 in maintaining genome integrity remain elusive. By using a mouse model deficient for Brca1 full-length isoform (Brca1(Delta11/Delta11)), we found that Brca1(Delta11/Delta11) cells displayed decreased expression of a number of genes that are involved in the spindle checkpoint, including Mad2, which is a key component of spindle checkpoint that inhibits anaphase-promoting complex. We showed that Brca1(Delta11/Delta11) cells failed to arrest at metaphase in the presence of nocodazole and underwent apoptosis because of activation of p53. Consistently, reconstitution of Mad2 in Brca1(Delta11/Delta11) cells partially restored the spindle checkpoint and attenuated apoptosis. By using UBR60 cells, which carry tetracycline-regulated expression of BRCA1, we demonstrated that BRCA1 binds to transcription factor OCT-1 and up-regulates the transcription of MAD2. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of BRCA1 to endogenous MAD2 or transfected MAD2 luciferase reporter in UBR60 cells was completely inhibited by acute suppression of BRCA1 by RNA interference. These data reveal a role of BRCA1 in maintaining genome integrity by interplaying with p53 and genes that are involved in the spindle checkpoint and apoptosis.  (+info)

Rendez-vous at mitosis: TRRAPed in the chromatin. (7/86)

Cell cycle progression and cell cycle checkpoints are guided by dynamic changes in gene expression that requires concerted efforts of chromatin modifying/remodeling activities and transcription machinery. Epigenetic modifications including acetylation of specific lysine residues within the amino-terminal tails of core histones play an important role in these processes. In the last few years, a flurry of biochemical studies has identified numerous histone acetyltransferases (HAT) whose activity is dependent on the multiprotein assemblies and responsible for histone acetylation. In addition to their well-known involvement in the control of gene transcription, recent studies implicated HATs and histone acetylation in other important cellular processes, such as DNA replication, cell cycle control, DNA repair and genomic stability. With the exception of catalytic subunits of the HAT assemblies, the role of other components of these large multi-subunit complexes in cellular processes remains largely unknown. Recent genetic and cellular studies have shown that Trrap, a common component of HAT complexes, regulates the mitotic checkpoint function by modulation of mitotic checkpoint genes. This regulation involves a concerted and cell cycle stage-coupled recruitment of HAT activity to promoters of specific checkpoint genes, providing a functional link between specific chromatin modifications and cell cycle control. These findings shed new light on the role of HAT components and histone acetylation in cell cycle control and underscore functional significance of epigenetic modifications in cellular processes.  (+info)

A novel mechanism of nuclear envelope break-down in a fungus: nuclear migration strips off the envelope. (8/86)

In animals, the nuclear envelope disassembles in mitosis, while budding and fission yeast form an intranuclear spindle. Ultrastructural data indicate that basidiomycetes, such as the pathogen Ustilago maydis, undergo an 'open mitosis'. Here we describe the mechanism of nuclear envelope break-down in U. maydis. In interphase, the nucleus resides in the mother cell and the spindle pole body is inactive. Prior to mitosis, it becomes activated and nucleates microtubules that reach into the daughter cell. Dynein appears at microtubule tips and exerts force on the spindle pole body, which leads to the formation of a long nuclear extension that reaches into the bud. Chromosomes migrate through this extension and together with the spindle pole bodies leave the old envelope, which remains in the mother cell until late telophase. Inhibition of nuclear migration or deletion of a Tem1p-like GTPase leads to a 'closed' mitosis, indicating that spindle pole bodies have to reach into the bud where MEN signalling participates in envelope removal. Our data indicate that dynein-mediated premitotic nuclear migration is essential for envelope removal in U. maydis.  (+info)

*Angomonas deanei

"The bacterium endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei undergoes coordinated division with the host cell nucleus". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): ... the two cells divide in a coordinated process. The bacterium divides first, followed by the protozoan organelles, and lastly ... Phosphatidylinositol, a membrane lipid required for cell-cell interaction, in the bacteria is also synthesised by the protozoan ... which shows reduced or absence of rigid cell wall. The cell membrane of the protozoan host contains an 18-domain β-barrel porin ...

*August Weismann

He said "new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other cell nuclei". Van Beneden discovered how chromosomes ... and in the course of this observed different kinds of cell division, namely equatorial division and reductional division, terms ... only takes place by means of the germ cells-the gametes such as egg cells and sperm cells. Other cells of the body-somatic ... The effect is one-way: germ cells produce somatic cells and are not affected by anything the somatic cells learn or therefore ...

*Karyosome

... refers to the chromatin material inside cell nucleus when the cell is not undergoing mitotic division. Meredith C. ...

*Iain Mattaj

... the division of the cell nucleus into two daughter nuclei. Under the influence of Ran, a GTPase signalling protein, the cell ... at the cell nucleus. Iain subsequently uncovered the role of enzymes known as GTPases in the regulation of mitosis - ... a number of important contributions to our knowledge concerning how RNA and proteins are transported between the cell nucleus ... By dissecting Ran's role in facilitating mitosis, Iain is enabling researchers to create improved cell-regeneration therapies. ...

*Breast cancer classification

Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low- ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is that cells divide uncontrollably. The more cells that are dividing, the worse the cancer. ... The closer the appearance of the cancer cells to normal cells, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis. If cells ... and irregular nuclei and pleomorphic changes are signs of abnormal cell reproduction. Note: The cancer areas having cells with ...

*Breast cancer

Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low ... Normal cells divide as many times as needed and stop. They attach to other cells and stay in place in tissues. Cells become ... Normal cells will commit cell suicide (programmed cell death) when they are no longer needed. Until then, they are protected ... Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell ...

*Walther Flemming

... nucleus and cell division). On the basis of his discoveries, Flemming surmised for the first time that all cell nuclei came ... Flemming investigated the process of cell division and the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, a process he ... He identified that chromatin was correlated to threadlike structures in the cell nucleus - the chromosomes (meaning coloured ... Lukács (1981). "Walter Flemming, discoverer of chromatin and mitotic cell division". Orvosi hetilap. 122 (6): 349-50. PMID ...

*Eduard Strasburger

He came up with one of the modern laws of plant cytology: "New cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other nuclei." ... On Cell Formation and Cell Division, 1876 - a book in which he set forth the basic principles of mitosis. Ueber das Verhalten ... Together with Walther Flemming and Edouard van Beneden, he elucidated chromosome distribution during cell division. His work on ...

*Multicellular organism

Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would then ... Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Colonial ... Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ...

*List of MeSH codes (G05)

... cell nucleus division MeSH G05.105.220.500 --- anaphase MeSH G05.105.220.625 --- chromosome segregation MeSH G05.105.220.625. ... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.211 --- gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ... gamma-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.600.220 --- dna repeat expansion MeSH G05.600.220.865 --- trinucleotide repeat ... G05.330.801.261 --- gene rearrangement, delta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.311 --- gene rearrangement, ...

*List of MeSH codes (G07)

... cell cycle MeSH G07.382.374.220 --- cell division MeSH G07.382.374.220.220 --- cell nucleus division MeSH G07.382.374.220. ... cell proliferation MeSH G07.382.843.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G07.382.843.750.500.220 --- cell nucleus division MeSH ... cell proliferation MeSH G07.574.249.410.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G07.574.249.410.750.500.220 --- cell nucleus division ... cell lineage MeSH G07.382.968 --- cell shape MeSH G07.382.984 --- cell size MeSH G07.450.125 --- biological clocks MeSH G07.450 ...

*Magnetofection

... meaning that the genetic materials can go to the cell nucleus without cell division. Coupling magnetic nanoparticles to gene ... It has been successfully tested on a broad range of cell lines, hard-to-transfect and primary cells. Several optimized and ... Magnetofection works for primary cells and hard to transfect cells that are not dividing or slowly dividing, ... In this way, the magnetic force allows a very rapid concentration of the entire applied vector dose onto cells, so that 100% of ...

*Cell cycle

... where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called ... The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication ... To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. The cell-division ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ...

*Mitosis

... where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell ... In animal cells, a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. In plant cells, a ... Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary ... A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which is duplicated by the cell before a new round of mitosis begins, ...

*Plant anatomy

... in plant cells and further demonstrated that new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other pre-existing nuclei. His ... "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and ... Evert, Ray Franklin and Esau, Katherine (2006) Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body - their ... Grew is credited with the recognition of plant cells, although he called them 'vesicles' and 'bladders'. He correctly ...

*Chromosome

... red blood cells. Chromatin allows the very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus. During cell division chromatin ... Cells can be locked part-way through division (in metaphase) in vitro (in a reaction vial) with colchicine. These cells are ... All act in the same way during cell division. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of ... The number of plasmids in the cell is almost entirely determined by the rate of division of the plasmid - fast division causes ...

*Cell nucleus

Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's ... having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. The idea that cells ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed ...

*Somatic cell nuclear transfer

The ovum, now containing the somatic cell's nucleus, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. The egg is now viable ... Skin cells, fat cells, and liver cells are only a few examples. The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, ... 1], Nature Stem Cell Blog. [2], The Scientist 19 June 2007 Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells Cell Stem Cell ... a cell nucleus from one of his cells would be transplanted by SCNT into an egg cell from an egg donor, creating a unique ...

*Laminin 111

However, when an isoform of actin, that cannot exit a cell's nucleus, is active, cells continue to grow and divide even when ... Besides anchoring cells to the ECM, laminins are also involved in the signalling of cells and other components of the ECM. Even ... In cell adhesion laminin-111 and other isoforms are important proteins that anchor cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ... that a cell's fate depends on the exchange of chemical signals between the extracellular matrix and the nucleus of the cell. ...

*Nostoc commune

Cells have no nucleus nor internal membrane system. To multiply, they form two new cells when they divide by binary fission. ... Along the trichomes, larger specialist nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts occur between the ordinary cells. When wet, ... Inside the thin sheath are numerous unbranched hair-like structures called trichomes formed of short cells in a string. ... Nostoc commune does not have chloroplasts but contains photosynthetic pigments in the cytoplasm of the cells. It also contains ...

*Paul Nurse

When cells with nuclei divide, they divide in phases called G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth), and M (mitosis). Nurse, ... If the cell doesn't divide correctly, other proteins will attempt to repair it, and if unsuccessful, they will destroy the cell ... If a cell divides incorrectly and survives, it can cause cancer and other serious diseases. Working in fission yeast, Nurse ... Nurse, P.; Thuriaux, P.; Nasmyth, K. (1976). "Genetic control of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast ...

*HRAS

... proteins and second messengers relay signals from outside the cell to the cell nucleus and instructs the cell to grow or divide ... the overactive protein directs cells to grow and divide constantly. This uncontrolled cell division can result in the formation ... This overactive protein directs the cell to grow and divide in the absence of outside signals, leading to uncontrolled cell ... but many of the signs and symptoms probably result from cell overgrowth and abnormal cell division. HRAS has been shown to be a ...

*Selfing

... or their cell nuclei) interbreed that were produced from a previous mitotic division of the same individual. Among ... Selfing or self-fertilization is the union of male and female gametes and/or nuclei from same haploid, diploid, or polyploid ...

*Alpha thalassemia abnormal morphogenesis

The nucleus directs the cell telling it to grow, mature, divide, or die. The nucleus contains DNA otherwise known as ... Red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. All cells have a nucleus at their center ... Each cell has many DNA molecules, but because cells are very small and DNA molecules are long, the DNA is packaged very tightly ... In these two conditions, a shortage of alpha globin prevents cells from making normal hemoglobin. Instead, cells produce ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... cell proliferation MeSH G04.335.233.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G04.335.233.750.500.220 --- cell nucleus division MeSH ... cell division MeSH G04.335.134.220.220 --- cell nucleus division MeSH G04.335.134.220.220.500 --- anaphase MeSH G04.335.134.220 ... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G04.610.626.325.211 --- gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ... blood cell count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330.725 --- reticulocyte count MeSH ...

*Prokaryotic DNA replication

All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ...
Immediately following fertilisation in Drosophilaand many other arthropods, the embryo undergoes a series of rapid syncytial nuclear divisions
Complete information for ZFR2 gene (Protein Coding), Zinc Finger RNA Binding Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Mitosis is the process by which eukaryotic cells divide to form two equal daughter cells each with a copy of its genome. [86] Typically eukaryotic cells undergo one of the two forms of mitosis; higher eukaryotes (metazoans) go through Open Mitosis, while lower eukaryotes including yeast and other types of fungi undergo Closed Mitosis. [87] The distinction between open and closed mitosis can be made by focusing on the behaviour of the nuclear envelope which separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm and is split to form daughter nuclei. [86] Open mitosis is so named because the nuclear envelope completely breaks down at the transition from G2 to M stage of the cell cycle [87] and the nuclear content, including the genetic material, is "open" to mix with cytoplasmic macromolecules [88] until the nuclear envelope is reassembled after chromosomal segregation during telophase/G1. [87] [88] In contrast, during closed mitosis the nuclear envelope remains intact and mitosis continues within the ...
In mammalian cardiomyocytes, terminal differentiation is thought to occur in 2 discernable phases.12 The first phase involves the uncoupling of cytokinesis from karyokinesis during a wave of DNA synthesis that occurs soon after birth. In mice, this results in binucleation of cardiomyocytes.12 The adult newt heart, which is capable of myocardial regeneration after injury, is composed of mono- and binucleated cardiomyocytes, and both can proliferate.22 This suggests that the uncoupling of karyokinesis from cytokinesis in the early postnatal period does not in itself signify terminal differentiation. The second phase, which also occurs in early postnatal life, is characterized by the near total inability of cardiomyocytes to reenter the cell cycle, even when the myocardium is injured or subjected to hemodynamic stress.2,3,23 We show here that c-kit is expressed by cardiomyocytes for only a few days, beginning immediately after birth and coinciding with the onset of their terminal differentiation. ...
In previous studies, we have shown the exclusive expression of the Xtr gene in germ line cells of Xenopus and the occurrence of Xtr in germ line cells as well as early embryonic cells as a maternal factor (Ikema et al. 2002; Hiyoshi et al. 2005). Loss-of-function of Xtr in fertilized eggs using anti-Xtr antibody caused the lack of chromosome condensation and microtubule assembly, resulting in cleavage arrest (Hiyoshi et al. 2005). Since Xtr is a member of mRNP complex associated with mRNAs encoding the proteins such as XL-INCENP and RCC1 (Mostafa et al. 2009), which play an important role in karyokinesis (Ohtsubo et al. 1989; Mackay et al. 1998; Adams et al. 2001), the inhibition of karyokinesis progression induced by ablation of Xtr function was expected to be ascribable to translational suppression of these mRNAs. In Xenopus spermatogenesis, the amount of Xtr increases immediately after spermatogenic cells enter into meiotic phase (Hiyoshi et al. 2005). Therefore, Xtr was also thought to be ...
The division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. It begins at the last stages of nuclear division. In plant cell, cytoplasm divides by formation of cell plate which is also called phragmoplast. It gradually extends outward and finally two daughter cells are separated ...
Risultati 2nd Division - Group 1 2018/2019 su Diretta.it offre livescore, risultati, classifiche 2nd Division - Group 1 2018/2019 e dettagli del match.
During interphase in all eukaryotic cells the double lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates the chromosomes, and chromosome-related processes, from the cytoplasm and increases in area by 59% (Lim et al., 2007) as the nuclear volume doubles in preparation for mitosis (reviewed by Hetzer et al., 2005; Lim et al., 2007; Winey et al., 1997). In the open mitosis of animal cells, NE breakdown allows the spindle microtubules that are nucleated by the cytoplasmic centrosomes to attach to and then separate the chromosomes. In the closed mitosis of yeast, the centrosome equivalents, called spindle pole bodies (SPBs), are embedded in the NE and nucleate the formation of an intranuclear spindle (Ding et al., 1997). As the spindle elongates in anaphase B, nuclear volume remains constant but division of the roughly spherical nucleus into two smaller spheres, which occurs in less than 5 minutes, requires a rapid increase of 26% in NE area (Lim et al., 2007).. The nucleus, often thought ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ibd1p, a possible spindle pole body associated protein, regulates nuclear division and bud separation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Lee, Jeongkyo. AU - Hwang, Hyung Seo. AU - Kim, Jinmi. AU - Song, Kiwon. PY - 1999/4/1. Y1 - 1999/4/1. N2 - The proper spatial and temporal coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. We describe the identification and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae IBD1 gene, which encodes a novel protein that regulates the proper nuclear division and bud separation. IBD1 was identified by the limited homology to byr4, a dosage-dependent regulator of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. IBD1 is not an essential gene, and the knock-out cells show no growth defects except for the reduced mating efficiency [1]. However, upon ectopic expression from an inducible promoter, IBD1 is lethal to the cell and leads to abnormal nuclear division and bud separation. In detail, approximately 90% of the IBD1 ...
Meiosis BIOL 1111 Introduction Meiosis is the second important kind of nuclear division. It resembles mitosis in many ways but the consequences of meiotic
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For the survival of both the parent and the progeny, it is imperative that the process of their physical division (cytokinesis) be precisely coordinated with progression through the mitotic cell cycle. Recent studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are beginning to unravel the nature of the links between cytokinesis and the nuclear division cycle. The cyclin-dependent kinases and a novel surveillance mechanism that monitors cytokinesis and/or morphogenesis appear to play important regulatory roles in forging these links. It is becoming increasingly clear that the inactivation of the mitosis-promoting cyclin-dependent kinase, which marks the completion of the nuclear division cycle, is essential for actomyosin ring constriction and division septum assembly in both yeasts. Additionally, the spindle pole bodies are emerging as important transient locale for proteins that might play a key role in coupling the completion of mitosis to the ...
Telophase occurring as part of mitosis. Telophase is the part of nuclear division that, canonically, begins when the chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell and the division of the cytoplasm starts. Mitosis is the cell cycle process in which, canonica…
All organisms must control their cell division. Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct order of events is...
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We have found that Ste20 or Cla4 is required to polarize the actin cytoskeleton and initiate bud emergence. Whereas mutants lacking either kinase can carry out these processes, loss of Ste20 and Cla4 blocks these events, displaying phenotypes like those of cdc42-1 mutants ( Adams et al. 1990). Because results presented here and elsewhere indicate that Cla4 and Ste20 interact and colocalize with Cdc42 at sites of polarized growth ( Adams et al. 1990; Peter et al. 1996; Benton et al. 1997; Leberer et al. 1997), these PAK homologues function as direct signaling effectors of Cdc42 in pathways that promote bud emergence and actin polarization in G1. In contrast, Ste20 and Cla4 are not required for isotropic growth or progression of the nuclear division cycle, indicating that they have primary roles in cell and actin polarization.. Several observations indicate that Ste20 and Cla4 promote bud emergence by executing functions that are at least partially distinct from those carried out by the Cdc42 ...
View Nuclear Organization from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. • M- Nuclear division (mitosis) • mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase • C -Cytoplasmic division
Article Limited functional redundancy and oscillation of cyclins in multinucleated ashbya gossypii fungal cells. Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical...
... INTRODUCTION In this lab, you will determine the approximate time it takes for plant and animal cells to pass through each of the four stages of mitosis. You will do this by counting the number of onion root tip cells and whitefish blastula cells in each of the four phases of mitosis and in interphase. Many cells in one specific phase indicate that a long period of time is required for completion of that phase. Few cells in a specific phase indicate a short period of time is required for completion of that phase. Mitosis, also called karyokinesis, is division of the nucleus and its chromosomes. It is followed by division of the cytoplasm known as cytokinesis. Both mitosis and cytokinesis are parts of the life of a cell called the cell cycle. Most of the life of a cell is spent in a non-dividing phase called Interphase. Interphase includes G1 stage in which the newly divided cells grow in size, S stage in which the number of chromosomes is doubled and ...
Edmund Beecher Wilson in the US published An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (hereafter called An Atlas) in 1895. The book presents photographs by photographer Edward Leaming that capture stages of fertilization, the fusion of sperm and egg and early development of sea urchin (Toxopneustes variegatus) ova, or egg cell. Prior to An Atlas, no one photographed of eggcell division in clear detail. Wilson obtained high quality images of egg cells by cutting the cells into thin sections and preserving them throughout different stages of development.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Reproduction ...
Edmund Beecher Wilson in the US published An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (hereafter called An Atlas) in 1895. The book presents photographs by photographer Edward Leaming that capture stages of fertilization, the fusion of sperm and egg and early development of sea urchin (Toxopneustes variegatus) ova, or egg cell. Prior to An Atlas, no one photographed of eggcell division in clear detail. Wilson obtained high quality images of egg cells by cutting the cells into thin sections and preserving them throughout different stages of development.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Reproduction ...
Modern research largely depends on the analysis and evaluation of large and complex datasets. While many researchers evaluate their data in cooperation with experts in the field of statistics or bioinformatics, it is still vital to be able to judge ones own data in order to properly plan and set up experiments. In addition, also smaller datasets, created in the lab every day, need to be statistically evaluated to ensure correct interpretation.. ...
Some organisms, such as plant and fungi reproduce asexually by mitosis. For example yeast, a single-celled micro-organisms, reproduce asexually by budding which uses mitosis:. 1. A bud forms on the cells surface.. 2. The D,N,A and organelles replicate. 3. The cell undergoes mitosis.. 4. Nuclear division is complete, the budding cell has identical D,N,A.. …. ...
Der Standard - October, 31st, 2014. http://derstandard.at/2000007476438/Wiener-Forscher-entschluesseln-spezielle-Form-der-Keimzellteilung. Pan European Networks - October, 31st, 2014. http://www.paneuropeannetworks.com/environment/some-plants-display-inverted-meiotic-phase/. Science Newsline Biology - October, 30th, 2014. http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2014103012510062.html. Falter Heureka - January 2014. http://www.falter.at/heureka/2014/04/jungforscherinnen-13/. uni:view - December, 11th, 2013. http://medienportal.univie.ac.at/uniview/forschung/detailansicht/artikel/wie-der-apfel-vom-stamm-faellt/. Der Standard - November, 11th, 2012. JPG. Der Standard - April, 3rd, 2012. http://derstandard.at/1332324171373/Doktorat-Lernen-wie-sich-bei-der-Zellteilung-das-Erbgut-aufteilt. Salzburger Nachrichten - March, 1st, 2012. PDF. ...
Lab Members José Ayté, PI Alberto González-Medina, PhD student Esther Pazo, PhD student Sonia Borao, PhD student Mercè Carmona, Technician Track record of the group Meiosis is the only exception to a regular cell cycle since there are two nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) without an intervening DNA synthesis. My laboratory is interested…
Plasmid pMDC123SB-AtMIR390a-B/c from Dr. James Carringtons lab contains the insert AtMIR390a-B/c and is published in Plant Physiol. 2014 Mar 19. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - L2dtl is essential for cell survival and nuclear division in early mouse embryonic development. AU - Liu, Chao Lien. AU - Yu, I. Shing. AU - Pan, Hung Wei. AU - Lin, Shu Wha. AU - Hsu, Hey Chi. PY - 2007/1/12. Y1 - 2007/1/12. N2 - l(2)dtl (lethal (2) denticleless), is an embryonic lethal homozygous mutation initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster that produces embryos that lack ventral denticle belts. In addition to nucleotide sequence, bioinformatic analysis has revealed a conservation of critical functional motifs among the human L2DTL, mouse L2dtl, and Drosophila l(2)dtl proteins. The function of the L2DTL protein in the development of mammalian embryos was studied using targeted disruption of the L2dtl gene in mice. The knock-out resulted in early embryonic lethality. L2dtl-/- embryos were deformed and terminated development at the 4-8-cell stage. Microinjection of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) vector (siRNA-L2dtl) into the two-cell stage nuclei of wild-type mouse ...
Nuclear division has 2 forms: mitosis and meiosis (Kent 2000, 74). Mitosis is the process of cell cycle, by which there will be created 2 identical copies of original cell (BBC 2014). This means, the haploid parent cells will produce haploid daughter cells, while the diploid parent cells will produce...
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Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that belongs to the order Saccharomycetales in the phylum Ascomycota. It is used as a model organism for studying filamentous growth because of the small size of the genome, its haploidy and ease of culturing. A. gossypii is also used commercially for the production of vitamin B2. The genome sequence was published in 2004. It comprises 9.2 Mb in seven chromosomes containing 4,718 predicted protein-coding genes. The Ashbya gossypii genome project was initiated when the conservation of gene order and orientation (synteny) compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was noted. ...
Double Digit Division Worksheets First Grade Math Worksheets. Double Digit Division Worksheets Adding And Subtracting Polynomials Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Mean Median Mode Range Worksheets. Double Digit Division Worksheets Completing The Square Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets All About Me Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Fun Math Worksheets. Double Digit Division Worksheets Dilations Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Balancing Equations Worksheet Answer Key. Double Digit Division Worksheets Mitosis Worksheet Answers. Double Digit Division Worksheets Exponent Worksheets. Double Digit Division Worksheets Naming Covalent Compounds Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Nuclear Decay Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Adding And Subtracting Integers Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets Math Worksheets Grade 5. Double Digit Division Worksheets Permutations And Combinations Worksheet. Double Digit Division Worksheets First Grade ...
5 1) Cell Cycle: life of a cell from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into 2 a) Interphase- preparation for Mitosis b) Mitosis- nuclear division c) Cytokinesis- cytoplasmic division ...
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Mitosis is a eukaryotic process whereby a cell divides to produce two daughter cells identical to itself. Mitosis is the nuclear division that results in two daughter nuclei whose genetic material is identical with that of the original nucleus. In multicellular organisms, somatic cells undergo mitosis while germ cells undergo meiosis.. The mitotic phase is a relatively short action-packed period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for division. Interphase is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and then finally enters mitosis. ...
Mitosis is a form of nuclear division which produces 2 daughter cells which have an exact copy of the DNA of the parent cell. Used for growth and repair. Stages:. Always followed by interphase in which the DNA + organelles are replicated and ATP is increased. 1) Prophase - Chromosomes become visible and condense + nuclear envelope disappears ...
By Genevieve Grandcourt. A very evident disadvantage under which medical science has labored has been the impossibility of watching the chemical process set in motion by substances introduced into the body. For this reason various experimenters, from time to time, have attempted to "grow tissues" artificially, in such manner that their development, functions, and decay-under both healthy and diseased conditions-might be studied under the microscope. The only way in which this could be done would be to take a piece of living tissue from the body, and cause its cells to multiply; tissue being made up of an aggregation of cells.. Science has failed to produce a single living cell, that is, a cell which will undergo the process of nuclear division (growth) which is the prime condition of its being; and it seemed equally impossible to cause a cell already living to undergo the same process if deprived of the circulation of the blood. Therefore, when in 1910 it was announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel ...
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National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) | National Institutes of Health (NIH)National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.) His work included ... the Division of Genome Sciences, the Division of Genomics and Society, and the Division of Extramural Operations. The Division ... Division of Genomic Medicine, Teri Manolio, M.D., Ph.D.; Division of Extramural Operations, Bettie Graham, Ph.D.; Division of ... Division of Intramural Research. The Division of Intramural Research (DIR) at the NHGRI plans and conducts a broad range of ...
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What Is the Division of the Cell Nucleus Called? | Reference.comWhat Is the Division of the Cell Nucleus Called? | Reference.com

... depending on which type of division has occurred. Meiosis is a type of cell nucleus division specific to the reproduction of ... The division of the cell nucleus is called either mitosis or meiosis, ... The division of the cell nucleus is called either mitosis or meiosis, depending on which type of division has occurred. Meiosis ... the cell nucleus reproduces itself exactly, with exact copies of the chromosomes transferred to each of the daughter nuclei. ...
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What Process Divides the Cell Nucleus and Its Contents? | Reference.comWhat Process Divides the Cell Nucleus and Its Contents? | Reference.com

Mitosis occurs in all cells of the body, whereas meiosis happens only in the sex cells.... ... Both the processes of mitosis and meiosis divide the cell nucleus and its contents. ... How Many Times Does the Cell Divide During Mitosis?. A: The nucleus of a cell only divides once during mitosis, which occurs ... A: Meiosis is the process in which cells divide to produce sex cells. Meiosis takes a single cell and divides it into four ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/process-divides-cell-nucleus-its-contents-e48ccba78008ff93

Cell Division / Mitosis / Cell Nucleus HD Stock Video Footage Collection | Framepool & RightSmithCell Division / Mitosis / Cell Nucleus HD Stock Video Footage Collection | Framepool & RightSmith

Cell Nucleus Stock Video Footage Collection with 4 high-quality HD Stock Video Shots is ready for instant licensing and ... Stock Footage Bin: Cell Division / Mitosis / Cell Nucleus. 4 stock shots , Recording format: Other HD 1080 , Aspect ratio: 16:9 ... Eukaryote Organism Biology Mitosis Cell Division Cell (Biology) Cellular Biology DNA Replication Splitting (Dividing) Cell ... Nucleus Dividing (Cutting) DNA Genome Genetics Molecular Biology Diagram Graphic Daughter Family Atomic Nucleus Atom Chemistry ...
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Research Keyword Faculty Listing | Yale School of MedicineResearch Keyword Faculty Listing | Yale School of Medicine

Cell Cycle; Cell Division; Cell Nucleus Division; Genetics; Molecular Biology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Cell Nucleus Division. Mark Solomon, PhD Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry ...
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Cytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division | Journal of VirologyCytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division | Journal of Virology

Virus-Cell Interactions. Cytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division. Gillian ... Chromatin-associated GFP-22 is retained in the nucleus after cell division. COS-1 cells were treated as described in the legend ... Translocation of GFP-22 from cytoplasm to nucleus during cell division. COS-1 cells grown on 42-mm-diameter coverslips were ... Cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of VP22 is therefore a consequence of cell division (described in Fig. 8, pathway 2). The ...
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Cytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division | Journal of VirologyCytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division | Journal of Virology

Virus-Cell Interactions. Cytoplasm-to-Nucleus Translocation of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein during Cell Division. Gillian ... Chromatin-associated GFP-22 is retained in the nucleus after cell division. COS-1 cells were treated as described in the legend ... Translocation of GFP-22 from cytoplasm to nucleus during cell division. COS-1 cells grown on 42-mm-diameter coverslips were ... Cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of VP22 is therefore a consequence of cell division (described in Fig. 8, pathway 2). The ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/74/5/2131?ijkey=1e8fa2f550064299a7e37fdaa13dfdfa60a51802&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Category:Cell division - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Cell division - Wikimedia Commons

cell division The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be ... Abnormal-number-cell-division-of-human-thyroid-anaplastic-carcinoma-cell-line-SW-1736-mmc1.ogv 15 s, 512 × 512; 1.24 MB. ... The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by ... A-distributed-cell-division-counter-reveals-growth-dynamics-in-the-gut-microbiota-ncomms10039-s2.ogv 6.2 s, 623 × 623; 5.62 MB ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cell_division

Lecture 008 Summary - Lecture 008 Cell Division Prokaryotic cells(including bacteria and archaea have no nucleus though has DNA...Lecture 008 Summary - Lecture 008 Cell Division Prokaryotic cells(including bacteria and archaea have no nucleus though has DNA...

... have no nucleus, though has DNA as its genome (an ... Examples include skin cells, blood cells, and the cells that ... Lecture 008 Cell Division Prokaryotic cells (including bacteria and archaea) ... Stem cells divide asymmetrically, that is one of the daughter cells remains a stem cell, while the other cell becomes another ... Lecture 008 - Cell Division • Prokaryotic cells (including bacteria and archaea) have no nucleus, though has DNA as its genome ...
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Amitosis requires γ-tubulin-mediated microtubule assembly in Tetrahymena thermophila.Amitosis requires γ-tubulin-mediated microtubule assembly in Tetrahymena thermophila.

To reveal the molecular systems involved in the division of a cell and its contents during cell proliferation is one of the ... major subjects in cell biology. Although cytoskeletal organization during mitosis has been well studied, consensus on the mole ... Cell Nucleus Division / physiology*. Macronucleus / metabolism*. Microtubules / metabolism*. Protozoan Proteins / metabolism*. ... To reveal the molecular systems involved in the division of a cell and its contents during cell proliferation is one of the ...
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Free Biology Flashcards about MeiosisFree Biology Flashcards about Meiosis

Cytoplasm divides. mitosis. the division of the cell nucleus and its contents. ... daughter cell. exact copy of the original cell following cell division. 12 hours. Typical amount of time that Synthesis, G2, ... divides cells that are too large, replaces damaged/dying cells, allows for growth. Makes copies of the original cell. ... surrounds the nucleus, controls what enters nucleus. Tumor. mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue. ...
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Free Biology Flashcards about Ch. 5 TermsFree Biology Flashcards about Ch. 5 Terms

cell cycle. the life cycle of a cell. mitosis. in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each ... the division of the cytoplasm of a cell; follows the division of the cells nucleus by mitosis. ... a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size. ... stem cell. cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated. ...
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PPT - Chapter 9   Cellular Reproduction PowerPoint Presentation - ID:808111PPT - Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction PowerPoint Presentation - ID:808111

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation. Cellular Reproduction. Chapter 9. 9.1 Cellular Growth. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume. ... Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus and nuclear material divide. ... Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large.. *It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal ... Cell Division -. chapter 10: cell growth and division section 11.4: meiosis. vocabulary:. asexual reproduction sexual ...
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NOVA Online | Lifes Greatest Miracle | How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis (text version)NOVA Online | Life's Greatest Miracle | How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis (text version)

This half of the screen illustrates mitosis-the division of a cells nucleus. Along with cytokinesis (the division of the rest ... The cell shown here will divide twice, resulting in four cells. Each of these cells will have only half the number of ... If the cells didnt have half, a fertilized egg would contain 92 chromosomes and be untenable. Meiosis, a type of cell division ... Watch the Program , The Stem-Cell Debate , Windows on the Womb. Great Expectations , How Cells Divide , How is Sex Determined? ...
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16S ribosomal DNA sequence identities of beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts in three Crithidia species. - Semantic Scholar16S ribosomal DNA sequence identities of beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts in three Crithidia species. - Semantic Scholar

The Bacterium Endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei Undergoes Coordinated Division with the Host Cell Nucleus. *Maria Cristina ... Endosymbiosis in Trypanosomatids as a Model to Study Cell Evolution. *Maria Cristina M. Motta ...
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Cell Division: Different Kinds of Cell Division that are recognized when the Nucleus DividesCell Division: Different Kinds of Cell Division that are recognized when the Nucleus Divides

... Article shared by : ... Cell Division: Different Kinds of Cell Division that are recognized when the Nucleus Divides! ... Cell division, cell reproduction or cell multiplication is the process of formation of new or daughter cells from the pre- ... is a double division which occurs in a diploid cell (or nucleus) and gives rise to four haploid cells (or nuclei), each having ...
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The Cell Cycle: anaphase, biology, cell, cycle, en, eukaryotic, phases, process, telophase | Glogster EDU - Interactive...The Cell Cycle: anaphase, biology, cell, cycle, en, eukaryotic, phases, process, telophase | Glogster EDU - Interactive...

... cell, cycle, en, eukaryotic, phases, process, telophase , Glogster EDU - Interactive multimedia posters ... MitosisMitosis is the division of the cells nucleus and its contents. It consists of 4 phases and cytokinesis. The end result ... the cell separates into two genetically identical daughter cells. In a plant cell, this happens by the formation of a cell ... The resulting daughter cells can then go through the cell cycle themselves, forming even more new cells. ...
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2. Structure Of The Higher Plants. The Growth Of A Cell2. Structure Of The Higher Plants. The Growth Of A Cell

Other plants, in an ascending scale of organization, consist of more or less numerous cells... ... The three plants already considered consist of a single cell, varying chiefly in size during their lifetime. ... The nucleus plays a very important part in the division of full-grown cells. As the cell increases in size, cavities make their ... 4. - Changes in the Protoplasm of the Cell Nucleus during its Division. ...
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The Cell Cycle by Nakerri Roebuck - Photo BookThe Cell Cycle by Nakerri Roebuck - Photo Book

G2 The cell prepares for the cell division of the Nucleus.. 2: Mitosis A stage in which the cells nucleus and nuclear material ... FC: the cell cycle , The Cell Cycle. 1: Interphase Interphase is the stage where the cell grows and carries out the cellular ... 4: Cytokinesis In the Animal cell, the microfilaments pinches the cytoplasm. In the Plant cell, the Cell Plate is formed. ... First Stage:G1 The cell is growing and is carrying out the normal functions. Second Stage:S The cell copies its DNA. Third ...
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Electrolytic Cells, Galvanic Cell, Measurement of Electrode Potentials, Nernst Equation, Equilibrium Constant from Nernst ... Equation, Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction, Conductance of Electrolytic ... Cells and Tissues - 3 (Nucleus, Cell Division... * *By : TCY. *20 min * 15 Ques ... Free Online MAMMALIAN LIVER CELLS Practice & Preparation Tests. Search Result for mammalian liver cells ...
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Stem Cell Discoveries Pace Growing Understanding of Human Brains Uniqueness - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comStem Cell Discoveries Pace Growing Understanding of Human Brain's Uniqueness - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Centrosomes are poles that form on opposite sides of the cells nucleus prior to cell division. Fibrous spindles emanate from ... The stem cell is similar to a human stem cell identified by the same UCSF laboratory research group last year. The cell nucleus ... "But by watching one cell divide, and then by watching the daughter cells migrate and divide, you begin to see the relationships ... the nucleus moves in different directions. The movements affect the positioning of daughter cells after the stem cell divides. ...
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Research Using Brains-in-a-Dish Forces a Radical Rethinking of Huntingtons Disease - Scientific AmericanResearch Using Brains-in-a-Dish Forces a Radical Rethinking of Huntington's Disease - Scientific American

Healthy huntingtin gathers up molecules deep in the cell nucleus that are required for cell division, Pouladi explained; the ... But the cells were jumping the gun.. In healthy developing human brains, progenitor cells spend a good chunk of prenatal ... The impatient progenitor cells, however, were in cerebral organoids-minuscule 3-D versions of the brain-created from the cells ... One reason why brain development might go off course in Huntingtons is the effect of the mutant protein on cells life cycles ...
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Colchicine, Colchicine Toxicity, and Uses of Colchicine - The Anti-Aging Medical ClinicColchicine, Colchicine Toxicity, and Uses of Colchicine - The Anti-Aging Medical Clinic

Colchicine blocks or suppresses cell division by inhibiting mitosis, the division of a cells nucleus. Specifically, it ... Normally, the cell would use its spindle fibers to line up its chromosomes, make a copy of them, and divide into two new cells ... Because cancer cells divide much more rapidly than normal cells, cancers are more susceptible to being poisoned by mitotic ... If the poisoning is chronic low dose, organs fail in the order of their rate of cell division: (1) GI lining (abdoninal pain, ...
more infohttps://www.medical-library.net/colchicine-colchicine-toxicity-and-uses-of-colchicine/
  • The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with nucleoli, and the presence in them of actin bundles that support vesicle motility suggest that the structures might function both in mRNA export from the nucleus and in protein import from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (plantcell.org)
  • Nuclear grooves and invaginations substantially increase the surface area of the nucleus and have been suggested to function in signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (Lui et al. (plantcell.org)
  • Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. (plantcell.org)
  • In onion, these structures, which are similar to invaginations seen in some animal cells, form tubular or planelike infoldings of the nuclear envelope. (plantcell.org)
  • Herpesviruses have a well-defined replication phase within the nucleus, where they are known to exploit many of the cellular processes performed there. (asm.org)
  • By utilizing time-lapse confocal microscopy of live cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged protein, we now report in detail the intracellular trafficking properties of VP22 in expressing cells, as opposed to the intercellular trafficking of VP22 between expressing and nonexpressing cells. (asm.org)
  • The role of VP22, which is encoded by gene UL49 ( 11 ), is unclear, but it does not contain a recognizable NLS, thereby suggesting that VP22 would not be targeted to the nucleus by the classical pathway during virus infection. (asm.org)
  • His main contribution involved germ plasm theory, at one time also known as Weismannism, according to which inheritance (in a multicellular organism) only takes place by means of the germ cells-the gametes such as egg cells and sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area. (slideserve.com)
  • The nucleus elongates and constricts in the middle to form two daughter nuclei. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • Other plants, in an ascending scale of organization, consist of more or less numerous cells united in a variety of ways to form the plant body, either in the form of filaments, or flat plates of cells, as in freshwater or marine algae. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The tallest tree and the smallest plant, amongst flowering subjects, consist alike of an aggregation of cells, built up in some definite form, according to the kind. (chestofbooks.com)
  • As the cell increases in size, cavities make their appearance in the protoplasm, filled with cell sap and air, and this continues till the cavities unite and the protoplasm can only form a lining to the wall, with a few bridles connecting it with the layer of protoplasm surrounding the nucleus in the centre (fig. 3). (chestofbooks.com)
  • If it does, then the nucleus elongates into spindle form, the protoplasm forms a mass at each end of the spindle, the two masses being joined by threads. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Stem cells in the human brain spin off neurons that populate the layers of the cerebral cortex and form vertical columns. (healthcanal.com)
  • The newly described stem cells are responsible both for making the nerve cells and for guiding them to their proper locations in the cortex, where they form cell columns. (healthcanal.com)
  • In dividing tobacco cells, invaginations seem to form during cell division, possibly from strands of the endoplasmic reticulum trapped in the reforming nucleus. (plantcell.org)
  • However, a retrograde signal mediating light-responsive gene expression may have been established alongside gene transfer, because essential light sensing and regulatory systems were originally incorporated into plant cells by the photosynthetic endosymbiont. (frontiersin.org)
  • First Stage:G1 The cell is growing and is carrying out the normal functions. (mixbook.com)
  • Amitosis of trophoblast cells starts at the periimplantation stage as in other species that do not have obligate diapause. (deepdyve.com)
  • The number and nature of invaginations vary from cell type to cell type, ranging from simple invaginations to intricate branched structures that can penetrate into and through the nucleus. (plantcell.org)
  • As a consequence, herpesviruses must target several classes of their gene products, including transcription factors, DNA replication factors, scaffold proteins, and capsid proteins, to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Thus, transient expression of these proteins in isolation from other virus products is sufficient to allow their localization to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size. (slideserve.com)
  • These intermediary cells, in turn, divide many times to produce specialized neurons. (healthcanal.com)
  • Furthermore, in the mouse, these stem cells do not spin off the intermediate progenitors that powerfully amplify the growth of new neurons in the human brain. (healthcanal.com)
  • From the first days of the tiny lab-grown organs' development, primitive "progenitor cells" romped out of their birthplaces in the deep interior and quickly turned into neurons and glia, specialized cells that do the brain's heavy lifting, from thinking and feeling and moving to boring old neurological housekeeping. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Experiments with both simple collections of neurons growing in lab dishes as well as cerebral organoids grown from the stem cells of Huntington's patients, and therefore harboring the DNA stutters, are now undermining that belief. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since the mutation is with you from conception, it makes sense that there could be deleterious effects on the brain from the beginning," said biologist Virginia Mattis, who led studies at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles of lab-grown neurons produced from Huntington's patients' stem cells. (scientificamerican.com)