Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Microscopic study of the spacial distribution pattern of CHROMATIN in CELL NUCLEI and CELL NUCLEOLI.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
DNA-binding motifs, first described in one of the HMGA PROTEINS: HMG-I(Y) PROTEIN. They consist of positively charged sequences of nine amino acids centered on the invariant tripeptide glycine-arginine-proline. They act to fasten the protein to an AT RICH SEQUENCE in the DNA.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A distinct subnuclear domain enriched in splicesomal snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR) and p80-coilin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (1/34889)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/34889)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (3/34889)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (4/34889)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (5/34889)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (6/34889)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (7/34889)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (8/34889)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

(a) Explain briefly how Rutherford scattering of -particle by a target nucleus can provide information on the size of the nucleus. (b) Show that the density of the nucleus is independent of its mass number A.
Uncovering the motifs of a higher order nuclear architecture and its implications on nuclear function has raised increasing interest in the past decade. The nucleus of higher eukaryotes is considered to display a highly dynamic interaction of DNA and protein factors. There is an emerging view that there are hierarchical levels of gene regulation, reaching from epigenetic modifications at the DNA- and histone level to a higher order functional nuclear topology, in the context of which gene-activating and -repressing processes influence the gene expression profile of an individual cell beyond the sequence information of the DNA. The present work focuses on the analysis of the dynamic aspects of higher order nuclear architecture in living cells. As a prerequisite, an in vivo replication labeling strategy was developed, that enabled the simultaneous visualization of early and mid-to-late replicating chromatin as well as single chromosome territories on the basis of a labeling/segregation approach. ...
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Plant cells can exhibit highly complex nuclear organization. Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. In onion, these structures, which are similar to invaginations seen in some animal cells, form tubular or planelike infoldings of the nuclear envelope. Both grooves and invaginations are stable structures, and both have cytoplasmic cores containing actin bundles that can support cytoplasmic streaming. In dividing tobacco cells, invaginations seem to form during cell division, possibly from strands of the endoplasmic reticulum trapped in the reforming nucleus. The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with ...
The long strands of DNA and the protein machinery needed to turn gene expression on or off are contained, floating within the nuclei of cells. The nucleus is essentially a sack made of a flexible, double-membrane envelope that is supported by an inner, fine-mesh frame of proteins called the nuclear lamina.. DNA does not drift aimlessly within the nucleus. We expect that there is nonrandom spatial positioning of genes around the nuclear lamina, said Professor Sachihiro Matsunaga who led the research project from the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, recently published in Nature Communications.. Gene regulation is often studied at the one-dimensional level of reading the DNA sequence. Additional layers of gene regulation exist in 3D by changing the shape of the DNA strand. Examples include the epigenetic code that dictates how tightly to wind up the strands of DNA and the phenomenon of kissing genes, where distant segments of the DNA strand fold together and change the ...
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The Russian military has successfully tested what it described as the worlds most powerful non-nuclear air-delivered bomb, Russias state television reported Tuesday.
The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleoplasm, the gene is recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. Recruitment requires the transcriptional activator Hac1, which is produced upon induction of the UPR, and is constitutive in a strain lacking Opi1. Artificial recruitment of INO1 to the nuclear membrane permits activation in the absence of Scs2, indicating that the intranuclear localization of a gene can profoundly influence its mechanism of activation. Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an ...
Figure 5. Estimation of rhodopsin and phosducin in retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation. Proteins of the retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation were subjected to electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-phosducin (left panel) or anti-rhodopsin (right panel) antibody. A: 100 ng of phosducin standard; B: 100 ng of rhodopsin standard. Numbers under lanes represent the amount of total protein loaded, in μg.. ...
Synonyms for cell nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus?
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Virology, BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY, ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE-1, MYC TRANSGENIC MICE, NUCLEAR MATRIX, ZINC-FINGER, MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS, SEQUENCE MOTIF, RAR-ALPHA, PML, DOMAIN ...
Using the genetically amenable model organism C. elegans, a small worm commonly found on rotting fruits, FMI scientists have shown that the driving force for gene localization is encoded in the DNA sequence of promoters. Cell type-specific developmentally regulated promoters direct genes either to the nuclear interior when they are active or towards the compacted chromatin at the nuclear periphery when inactive. In muscle differentiation this is controlled by the presence of a master regulatory transcription factor called Hlh-1 (MyoD in mammals). Specific localization is not seen in committed embryonic cells nor for housekeeping genes. The authors find a dramatic increase in nuclear compartmentalization during the course of development and cell differentiation. This study opens the way to genetic analysis of nuclear organization and will allow the analysis of human diseases linked to nuclear function using worms as models ...
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence gene expression - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Cancer cell nucleus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a deformed nucleus (yellow) in a cancer cell. Healthy nuclei have a smooth membrane, that is spherical or ovoid, whereas this nucleus has indentations in several places. The nucleus contains the cells genetic information. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus (brown), which is responsible for producing components of ribosomes, the cells protein-manufacturing organelles. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C019/9935
Re-localization of our economy & social networks is going to be the way of the future -- whether we choose it, or reality forces it upon us.
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
The speckles do not overlap nuclear chromatin, so i assume it is specific staining. Not ALL cells have this speckle staining pattern. Therefore i assume that during mitosis, when there is rearrangment of the nucleous, residual procollagens are making their way into the nucleous and eventually make their way back out into the cytoplasm ...
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size ...
Many people envision that part of our clean-energy future is the hydrogen economy. When hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen, it releases energy that machines (like cars) can use. The only byproduct is pure water. Hydrogen can be burned in internal combustion engines or turned into electricity through fuel cells.. ...
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Researchers at the University of Tokyo have identified how the architecture of the cell nucleus can change gene activity in plants. This discovery reveals fundamental knowledge about genome regulation and points toward future methods for potentially manipulating the expression of many genes simultaneously.
DNA is subjected to major cellular events, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. To control these processes, the architecture of the DNA is tightly regulated. Recent work, including two studies in this issue of The EMBO Journal, provides compelling evidence that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops. While cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather counteracts nuclear compartmentalization.. See also: J Gassler et al (December 2017) and. G Wutz et al (December 2017) ...
As you learned in BIO101, the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. The nucleus in fact contains not only DNA, but RNA and protein as well. This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. When we refer to expression regulation, we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. How does this happen? The answer is regulated gene expression!. ...
A major component of this research effort will be to identify a method which is not only accurate, but a method that can be easily utilized by field personnel. A review of available technologies will be conducted to determine the availability of additional methods for compaction control. This current research effort will focus on the subgrade and unbound base construction quality control.. ...
Dear all, I am searching for a method that will allow me to isolate intact nuclei from rat brain tissue (we arent tooled up for cell culture right now - otherwise I would use one of the many techniques available for such a situation). Many thanks. -- _____________________________________________________________________ Keith Hoek hoek at biosci.uq.edu.au mRNA transport http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/~hoek/Pg1.html ...
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A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...
The progress of a reaction can be graphed 2-dimensionally as a reaction coordinate vs potential energy. Everyone has seen these potential energy profiles. From what I understand, the profile for a reaction is derived in this way: The potential energy of a set of nuclei can be graphed as dependent variable on a hyperdimensional surface. The extra dimensions include different states of the nuclei (vibrational rotational etc.)and their positions with respect to each other. If all but 2 dimensions can be set as constant, then those 2 independent variables (usually representing internuclear distance?) can be graphed with respect to the dependent variable of potential energy. The low points on this surface represent reactants, products, or intermediates. The saddle points represent transition states. The lowest energy path (the gradient) from reactant to transition state to product is the potential energy profile, which is graphed against a reaction coordinate ...
A growing number of experimental observations reveal that the cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized yet organized to ensure a dynamic response to events that influence nuclear activities. The cellular and molecular response to physiological and environmental stress induces a rapid and trans …
The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures and activities, encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes. It also contains the molecular machinery to replicate its DNA and to synthesize and process the three types of RNA : ribosomal (rRNA), messenger (mRNA), and transfer (tRNA). Mitochondria have a small DNA genome and produce RNAs to be used in this organelle, but the genome is so small that it is not sufficient even for the mitochondrion itself. On the other hand, the nucleus does not produce proteins; the numerous protein molecules needed for the activities of the nucleus are imported from the cytoplasm ...
The Cell Nucleus The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cells hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cells activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1lew.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF MAP KINASE P38 COMPLEXED TO THE DOCKING SITE ON ITS NUCLEAR SUBSTRATE MEF2A
This lecture introduces the nucleus and how information is transferred from stable stored information (DNA) converted to an intermediate (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) of variable stability, exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where mRNA is then translated into Protein. This is gene expression, the products of this process are used either within the cell, exported (exocytosis) or used to replace worn out components. We will study this topic looking at the key organelle in this process, the nucleus. ...
The animal cell nucleus houses the genetic material of the organism and therefore protects and maintains the blueprint for the cell and all its progeny. However, the nucleus is more than a simple repository for chromosomes. A dynamic organelle, the nucleus goes through astonishing transformations during each cell cycle, breaking down completely during mitosis and reforming afresh in each daughter cell after cell division. Within the nucleus, chromosomes are replicated and their DNA is transcribed to provide information that programs the physiology of the cell. Also, ribosomes assemble in the nucleus, then leave and carry out protein translation in the cytoplasm. All of this activity requires complex machineries that can respond to the changing needs of the cell throughout the cell cycle and may vary during development and by cell type.. One of the defining features of the nucleus is its unique architecture. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear envelope, a double layer of membranes punctuated by ...
This technique allows for efficient, highly purified cytoplasmic and nuclear-associated compartment fractionation utilizing NP-40 detergent in mammalian cells. The nuclear membrane is not disturbed during the fractionation thus leaving all nuclear and perinuclear associated components in the nuclear fraction. This protocol has been modified from Sambrook and Russell (2001) in order to downscale the amount of cells needed. To determine the efficiency of fractionation, we recommend using qPCR to compare the subcellular compartments that have been purified with equivalent amount of control whole cell extracts.
What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding membrane
There are several types of stereology, but instead of talking about all of these (which is the subject of books) this page will get you started with the most common and simplest form of stereology: Point Counting Stereology. In point counting stereology you typically project a uniform grid of points over an image, and then simply count how many points fall inside the particular compartments youre interested in quantifying the volume of (eg: Mitochondria, Nucleus). After counting ~1000 points (which should take under one hour) you can make estimates such as the fraction of non-nuclear cell volume occupied by mitochondria for a wild-type mouse (as averaged over a large area). In biology, a good stereologists would repeat this for three wild-type mice, and then three mutant mice... and at that stage the results should have enough accuracy to compare the conditions with good statistical accuracy and publish the results - results which may either support or reject the hypothesis that theres an ...
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In a bench-top experiment, atomic nuclei may have fused inside rapidly imploding bubbles of vapor in a liquid bombarded by sound waves, but many scientists find the evidence for bubble fusion unconvincing.
Find cell nucleus Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day.
Regulated Transcrption: Advanced Look --, 2.) Nucleus Once the extracellular signal has been tranferred through a series of proteins and into the nucleus, transcripton factors within the nucleus are activated and prepare the regulated gene for transcription. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
Learn how global businesses develop export pricing strategies that take into account the target market, competitor pricing, costs for exporting products and other factors.
Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol.: A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lip
All I see its dead world And I know thats our fault Living Absent minded (Archeon - Dead World) If you want to deploy test RabbitMQ, migrate from one node/cluster to another one or just back up your Rabbit metadata, there is a simple way to do it through RabbitMQ API. API is available at…
As of 1 December 2017, a new SSNAP dataset will be in place. These changes will predominantly impact those teams who treat patients in...
In what ways will technical change alter the interests that join or divide various nuclear and non-nuclear countries, and how will it alter the likely outcomes of potential conflicts among them?
Cells infected for 24 hrs with C. Trachomatis. The cell nuclei are labelled in blue, the bacteria appear yellow, within the inclusion lumen. A bacterial protein secreted out the inclusion into the host cytoplasm id labelled in red ...
The expression of migration stimulating factor, a potent oncofetal cytokine, is uniquely controlled by 3-untranslated region-dependent nuclear sequestration of its precursor messenger RNA ...
Write short notes on the following:(a) Cytoplasm(b) Nucleus of a cellAnswer(a) CytoplasmJelly like substance present in between cell membrane and the nucleus is called CytoplasmVarious other components of cell or Organelles of cells are present in the CytoplasmThese are mitochondria, golgi bodies, r
OF CARTILAGE. 19 Nuclei, around which no cells have yet commenced to be de¬ veloped, may be observed in the cytoblastema between the cells in some situations ; for example, a and b. These like¬ wise contain a nucleolus, and are somewhat less than the nuclei in the smaller cells. The above observations furnish us with a complete repre¬ sentation of the development of cartilage-cells, and show the accordance of that process with the development of vegetable- cells, inasmuch as they exhibit the simultaneous presence in the cytoblastema both of simple nuclei, and of cells containing a nucleus of similar shape and size upon the inner surface of their walls, and which may be observed in all stages of tran¬ sition, from such as are scarcely larger than the nucleus they contain, to such as are many times its size. Simple nuclei are first present, developed in the cytoblastema. When these have arrived at a certain size, the cell is formed around and closely encompassing them. The cell gradually ...
Moore, Robert Y.; Speh, Joan C.; Leak, Rehana K. (2002-07-01). "Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization". Cell and Tissue Research ... The brain imaging focused primarily on two areas of the brain: the locus coeruleus, which is a nucleus in the pons responsible ... Through these brain images, Moore observed evidence suggesting a degeneration of nerve cells in these two areas. This was the ... He is credited with discovering the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the circadian clock, as well as, ...
"Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus". Scientific Reports. 4 (1): 3781. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E3781K. doi:10.1038/ ... on scales from a cell to the ocean. Key predictions-that macroscopically aligned flocks of swimming bacteria are impossible, ...
... which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae. Synthetic membranes are made by humans for use ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ...
Görlich, Dirk; Ulrike Kutay (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15: 607- ... The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). ... Cole, CN; Scarcelli, JJ (2006). "Transport of messenger RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm". Curr Opin Cell Biol. 18 (3): ... like karyopherins called importins to enter the nucleus and exportins to exit. Protein that must be imported to the nucleus ...
Application to Cell Nuclei Classification". Pattern Recognition and Information Processing (PRIP): 140-145. [1] Guillaume ... Application to Cell Nuclei Classification". Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (IJPRAI). [2] Guillaume Thibault; ... 3] Guillaume Thibault; Izhak Shafran (2016). "Fuzzy Statistical Matrices for Cell Classification". arXiv:1611.06009 [cs.CV]. ...
The Mediator complex is located within the cell nucleus. It is required for the successful transcription of nearly all class II ... In both human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans MED15 is involved in lipid homeostasis through the pathway involving SREBPs In ... Spaeth JM, Kim NH, Boyer TG (2011). "Mediator and human disease". Semin Cell Dev Biol. 22 (7): 776-87. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb. ... TGFβ signaling at the cell membrane results in 2 different intracellular pathways. One of them depends on MED15, while the ...
Within the cell, TTC16 is found within the nucleus. Most of the post translational modifications are concentrated in the latter ... including several types of white blood cells and red blood cells, the respiratory system, and the endocrine system. The TPR ... Expression is also relatively high and constant CD8+ cells. Tetratricopeptide motifs often act as stabilizers in protein- ... The many transcription factors of TTC16 are commonly found in cells of the immune system, ...
This causes the cell to store copper in the nucleus. There are three varieties of the disease: the asymptomatic form occurs ... Studies have shown that in Bedlingtons, the disease is caused by a defective metallothionein that causes cell lysosomes to ...
In normal cells, DNA is confined to the nucleus or mitochondria. The presence of DNA in the cytosol is indicative of cellular ... DNA is normally found in the nucleus of the cell. Localization of DNA to the cytosol is associated with tumorigenesis, viral ... normally found in the cell nucleus, in order to stimulate production of IFN-β. Upon directly binding cytosolic DNA, cGAS forms ... Cell. 176 (6): 1432-1446.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.049. PMC 6697112. PMID 30827685. Sun L, Wu J, Du F, Chen X, Chen ZJ ( ...
Within the cell, C8orf34 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. C8orf34 protein lacks a signal peptide to allow it to sort ... Aliases for C8orf34 include vestibule-1 or VEST-1. Within the cell, C8orf34 is localized to the nucleus and nucleoli where it ... Many of these transcription factors are related to regulation of the cell's progression through the cell cycle and longevity, ... Cell. 174 (5): 1106-1116.e9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.06.038. PMC 6108940. PMID 30100181. Brändén, Carl-Ivar, 1934- (1999). ...
Neither sexual nor asexual stages displace the host cell nucleus. The known hosts of this species include the babblers ...
Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2010). "Origin of the cell nucleus, mitosis and sex: Roles of intracellular coevolution". Biology ... Uniciliates are cells with only one flagellum and unikonts are descended from uniciliates. Unikont cells often have only one ... Eukaryotes have cell nuclei, bacteria do not. In 1969, Whittaker elevated the bacteria to the status of kingdom. His new ... Biciliate cells have two flagella and bikonts are descended from biciliates. Biciliates undergo ciliary transformation by ...
... cells have more than one nucleus. Or, The connection made between cells by the cytoplasmic connection of plasmodesmata ... Plant, Cell & Environment 26: 1-15, [1]. Apoplast Plant sap Polar auxin transport, a type of cell-to-cell transport Protoplast ... It moves these solutes from epidermis cells through the cortex into the endodermis. Once solutes reach the endodermal cells ... It is contrasted with the apoplastic flow, which uses cell wall transport. The symplastic transport was first realized by ...
... have multiple nuclei, which can number from two to several thousand in rare cases. A moving cell is cylindrical in ... As nucleated cells that lacked "nearly every other cell-inclusion of eukaryotes", Pelomyxa were, for a time, regarded as ... Daniels, E.; Pappas, G. (1994). "Reproduction of nuclei in Pelomyxa palustris". Cell Biology International. 18 (8): 805-812. ... n.(Archamoebae, pelobiontida)." Cell and Tissue Biology 5.1 (2011): 90-97. Greeff, Richard. "Pelomyxa palustris (Pelobius), ein ...
In retroviruses, viral RNA is inserted into a host cell nucleus. There, a viral reverse transcriptase enzyme adds DNA ... This typically occurs as a part of cell division. DNA replication occurs so, during cell division, each daughter cell contains ... RT-PCR is often used to test gene expression in particular tissue or cell types at various developmental stages or to test for ... DNA synthesis during PCR is very similar to living cells but has very specific reagents and conditions. During PCR, DNA is ...
The nucleus can be found in the periphery of the cell. Organic spicules have been found on Raphidiophrys heterophryoidea. ... In Raphidiophrys contractilis it has been observed that upon capturing prey, its axopodia will contract toward the cell body, ...
This compound is synthesized in the nucleus of the animal cell. In bacterial systems, sialic acids can be also biosynthesized ... This creates repulsion between cells (cell opposition) and helps these late-stage cancer cells enter the blood stream. Recent ... This is the basis of hemagglutination when viruses are mixed with blood cells, and entry of the virus into cells of the upper ... When a certain influenza A virus is recognized by a sialic acid receptor the cell tends to endocytose the virus so the cell ...
Although the size varies, they are larger than the cell's nucleus. The organism stains a basophilic colour and has a ... They are unicellular organisms which are parasitic in the red blood cells. Haemogregarina infects lower vertebrates (fish and ... They are elongate to fusiform oval organisms found in the red blood cells. ... and have been described in the red blood cells of desert tortoises. ...
Resulting haploid nuclei migrate into elongated single cells. These cells detach from the metabasidium to become the sporidia, ... forming single cells called sporidia. These cells multiply by budding off daughter cells. When two compatible sporidia meet on ... These galls are made up of hypertrophied cells of the infected plant, along with resulting fungal threads, and blue-black ... Hyphae growing in the plant are dikaryotic; they possess two haploid nuclei per hyphal compartment. In contrast to sporidia, ...
CTCF is localized to the nucleus of cells. CTCF has been shown to naturally regulate the expression of human linear dsDNA by ... During the latent infection, the metabolism of the host cell is disrupted. While the infected cell would ordinarily undergo an ... HHV Infected Cell Polypeptide 0 (ICP0) gene is expressed very early during lytic infection, and for this reason is called an ... Latent cells harbor the virus for long time periods, then occasionally convert to productive infection which may lead to a ...
The host cell was not enlarged and no displacement of the nucleus was noted. This species infects mature cells only. The ... The host cell is not enlarged and the nucleus is not displaced.". Today, it is known to be infecting reptiles only. This ... The nucleus was pale pink and the cytoplasm light blue. There were six to eight grains of reddish to brown pigment usually ... The nucleus was reddish-purple and the cytoplasm stained mauve with the dark pigments in granules of different sizes scattered ...
After fertilization the diploid nucleus migrates and fuses with an auxiliary cell. A complex series of fusions and developments ... Polysiphonia elongata shows a central axial cell with 4 periaxial cells with cortical cells growing over the outside on the ... The thallus (tissue) consists of fine branched filaments each with a central axial filament supporting pericentral cells. The ... Features used in identification include the number of pericentral cells, the cortication of main branches, constriction of ...
Primary cell bodies are in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. These fibers transmit information to secondary ... afferent cell bodies in the oralis and interpolaris portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus plus the principal nucleus. Axons ... from the spinal nucleus (and a smaller number from the principal nucleus) then form the trigeminocerebellar tract and ascend to ...
The Chalazal Polar Nucleus of the Central Cell of Angiosperm Embryo Sac. Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1976, 120 pp ... She is author of the Hypothesis about the stimulatory role of the Chalazal Polar Nucleus of the Central Cell of Angiosperm as ...
Cytopathology reveals clusters of cells with uniform round nuclei. These cells do not have many of the features usually ... They are the second most common cancerous cause of hypercalcaemia (high serum calcium) in dogs, following T-cell lymphoma. ... associated with malignancy, such as a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio or prominent nucleoli. Ultrasonography and radiography ...
... s are star-shaped (stellate) cells with oval nuclei. The development of the vitreous is organized into three stages: ... Hyalocytes, also known as vitreous cells, are cells of the vitreous body, which is the clear gel that fills the space between ... Sense Organs". Histology and cell biology : examination and board review (5th ed.). Stamford, Conn.: Appleton & Lange. ISBN 978 ... the basic components of the vitreous begin to form from the mesenchyme embryonic cell layer. Hyalocytes likely develop from the ...
Church, GM; Ephrussi, A; Gilbert, W; Tonegawa, S (1985). "Cell-type-specific contacts to immunoglobulin enhancers in nuclei". ... In homozygous E2A knock-out mice, B cells development stops before the DJ arrangement stage and the B cells fail to mature. E47 ... "E2A proteins are required for proper B cell development and initiation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements". Cell. 79 (5): ... Hu S-J, Olson E N; Kingston, R E. (1992). "HEB". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (3): 1031-1042. doi:10.1128/MCB.12.3.1031. PMC 369535. PMID ...
... ranging from cell membranes to whole cells. Cell nuclei and mitochondria are the most important scatterers. Their dimensions ...
TRAIL on the cell surface triggers the apoptosis while DOX attacks the nucleus. These two drugs work synergistically and were ... Receptors on the cancer cell membrane bind TRAIL and cell surface enzymes clip the peptide thus release the drug onto the cell ... A graphene 'flying carpet' was demonstrated to deliver two anti-cancer drugs sequentially to the lung tumor cells (A549 cell) ... In methanol fuel cells, graphene used as a barrier layer in the membrane area, has reduced fuel cross over with negligible ...
... the minor spliceosome acts outside the nucleus and controls cell proliferation". Cell. 131 (4): 1718-29. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... U12-type introns represent less than 1% of all introns in human cells. However they are found in genes performing essential ... The location of spliceosomal activity for the minor class spliceosome is regarded by most experts to be in the nucleus.[ ... Cell. 84 (5): 801-11. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81057-0. PMID 8625417. Russell AG, Charette JM, Spencer DF, Gray MW (October 19 ...
... Malignant plasma cells (plasmacytoma), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus. · regulation of apoptotic ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol. · intermediate filament ...
5-aminosalicylate (ASA) has been shown to reduce β-catenin and its localization to the nucleus in colon cancer cells isolated ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... forming the nucleus of a future Cambodian regime.[325] The Cambodian government also readied itself for war. Plans for a ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... a Marxist-Leninist organisation arranged in a clandestine cell system.[50] ...
Lanthanum is soft as well; all these elements have their outermost electrons quite far from the nucleus compared to the nuclei ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
Films in annular ring mounts on gas-tight cells, will readily deform into spherical mirrors. Photomultiplier cosmic-ray ... 6 psi). Another important consequence of the molecular orientation is that it induces the formation of many crystal nuclei. The ...
... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... The exact mechanism of the rhythm generation and transmission to motor nuclei remains controversial and the topic of much ... It is one of the four cell groups of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG). It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is ... This is due to the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in a nucleus and increased excitability in motor neurons ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast,[32] up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
The endoplasmic reticulum is in cells that have a nucleus: in eukaryote cells but not in prokaryote cells. It takes these forms ... 1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ... Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... SP is released in or around the nucleus of the solitary tract upon integrated activity of dopamine, serotonin, opioid, and/or ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
... pre-tectal nucleus) and hypothalamus (suprachiasmatic nucleus) had been shown. However a visual role for the receptor was still ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
The nucleus is the core element of the cell.. The key works of Schwann and Schleiden were published in 1838 and 1839.[2] These ... Landmark papers in cell biology. Bethesda MD and Cold Spring Harbor NY: The American Society for Cell Biology and Cold Spring ... Every cell comes from another cell that lived before it.. * ... All living things are made of cells.. *The cell is the basic ... The birth of the cell. Yale University Press, New Haven. *↑ Schwann, Theodor 1847 [1839]. Microscopic investigations on the ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
... when patterns of spontaneous firing of cells in the eyes (before they have opened) transmit signals that appear to help develop ... the layered structure of the lateral geniculate nucleus .[4]. The hypothesis has attracted increasing attention in recent years ...
At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... The microscopic structure of conifer wood consists of two types of cells: parenchyma, which have an oval or polyhedral shape ...
They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... nucleus of host cell and nucleomorph). The model cryptomonad Guillardia theta became an important focus for scientists studying ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... Whereas the nucleomorph in G. theta supposedly came from a red algae, B. natans nucleomorph is likely the vestigal nucleus of a ...
... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... "Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ...
Knowlton Hall along with the Fisher College of Business and Hitchcock Hall form an academic nucleus in the Northwestern corner ... engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the land speed record for hydrogen cell ...
Friedrich Miescher Swiss biochemist, noted for discovery of nucleic acids in cell nucleus (1844-1895) ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Odd-odd nuclei have even mass numbers, whereas odd-even nuclei have odd mass numbers. Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
The pollen tube is produced by the single vegetative cell in the pollen grain, which passes its cytoplasm, nucleus and two ... this is due to a change of shape of existing cells rather than their replication. The elongation progresses at 1.5 inches per ... through which the sperm cells (the gametes) pass to join the female gametophyte within the ovule. ... sperm cells into the tube. The tube extends itself at the apex only, in an actin polymerization dependent process, and the ...
Additionally, the nuclei of anaplastic cells are usually unnaturally shaped or oversized. Cells can become anaplastic in two ... The cell nuclei are characteristically extremely hyperchromatic (darkly stained) and enlarged; the nucleus might have the same ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Giant cells - considerably larger than their neighbors - may form and possess either one enormous nucleus or several nuclei ( ...
cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ... After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds ... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another.[40] Normally, in the absence of a catalyst such as ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell nucleus Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell ... Labeled cells were cultivated for several cell cycles until labeled chromatids had segregated. Such cells were followed by time ... Labeled cells were cultivated for several cell cycles until labeled chromatids had segregated. Such cells were followed by time ... Accordingly, chromatin patterns observed in daughter nuclei differed significantly from the mother cell nucleus, indicating ...
What are the main components and the purpose of the animal cell nucleus? and find homework help for other Science questions at ... The animal cell nucleus is a spherical structure within the cells plasma membrane. The nucleus is surrounded by its own porous ... The animal cell nucleus is a spherical structure within the cells plasma membrane. The nucleus is surrounded by its own porous ... In animal cells, the nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane. The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells and occupy ...
Saylor.orgs Cell Biology/The Cell Nucleus and Gene Expression. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. The nucleus in fact contains not ... This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. When we refer ... After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely ...
Healthy plant cells have an oval-shaped nucleus, looking like a large egg in the center of the cell. Plants genetically altered ... How the Architecture of the Cell Nucleus Can Change Gene Activity in Plants TOPICS:Cell BiologyDNAGeneticsPlant Science ... floating within the nuclei of cells. The nucleus is essentially a sack made of a flexible, double-membrane envelope that is ... Be the first to comment on "How the Architecture of the Cell Nucleus Can Change Gene Activity in Plants". ...
... a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy ... In leukemia, discovery of Mer protein in cancer cells nuclei offers another place to target this known cause of cancer. 14.03. ... The question remains, What is Mer doing in the nucleus?. Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may ... If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong ...
First, the cells are collected. Then, make cell membrane fragile using a pestle in hypotonic buffer. After collection of the... ... Cell Nuclei Protein Extraction This protocol involves three steps to prepare nuclear extracts. First, the cells are collected. ... Then, make cell membrane fragile using a pestle in hypotonic buffer. After collection of the cytoplasmic fraction, the nuclei ... Channels: Experiments Biochemistry Cell Biology Tags: Cell Nuclei Protein Extraction Abnova antibody protein cell biology ...
Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus? ... Cell nucleus synonyms, cell nucleus antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/cell+nucleus ... Previously it was known to work in the cell nucleus by regulating key cellular processes such as cell cycle control, cell death ... the cell nucleus in unfertilised egg with a nucleus from a somatic cell that has come from a patient who needs a stem cell ...
Lectures: Cell Biology Introduction , Cells Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes , Cell Membranes and Compartments , Cell Nucleus , Cell ... Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Death 1 , Cell Death 2 , Signal 1 , Signal 2 , Stem Cells 1 , Stem Cells 2 , Development , ... "cell nucleus" Molecular Biology of the Cell , Molecular Cell Biology , The Cell- A molecular Approach ... Links: MBOC - A cross-sectional view of a typical cell nucleus Nucleus Size. *cell "karyoplasmic ratio" relatively constant ( ...
... manage to get their contents out of the cell? Cells are walled all the way around; they dont really have doors for letting ... Cells that "spit" out their contents and messenger RNA that is not so swift at delivering its message. Those are two brand new ... The first story arose from a simple question: How do secretory cells - those that produce copious amounts of such substances as ...
A cell with a large central nucleus. The dark mass within the nucleus are the chromosomes ... The center of a cell, where [most] of the DNA, packaged in chromosomes, is contained. ...
... researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells DNA in unprecedented ... Now, for the first time, researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells ... Nucleus of the cell mapped in 3D. "With SPRITE, we were able to see thousands of molecules -- DNAs and RNAs -- coming together ... June 8 (UPI) -- The nucleus of the cell is where the action happens, but its not easy to analyze the behavior of a massive ...
... cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. They are distinct from the ... Red blood cells, while not considered to be prokaryotes, also do not have a nucleus. This helps them to maximize space inside ... the cell for haemoglobin, which is essential in the transport of oxygen. By comparison, white blood cells do contain a nucleus. ... According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. ...
Nuclei per cell. Most eukaryotic cell types usually have a single nucleus, but some have no nuclei, while others have several. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ... The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells.[5] In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is ...
The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has existed since the late 1800s. In the past ... Chromatin Condensates in the Cell Nucleus. The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has ... Across the cell nucleus, the liquid-like condensates organize spatially and temporally, interacting with one another ( ... Neither artificial membrane slabs, nor live cells imaged under conditions in which cells have a shabby life that doesnt last ...
GPSeq relies on gradual restriction digestion of chromatin from the nuclear lamina toward the nucleus center, followed by ... The location of genetic and epigenetic elements in mammalian nuclei is measured by gradual DNA fragmentation. ... the radial organization of chromatin in mammalian cells remains largely unexplored. Here we describe genomic loci positioning ... Single-cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure. Nature 502, 59-64 (2013). ...
... In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells ... Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm - a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and ... The nucleus, being the largest sub-cellular compartment, varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres. It is surrounded by a ... Nuclei have two primary functions: * to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm ...
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... The cell nucleus contains the majority of the cells genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized ...
cell nucleus with several pores of the nuclear membrane from rat ileum (for unlabelled original image click here, please!) C = ... ileum, cell nucleus, nuclear pore Electron microscopic atlas Overview Homepage of the workshop Page H. Jastrow & B. ... Mne = äußereKernmembran; Mni = innereKernmembran; N = Nucleus (Zellkern); Nc = Nucleolus (Kernkörperchen); Pnu = Porus nuclei ( ...
Rhythmic coupling among cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.. Colwell CS1.. Author information. 1. Mental Retardation Research ... SCN cells were extensively dye coupled during the day when the cells exhibit synchronous neural activity but were minimally dye ... Dye coupling among SCN cells was activity-dependent. To determine if the transfer of dye between SCN cells may be actively ... Scale bar = 100 μm. Bottom: Higher magnification (400×) view of labeled cells within the SCN. Scale bar = 10 μm. ...
A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ... What does the nucleus do in a plant cell?. A: The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plants DNA and ... Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?. A: The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a ... A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ...
... which coincided with AIF translocation to the cell nucleus and alterations in cell viability and Δψm. Furthermore, BNIP3 ... Nutrient deprivation induces apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells via activation of the BNIP3/AIF signalling pathway ... Nutrient deprivation (ND)induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cell death serves an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration ... The present study demonstrated that cells subjected to ND for up to 72 h exhibited a timedependent increase in cell death and ...
Cell Biology (cytology) Does a plant cell have both a nucleus and a cell wall. ?. Yes most cells have a nucleus. A plant cell ... Does a plant cell have a bigger nucleus than an animal cell. ?. a plant cell nucleus is the same size as an animal cell nucleus ... Is a nucleus a plant cell. ?. No. The nucleus is the part of the cell that holds the DNA. Plant cells have a nucleus, but a ... Is nucleus found in an animal cell or in a plant cell. ?. the nucleus is found in all cells A nucleus is neither a plant nor ...
... awarded National Science Foundation grant to explore the use of microwave technology to characterize the nucleus of a live cell ... "Normal cells tend to have fairly uniform morphology with a consistent nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. The nuclei of abnormal cells ... "High-frequency microwave has the advantage of being able to penetrate through the cell and into the nucleus, like an x-ray is ... Penetrating a Cells Nucleus for Better, More Accurate Cancer Screening (IMAGE) view more ...
Associations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus.. Spector DL1, Fu XD, Maniatis T. ... Examination of cells at different stages of mitosis revealed that the SC-35 speckled staining pattern is lost during prophase ... or when the cells were heat shocked. In contrast, snRNP antigens become diffusely distributed after RNase A digestion or heat ... and speckles containing SC-35 begin to reform in the cytoplasm of anaphase cells. In contrast, snRNP antigens do not associate ...
Microscopic View of Animal Cell Nucleus Art Print. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed ...
... bioinformatics on the subject of cell nucleus can be found on this page. ... The cell contains transcripts of the genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This ... A major obstacle to in-cell genome editing is, well, the cell itself."Human cells dont like to take in stuff," explained UC ... 19 Current news about the topic cell nucleus. rss You can refine your search further. Select from the filter options on the ...
A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate lives is helping ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease Penn study sheds light on biology of leading ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine ... PHILADELPHIA - A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate ...
Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may ... Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback ... recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which ... Cells 2016, 5, 27. AMA Style. Belaadi N, Aureille J, Guilluy C. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus. ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
Cell biology elaborated. Detailed literature and easily digestible. Enjoy. ... The Nucleus - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online ... Many different types in a cell; highly variable in cell. types, organisms, and at different times in the same. cell type. ... THE NUCLEUS: FUNCTIONS. It stores the cells hereditary material, or. DNA.. Site of DNA replication. Site of DNA transcription ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma is associated with cell-cell junction in A431 epithelial cells. Cell Biol Int ... Rapid changes in phospholipid metabolism in the nuclei of Swiss 3T3 cells induced by treatment of the cells with insulin-like ... Inositol lipids are regulated during cell cycle progression in the nuclei of murine erythroleukaemia cells. Biochem J 357:905- ... I. The phospholipid composition of the liver-cell nucleus. Biochim Biophys Acta 70:406-416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Cell Nuclei: Anything but Random. by Caleb Colley, Ph.D.. At the heart of biological evolutionary theory is randomness. ... of the cell-the nucleus-is organized in a recognizable pattern.. In their cytology textbook, Cell Biology, Roberts, Nowinski, ... "the net result of cell division is the formation of two cells that match each other and the parent cell precisely in their gene ... Pfeiffer, John (1964), The Cell (New York: Time).. Roberts, E.D.P., Wiktor W. Nowinski, and Francisco A. Saez (1970), Cell ...
Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin [nucleus] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) or [nuculeus] ... Cell nucleus simple:Cell nucleus sk:Bunkové jadro sl:Celično jedro sr:Једро sh:Jezgra (stanica) fi:Tuma sv:Cellkärna th:นิวเคลี ... Anucleated and polynucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal ...
Hyperbolic Modeling of Subthalamic Nucleus Cells to Investigate the Effect of Dopamine Depletion. Mohammad Daneshzand,1 Miad ... 3. Subthalamic Nucleus Neurons Firing Patterns. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons show three different types of firing patterns ... The inhibition-induced spike and burst are also known as a behavior of the thalamocortical cells. When this behavior is ... In this equation, we considered the insulation of cell membrane around a neuron as a capacitor which is defined by parameter . ...
In 9 cases the egg nucleus was found in the exovate, while the egg proper consisted of cells containing normal nuclei which ... is still nucleus-dependent. Therefore, if the egg nucleus could be replaced by one from a differentiated cell, the nature of ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs. Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King ...
The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is transplanted into a frogs egg and gives rise to a normal frog. Such ... The nuclei of most normal frog cells contain two of the bodies called nucleoli; the nuclei of cells carrying the mutation never ... Transplanted Nuclei and Cell Differentiation, by Sir John B. Gurdon. The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is ... The broken cell with its cytoplasm-protected nucleus is injected into the recipient egg. The amount of donor-cell cytoplasm ...
This problem is encountered ubiquitously in cell biology and developmental biology. Our work is mo-tivated by the observation ... cell tracking), but also prevent robust statistical analysis (e.g. modeling of fluores-cence distribution). We therefore ... We study the problem of segmenting multiple cell nucle-i from GFP or Hoechst stained microscope images with a shape prior. ... segment dense cell nucleus shape prior rand index increase prevent robust statistical analysis corresponding energy term ...
Now, a team of investigators has developed star-shaped nanoparticle that can deliver a drug directly to a cancer cells nucleus ... important consideration is whether nanoparticles can then get their drug payload to their intended target inside tumor cells. ... a protein overexpressed in cancer cells and found both on the cell surface and within the cell nucleus. Then, when released ... "They are attracted to a protein on the cancer cells surface that conveniently shuttles the nanostars to the cells nucleus. ...
  • Nucleus acts as the site for gene transcription and it is here that mRNA is formed and undergoes post-transcriptional modification before being sent to the cytoplasm for translation (for making the proteins). (enotes.com)
  • What are the functions of the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus? (enotes.com)
  • This lecture introduces the nucleus and how information is transferred from stable stored information (DNA) converted to an intermediate (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) of variable stability, exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where mRNA is then translated into Protein. (edu.au)
  • Nuclei have many domains but lack the membrane-bound organelles characteristic of the cytoplasm. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • The cell nucleus is bound by a double membrane called the nuclear membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm, the gel-like substance containing all other nuclear envelope consists of phospholipids that form a lipid bilayer much like Visions of the cell nucleus book of the cell membrane. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Tokyo have confirmed that crowded nuclei proteins (CRWN1-3) support the oval shape of plant cell nuclei and also have a role in regulating the expression of genes important for coping with environmental stress. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The nucleus is essentially a sack made of a flexible, double-membrane envelope that is supported by an inner, fine-mesh frame of proteins called the nuclear lamina. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Prior work in 2013 by some members of the research team identified a group of four proteins known as CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) as the most likely components of the plant nuclear lamina. (scitechdaily.com)
  • These images of three plant cell nuclei show the weblike network of proteins that make up the nuclear lamina, which supports the shape of the nucleus from the inside. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Tokyo have confirmed that crowded nuclei proteins (CRWN1-3) support the oval shape of plant cell nuclei and also have a role in gene regulation. (scitechdaily.com)
  • To confirm the presence of CRWN proteins in the lamina, researchers first attached fluorescent tags onto the proteins and isolated nuclei out of root cells from young thale cress plants, the roadside weed commonly used in research labs. (scitechdaily.com)
  • These extremely zoomed-in images show weblike patterns formed by the CRWN proteins around the shell of the nucleus. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Plants genetically altered to lack CRWN proteins have nuclei that are smaller and rounder than normal, likely creating a more crowded environment for the DNA inside. (scitechdaily.com)
  • After collection of the cytoplasmic fraction, the nuclei are lysed and the nuclear proteins are solubilized in the lysis buffer. (dnatube.com)
  • Ribosome - Ribosomes are made there the nucleolus and then sent dutifully the nucleus to do proteins. (redoakpta.com)
  • Any proteins made on the only outer membrane-bound ribosomes silver into the perinuclear dud and are unsure through the inner source into the nucleus. (redoakpta.com)
  • The discovery, published in Cell Reports , concerns the process of gene transcription or gene expression - the copying of a gene's DNA into RNA - the essential first step in turning genetic information into functional molecules such as proteins. (biophotonics.world)
  • The DNA in our cells is wound onto millions of spool-like structures made of proteins called histones. (biophotonics.world)
  • When a cell needs to transcribe a stretch of DNA, the histones and their helper proteins called "histone chaperones" loosen up the nucleosome so that the molecular machinery of transcription can access the hidden DNA. (biophotonics.world)
  • The chromosomes The chromosomes are threadlike bodies present in the cell's nuclei, and they represent the genetic material of the living organisms , They are not visible in the cell's nucleus not even under. (online-sciences.com)
  • Accordingly, chromatin patterns observed in daughter nuclei differed significantly from the mother cell nucleus, indicating that CT neighborhoods were not preserved during mitosis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Other organelles and the nucleolus are found inside the nucleus. (enotes.com)
  • The nucleolus is the structure in the nucleus that aids in the manufacture of ribosomes and is usually. (enotes.com)
  • These like¬ wise contain a nucleolus, and are somewhat less than the nuclei in the smaller cells. (uni-weimar.de)
  • back to Cell Biology Images. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • Although modern cell biology is often considered to have arisen following World War II in tandem with certain technological and methodological advances-in particular, the electron microscope and cell fractionation-its origins actually date to the s and the development of cytology, the scientific study of cells. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • The animal cell nucleus is a spherical structure within the cell's plasma membrane. (enotes.com)
  • In addition, a live cell observation system was developed that facilitates time-lapse confocal (4D) microscopy over elongated time periods which made it possible to follow a complete cell cycle or more. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Such cells were followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy over time-scales of up to 20 hours covering major parts or the complete cell cycle. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Neumann FR, Nurse P. J Cell Biol. (edu.au)
  • plant cursor walls are never made up of feasibilityfungi compliment walls are made up of alcohol and bacteria cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan. (redoakpta.com)
  • The nucleus of higher eukaryotes is considered to display a highly dynamic interaction of DNA and protein factors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The cells of artistic eukaryotes, however, usually undergo third mitosiswhich is set by breakdown of the nuclear notice. (redoakpta.com)
  • The nuclear membrane has pores spread through its surface (also called nuclear pores or nucleopores) that control the entry of molecules into the nucleus. (enotes.com)
  • When we refer to "expression regulation," we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. (wikibooks.org)
  • Genes that give plant nucleus its shape discovered, also regulate copper tolerance. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This basic science discovery could lead to medically important insights because loss of the ability to control transcription can be harmful to cells, for example by allowing stretches of DNA that don't code for genes to be expressed. (biophotonics.world)
  • TEM of cell conceptions A transmission electron micrograph showing a dictionary, part of a nucleus and then endoplasmic reticulum. (redoakpta.com)
  • The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope consisting of a double membrane that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • In addition, the nucleus usually contains one or more prominent nucleoli (dense bodies that are the site of ribosome synthesis). (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • Builds in a hepatocyte Spite electron micrograph of a hepatocyte plan cell. (redoakpta.com)
  • It is in the nucleus where all the atomic mass resides (electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom, but the mass of an electron is insignificant to the mass of the entire atom). (enotes.com)
  • Nucleus Transmission Electron Micrographs. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. (wikibooks.org)
  • These new results provide evidence for another 3D method of gene regulation involving not just the architecture of the genome, but the architecture of its container, the nucleus. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Which of the following organelles is not present in an animal cell? (enotes.com)
  • There is an emerging view that there are hierarchical levels of gene regulation, reaching from epigenetic modifications at the DNA- and histone level to a higher order functional nuclear topology, in the context of which gene-activating and -repressing processes influence the gene expression profile of an individual cell beyond the sequence information of the DNA. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This is gene expression, the products of this process are used either within the cell, exported (exocytosis) or used to replace worn out components. (edu.au)
  • The nucleus of a cell is where genetic material is stored (DNA, which stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid). (enotes.com)
  • As you learned in BIO101, the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. (wikibooks.org)
  • Tailored genetic material most commonly DNA can also be artificially affected into the cell by a balanced called transfection. (redoakpta.com)
  • To test the effectiveness of the method, it was applied to recognize disks in synthetically generated images and nuclei in microscopic images of breast cancer tissue. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells and occupy about 10% of the cell volume. (enotes.com)
  • We will study this topic looking at the key organelle in this process, the nucleus. (edu.au)
  • A hammer's information center, the cell nucleus is the most important organelle found in a eukaryotic meat. (redoakpta.com)
  • The cell is the smallest functional and building unit in all living organisms , The cell is characterized by the ability to grow , It can reproduce , It can respond to the external. (online-sciences.com)
  • 4 edition of Visions of the cell nucleus found in the catalog. (coffeecompanyflorida.com)
  • The first supposition, that the cells are developed earlier than the nuclei, is not possible, since in that case cells would be found at a certain period of deve¬ lopment without nuclei. (uni-weimar.de)
  • We made this finding in yeast cells, but all the players are found in human cells, too, and many of them are linked to human disease," said senior author Brian Strahl, PhD, professor, vice chair, and Oliver Smithies Investigator in the department of biochemistry and biophysics and member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. (biophotonics.world)
  • To address possible long-range movements of chromosome territories (CTs) during an entire interphase, fluorescence labeling of a small number of CTs was performed in living HeLa cells stably expressing histone H2B-GFP. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • These modules may also be the evolutionary precursor to the nuclear pore structures and account for the double membrane that coats the nucleus. (edu.au)