Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Microscopic study of the spacial distribution pattern of CHROMATIN in CELL NUCLEI and CELL NUCLEOLI.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
DNA-binding motifs, first described in one of the HMGA PROTEINS: HMG-I(Y) PROTEIN. They consist of positively charged sequences of nine amino acids centered on the invariant tripeptide glycine-arginine-proline. They act to fasten the protein to an AT RICH SEQUENCE in the DNA.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A distinct subnuclear domain enriched in splicesomal snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR) and p80-coilin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (1/34889)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/34889)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (3/34889)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (4/34889)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (5/34889)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (6/34889)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (7/34889)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (8/34889)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

(a) Explain briefly how Rutherford scattering of -particle by a target nucleus can provide information on the size of the nucleus. (b) Show that the density of the nucleus is independent of its mass number A.
Uncovering the motifs of a higher order nuclear architecture and its implications on nuclear function has raised increasing interest in the past decade. The nucleus of higher eukaryotes is considered to display a highly dynamic interaction of DNA and protein factors. There is an emerging view that there are hierarchical levels of gene regulation, reaching from epigenetic modifications at the DNA- and histone level to a higher order functional nuclear topology, in the context of which gene-activating and -repressing processes influence the gene expression profile of an individual cell beyond the sequence information of the DNA. The present work focuses on the analysis of the dynamic aspects of higher order nuclear architecture in living cells. As a prerequisite, an in vivo replication labeling strategy was developed, that enabled the simultaneous visualization of early and mid-to-late replicating chromatin as well as single chromosome territories on the basis of a labeling/segregation approach. ...
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Plant cells can exhibit highly complex nuclear organization. Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. In onion, these structures, which are similar to invaginations seen in some animal cells, form tubular or planelike infoldings of the nuclear envelope. Both grooves and invaginations are stable structures, and both have cytoplasmic cores containing actin bundles that can support cytoplasmic streaming. In dividing tobacco cells, invaginations seem to form during cell division, possibly from strands of the endoplasmic reticulum trapped in the reforming nucleus. The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with ...
Nuclear power and nuclear energy information. Climate change, sustainable development, uranium mining, enrichment, nuclear electricity generation, nuclear fuel management, recycling and disposal, World Nuclear Association (WNA) and World Nuclear News (WNN).
The long strands of DNA and the protein machinery needed to turn gene expression on or off are contained, floating within the nuclei of cells. The nucleus is essentially a sack made of a flexible, double-membrane envelope that is supported by an inner, fine-mesh frame of proteins called the nuclear lamina.. DNA does not drift aimlessly within the nucleus. We expect that there is nonrandom spatial positioning of genes around the nuclear lamina, said Professor Sachihiro Matsunaga who led the research project from the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, recently published in Nature Communications.. Gene regulation is often studied at the one-dimensional level of reading the DNA sequence. Additional layers of gene regulation exist in 3D by changing the shape of the DNA strand. Examples include the epigenetic code that dictates how tightly to wind up the strands of DNA and the phenomenon of kissing genes, where distant segments of the DNA strand fold together and change the ...
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The Russian military has successfully tested what it described as the worlds most powerful non-nuclear air-delivered bomb, Russias state television reported Tuesday.
The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleoplasm, the gene is recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. Recruitment requires the transcriptional activator Hac1, which is produced upon induction of the UPR, and is constitutive in a strain lacking Opi1. Artificial recruitment of INO1 to the nuclear membrane permits activation in the absence of Scs2, indicating that the intranuclear localization of a gene can profoundly influence its mechanism of activation. Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an ...
Figure 5. Estimation of rhodopsin and phosducin in retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation. Proteins of the retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation were subjected to electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-phosducin (left panel) or anti-rhodopsin (right panel) antibody. A: 100 ng of phosducin standard; B: 100 ng of rhodopsin standard. Numbers under lanes represent the amount of total protein loaded, in μg.. ...
Synonyms for cell nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus?
Using the genetically amenable model organism C. elegans, a small worm commonly found on rotting fruits, FMI scientists have shown that the driving force for gene localization is encoded in the DNA sequence of promoters. Cell type-specific developmentally regulated promoters direct genes either to the nuclear interior when they are active or towards the compacted chromatin at the nuclear periphery when inactive. In muscle differentiation this is controlled by the presence of a master regulatory transcription factor called Hlh-1 (MyoD in mammals). Specific localization is not seen in committed embryonic cells nor for housekeeping genes. The authors find a dramatic increase in nuclear compartmentalization during the course of development and cell differentiation. This study opens the way to genetic analysis of nuclear organization and will allow the analysis of human diseases linked to nuclear function using worms as models ...
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence gene expression - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Cancer cell nucleus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a deformed nucleus (yellow) in a cancer cell. Healthy nuclei have a smooth membrane, that is spherical or ovoid, whereas this nucleus has indentations in several places. The nucleus contains the cells genetic information. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus (brown), which is responsible for producing components of ribosomes, the cells protein-manufacturing organelles. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C019/9935
Re-localization of our economy & social networks is going to be the way of the future -- whether we choose it, or reality forces it upon us.
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
The speckles do not overlap nuclear chromatin, so i assume it is specific staining. Not ALL cells have this speckle staining pattern. Therefore i assume that during mitosis, when there is rearrangment of the nucleous, residual procollagens are making their way into the nucleous and eventually make their way back out into the cytoplasm ...
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size ...
Many people envision that part of our clean-energy future is the hydrogen economy. When hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen, it releases energy that machines (like cars) can use. The only byproduct is pure water. Hydrogen can be burned in internal combustion engines or turned into electricity through fuel cells.. ...
1. DNA prepared from non-gelable rat liver nuclei isolated in the presence of disrupted mitochondria at pH 6.0, has been compared with DNA obtained from gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4.0. The DNA of the non-gelable nuclei is partially depolymerized relative to the DNA of the gelable nuclei. 2. It has been found that sufficiently small quantities of crystallized DNAase I can cleave a very large part of the DNA of gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4 from the residual protein of these nuclei without causing extensive depolymerization of the DNA. At the same time the gelable nuclei are rendered non-gelable. 3. Partially purified DNAase II can also render gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4 non-gelable, and in so doing presumably also cleaves the DNA from the residual protein of the nuclei. 4. Mitochondrial DNAase I appears to be the enzyme responsible to a large extent for the cleavage of DNA from the residual protein of gelable rat liver cell nuclei with concomitant destruction of the gel-forming ...
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Import Export (2007) review. Director: Ulrich Seidl. Starring: Ekateryna Rak, Paul Hofmann, Michael Thomas, Natalja Epureanu, Brigitte Kren, Lidiya Oleksandrivna Savka, Petra Morzé, Georg Friedrich, Peter Linduska, Christina York
Researchers at the University of Tokyo have identified how the architecture of the cell nucleus can change gene activity in plants. This discovery reveals fundamental knowledge about genome regulation and points toward future methods for potentially manipulating the expression of many genes simultaneously.
DNA is subjected to major cellular events, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. To control these processes, the architecture of the DNA is tightly regulated. Recent work, including two studies in this issue of The EMBO Journal, provides compelling evidence that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops. While cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather counteracts nuclear compartmentalization.. See also: J Gassler et al (December 2017) and. G Wutz et al (December 2017) ...
As you learned in BIO101, the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. The nucleus in fact contains not only DNA, but RNA and protein as well. This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. When we refer to expression regulation, we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. How does this happen? The answer is regulated gene expression!. ...
A major component of this research effort will be to identify a method which is not only accurate, but a method that can be easily utilized by field personnel. A review of available technologies will be conducted to determine the availability of additional methods for compaction control. This current research effort will focus on the subgrade and unbound base construction quality control.. ...
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Dear all, I am searching for a method that will allow me to isolate intact nuclei from rat brain tissue (we arent tooled up for cell culture right now - otherwise I would use one of the many techniques available for such a situation). Many thanks. -- _____________________________________________________________________ Keith Hoek hoek at biosci.uq.edu.au mRNA transport http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/~hoek/Pg1.html ...
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A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...
The progress of a reaction can be graphed 2-dimensionally as a reaction coordinate vs potential energy. Everyone has seen these potential energy profiles. From what I understand, the profile for a reaction is derived in this way: The potential energy of a set of nuclei can be graphed as dependent variable on a hyperdimensional surface. The extra dimensions include different states of the nuclei (vibrational rotational etc.)and their positions with respect to each other. If all but 2 dimensions can be set as constant, then those 2 independent variables (usually representing internuclear distance?) can be graphed with respect to the dependent variable of potential energy. The low points on this surface represent reactants, products, or intermediates. The saddle points represent transition states. The lowest energy path (the gradient) from reactant to transition state to product is the potential energy profile, which is graphed against a reaction coordinate ...
A growing number of experimental observations reveal that the cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized yet organized to ensure a dynamic response to events that influence nuclear activities. The cellular and molecular response to physiological and environmental stress induces a rapid and trans …
The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures and activities, encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes. It also contains the molecular machinery to replicate its DNA and to synthesize and process the three types of RNA : ribosomal (rRNA), messenger (mRNA), and transfer (tRNA). Mitochondria have a small DNA genome and produce RNAs to be used in this organelle, but the genome is so small that it is not sufficient even for the mitochondrion itself. On the other hand, the nucleus does not produce proteins; the numerous protein molecules needed for the activities of the nucleus are imported from the cytoplasm ...
The Cell Nucleus The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cells hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cells activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and.
This lecture introduces the nucleus and how information is transferred from stable stored information (DNA) converted to an intermediate (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) of variable stability, exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where mRNA is then translated into Protein. This is gene expression, the products of this process are used either within the cell, exported (exocytosis) or used to replace worn out components. We will study this topic looking at the key organelle in this process, the nucleus. ...
Nuclear codes are codes that study the parameters around nuclear knowledge. Nuclear code training is comprehensive in this article. ...
The animal cell nucleus houses the genetic material of the organism and therefore protects and maintains the blueprint for the cell and all its progeny. However, the nucleus is more than a simple repository for chromosomes. A dynamic organelle, the nucleus goes through astonishing transformations during each cell cycle, breaking down completely during mitosis and reforming afresh in each daughter cell after cell division. Within the nucleus, chromosomes are replicated and their DNA is transcribed to provide information that programs the physiology of the cell. Also, ribosomes assemble in the nucleus, then leave and carry out protein translation in the cytoplasm. All of this activity requires complex machineries that can respond to the changing needs of the cell throughout the cell cycle and may vary during development and by cell type.. One of the defining features of the nucleus is its unique architecture. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear envelope, a double layer of membranes punctuated by ...
This technique allows for efficient, highly purified cytoplasmic and nuclear-associated compartment fractionation utilizing NP-40 detergent in mammalian cells. The nuclear membrane is not disturbed during the fractionation thus leaving all nuclear and perinuclear associated components in the nuclear fraction. This protocol has been modified from Sambrook and Russell (2001) in order to downscale the amount of cells needed. To determine the efficiency of fractionation, we recommend using qPCR to compare the subcellular compartments that have been purified with equivalent amount of control whole cell extracts.
What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding membrane
There are several types of stereology, but instead of talking about all of these (which is the subject of books) this page will get you started with the most common and simplest form of stereology: Point Counting Stereology. In point counting stereology you typically project a uniform grid of points over an image, and then simply count how many points fall inside the particular compartments youre interested in quantifying the volume of (eg: Mitochondria, Nucleus). After counting ~1000 points (which should take under one hour) you can make estimates such as the fraction of non-nuclear cell volume occupied by mitochondria for a wild-type mouse (as averaged over a large area). In biology, a good stereologists would repeat this for three wild-type mice, and then three mutant mice... and at that stage the results should have enough accuracy to compare the conditions with good statistical accuracy and publish the results - results which may either support or reject the hypothesis that theres an ...
A hidden utility in the LibreOffice toolbox, unoconv offers a wide array of import and export filter options for use at the command line.
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In a bench-top experiment, atomic nuclei may have fused inside rapidly imploding bubbles of vapor in a liquid bombarded by sound waves, but many scientists find the evidence for bubble fusion unconvincing.
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Regulated Transcrption: Advanced Look --, 2.) Nucleus Once the extracellular signal has been tranferred through a series of proteins and into the nucleus, transcripton factors within the nucleus are activated and prepare the regulated gene for transcription. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
When I tried using the Orbit One application, I eventually found out the reason it wasnt updating the records and showing an error was because the date format was incorrect. This appears to be the same using this method, when I did an update and reimported a sample the import failed 51 records out of 51. On the Excel spreadsheet theres a column showing the date the contact was last reached, when importing the updated spreadsheet this will have todays date on it and its displayed correctly, but CRM or SQL seems to think this should be in US format ...
Learn how global businesses develop export pricing strategies that take into account the target market, competitor pricing, costs for exporting products and other factors.
Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a ... "The Nucleus". MBInfo. "Learn about the Cell Nucleus". cellnucleus.com. Website covering structure and function of the nucleus ... Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... The cell nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in ...
Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis. Academic Press. pp. 67-94. ISBN 978-0-12-811014-0. "The cell. 4. Nucleus. Chromatin. ... In eukaryotes, euchromatin comprises the most active portion of the genome within the cell nucleus. In prokaryotes, euchromatin ... is therefore a direct link to how actively productive a cell is and the amount of euchromatin that can be found in its nucleus ... It is thought that the cell uses transformation from euchromatin into heterochromatin as a method of controlling gene ...
... is the movement of the cell nucleus in plants by the cytoskeleton. An important aspect of plant behavior ... The nucleus undergoes a characteristic program during cell division to guide asymmetric cell division, but there are several ... The integration of the stimuli in plant cells is not fully understood, but the movement of the cell nucleus provides one ... the plant cell nucleus is a highly dynamic structure, constantly moving around cells via actin networks and myosins. ...
Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (2): 600-610. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-09-0582. PMC 149995. PMID 12589057. (Cell nucleus, Gene ... thus favouring the relocation of actively transcribed genes to the periphery of the cell nucleus. In contrast, the rest of the ... though some experiments in human cell lines show a reversal of movement, from the periphery of the nucleus to the nucleoplasmic ... Cell. 140 (3): 360-371. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.011. PMID 20144760. S2CID 17260209. Mor, Amir; Suliman, Shimrit; Ben-Yishay ...
Bushy cells are of three subtypes that project to different target nuclei in the superior olivary complex. Globular bushy cells ... They contact stellate cells through more conventional boutons. The anterior cochlear nucleus contains several cell types, which ... ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL), and ventral nucleus of the lateral ... Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both inferior colliculi (central nucleus and dorsal cortex), and synapse in a ...
... are clusters of cells that primarily use monoamine neurotransmitters to communicate. The raphe nuclei, ventral ... Both ascending and descending serotonergic pathways project from the raphe nuclei. Raphe nuclei in the obscurus, pallid us, and ... These nuclei receive a variety of inputs including from other monoamines, as well as from glutaminergic, GABAergic, and ... Monoamine nuclei have been studied in relation to major depressive disorder, with some abnormalities observed, however MAO-B ...
... clumping of chromosomes and shrinking of the nucleus of the cell, karyorrhexis; fragmentation of the nucleus and break up of ... Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and ... When a cell is damaged, the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions. If a cell dies, the body ... Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well as ...
Cellular senescence, Cell nucleus, DNA). ... Journal of Cell Science. 124 (Pt 1): 68-81. doi:10.1242/jcs. ... Rodier, F.; Campisi, J. (14 February 2011). "Four faces of cellular senescence". The Journal of Cell Biology. 192 (4): 547-556 ... are nuclear substructures with persistent DNA damage and DNA damage response proteins found in senescent cells. DNA-SCARS are ...
In eukaryotes the genome is held within the cell nucleus, which is separated from the cytosol by nuclear pores that block the ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ...
2012). "Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells". Nucleus (Austin, Tex.). Nucleus. 3 (1): ... "Cell Mechanosensitivity to Extremely Low-Magnitude Signals Is Enabled by a LINCed Nucleus". Stem Cells. 33 (6): 2063-2076. doi: ... "Cell Nucleus and Nuclear Envelope". gsu.edu. Archived from the original on 2018-06-18. Retrieved 2014-01-21. "Nuclear membrane ... 2016). "Nuclear envelope rupture is induced by actin-based nucleus confinement". Journal of Cell Biology. JCB. 215 (1): 27-36. ...
... s have no cell nucleus; they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow or ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death" (PDF). Cell Signalling ... "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. PMID ... Endothelial cells are attached to the subendothelial collagen by von Willebrand factor (VWF), which these cells produce. VWF is ...
Bushy cells, stellate cells, and octopus cells. Bushy cells are found mainly in the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). ... Globular bushy cells project to the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and small spherical bushy cells likely ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Primary terminal nuclei ... Fusiform cells (also known as pyramidal cells). Fusiform cells integrate information through two tufts of dendrites, the apical ...
CS1 errors: generic name, Cell nucleus). ... normal cells becoming cancer cells). Many proteins are involved ... The cell cycle has four stages (G1, S, G2 and M) and Tax is known to accelerate the transition between G1 and S phase. Two DNA ... Cellular processes that Tax dysregulates to produce cancerous cells include the cell cycle and the maintenance of genomic ... cite book}}: ,first= has generic name (help) Ross, TM; Pettiford, SM; Green, PL (Aug 1996). "The tax gene of human T-cell ...
Robert Brown found the cell nucleus. A. A. Bussy publishes his Mémoire sur le Radical métallique de la Magnésie describing his ...
... nucleus and cell division). On the basis of his discoveries, Flemming surmised for the first time that all cell nuclei came ... Flemming investigated the process of cell division and the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, a process he ... He identified that chromatin was correlated to threadlike structures in the cell nucleus - the chromosomes (meaning coloured ... Methods Cell Biol. 2009;94:3-52. doi: 10.1016/S0091-679X(08)94001-2. Epub 2009 Dec 23. PMID 20362083. Van Beneden, E. (1876). ...
Cell nucleus Nucleoid McStay B (2016). "Nucleolar organizer regions: genomic 'dark matter' requiring illumination". Genes & ...
Spector is a pioneer in unraveling our understanding of the inner workings of the cell nucleus. His early investigations ... Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual (from CSHL Press) The Nucleus (Perspectives in Biology) (from CSHL Press) (Articles with ... "Model of the Mammalian Cell Nucleus". Spector Lab. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-01. "Spector, ... Cell. 135 (5): 919-32. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.10.012. PMC 2722846. PMID 19041754. Sunwoo H, Dinger ME, Wilusz JE, Amaral PP, ...
"Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus". Scientific Reports. 4 (1): 3781. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E3781K. doi:10.1038/ ... on scales from a cell to the ocean. Key predictions-that macroscopically aligned flocks of swimming bacteria are impossible, ...
Moore, Robert Y.; Speh, Joan C.; Leak, Rehana K. (2002-07-01). "Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization". Cell and Tissue Research ... The brain imaging focused primarily on two areas of the brain: the locus coeruleus, which is a nucleus in the pons responsible ... Through these brain images, Moore observed evidence suggesting a degeneration of nerve cells in these two areas. This was the ... He is credited with discovering the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the circadian clock, as well as, ...
The sizes of the cells in Onuf's nucleus are small in comparison to other lateral group cells. The neurons in Onuf's nucleus ... Both cell types are spared by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Onuf's nucleus cells are anatomically linked with the sacral ... it was revealed that cell death was confined to the area of Onuf's nucleus. This, once again, verified the role Onuf's nucleus ... This small group of neural cells is located between S1 and S2 or S2 and S3 and although Onuf's nucleus is located primarily in ...
... s shuttle between cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Their nuclear functions are not fully understood, but it was shown that ... Unstimulated cell arrestins are localized in the cytoplasm in a basal "inactive" conformation. Active phosphorylated GPCRs ... In addition to GPCRs, arrestins bind to other classes of cell surface receptors and a variety of other signaling proteins. ... One or more arrestin is expressed in virtually every eukaryotic cell. In mammals, arrestin-1 and arrestin-4 are largely ...
More-or-less independent circadian rhythms are found in many organs and cells in the body outside the suprachiasmatic nuclei ( ... cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillators pass time to daughter cells". Cell. 119 (5): 693-705. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.11 ... Welsh DK, Takahashi JS, Kay SA (March 2010). "Suprachiasmatic nucleus: cell autonomy and network properties". Annual Review of ... It is now known that the molecular circadian clock can function within a single cell. That is, it is cell-autonomous. This was ...
ZBARSKII, I.B; DEBOV, S.S. (1948). "On the proteins of the cell nucleus". Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 63: 795-798. Tetko IV, Haberer G ... In biology, the nuclear matrix is the network of fibres found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus after a specific method ... The nuclear matrix composition on human cells has been proven to be cell type and tumor specific. It has been clearly ... "Nuclear matrix and structural and functional compartmentalization of the eucaryotic cell nucleus". Biochemistry (Moscow). 79 (7 ...
... nucleus of great-lymphocyt-stem-cell; Erblk: Erythroblast; (Neumann 1914). Beside, you find the first announcement of the bone ... Cell Stem Cell 1, July 2007, p.37: Ernst Neumann (1912) and others began to use the term stem cell to refer to the common ... "Ernst Neumann postulated a common stem cell for all hematopoietic cells". In 2007, Zech et al. wrote: "The beginning of Stem ... "It is evident, that a continuing transformation of lymphoid cells into coloured blood cells takes place in the bone marrow ...
... which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae. Synthetic membranes are made by humans for use ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ... Microbiological fouling, generally defined as the consequence of irreversible attachment and growth of bacterial cells on the ...
... cells have more than one nucleus. Symplast could also refer to the connection of the inner contents (cytoplasm) of ... Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 1-15, [1]. Apoplast Plant sap Polar auxin transport, a type of cell-to-cell transport Protoplast ... and ions between cells (from the inner part of one cell to the inner partof the next cell). Larger molecules, including ... The symplast of a plant is the inner side of a cell membrane in which water and low-molecular-weight solutes can freely diffuse ...
... or a smooth muscle cell as these are both small cells. A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is ... muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as myonuclei, with each cell nucleus originating from a single ... Smooth muscle cells have a single nucleus. The unusual microscopic anatomy of a muscle cell gave rise to its own terminology. ... and have a single central nucleus. Cardiac muscle cells are joined to neighboring cells by intercalated discs, and when joined ...
They are found in the cell nucleus. When compared to other members of the zinc finger protein family, ZNF800 has only 48-34% ... Several different programs showed that ZNF800 is likely localized to the nucleus and does not contain any trans-membrane ... ", "method for inducing pluripotency in human somatic cells", and "modifying transcriptional regulatory networks in stem cells ... Cell Reports. 10 (10): 1778-1791. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.033. PMC 4514456. PMID 25772364. Xiao Z, Chang JG, Hendriks IA, ...
monokaryotic Cells having a single nucleus each; having genetically identical haploid nuclei (monokaryon or haplont). Found, ... Such cells having a rachis are called rachiform. From Gr. ráchis, axis, spine. racket cell A hyphal cell having a swelling at ... foot cell 1. A hyphal cell that supports a sporogenous cell or thallus, specifically the support of the conidiophore in ... plasmogamy The fusion of two cells or plasmodial cytoplasms, resulting in the nuclei juxtaposed and a dikaryon formed. In many ...
No nucleus is seen in the cells. There is also formation of an anuclear keratin layer, as in the normal epidermis. " ...
Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more detailed approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its ...
... is biased to being expressed in androgen sensitive cells compared to androgen insensitive cells. A predicted 3' UTR ... Nuclear localization signals allow proteins to be able to enter the nucleus, but many nuclear proteins possess their own. PANO1 ... p14ARF is a protein that is a known tumor suppressor.It does this by controlling cell proliferation and cell survival, however ... With a confidence level of 5 out of 5, PANO1 has been theorized to be expressed in the nucleolus of the cell. PANO1 is an ...
When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva ... These degree holders would then become a new nucleus of elite bureaucrats around which the government could center itself. In ... The facilities provided for the examinee consisted of an isolated room or cell with a makeshift bed, desk, and bench. Each ... Hereditary Mongol nobility formed the elite nucleus of the government. Initially the Mongols drew administrators from their ...
The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal ... This biological response is characterized by the chromosomal DNA's degradation in tiny fragments within the nucleus of the cell ... Apoptosis is a cell self-destruct process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development and other life ... The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription ...
... is expressed in cancer cells and localizes to nuclei". FEBS Lett. 579 (11): 2411-5. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2005.03.040. PMID ... and causes cell death in cultured cells". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (4): 2647-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.4.2647. PMID 10644725. Li PF, Li ... "Calcium binding of ARC mediates regulation of caspase 8 and cell death". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (22): 9763-70. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Cell. 15 (6): 901-12. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.08.020. PMID 15383280. Jo DG, Jun JI, Chang JW, Hong YM, Song S, Cho DH, Shim ...
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ...
ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. It is still unknown as to whether ASK1 ... No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. Another centromeric component, CENP ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ...
Nuclear grade describes how closely the nuclei of cancer cells look like the nuclei of normal breast cells; the higher the ... The signet ring-shaped cells in these tumors contain cytoplasmic mucin-containing vacuoles which push their cells' nuclei to ... These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... columnar-shaped epithelial cells (i.e. tall, narrow cells with their nuclei close to the site of their ductal attachment). The ...
J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... this is because the 4f orbitals penetrate the most through the inert xenon core of electrons to the nucleus, followed by 5d and ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ... and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (hereinafter referred to as xEVs), wind turbines, home appliances, computers, and many small ...
... a triangular membrane occurring in eyes Cell membranes: Plasma membrane, a membrane that separates the interior of all cells ... from the outside environment Inner nuclear membrane, the biological membrane of nucleus Outer membrane (disambiguation), ... Biology: Isolating tissues formed by layers of cells Amnion, a membrane in the amniotic sac Basement membrane, a thin sheet of ... a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid Tunic membrane, protective membrane covering ...
... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... A weak nuclear localisation signal in the ICD of Ten-m3 facilitates the translocation of the ICD into the nucleus. TCAPs from ... Ten-m3 mRNA is prominently co-expressed with Ten-m2 and Ten-m4 in the Purkinje's cell zone of the cerebellum. Ten-m3 protein is ... In E17 mouse, Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in the parafascicular thalamic nucleus, a subregion of the thalamus, and in the striatum ...
One group revealed robust α-synuclein pathology in the pontine nuclei and medullary inferior olivary nucleus upon histological ... Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may delay the progression of neurological deficits in patients with MSA-cerebellar type. Ronald ... Multiple system atrophy can be explained as cell loss and gliosis or a proliferation of astrocytes in damaged areas of the ... Hass EW, Sorrentino ZA, Xia Y, Lloyd GM, Trojanowski JQ, Prokop S, Giasson BI (August 2021). "Disease-, region- and cell type ...
Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... The nuclei tend to be regular, round-to-oval and contain stippled chromatin. The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ...
The bomb is fired into the cell's nucleus and the Enterprise backs out using what little power remains. With seconds remaining ... Spock pilots a shuttle through the creature's outer membrane and makes his way toward the nucleus. Eventually, he reports that ...
When a nucleus is added to an egg during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the egg starts dividing in minutes, as compared to the ... Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ... In germline cells the imprint is erased and then re-established according to the sex of the individual, i.e. in the developing ...
The nucleus of this theory is related to the cell volume, determined by an adaptation balance between advantages and ... Genome size correlates with a range of measurable characteristics at the cell and organism levels, including cell size, cell ... Cavalier-Smith also proposed that, as consequent reaction of a cell reduction, the nucleus will be more prone to a selection in ... The most interesting factor is represented by the coexistence of those small nuclei inside of a cell that contains another ...
... which result from the formation of large vacuoles full of mucin that displaces the nucleus to the cell's periphery. Stomach ... Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell ... As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling pathway becomes constitutively activated, cell-cell interactions are lost and signet ... July 2013). "Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell ...
5-aminosalicylate (ASA) has been shown to reduce β-catenin and its localization to the nucleus in colon cancer cells isolated ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases such as small cell lung cancer. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the ... a small-cell lung cancer. When Cushing's syndrome is caused by an increase of cortisol at the level of the adrenal glands (via ...
STAT2 and a third transcription factor called IRF9-and moves into the cell nucleus. Inside the nucleus, the ISGF3 complex binds ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ... and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. All interferons share several common effects: ... Type II interferons are also released by cytotoxic T cells and type-1 T helper cells. However, they block the proliferation of ...
Some of the genes the nucleus received from the chromatophore were multiplied many times over through a "copy-paste" mechanism ... Vries, Jan de; Gould, Sven B. (15 January 2018). "The monoplastidic bottleneck in algae and plant evolution". Journal of Cell ... Some of the genes have been lost, others have migrated to the amoeba's nucleus through endosymbiotic gene transfer. Other genes ... McCutcheon, John P. (6 October 2021). "The Genomics and Cell Biology of Host-Beneficial Intracellular Infections". Annual ...
WGA enters the cell by binding to oligosaccharides, and is then taken up via endocytosis via a caveolae-dependent pathway. ... Smith Y, Hazrati LN, Parent A (April 1990). "Efferent projections of the subthalamic nucleus in the squirrel monkey as studied ... It was shown that pH and endocytosis are crucial for the HSV to infect a cell. Transport of the viral particles along the axon ... There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the ...
"The dynamic organization of the perinucleolar compartment in the cell nucleus". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (5): 965-974. ... While all of the hnRNPs are present in the nucleus, some seem to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The hnRNP ... Kim JH, Hahm B, Kim YK, Choi M, Jang SK (May 2000). "Protein-protein interaction among hnRNPs shuttling between nucleus and ... Kim JH, Hahm B, Kim YK, Choi M, Jang SK (May 2000). "Protein-protein interaction among hnRNPs shuttling between nucleus and ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Bidirectional transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 158 (5): 915-27. doi:10.1083/jcb.200206106. PMC 2173148. PMID 12196509. Mulari MT, Patrikainen L, ...
In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely ... December 2017). "YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops". Cell. 171 (7): 1573-1588.e28. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... February 2018). "The Human Transcription Factors". Cell. 172 (4): 650-665. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.029. PMID 29425488. ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ...
TTC39B is expressed in a multitude of tissues: testis, lung, islets of langerhans, pancreas, kidney, pooled germ cell tumors, ... nucleus). TTC39C is expected to localize in cytoplasm. No phenotype has been discovered, and the gene's in vivo function is ... Conjugation of ubiquitin monomers or polymers leads to different effects within a cell. Ubiquitination has been associated with ... protein degradation, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, kinase modification, endocytosis, and regulation of other cell ...
1987). "Analysis of mutation in human cells by using an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle system". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (1): 379-87. doi ... "The death effector domain-associated factor plays distinct regulatory roles in the nucleus and cytoplasm". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 1999). "Inherited human Caspase 10 mutations underlie defective lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis in autoimmune ...
The granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their multilobed nuclei, are three short lived cell types ... The unique myelocyte next differentiates into a metamyelocyte and then a band cell, with a "C" shaped nucleus, before becoming ... In hematology, myelopoiesis in the broadest sense of the term is the production of bone marrow and of all cells that arise from ... A granulocyte differentiates into a distinct cell type by a process called granulopoiesis. In this process it first transforms ...
Cell fractions representing different parts of the cell (nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Golgi bodies, cytosol ... Furthermore, zymoblots can be very helpful in cytochemodissection studies aiming at localising enzymes within cells. ...
In January 1859, Wallachia was effectively merged with Moldavia into the United Principalities, as the nucleus of modern ... such episodes did not prevent Aristia from presenting the financial situation of revolutionary cells in unrealistic terms, and ...
Tag: cell nucleus. Junk DNA Cell biology Intelligent Design CalTech researchers map spatial organization of the ("junk") DNA ... and RNA in the cell nucleus. At ENST: Now, the windows are opening on [nucleus] organization so all-encompassing for all those ... it is truly mind-boggling what goes on in the nucleus of a cell. ...
The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a eukaryotic cell because it contains most of the genetic material that ... Why Is the Nucleus Called the Control Center of the Cell?. By Staff WriterLast Updated March 30, 2020 ... Inside the cells nucleus rests a long molecule called DNA. This strand of genetic material contains the instructions needed to ... Very nearly every action the cell takes is in some way influenced by the DNA of the nucleus. ...
... which is too small for its nucleus, this generates physical tension. This tension is sensed by a nucleus-centrosome connection ... Recent evidence shows how focussed ECM degradation relieves the constraint and allows cancer cells to continue invading. ... When an invading cancer cell attempts to pass through a hole in the extracellular matrix (ECM) ... cancer cells need to squeeze through constrictions and this imposes stresses on the nucleus. Like dendritic cells, cancer cells ...
... that covers their groundbreaking work to develop cell regeneration therapies for liver cirrhosis. ... This expertise in cell culture and the ECM allows AMSBIO to partner with clients in tailoring cell systems to enhance organoid ... The company provides unique clinical grade products for stem cell and cell therapy applications. these include high quality ... Novel Cell Therapy for Liver Cirrhosis. AMSBIO has published an interview with researchers at Yamaguchi University Graduate ...
Superficial vaginal epithelial cell with pyknotic nucleus. Superficial vaginal epithelial cell with pyknotic nucleus. At this ...
Effects of Design Factors and Microenvironment on Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells for Intervertebral Disc ...
Leonard Hayflick talks about dicovering that a cells counting mechanism resides in the nucleus ... Now you end up with a bunch of nucleoplasts, namely cells without nuclei, and nucleoplasts, namely free nuclei. They are, for ... but the cell itself would not, so that you ended up with nuclei dividing within the cell, because thats where the chromosomes ... and youd end up with a cell with many nuclei. If you raised the concentration of Cytochalasin B the original single nucleus in ...
... whereas the other case showed an abundance of cells with optically clear nuclei. Both periph … ... The fine needle aspiration cytology of two cases of bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinoma of the lung having unusual features is ... Psammoma bodies and optically clear nuclei in bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinoma. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy ... whereas the other case showed an abundance of cells with optically clear nuclei. Both peripherally located tumors were resected ...
Researchers led by Professor Carmen Birchmeier at the MDC have used a cutting-edge tool to learn more about different nuclei in ... Some of these nuclei cluster near other cells that are adjacent to the muscle fiber, like tendon cells, for example. Other ... Most cells typically have one nucleus that holds its genomic DNA. Muscle fibers, however, are large, individual cells that ... we observed the loss of many types of cell nuclei in the muscle fibers, said Birchmeier. The organized clusters of nuclei seen ...
... cell nuclei, chloroplasts, cosmic rays, cyanobacteria, Dorion Sagan, Ediacaran period, eukaryotes, evolution, Gabon, George ... Posts about cell nuclei written by calderup ...
Cell and nuclei sample preparation prior to genomic analysis. NGS and RNA sequencing sample preparation workflows. Sample prep ... Read up on cell and nuclei preparation. Flip through the brochure and learn about our solutions for cell and nuclei preparation ... Workflow steps for the preparation of cells and nuclei for genomic analysis. The optimal preparation of cells and nuclei prior ... Capn T Cell explains MACS® Technology cell isolation. Improve your cell separation with the autoMACS Pro. Reference List: MACS ...
... Margret Keuper, J. ... "A 3D Active Surface Model for the accurate Segmentation of Drosophila Schneider Cell Nuclei and Nucleoli", booktitle = " ...
2019) The NAE Pathway : autobahn to the nucleus for cell surface receptors. Cells, 8 (8). 915. doi:10.3390/cells8080915 ... While this framework can explain the cell surface to nucleus traffic of EGFR and other cell surface receptors, it raises ... WRAP-NAE-pathway-autobahn-nucleus-cell-surface-receptors-Royle-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. Available ... Various growth factors and full-length cell surface receptors such as EGFR are translocated from the cell surface to the ...
SV40 is a DNA virus that, in order to make more of itself, burrows into a cell and then into its nucleus, thereby infecting it ... SV40 is a DNA virus that, in order to make more of itself, burrows into a cell and then into its nucleus, thereby infecting it. ... The unique way this virus sneaks into a cells nucleus could advance the study of cancer-causing pathogens. M Health Lab Report ... Cell & Developmental Biology and Microbiology & Immunology at U-M Medical School, Research Assistant Professor at the U-M Life ...
... in combination with single cell RNA-seq, to characterize the cell-type specific transcriptome alterations in epilepsy temporal ... we developed and validated a novel sorting strategy that simultaneously isolates nuclei populations of astrocytes (PAX6+), ... Glia-specific nuclei isolation and single cell transcriptomics inform astrocyte pathology in human temporal lobe epilepsy. ... in combination with single cell RNA-seq, to characterize the cell-type specific transcriptome alterations in epilepsy temporal ...
DeNovix Inc has developed two dedicated nuclei counting apps capable of differentiating isolated nuclei and intact cells from ... DeNovix Inc has developed two dedicated nuclei counting apps capable of differentiating isolated nuclei and intact cells from ... DeNovix Launches Nuclei Counting Apps for CellDrop Automated Cell Counters. Product News Published: August 4, 2022 ... About CellDrop Cell Counters. The CellDrop Series is a line of image-based, automated cell counters. Systems include a high ...
... epidermal cells were selected in which the separation between these ... To investigate the spatial relationship between the nucleus and the cortical division site, ... In vacuolated cells preparing for division, the nucleus migrates into the center of the cell, suspended by transvacuolar ... These nucleus-radiating microtubules adopt different configurations in cells of different shape. In elongated cells with more ...
Structures retaining many of the morphological features of nuclei may be released by lysing HeLa cells in solutions containing ... Binding Sites, Cell Nucleus, DNA, DNA, Circular, DNA, Superhelical, Ethidium, Gamma Rays, HeLa Cells, Hot Temperature, Hydrogen ... Structures retaining many of the morphological features of nuclei may be released by lysing HeLa cells in solutions containing ... Spectrofluorometric measurement of the binding of ethidium to superhelical DNA from cell nuclei. ...
fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Sequence Analysis, RNA. Cell Separation. Nucleus Accumbens. Ventral Striatum ... Biology and Bias in Cell Type-Specific RNAseq of Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons. ... Whole cell-FACS is more similar to nuclear-FACS than RiboTag, but captures aspects of both. Using pan-method approaches, we ... We are also the first to find evidence for moderate sexual dimorphism in these cell types at baseline. As these results are ...
Single cell (or nucleus) genomics makes it possible to examine differences in gene expression between distinct neural cell ... and cannot identify rare cell types or changes in individual cells.. Single cell gene expression is often not compatible with ... Fortunately, single nuclei, isolated from frozen tissue samples, can be used with the 10x Genomics Chromium and Cell Ranger ... However, single cell gene expression profiling, and its close cousin single nucleus gene expression, are now helping scientists ...
title = "The peptide orphanin FQ inhibits β-endorphin neurons and neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by ... T1 - The peptide orphanin FQ inhibits β-endorphin neurons and neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by ... The peptide orphanin FQ inhibits β-endorphin neurons and neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by activating ... The peptide orphanin FQ inhibits β-endorphin neurons and neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by activating ...
... CECCARELLI ... By studying these changes in the nuclear structure in a number of Magnoliopsida with chromocentric nuclei, we found: (i) that ... By studying these changes in the nuclear structure in a number of Magnoliopsida with chromocentric nuclei, we found: (i) that ... between the extent of chromocenter association and that of RNA synthesis in the nucleus; and (iii) that this large-scale ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The red nucleus or nucleus ruber is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination.[1] The red nucleus is ... The red nucleus receives many inputs from the cerebellum (interposed nucleus and the lateral cerebellar nucleus) of the ... Vestibular nuclei → Vestibulocerebellar tract → ICP → Cerebellum → Granule cell. * ...
... J.A. Maier ... These results suggest that transport of endogenous IL-1(1-271) into the nucleus is required for it to modulate endothelial cell ... These results suggest that transport of endogenous IL-1(1-271) into the nucleus is required for it to modulate endothelial cell ... Endogenous interleukin 1 alpha must be transported to the nucleus to exert its activity in human endothelial cells / J. A. ...
Nucleus, Proton, Neutron, Electron, Class IX Chapterwise Practice Test and Preparation Material ... Free Online ORGANIZATION OF NUCLEUS Practice & Preparation Tests. Search Result for organization of nucleus ...
A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed ... Anatomy [A] » Cells [A11] » Cellular Structures » Intracellular Space » Cytoplasm » Cytoplasmic Structures » Organelles » Cell ... Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The ...
Because the Insulin Receptor (IR) can traffic to the nucleus, and calcium (Ca2+) signals within the nucleus regulate cell ... THE INSULIN RECEPTOR TRANSLOCATES TO THE NUCLEUS TO REGULATE CELL PROLIFERATION IN LIVER Gutiérrez, Maria Jimena Amaya et al. ... The Insulin Receptor Translocates to the Nucleus to Regulate Cell Proliferation in Liver. Hepatology, v. 59, n. 1, p. 274-283, ... Moreover, liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy also depended upon formation of InsP3 in the nucleus but not the cytosol ...
plant cells do not have a nucleus while animal cells do. ? plant cells have a cell membrane while animal cells do not. ... In cell biology, the cell nucleus, or simply nucleus, is the center of the activities in a cell. With the help of this article ... Animal cells contain a nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes etc. 2020-07-09 · All plant cells contain a nucleus, a ... a plant cell has organelles but an animal cell does not b) an animal cell has a cell wall, but a plant cell does not c) a plant ...
  • If you raised the concentration of Cytochalasin B the original single nucleus in a cell exposed in this way, to that chemical, would result in the single nucleus being expelled - physically expelled - from the cell, but still tethered to the remaining cell, which we call a cytoplasm, and that tether could be broken by centrifugation. (webofstories.com)
  • If you insert an old nucleus into a young cytoplasm, the old nucleus prevails in respect to determining the number of population doublings, and the reverse. (webofstories.com)
  • Well, that clearly showed that the replicometer - the counting mechanism - was in the nucleus and not in the cytoplasm. (webofstories.com)
  • Animal cells contain a nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes etc. 2020-07-09 · All plant cells contain a nucleus, a structure that stores DNA and acts as a cell's command center. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Human red blood cells eject their nuclei at maturity and this gives them the characteristic biconcave shape which increases their … 2020-06-19 2001-08-31 Recall that plant and animal cells are similar because they contain nuclei, cytoplasm and membranes and that plant cells also have cellulose cell walls, chloroplasts containing chlorophyll and vacuoles. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Nuclear envelope is the peripheral part of the nucleus that separates the interior of the nucleus, known as nucleoplasm, from the cytoplasm, and consists of an outer membrane, an inner membrane and a perinuclear space (between both membranes). (uvigo.es)
  • A homogeneous series of synthetic bis-substituted alkyl or phenyl amidine and reverse amidine derivatives of furamidine was used to dissect the molecular mechanisms that control the distribution of the drugs into the cytoplasm or the nucleus of the cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The interior of all cells consists of cytoplasm filled with a jelly-like substance called cytosol. (visiblebody.com)
  • The cytoplasm often contains ingested leukocytes, bacteria and other debris, very rarely red blood cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The trophozoites may also extend agranular pseudopodia while the main cell cytoplasm remains granular in appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • Cytoplasm consists of the jelly-like cytosol inside the cell, plus the cellular structures suspended in it. (khanacademy.org)
  • In eukaryotes, cytoplasm specifically means the region outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane. (khanacademy.org)
  • Crocidolite caused a partial (50%) translocation of p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in RPM cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) is a protein that shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. (portlandpress.com)
  • Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma is composed of small cells and monocytoid cells (with more abundant cytoplasm) and is a low-grade lymphoma. (wisc.edu)
  • Shoot tips of maize are composed of small cells with a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. (bvsalud.org)
  • The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a eukaryotic cell because it contains most of the genetic material that carries the instructions for the cell's operations. (reference.com)
  • Inside the cell's nucleus rests a long molecule called DNA. (reference.com)
  • Messenger RNA reads off the sequence of instructions coded in the DNA, alters its shape in response to the exact sequence it has read and passes out of the nucleus to instruct the cell's internal machinery in the steps needed to synthesize proteins. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus is the densest of the cell's organs and certainly one of the most rigid, thus posing a significant obstacle to movement through constricted spaces. (nature.com)
  • It was, frankly, no surprise that the replicometer was in the nucleus because, after all, most of the governance of a cell's behaviour is a function of nuclear events. (webofstories.com)
  • The Nucleus Houses The Cell's Dna And Directs The Synthesis Of Proteins And Ribosomes. (firebaseapp.com)
  • A cell's nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that consists of the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that surrounds and isolates the nuclear contents, and the nuclear matrix which acts like the cytoskeleton and provides support [ 1,2 ]. (thermofisher.com)
  • The nucleus contains the cell's genetic material (chromosomes) and is the primary site of gene expression and DNA replication during cell cycle. (thermofisher.com)
  • Structure in a cell's nucleus that contains heredity. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Most DNA is inside a cell's nucleus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As it is, each cell holds strands of DNA that are approximately six feet long, so each strand needs to be folded extremely tightly to fit into the cell's microscopic nucleus. (unknowncountry.com)
  • To replicate, viruses must deliver their own DNA into a cell's nucleus, so a viral infection entails a conflict between two genomesthe DNA of the host cell versus the foreign DNA of the virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Viruses mount their attack by interacting with specific cell proteins as a way of penetrating the cell's defenses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • By describing the mechanism of this particular interaction between a virus and a cell protein, we have pinpointed key regulators of a cell's processes, and shed light on how a cell regulates its defenses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Because RNF8 normally inhibits viral replication, its destruction leaves the cell vulnerable to HSV-1 infection, as the virus takes over the cell's machinery. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • What would happen in the presence of low concentrations of this chemical is that the nucleus of the cell would divide, but the cell itself would not, so that you ended up with nuclei dividing within the cell, because that's where the chromosomes are, and you'd end up with a cell with many nuclei. (webofstories.com)
  • Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli ( CELL NUCLEOLUS ). (liu.edu)
  • The human body is made up of cells, each with 23 pairs of chromosomes. (smartwellness.eu)
  • The nucleus also contains various proteins such as histones, which form chromosomes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Number of chromosomes found in human body cells and sex cells. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Light micrograph of onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells stained with acetocarmine to show nuclei and chromosomes. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Mitochondria are needed to release energy from sugar, plant cells need this energy to function just as animal cells. (firebaseapp.com)
  • 2020-05-15 2016-02-18 Plant Cells: Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that contain organelles such as a nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Furamidine and its phenyl-substituted analogue that accumulate in the cell nuclei and mitochondria, respectively, share a common selectivity for AT sites and bind equally tightly to these sites. (elsevier.com)
  • The gold color represents mitochondria, the energy production center in cells. (osti.gov)
  • DeNovix Inc has developed two dedicated nuclei counting apps capable of differentiating isolated nuclei and intact cells from debris. (technologynetworks.com)
  • They reveal the natural location of cells in tissues and provide a means to follow nuclear changes throughout cellular processes, from mitosis to apoptosis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Most cells in the human body can divide via a processes called mitosis. (visiblebody.com)
  • Mitosis occurs when a cell divides and creates two genetically identical copies of itself. (visiblebody.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Theoretical study of the effect of temperature on cell division & of the variation of nucleus & cytoplasmic mass preceding mitosis. (who.int)
  • The authors interpret the mechanism of multinucleation to be due to failure of cells to divide following mitosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous reports suggest that electrical forces on cell structure proteins interfered with the chromosome separation during mitosis and induced apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • In fact, the definition of a eukaryotic cell is that it contains a nucleus while a prokaryotic cell is defined as not having a nucleus. (firebaseapp.com)
  • The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains its DNA. (visiblebody.com)
  • Inside the nucleus, DNA directs the sequence of chemical steps needed for the synthesis of proteins and, by way of the proteins' action, it controls the metabolism of the rest of the cell. (reference.com)
  • Some of these proteins help digest food, some build or destroy other proteins and some are useful in transporting chemicals through the wall of the cell. (reference.com)
  • For drug discovery research, AMSBIO offers assays, recombinant proteins and cell lines. (onenucleus.com)
  • British Library EThOS: The transport of proteins to the cell nucleus. (bl.uk)
  • This enables the cell to fulfill its numerous tasks, like communicating with neurons or producing certain muscle proteins. (labroots.com)
  • In mammalian cell based models of both polyglutamine and polyalanine diseases, the mutant proteins are much more prone to aggregate formation than their wild-type counterparts and cause significantly more cell death. (bmj.com)
  • The nuclear lamina is a layer of proteins lining the inner surface of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, which provides mechanical support to the nucleus. (uvigo.es)
  • 7. The nucleus also stores proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleolus. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • The nucleus uses this information as a blueprint to make stuff like proteins for the cell. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • The nucleus can be selectively visualized by staining nuclear proteins or directly staining nucleic acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • Most cells contain ribosomes , which are structures that combine amino acids to create proteins. (visiblebody.com)
  • Our cells do a lot for us: they synthesize proteins, convert nutrients from our food into energy we can use, and make up the tissues and organs in our bodies. (visiblebody.com)
  • Most bacteria are, however, surrounded by a rigid cell wall made out of peptidoglycan , a polymer composed of linked carbohydrates and small proteins. (khanacademy.org)
  • For instance, although archaea also have a cell wall, it's not made out of peptidoglycan-although it does contain carbohydrates and proteins. (khanacademy.org)
  • Cytoskeleton offers several reagents for live-cell research including fluorescent proteins, cell permeable protein activators and inhibitors, as well as our recent addition of live cell imaging probes. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • They found that ICP0 exploits phosphorylation, a chemical mark that is often used in cells to promote interactions between proteins, especially as part of the cellular signaling response to DNA damage. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Human stem cell-derived sensory neurons, fluorescently labeled to reveal neurofilament proteins (red and green) and cell nuclei (blue). (nih.gov)
  • The nucleus is en The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plant's DNA and contro According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria do not have a true nucleus while eukaryote cells like human somatic cells do. (firebaseapp.com)
  • 10, 11 In such models, aggregate formation and cell death can be reduced by overexpressing yeast and bacteria derived chaperones that do not appear to protect against some other cell death pathways. (bmj.com)
  • 18. All eukaryotic cells possess a nucleus and bacteria and other prokaryotic cells do not possess a nucleus. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • 24. Bacteria do not have an organized nucleus. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • As we move toward the development of phage therapies, we'll need to learn more about this newly discovered phage nucleus since it appears to make them better at attacking bacteria," said Pogliano. (id-ea.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells include bacteria and archaea. (visiblebody.com)
  • Elafin expressed by these bacteria also protects cultured human intestinal cell lines from inflammatory outbreaks similar to those observed in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. (aviesan.fr)
  • Only the single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes- pro means before and kary means nucleus. (khanacademy.org)
  • Some bacteria also have specialized structures found on the cell surface, which may help them move, stick to surfaces, or even exchange genetic material with other bacteria. (khanacademy.org)
  • Archaea may also have most of these cell surface features, but their versions of a particular feature are typically different from those of bacteria. (khanacademy.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of Gram negative bacteria, plays a central role in sepsis as the endotoxin inducing a systemic inflammatory response, and LPS-induced endotoxin shock is one of the several well-studied animal models of septic shock. (elifesciences.org)
  • They do things like break down bacteria through a process called endocytosis, or cell eating. (chewdigest.com)
  • Some digest pathogenic fungi and bacteria through the process of phagocytosis(cell eating). (chewdigest.com)
  • The present study examined the effects of OFQ on neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the mediobasal hypothalamus, using intracellular recordings from coronal slices. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that OFQ inhibits β-endorphin neurons, as well as A 12 dopamine and GnRH neurosecretory cells, within the ARC by activating a subset of inwardly-rectifying K + channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Single cell (or nucleus) genomics makes it possible to examine differences in gene expression between distinct neural cell types, such as excitatory and inhibitory neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and other glial cells. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Just two months after their autism study was published, the team published another article in Nature describing a single cell study of multiple sclerosis (MS). They found that neurons are differentially vulnerable to damage from MS lesions and that the most dysregulated genes in the disease appear in upper cortical neurons and certain reactive glial cells located on the edge of MS lesions in the subcortex (2). (10xgenomics.com)
  • Neurons and glial cells are shown in this picture. (uvigo.es)
  • Nuclei of neurons contain more loose chromatin, whereas glia nuclei have highly condensed chromatin, and therefore the size is much smaller. (uvigo.es)
  • A team of scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new technique, using human stem cells, to efficiently grow sensory nerve cells (neurons) in a dish. (nih.gov)
  • The findings, published in a recent issue of the journal Cell Reports , highlight the importance of using stem cells to produce human-specific neurons in a laboratory setting, enabling investigation of human biology and disease in otherwise inaccessible tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In their study, the researchers found that, by manipulating the expression of two genes called NGN2 and BRN3A, the developmental trajectory of human stem cells can be "programmed" between two specific subtypes of sensory neurons: (1) a cold-mechanoreceptor neuron that senses both cold and mechanical stimuli and (2) a touch receptor neuron specialized only to sense mechanical stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Susceptible neuronal populations also include inhibitory neurons in the thalamic Reticular Nucleus. (cdc.gov)
  • trophozoites may be seen ingesting white cells and epithelial cell nuclei. (cdc.gov)
  • Yes, animal and plant cells have nucleolus because it copies DNA and it is the site of RNA synthesis. (firebaseapp.com)
  • The nucleus of the cell is a membrane-bound organelle that includes the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, and nuclear matrix, and is the site of gene expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • Within the nucleus is a sub-compartment known as the nucleolus, which is responsible for synthesizing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and subsequently assembling ribosomes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The nuclear lamina is a dense fibrillar protein network (composed largely of nuclear lamins) which associates with the inner face of the nuclear membrane, and confers rigidity to the nucleus 1 . (nature.com)
  • Indeed, there is a dense network of actin surrounding the nucleus linked to the cytosolic face of the nuclear envelope through a protein complex called the LINC complex. (nature.com)
  • To investigate the potential intracellular function of IL-1 alpha, transformed endothelial cells were transfected with the human cDNAs that code for the two forms of IL-1 alpha, the precursor molecule IL-1(1-271) and the mature protein IL-1(113-271). (unimi.it)
  • You can use a website or smartphone app to find the nearest tower for cellular service, or you can c The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plant's DNA and control the activity of the cell through protein synthesis. (firebaseapp.com)
  • 1 Nevertheless, strategies that target protein misfolding frequently reduce aggregate formation and cell death in parallel. (bmj.com)
  • 11, 14 Rouleau and colleagues found that oligomerisation of PABP2 is mediated by two potential oligomerisation domains (ODs)-deletions in either of these domains inactivated oligomerisation of mutant PABP2 and also reduced the cell death caused by this protein. (bmj.com)
  • 8. The starting point of protein synthesis which is called transcription begins in the nucleus. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • 23. It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, and cell differentiation. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • The researchers discovered that the phage's nucleus-like shell assembles from a single protein. (id-ea.org)
  • Package protein and move it out of cell. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • A misfolded and aggregated isoform of a cell-surface protein termed cellular prion protein (PrP Sc ) is the main, if not the sole, component of prions ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On a portion of thyroid cell facing the blood stream there is a protein called sodium iodine symporter that transports iodine into the thyroid cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Phospholipid content was determined by extraction of cells with chloroform and methanol and protein and DNA were measured. (cdc.gov)
  • By manipulating cell signals, the virus destroys a defensive protein designed to inhibit it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Asbestos causes translocation of p65 protein and increases NF-kB DNA binding activity in rat lung epithelial and pleural mesothelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • 19. When the cell is in a resting condition called interphase, there is something called chromatin in the nucleus. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • 21. When the cell is going to divide, the chromatin condenses. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • Trophozoites possess a single nucleus that contains a small, centrally-located karyosome and fine peripheral chromatin. (cdc.gov)
  • These cells exhibited large basophilic nucleus with remarkable irregular chromatin distribution. (bvsalud.org)
  • The team used 10x Genomics single cell techniques to identify molecular changes in autism spectrum disorder and multiple sclerosis that seem to exist only in specific cell types. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Traditional genomics studies require hundreds of cells as samples, forcing researchers to take average readings of cellular activity across cell populations, even among diverse groups of cells, and cannot identify rare cell types or changes in individual cells. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Fortunately, single nuclei, isolated from frozen tissue samples, can be used with the 10x Genomics Chromium and Cell Ranger systems, bypassing the degradation and quality problems associated with frozen samples. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Using snRNA-seq and the 10x Genomics platform, they were able to, for the first time, determine the specific cell types in the brain affected by autism spectrum disorder (1). (10xgenomics.com)
  • The 10x Genomics Chromium Single Cell Gene Expression Solution distinguished phagocytosing cells in multiple sclerosis by their transportation of ingested myelin transcripts (products of gene expression) into the cell nucleus. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Single-cell genomics identifies cell type-specific molecular changes in autism. (10xgenomics.com)
  • We generated single-nucleus RNA sequencing data from Chromium 10X Genomics and Drop-seq for a human liver sample. (scilifelab.se)
  • The nucleus of the cell stores the information necessary for the development and efficient functioning of the whole organism. (smartwellness.eu)
  • A lthough the amount of DNA is almost the same in all the cell nuclei of an organism, the size of the nucleus is variable depending on the cell type (Figure 2). (uvigo.es)
  • 6. The nucleus regulates the heredity characteristics of an organism. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • Cells are the microscopic units that make up humans and every other living organism. (visiblebody.com)
  • A prokaryote is a simple, single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. (khanacademy.org)
  • Prokaryotes-organisms composed of a prokaryotic cell-are always single-celled (unicellular). (visiblebody.com)
  • Image of a typical prokaryotic cell, with different portions of the cell labeled. (khanacademy.org)
  • You examine embryos and assess cell nuclei iHMC shows nucleus shape and nucleoli brilliantly. (zeiss.com)
  • The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dendritic cells are highly motile, going back and forth from tissues and lymph nodes to harvest and present antigens to the immune system, and this circuitous journey entails negotiating constrictions imposed by lymphatic vessels and ECM which are substantially smaller than a cell nucleus. (nature.com)
  • Through actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex, dendritic cells can directly exert force on the lamina and thus alter the shape of their nucleus to facilitate movement through tissues and the lymphatic system without the need to resort to using proteases which would cause tissue damage 2 (Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Our workflow solutions allow for the storage of solid tissues and dissociation into single-cell or single-nuclei suspensions, the cleanup of cell suspensions to remove unwanted material, as well as isolation of target cells and quality control to ensure you reach the right standards prior your genomic analysis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Cells and Tissues - 3 (Nucleus, Cell Division. (tcyonline.com)
  • Cell-permeant nucleic acid stains make it possible to stain live cells or tissues with minimal processing. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cell-impermeant nucleic acid stains, used with fixed cells or tissues, are also used as dead-cell indicators providing a means to follow cellular processes, from apoptosis to viability. (thermofisher.com)
  • The pituitary gland produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that goes into the blood stream to activate thyroid cells, which then secrete T3 and T4 into the peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 80 diseases occur as a result of the immune system attacking the body's own organs, tissues, and cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Structures retaining many of the morphological features of nuclei may be released by lysing HeLa cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. (ox.ac.uk)
  • With the help of this article, let us discuss what is the main function of this important organelle… Any body, be it a plant or animal, is made up of millions of tiny structures known as cells. (firebaseapp.com)
  • The forces that drive the drugs into cell nuclei, as well as the influence of the molecular structures on the cell distribution, are not known. (elsevier.com)
  • With DIC you visualize even the finest structures in your cells. (zeiss.com)
  • Structures inside the cell are suspended in the cytosol. (visiblebody.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain smaller structures, called organelles , that help it carry out these functions. (visiblebody.com)
  • Fimbriae are numerous, hair-like structures that are used for attachment to host cells and other surfaces. (khanacademy.org)
  • The layer consisted of large cells with small nucleus, free-organelle cytosol, irregular plasmatic membrane, trichome- like structures, and thick cell walls. (bvsalud.org)
  • which bipolar structures that resemble zygotic nevertheless, improvement through genetic embryos are developed from haploid or diploid engineering or mutagenesis requires a reliable somatic cells through an orderly embryologi- and efficient in vitro culture system. (bvsalud.org)
  • AMSBIO has in-depth expertise in extracellular matrices to provide elegant solutions for studying cell motility, migration, invasion and proliferation. (onenucleus.com)
  • In recent years, nuclear EGFR has been implicated in regulating gene transcription, cell proliferation and DNA damage repair. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Because the Insulin Receptor (IR) can traffic to the nucleus, and calcium (Ca2+) signals within the nucleus regulate cell proliferation, we investigated whether insulin's mitogenic effects result from activation of Ca2+ signaling pathways by IRs within the nucleus. (fiocruz.br)
  • Insulin-induced increases in Ca2+ and cell proliferation depended upon clathrin- and caveolin-dependent translocation of the IR to the nucleus, as well as upon formation of inositol 1,4,5,-trisphosphate (InsP3) in the nucleus, whereas insulin's metabolic effects did not depend on either of these events. (fiocruz.br)
  • A recombinant extracellular matrix (ECM) that promotes cell proliferation, maintains pluripotency and supports normal colony morphology, for mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells. (nucleusbiologics.com)
  • METHODS: The analyzed material consisted of histological sections from different squamous cell cancers that had stained for proliferation using Ki-67 and cyclin A detection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer in which uncontrolled plasma cell proliferation disrupts the bone marrow environment and impairs immune function. (hrb.ie)
  • In accordance with other reports, cell culture experiments confirmed that TTFields reduce the proliferation of different glioma cell lines in a field strength- and frequency-dependent manner. (nature.com)
  • Plasmacytoma is a clonal proliferation and neoplastic of plasma cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Histopathology (HE) was identified a malignant neoplasm characterized by proliferation of plasmacytoid cells intensely hyperchromatic and pleomorphic. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1998), a mammalian cell cytogenetic assay (Jantunen et al. (europa.eu)
  • Yolk syncytial layer cell nuclei exhibit convergence and extension behaviors during late gastrulation. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Yolk syncytial layer nuclei undergo epiboly and converge dorsally during late gastrulation. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Timelapse of yolk syncytial layer (YSL) nuclear movements during gastrulation from a dorsal-anterior view shows epiboly, early animal pole directed movements of I-YSL nuclei, and convergence and exten. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Myofibers are long syncytial cells with thousands of nuclei. (rhumbarlv.com)
  • SV40 is used as a tool for understanding how viruses that cause cancer in humans work," said Chelsey Spriggs, Ph.D., assistant professor, Cell & Developmental Biology and Microbiology & Immunology at U-M Medical School, Research Assistant Professor at the U-M Life Sciences Institute, and first author of the study. (umich.edu)
  • [7] [8] In humans, the red nucleus also has limited control over hands , as the rubrospinal tract is more involved in large muscle movement such as that for the arms (but not for the legs, as the tract terminates in the superior thoracic region of the spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some organisms consist of only one cell, while others (like humans) have trillions of cells! (visiblebody.com)
  • Moreover, liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy also depended upon formation of InsP3 in the nucleus but not the cytosol, whereas hepatic glucose metabolism was not affected by buffering InsP3 in the nucleus. (fiocruz.br)
  • In particular, the exponential growth of high-throughput single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-sequencing technologies (collectively, single-cell transcriptomics technologies) have produced a wealth of new data. (umd.edu)
  • Single nucleus transcriptomics data integration recapitulates the major cell types in human liver. (scilifelab.se)
  • The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of data integration from different platforms for single nucleus transcriptomics profiling to characterize cell populations in human liver. (scilifelab.se)
  • Integration of droplet-based single nucleus transcriptomics data enabled identification of a small cluster of inactive hepatic stellate cells that highlights the potential of our approach. (scilifelab.se)
  • For example, secretory cells have their nucleus situated in the basal part, and skeletal muscle cells have their nuclei close to the plasma membrane. (uvigo.es)
  • All cells are bound by a plasma membrane . (visiblebody.com)
  • I will tell you what each of the organelles in a cell does. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Holds organelles in cell. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • We'll talk more about the nucleus and organelles in the next article on eukaryotic cells, but the main thing to keep in mind for now is that prokaryotic cells are not divided up on the inside by membrane walls, but consist instead of a single open space. (khanacademy.org)
  • Actually, all the organelles (organ-like specialized components) within the cells have membranes. (montessorisecondplane.com)
  • To address these issues, we took advantage of the fluorescence of the molecules to analyze their intracellular distribution profiles in tumor cells of different origins (B16 melanoma, MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma, A549 lung carcinoma, HT29 colon carcinoma, LNCaP, and PC3 prostatic carcinoma) by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is found in the bloodstream and refers to DNA that comes from cancerous cells and tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a tumor grows, cells die and are replaced by new ones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Analyzing the genome of tumor cells using ctDNA can help doctors determine which treatment will be most effective. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scientists have discovered that dying tumor cells release small pieces of their DNA into the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These pieces are called cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a rare tumor occurring in children and adults groups. (wisc.edu)
  • Cell block method allows the recovery and processing of minute amounts of cellular material, facilitating better classification of tumor when reviewed along with cytological smears, the ability to obtain many sections for immunostains and other studies to be performed akin to paraffin sections produced in histopathology. (jcytol.org)
  • Affected fibers are often vacuolated and fragmented with pyknotic nuclei (Figure 1). (rhumbarlv.com)
  • DAPI is a classic nuclear and chromosome counterstain for identifying nuclei and observing chromosome-banding patterns. (thermofisher.com)
  • A cell with one of every kind of chromosome. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • DNA start text, D, N, A, end text is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid , and it typically consists of a single large loop called a circular chromosome. (khanacademy.org)
  • cytology , a vesicle formed from an individual chromosome at the time when the daughter-nuclei are about to reconstitute themselves after karyokinetic cell-division. (wordnik.com)
  • Once inside the host cell, viral DNA enters the nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the mRNA never actually enters the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA resides. (vcuhealth.org)
  • Lamin levels dictate nuclear rigidity, and cells which habitually negotiate constrictions (such as dendritic cells and neutrophils) normally have low lamin levels and correspondingly flexible nuclei 2 . (nature.com)
  • Typically, the nucleus is rounded, but other forms are also found, as in neutrophils, which contain multi-lobulated nucleus. (uvigo.es)
  • C. Neutrophils from blood smear containing a multi-lobulated nuclei. (uvigo.es)
  • 4. The nucleus is a double membrane-bound organelle present in eukaryotic cells. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • This arrangement is consistent with the irregular division patterns observed in epidermal mosaics of isodiametric D. stramonium cells. (rupress.org)
  • Reporting in Nature Communications , scientists have used a cutting-edge technique to investigate how gene expression differed from one of these nuclei to another (with a tool called single-nucleus RNA sequencing). (labroots.com)
  • Samples are analyzed in under 10 seconds, providing scientists with quality metrics including nuclei counts, live cell counts and extraction efficiency. (technologynetworks.com)
  • However, single cell gene expression profiling, and its close cousin single nucleus gene expression, are now helping scientists make significant progress in understanding the causes and pathogenesis of these disorders and may someday lead to effective treatments. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Scientists have gained insight on how some molecules are allowed to enter and exit the nucleus while keeping other molecules out. (lbl.gov)
  • Rapid improvements in cell sequencing technologies in the last decade have provided clinicians and scientists with many valuable insights- from better treatment options for patients with heart disease and cancer to a much deeper understanding of how certain pathogens can affect plants and animals. (umd.edu)
  • Berkeley Lab has developed a new method to image solar cells in 3-D that could help scientists learn new ways to boost photovoltaic efficiency. (osti.gov)
  • Among their discoveries, scientists from the laboratories of Elizabeth Villa, Kevin Corbett and Joe Pogliano found that jumbo phage cells construct a shielded compartment that acts similar to a nucleus in human and animal cells and protects the virus' core genetic material, which is needed to replicate and spread. (id-ea.org)
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are all eukaryotes- eu means true-and are made up of eukaryotic cells. (khanacademy.org)
  • Here, by single-nucleus RNA sequencing , we map the dynamic transcriptional landscape of five distinct cardiomyocyte populations in healthy, injured, and regenerating mouse hearts . (bvsalud.org)
  • Her creation has led to further cloning projects and could be used in the future to preserve the populations of endangered or extinct species, and has led to significant developments in stem cell research. (soci.org)
  • In this work, the researchers assessed gene expression in several thousand muscle fiber nuclei from both healthy mice and those recovering after an injury. (labroots.com)
  • The reliability of genomic analyses, such as single-cell gene expression, can be greatly increased by improving the quality of the starting material. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Single cell gene expression is often not compatible with this type of neuroscience research, which relies on frozen brain and neural tissue samples that have reduced cell quality and increased RNA damage. (10xgenomics.com)
  • These recent studies demonstrate the power of single cell and single nucleus gene expression profiling in studying complex neurological disorders. (10xgenomics.com)
  • and (iii) that this large-scale control mechanism of gene expression is exploited in cell differentiation from its early stages. (unipg.it)
  • They are distinct from the eu According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, We may earn commission from links on this page, but we only recommend products we back. (firebaseapp.com)
  • All living organisms have cells that contain genetic material ( DNA ). (visiblebody.com)
  • Eukaryotes-organisms composed of eukaryotic cells-are multicellular or complex unicellular organisms. (visiblebody.com)
  • Protective outer covering of all cells that regulates the interaction between the cell and the environment. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • It regulates the serum cholesterol level by influencing the level of cholesterol uptake into cells. (cdc.gov)
  • It regulates the receptor for cholesterol, takes it out of the blood stream and puts it into the cells. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 B lymphocytes are a type of cells that play a major role in the immune function. (japanprize.jp)
  • Small lymphocytic lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma, is composed of mature lymphocytes (nearly always B cells), and occurs in the elderly. (wisc.edu)
  • Leonard Hayflick (b. 1928), the recipient of several research prizes and awards, including the 1991 Sandoz Prize for Gerontological Research, is known for his research in cell biology, virus vaccine development, and mycoplasmology. (webofstories.com)
  • In cell biology, the cell nucleus, or simply nucleus, is the center of the activities in a cell. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Trends in cell biology 23:151-159. (uvigo.es)
  • Altogether, by producing specific neuron subtypes from individual human patients, the findings in the study emphasize how stem cells can be used to investigate human-specific aspects of sensory biology. (nih.gov)
  • Cold Spring Harbor, NY -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) announced the release of The Digital Cell: Cell Biology as a Data Science, available on its website in hardcover format. (cshlpress.org)
  • When this data is placed in a spread sheet, you can use the results to identify cell clusters (i.e. have more than 1 nuclei), debris or partial cell (i.e. no nuclei), poor EGFP/cell measurements (i.e. high background intensity). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • To investigate the spatial relationship between the nucleus and the cortical division site, epidermal cells were selected in which the separation between these two areas is large. (rupress.org)
  • In elongated cells with more or less parallel side walls, oblique strands radiating from the nucleus to the long side walls are presumably unstable, for they are progressively realigned into a transverse disc (the phragmosome) as broad, cortical, preprophase bands (PPBs) become tighter. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, PKCι-MTA2 association shows cell density dependency and differential localisations inside and outside the nucleus, suggesting the PKCι-MTA2 complex may relay cortical/cytoplasmic information to the nucleus. (bl.uk)
  • Researchers already knew that nuclei in muscle fibers that are closer to the site of neuronal innervation express different genes than nuclei that are further away from these sites. (labroots.com)
  • Single nucleus RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) identified more than 48000 single nuclear profiles, and about 1400 genes and 2400 transcription products per nucleus. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Moreover, nuclear localization of IL-1 alpha correlates with impaired cell growth and expression of some IL-1 alpha-inducible genes. (unimi.it)
  • Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences / Institutionen för växt- och genome of its own most genes have been transferred during the evolution to the nucleus to control, and couple the activities of the whole cell to events at the chloroplast. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Often, cells with such defects are not even viable, since loss or change of genes leads to a loss of important functions. (mpg.de)
  • Human DNA contains more than 20,000 genes, all of which are stored in our cells' nuclei. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • The red nucleus receives many inputs from the cerebellum ( interposed nucleus and the lateral cerebellar nucleus) of the opposite side and an input from the motor cortex of the same side. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously shown that the signal peptideless cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) may play a role as an intracellular regulator of human endothelial cell senescence (J. A. M. Maier, P. Voulalas, D. Roeder, and T. Maciag, Science 249:1570-1574, 1990). (unimi.it)
  • They generally have a nucleus-an organelle surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope-where DNA is stored.There are a few exceptions to this generalization, such as human red blood cells, which don't have a nucleus when mature. (firebaseapp.com)
  • If you take a human cheek cell and stain it, then look at the cell under a compound microscope you will see a dark circle inside the cell. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • Moreover, it is faster than human observation and could replace the laborious task of manual cell counting. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cells that help the human body reproduce. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Testing of IgG autoantibodies to human cellular antigens was performed by the HEp-2 cell immunofluorescence assay using slides from INOVA Diagnostics, San Diego, CA (Cat # 508100) following the manufacturer's instructions. (cdc.gov)
  • Parvovirus B19 has a unique tropism for human erythroid progenitor cells. (medscape.com)
  • 1986), a human cell micronucleus assay (Budinsky et al. (europa.eu)
  • 2013), a human cell gene mutation assay in the TK locus (Budinsky et al. (europa.eu)
  • A human cell gene mutation assay in the HPRT locus is also available, although experimental methodology is limited (Budinsky et al. (europa.eu)
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (who.int)
  • In response to this, researchers have been looking into other mediums to build faster and more powerful computers from, including using quantum-based processors , and neurological chips based on human brain cells . (unknowncountry.com)
  • This finding, from studies in human cell cultures, may represent a broader targeting strategy used by other viruses, and may lay the scientific groundwork for developing more effective treatments for infectious diseases. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Previous research has resulted in several existing methods, using human stem cells, to grow a mixture of sensory neuron subtypes that detect different kinds of stimuli like mechanical force, cold, and heat. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional programming of human mechanosensory neuron subtypes from pluripotent stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • A Leukocyte is a colorless cell that circulates throughout our vascular system and other bodily fluids that are custom built by the human body uniquely for each human to act against invaders, both foreign and domestic. (chewdigest.com)
  • There are many players in this human army of white blood cells that help keep us healthy and well. (chewdigest.com)
  • In this image of human cells, the bright dots show ANA, a type of antibody. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most cells typically have one nucleus that holds its genomic DNA. (labroots.com)
  • Regardless of the type of cellular samples you work with, we provide gentle and automated techniques for the optimal preparation of cells and nuclei prior to your genomic analysis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The optimal preparation of cells and nuclei prior to genomic analysis is essential to obtain high quality and reliable results, especially for single-cell and single-nuclei sequencing. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • AMSBIO has published an interview with researchers at Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Japan, that covers their groundbreaking work to develop cell regeneration therapies for liver cirrhosis. (onenucleus.com)
  • Researchers, including David Rowitch, neuroscientist and professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and Arnold Kriegstein, neuroscientist and director of the UCSF Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, have made recent progress in studying neurological disorders. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Each of these cell types play vital roles in the working of a healthy nervous system, exhibit distinct behaviors, and, as UCSF researchers have shown, act differently in a diseased state. (10xgenomics.com)
  • Hodgkin's disease of lymphoma is divided into classic forms characterized by presence of classic Reed-Sternberg cells, and lymphocyte predominant type characterized by absence of classic Reed Sternberg cell and presence of atypical B cells with polylobated nuclei. (wisc.edu)
  • Browse through our application highlights to learn more about our solutions for molecular profiling as well as cell-based assays applied in your drug discovery journey. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The software delivers rapid cell counts, viability reports and transfection efficiency assays. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In elongated cells, the majority of the radiating microtubules, therefore, come to anchor the nucleus in the transverse plane, consistent with the observed tendency of such cells to divide perpendicular to the long axis. (rupress.org)
  • Transverse section through the midbrain showing the location of the red nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Se hela listan på biologydictionary.net Se hela listan på basicbiology.net Yes, plant cells have nuclei. (firebaseapp.com)
  • Various growth factors and full-length cell surface receptors such as EGFR are translocated from the cell surface to the nucleoplasm, baffling cell biologists to the mechanisms and functions of this process. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • To confirm the diagnosis proceeded immunohistochemistry evaluation which showed positivity for Plasma Cell and Lambda and negativity of Kappa. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2. Nuclear transfer is a technique used to duplicate genetic material by creating an embryo through the transfer and fusion of a diploid cell in an enucleated female oocyte.2 Cloning has a broader meaning than nuclear transfer as it also involves gene replication and natural or induced embryo splitting (see Annex 1). (who.int)
  • With her research, Platt challenged then current theories about germ layers, the types of cells in an early embryo that develop into adult cells. (asu.edu)
  • Extensively tested, StemFit® for MSC offers exceptional cell expansion with high levels of marker expression and differentiation potential. (onenucleus.com)
  • Neuronal progenitor cells resemble stem cells in that they have the ability to specialize into different cell types, though with a more limited range of differentiation. (osti.gov)
  • Due to the heterogeneity of its nuclei, a single muscle cell can act almost like a tissue, which consists of a variety of very different cell types,' explained co-lead study author and postdoctoral researcher Dr. Minchul Kim. (labroots.com)
  • 11- 13 A causal role for aggregation in cell death in tissue culture models of OPMD is supported by complementary data from our lab and Rouleau's group. (bmj.com)
  • An image analysis-based approach for automated counting of cancer cell nuclei in tissue sections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Semiquantitative evaluation and manual cell counting are the commonly used procedures to assess positive staining of molecular markers in tissue sections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: The algorithms' performances were validated on tissue section images encountered in routine clinical practice by comparison with objective measures of performance and manual cell identification. (ox.ac.uk)
  • B. Monocyte from blood smear showing a kidney-shaped nucleus. (uvigo.es)
  • Despite this, the nucleus is still deformable, and cells which traverse constrictions as part of their everyday function, such as the dendritic cells of the immune system, routinely deform their nuclei. (nature.com)
  • 1 Cytokine is a cell-signaling molecule secreted by immune system cells. (japanprize.jp)
  • There are many players in this immune system of cells. (chewdigest.com)
  • Such behavior offers a cytoplasmic explanation of long-standing empirically derived "rules" which state that the new cell wall tends to meet the maternal wall at right angles. (rupress.org)
  • After transcription, the messenger RNA travels out of the nucleus through a nuclear pore. (moomoomathblog.com)
  • In this study we investigated the circadian and photic regulation of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2, and the transcription factor Elk-1 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the Syrian hamster. (jneurosci.org)
  • The effort has shown that these nuclei are not equal, they have very different patterns of gene activity. (labroots.com)
  • What really astonished us, however, was the fact that, in both muscle fiber types, we found a huge variety of different types of nuclei, each with different patterns of gene activity,' noted Birchmeier. (labroots.com)