Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Microscopic study of the spacial distribution pattern of CHROMATIN in CELL NUCLEI and CELL NUCLEOLI.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
DNA-binding motifs, first described in one of the HMGA PROTEINS: HMG-I(Y) PROTEIN. They consist of positively charged sequences of nine amino acids centered on the invariant tripeptide glycine-arginine-proline. They act to fasten the protein to an AT RICH SEQUENCE in the DNA.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A distinct subnuclear domain enriched in splicesomal snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR) and p80-coilin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (1/34889)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/34889)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (3/34889)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (4/34889)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (5/34889)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (6/34889)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (7/34889)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (8/34889)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

(a) Explain briefly how Rutherford scattering of -particle by a target nucleus can provide information on the size of the nucleus. (b) Show that the density of the nucleus is independent of its mass number A.
Uncovering the motifs of a higher order nuclear architecture and its implications on nuclear function has raised increasing interest in the past decade. The nucleus of higher eukaryotes is considered to display a highly dynamic interaction of DNA and protein factors. There is an emerging view that there are hierarchical levels of gene regulation, reaching from epigenetic modifications at the DNA- and histone level to a higher order functional nuclear topology, in the context of which gene-activating and -repressing processes influence the gene expression profile of an individual cell beyond the sequence information of the DNA. The present work focuses on the analysis of the dynamic aspects of higher order nuclear architecture in living cells. As a prerequisite, an in vivo replication labeling strategy was developed, that enabled the simultaneous visualization of early and mid-to-late replicating chromatin as well as single chromosome territories on the basis of a labeling/segregation approach. ...
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Plant cells can exhibit highly complex nuclear organization. Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. In onion, these structures, which are similar to invaginations seen in some animal cells, form tubular or planelike infoldings of the nuclear envelope. Both grooves and invaginations are stable structures, and both have cytoplasmic cores containing actin bundles that can support cytoplasmic streaming. In dividing tobacco cells, invaginations seem to form during cell division, possibly from strands of the endoplasmic reticulum trapped in the reforming nucleus. The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with ...
Nuclear power and nuclear energy information. Climate change, sustainable development, uranium mining, enrichment, nuclear electricity generation, nuclear fuel management, recycling and disposal, World Nuclear Association (WNA) and World Nuclear News (WNN).
The long strands of DNA and the protein machinery needed to turn gene expression on or off are contained, floating within the nuclei of cells. The nucleus is essentially a sack made of a flexible, double-membrane envelope that is supported by an inner, fine-mesh frame of proteins called the nuclear lamina.. DNA does not drift aimlessly within the nucleus. We expect that there is nonrandom spatial positioning of genes around the nuclear lamina, said Professor Sachihiro Matsunaga who led the research project from the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, recently published in Nature Communications.. Gene regulation is often studied at the one-dimensional level of reading the DNA sequence. Additional layers of gene regulation exist in 3D by changing the shape of the DNA strand. Examples include the epigenetic code that dictates how tightly to wind up the strands of DNA and the phenomenon of kissing genes, where distant segments of the DNA strand fold together and change the ...
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The Russian military has successfully tested what it described as the worlds most powerful non-nuclear air-delivered bomb, Russias state television reported Tuesday.
The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleoplasm, the gene is recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. Recruitment requires the transcriptional activator Hac1, which is produced upon induction of the UPR, and is constitutive in a strain lacking Opi1. Artificial recruitment of INO1 to the nuclear membrane permits activation in the absence of Scs2, indicating that the intranuclear localization of a gene can profoundly influence its mechanism of activation. Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an ...
Figure 5. Estimation of rhodopsin and phosducin in retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation. Proteins of the retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation were subjected to electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-phosducin (left panel) or anti-rhodopsin (right panel) antibody. A: 100 ng of phosducin standard; B: 100 ng of rhodopsin standard. Numbers under lanes represent the amount of total protein loaded, in μg.. ...
Synonyms for cell nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus?
Using the genetically amenable model organism C. elegans, a small worm commonly found on rotting fruits, FMI scientists have shown that the driving force for gene localization is encoded in the DNA sequence of promoters. Cell type-specific developmentally regulated promoters direct genes either to the nuclear interior when they are active or towards the compacted chromatin at the nuclear periphery when inactive. In muscle differentiation this is controlled by the presence of a master regulatory transcription factor called Hlh-1 (MyoD in mammals). Specific localization is not seen in committed embryonic cells nor for housekeeping genes. The authors find a dramatic increase in nuclear compartmentalization during the course of development and cell differentiation. This study opens the way to genetic analysis of nuclear organization and will allow the analysis of human diseases linked to nuclear function using worms as models ...
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence gene expression - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Cancer cell nucleus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a deformed nucleus (yellow) in a cancer cell. Healthy nuclei have a smooth membrane, that is spherical or ovoid, whereas this nucleus has indentations in several places. The nucleus contains the cells genetic information. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus (brown), which is responsible for producing components of ribosomes, the cells protein-manufacturing organelles. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C019/9935
Re-localization of our economy & social networks is going to be the way of the future -- whether we choose it, or reality forces it upon us.
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
The speckles do not overlap nuclear chromatin, so i assume it is specific staining. Not ALL cells have this speckle staining pattern. Therefore i assume that during mitosis, when there is rearrangment of the nucleous, residual procollagens are making their way into the nucleous and eventually make their way back out into the cytoplasm ...
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size ...
Many people envision that part of our clean-energy future is the hydrogen economy. When hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen, it releases energy that machines (like cars) can use. The only byproduct is pure water. Hydrogen can be burned in internal combustion engines or turned into electricity through fuel cells.. ...
1. DNA prepared from non-gelable rat liver nuclei isolated in the presence of disrupted mitochondria at pH 6.0, has been compared with DNA obtained from gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4.0. The DNA of the non-gelable nuclei is partially depolymerized relative to the DNA of the gelable nuclei. 2. It has been found that sufficiently small quantities of crystallized DNAase I can cleave a very large part of the DNA of gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4 from the residual protein of these nuclei without causing extensive depolymerization of the DNA. At the same time the gelable nuclei are rendered non-gelable. 3. Partially purified DNAase II can also render gelable nuclei isolated at pH 4 non-gelable, and in so doing presumably also cleaves the DNA from the residual protein of the nuclei. 4. Mitochondrial DNAase I appears to be the enzyme responsible to a large extent for the cleavage of DNA from the residual protein of gelable rat liver cell nuclei with concomitant destruction of the gel-forming ...
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Researchers at the University of Tokyo have identified how the architecture of the cell nucleus can change gene activity in plants. This discovery reveals fundamental knowledge about genome regulation and points toward future methods for potentially manipulating the expression of many genes simultaneously.
DNA is subjected to major cellular events, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. To control these processes, the architecture of the DNA is tightly regulated. Recent work, including two studies in this issue of The EMBO Journal, provides compelling evidence that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops. While cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather counteracts nuclear compartmentalization.. See also: J Gassler et al (December 2017) and. G Wutz et al (December 2017) ...
As you learned in BIO101, the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. The nucleus in fact contains not only DNA, but RNA and protein as well. This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. When we refer to expression regulation, we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. How does this happen? The answer is regulated gene expression!. ...
A major component of this research effort will be to identify a method which is not only accurate, but a method that can be easily utilized by field personnel. A review of available technologies will be conducted to determine the availability of additional methods for compaction control. This current research effort will focus on the subgrade and unbound base construction quality control.. ...
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Dear all, I am searching for a method that will allow me to isolate intact nuclei from rat brain tissue (we arent tooled up for cell culture right now - otherwise I would use one of the many techniques available for such a situation). Many thanks. -- _____________________________________________________________________ Keith Hoek hoek at biosci.uq.edu.au mRNA transport http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/~hoek/Pg1.html ...
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A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...
The progress of a reaction can be graphed 2-dimensionally as a reaction coordinate vs potential energy. Everyone has seen these potential energy profiles. From what I understand, the profile for a reaction is derived in this way: The potential energy of a set of nuclei can be graphed as dependent variable on a hyperdimensional surface. The extra dimensions include different states of the nuclei (vibrational rotational etc.)and their positions with respect to each other. If all but 2 dimensions can be set as constant, then those 2 independent variables (usually representing internuclear distance?) can be graphed with respect to the dependent variable of potential energy. The low points on this surface represent reactants, products, or intermediates. The saddle points represent transition states. The lowest energy path (the gradient) from reactant to transition state to product is the potential energy profile, which is graphed against a reaction coordinate ...
A growing number of experimental observations reveal that the cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized yet organized to ensure a dynamic response to events that influence nuclear activities. The cellular and molecular response to physiological and environmental stress induces a rapid and trans …
The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures and activities, encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes. It also contains the molecular machinery to replicate its DNA and to synthesize and process the three types of RNA : ribosomal (rRNA), messenger (mRNA), and transfer (tRNA). Mitochondria have a small DNA genome and produce RNAs to be used in this organelle, but the genome is so small that it is not sufficient even for the mitochondrion itself. On the other hand, the nucleus does not produce proteins; the numerous protein molecules needed for the activities of the nucleus are imported from the cytoplasm ...
The Cell Nucleus The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cells hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cells activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and.
This lecture introduces the nucleus and how information is transferred from stable stored information (DNA) converted to an intermediate (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) of variable stability, exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where mRNA is then translated into Protein. This is gene expression, the products of this process are used either within the cell, exported (exocytosis) or used to replace worn out components. We will study this topic looking at the key organelle in this process, the nucleus. ...
Nuclear codes are codes that study the parameters around nuclear knowledge. Nuclear code training is comprehensive in this article. ...
The animal cell nucleus houses the genetic material of the organism and therefore protects and maintains the blueprint for the cell and all its progeny. However, the nucleus is more than a simple repository for chromosomes. A dynamic organelle, the nucleus goes through astonishing transformations during each cell cycle, breaking down completely during mitosis and reforming afresh in each daughter cell after cell division. Within the nucleus, chromosomes are replicated and their DNA is transcribed to provide information that programs the physiology of the cell. Also, ribosomes assemble in the nucleus, then leave and carry out protein translation in the cytoplasm. All of this activity requires complex machineries that can respond to the changing needs of the cell throughout the cell cycle and may vary during development and by cell type.. One of the defining features of the nucleus is its unique architecture. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear envelope, a double layer of membranes punctuated by ...
This technique allows for efficient, highly purified cytoplasmic and nuclear-associated compartment fractionation utilizing NP-40 detergent in mammalian cells. The nuclear membrane is not disturbed during the fractionation thus leaving all nuclear and perinuclear associated components in the nuclear fraction. This protocol has been modified from Sambrook and Russell (2001) in order to downscale the amount of cells needed. To determine the efficiency of fractionation, we recommend using qPCR to compare the subcellular compartments that have been purified with equivalent amount of control whole cell extracts.
What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding membrane
There are several types of stereology, but instead of talking about all of these (which is the subject of books) this page will get you started with the most common and simplest form of stereology: Point Counting Stereology. In point counting stereology you typically project a uniform grid of points over an image, and then simply count how many points fall inside the particular compartments youre interested in quantifying the volume of (eg: Mitochondria, Nucleus). After counting ~1000 points (which should take under one hour) you can make estimates such as the fraction of non-nuclear cell volume occupied by mitochondria for a wild-type mouse (as averaged over a large area). In biology, a good stereologists would repeat this for three wild-type mice, and then three mutant mice... and at that stage the results should have enough accuracy to compare the conditions with good statistical accuracy and publish the results - results which may either support or reject the hypothesis that theres an ...
A hidden utility in the LibreOffice toolbox, unoconv offers a wide array of import and export filter options for use at the command line.
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In a bench-top experiment, atomic nuclei may have fused inside rapidly imploding bubbles of vapor in a liquid bombarded by sound waves, but many scientists find the evidence for bubble fusion unconvincing.
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Regulated Transcrption: Advanced Look --, 2.) Nucleus Once the extracellular signal has been tranferred through a series of proteins and into the nucleus, transcripton factors within the nucleus are activated and prepare the regulated gene for transcription. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
When I tried using the Orbit One application, I eventually found out the reason it wasnt updating the records and showing an error was because the date format was incorrect. This appears to be the same using this method, when I did an update and reimported a sample the import failed 51 records out of 51. On the Excel spreadsheet theres a column showing the date the contact was last reached, when importing the updated spreadsheet this will have todays date on it and its displayed correctly, but CRM or SQL seems to think this should be in US format ...
Learn how global businesses develop export pricing strategies that take into account the target market, competitor pricing, costs for exporting products and other factors.
Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol.: A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lip
cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of ... "Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131.. ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Yan W, Burns KH, Ma L, Matzuk MM (Oct 2002). "Identification of Zfp393, a germ cell-specific gene encoding a novel zinc finger ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation ... Zinc finger protein 366, also known as DC-SCRIPT (Dendritic cell-specific transcript), is a protein that in humans is encoded ... In COS-1 cells, DC-SCRIPT was shown to interact with the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain (ERDBD) and represses ER activity ... In the immune system of both mice and humans, DC-SCRIPT was found to be specifically expressed in dendritic cells (DCs).[8] ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, ... Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (2): 175-7. doi:10.1093/jmcb/mju006. PMID 24620032.. ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • liver development. • ... DNA and Cell Biology. 18 (2): 165-73. doi:10.1089/104454999315556. PMID 10073576.. ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • rhythmic process. • ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ... Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". T Helper Cell Differentiation and ... and metastasis in sarcoma cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.[34] It has been shown that the normal tissue adjacent to ...
Viral eukaryogenesis, hypothesis that the cell nucleus originated from endosymbiosis. References[edit]. *^ a b Edited by Athel ... On the origin of mitosing cells.[17] In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated ... endosymbiosis would save the cell more energy to develop a nuclear membrane than if the cell was to fold its cell membrane to ... If a cell's mitochondria or chloroplasts are removed, the cell does not have the means to create new ones.[54] For example, in ...
Viral eukaryogenesis, hypothesis that the cell nucleus originated from endosymbiosis. References[edit]. *^ "Mereschkowsky's ... On the origin of mitosing cells.[16] In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated ... endosymbiosis would save the cell more energy to develop a nuclear membrane than if the cell was to fold its cell membrane to ... If a cell's mitochondria or chloroplasts are removed, the cell does not have the means to create new ones.[54] For example, in ...
... deficient cells and normal cells,[6] depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell's ... 2-4 cell stage[11] 2-8 cell stage[11] 2 Imprinted (paternal) X-inactivation 4-8 cell stage[10][12] Unclear if it takes place in ... Nucleus of a female cell. Top: Both X-chromosomes are detected, by FISH. Bottom: The same nucleus stained with a DNA stain ( ... An interphase female human fibroblast cell.[1] Arrows point to sex chromatin on DNA (DAPI) in cell nucleus(left), and to the ...
In eukaryotic cells (cells that package their DNA within a nucleus), chromosomes consist of very long linear double-stranded ... all of the DNA in a cell is duplicated in order to provide one copy to each of the daughter cells after the next cell division ... Nucleus of a female amniotic fluid cell. Top: Both X-chromosome territories are detected by FISH. Shown is a single optical ... J Cell Biol 187: 623-635. *^ Gilbert DM (2001) Nuclear position leaves its mark on replication timing. J Cell Biol 152: F11-16. ...
... and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei. ... The muscle cells make up the bulk (99%) of cells in the atria and ventricles. These contractile cells are connected by ... There are two types of cells in cardiac muscle: muscle cells which have the ability to contract easily, and pacemaker cells of ... For this reason sodium moves into the cell from outside, and potassium moves from within the cell to outside the cell. Calcium ...
Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by lysis of the cell. Virion maturation by the viral proteasehost ... Microtubular transport toward nucleus of the viral genome still protected by the core protein VII and a partial capsid mainly ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fibers to the host CAR adhesion receptor. Subsequent binding of ...
cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • nucleolus. • cytosol. • host cell. • protein complex. • macromolecular complex. • ... Görlich D, Kutay U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (1): 607-60. ... cell. Biological process. • ribosomal small subunit export from nucleus. • intracellular transport of virus. • regulation of ... Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed (October 2007). "Exporting RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ...
Relative location in the cell nucleusEdit. In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the ... A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable ... Some promoters are called constitutive as they are active in all circumstances in the cell, while others are regulated, ... Adachi N, Lieber MR (June 2002). "Bidirectional gene organization: a common architectural feature of the human genome". Cell. ...
They are termed ENA because they can be extracted from the cell nucleus with saline.[7][14] The ENAs consist of ... T-cells and B-cells) and antigen presenting cells. These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign ... the cell line was contaminated and displaced by HeLa cells, and has now been identified as actually HeLa cells.[54] ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ...
... is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a dying cell[1] whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ... Cell death. Necrosis Coagulative necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis. Gangrenous necrosis. Caseous necrosis. Fat necrosis. ...
In eukaryotes the genome is held within the cell nucleus, which is separated from the cytosol by nuclear pores that block the ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ...
2012). "Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells". Nucleus (Austin, Tex.). Nucleus. 3 (1): ... "Cell Mechanosensitivity to Extremely Low-Magnitude Signals Is Enabled by a LINCed Nucleus". Stem Cells. 33 (6): 2063-2076. doi: ... "Cell Nucleus and Nuclear Envelope". gsu.edu. Archived from the original on 2018-06-18. Retrieved 2014-01-21. "Nuclear membrane ... 2016). "Nuclear envelope rupture is induced by actin-based nucleus confinement". Journal of Cell Biology. JCB. 215 (1): 27-36. ...
... s have no cell nucleus; they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death". Cell Signalling Biology ... "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. PMID ... Endothelial cells are attached to the subendothelial collagen by von Willebrand factor (VWF), which these cells produce. VWF is ...
It is not clear if these particles can then leave the nucleus and be transmitted to surrounding cells as virions, or whether ... Replication occurs within the nucleus of an infected plant cell. First the single-stranded circular DNA is converted to a ... To overcome this block geminiviruses can induce plant cells to reenter the cell cycle from a quiescent state so that viral ... Geminivirus genomes encode only a few proteins; thus, they are dependent on host cell factors for replication: these include ...
... has a cell wall, nucleus, pyrenoid and spiral chloroplasts. It is very rare among the plant-like protists. ... Two adjoining cells near the common transverse wall give out protuberances known as conjugation tubes, which further form the ... One cell each from opposite lined filaments emits tubular protuberances known as conjugation tubes, which elongate and fuse, to ... The cytoplasm of the cell acting as the male travels through this tube and fuses with the female cytoplasm, and the gametes ...
Moore, Robert Y.; Speh, Joan C.; Leak, Rehana K. (2002-07-01). "Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization". Cell and Tissue Research ... The brain imaging focused primarily on two areas of the brain: the locus coeruleus, which is a nucleus in the pons responsible ... Through these brain images, Moore observed evidence suggesting a degeneration of nerve cells in these two areas. This was the ... He is credited with discovering the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the circadian clock, as well as, ...
... nucleus and cell division). On the basis of his discoveries, Flemming surmised for the first time that all cell nuclei came ... Flemming investigated the process of cell division and the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, a process he ... He identified that chromatin was correlated to threadlike structures in the cell nucleus - the chromosomes (meaning coloured ... Reprinted in J. Cell Biol. 25:581-589 (1965).[verification needed] Flemming, W. Zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Theilungs- ...
Cell nucleus Nucleoid McStay B (2016). "Nucleolar organizer regions: genomic 'dark matter' requiring illumination". Genes & ...
Spector is a pioneer in unraveling our understanding of the inner workings of the cell nucleus. His early investigations ... Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual (from CSHL Press) The Nucleus (Perspectives in Biology) (from CSHL Press). ... "Model of the Mammalian Cell Nucleus". Spector Lab. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-01. "Spector, ... Cell. 135 (5): 919-32. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.10.012. PMC 2722846. PMID 19041754. Sunwoo H, Dinger ME, Wilusz JE, Amaral PP, ...
"Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus". Scientific Reports. 4 (1): 3781. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E3781K. doi:10.1038/ ... on scales from a cell to the ocean. Key predictions-that macroscopically aligned flocks of swimming bacteria are impossible, ...
cell nucleus. The "control room" for the cell. The nucleus gives out all the orders.. cell plate. Grown in the cell's center, ... See cell biology.. cytoplasm. All of the material within a cell and enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the nucleus. The ... creating a new cell wall that enables cell division.. cell theory. The theory that all living things are made up of cells.. ... In eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell cycle during which the division of the nucleus takes place and duplicated chromosomes ...
The maturing neutrophil will condense its nucleus into several connected lobes that stay in the cell until the end of its cell ... Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis[1] or ... "Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009". Cell Death Differ. 16 (1): 3- ... a type of white blood cell). The maturing metarubricyte (a stage in RBC maturation) will condense its nucleus before expelling ...
... valproic acid had a neuroprotective effect by preventing translocation of alpha-synuclein into cell nuclei.[24]. Vorinostat. In ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... The striatum, in red, includes the caudate nucleus (top), the putamen (right), and, when including the term 'corpus' striatum, ...
... begins when the nucleus of the cell begins to shrink. After the shrinking, the plasma membrane blebs and folds around ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.[ ... HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ...
Cell signallingEdit. Bile acids have metabolic actions in the body resembling those of hormones, acting through two specific ... The rate-limiting step in synthesis is the addition of a hydroxyl group of the 7th position of the steroid nucleus by the ... Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans ... Exposure of colonic cells to high DCA concentrations increase formation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress, ...
... Malignant plasma cells (plasmacytoma), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus. · regulation of apoptotic ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol. · intermediate filament ...
5-aminosalicylate (ASA) has been shown to reduce β-catenin and its localization to the nucleus in colon cancer cells isolated ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... forming the nucleus of a future Cambodian regime.[325] The Cambodian government also readied itself for war. Plans for a ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... a Marxist-Leninist organisation arranged in a clandestine cell system.[50] ...
Lanthanum is soft as well; all these elements have their outermost electrons quite far from the nucleus compared to the nuclei ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
Films in annular ring mounts on gas-tight cells, will readily deform into spherical mirrors. Photomultiplier cosmic-ray ... 6 psi). Another important consequence of the molecular orientation is that it induces the formation of many crystal nuclei. The ...
... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... The exact mechanism of the rhythm generation and transmission to motor nuclei remains controversial and the topic of much ... It is one of the four cell groups of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG). It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is ... This is due to the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in a nucleus and increased excitability in motor neurons ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast,[32] up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
The endoplasmic reticulum is in cells that have a nucleus: in eukaryote cells but not in prokaryote cells. It takes these forms ... 1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ... Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... SP is released in or around the nucleus of the solitary tract upon integrated activity of dopamine, serotonin, opioid, and/or ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
... pre-tectal nucleus) and hypothalamus (suprachiasmatic nucleus) had been shown. However a visual role for the receptor was still ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
The nucleus is the core element of the cell.. The key works of Schwann and Schleiden were published in 1838 and 1839.[2] These ... Landmark papers in cell biology. Bethesda MD and Cold Spring Harbor NY: The American Society for Cell Biology and Cold Spring ... Every cell comes from another cell that lived before it.. * ... All living things are made of cells.. *The cell is the basic ... The birth of the cell. Yale University Press, New Haven. *↑ Schwann, Theodor 1847 [1839]. Microscopic investigations on the ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
... when patterns of spontaneous firing of cells in the eyes (before they have opened) transmit signals that appear to help develop ... the layered structure of the lateral geniculate nucleus .[4]. The hypothesis has attracted increasing attention in recent years ...
At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... The microscopic structure of conifer wood consists of two types of cells: parenchyma, which have an oval or polyhedral shape ...
They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... nucleus of host cell and nucleomorph). The model cryptomonad Guillardia theta became an important focus for scientists studying ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... Whereas the nucleomorph in G. theta supposedly came from a red algae, B. natans nucleomorph is likely the vestigal nucleus of a ...
... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... "Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ...
Knowlton Hall along with the Fisher College of Business and Hitchcock Hall form an academic nucleus in the Northwestern corner ... engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the land speed record for hydrogen cell ...
Friedrich Miescher Swiss biochemist, noted for discovery of nucleic acids in cell nucleus (1844-1895) ...
The second sperm cell fuses with two cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. ... a haploid cell travels down the tube behind the tube nucleus. This cell divides by mitosis into two haploid sperm cells. ... In plants it is a double fertilisation in which two sperm cells fertilize cells in the plant ovary. One of these is a normal ... One was done by studies of how the pollen cells worked to fertilise the ovum,[25] and the other was to recognise the ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Odd-odd nuclei have even mass numbers, whereas odd-even nuclei have odd mass numbers. Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
The pollen tube is produced by the single vegetative cell in the pollen grain, which passes its cytoplasm, nucleus and two ... this is due to a change of shape of existing cells rather than their replication. The elongation progresses at 1.5 inches per ... through which the sperm cells (the gametes) pass to join the female gametophyte within the ovule. ... sperm cells into the tube. The tube extends itself at the apex only, in an actin polymerization dependent process, and the ...
Additionally, the nuclei of anaplastic cells are usually unnaturally shaped or oversized. Cells can become anaplastic in two ... The cell nuclei are characteristically extremely hyperchromatic (darkly stained) and enlarged; the nucleus might have the same ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Giant cells - considerably larger than their neighbors - may form and possess either one enormous nucleus or several nuclei ( ...
... manage to get their contents out of the cell? Cells are walled all the way around; they dont really have doors for letting ... Cells that "spit" out their contents and messenger RNA that is not so swift at delivering its message. Those are two brand new ... The first story arose from a simple question: How do secretory cells - those that produce copious amounts of such substances as ...
A cell with a large central nucleus. The dark mass within the nucleus are the chromosomes ... The center of a cell, where [most] of the DNA, packaged in chromosomes, is contained. ...
... researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells DNA in unprecedented ... Now, for the first time, researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells ... Nucleus of the cell mapped in 3D. "With SPRITE, we were able to see thousands of molecules -- DNAs and RNAs -- coming together ... June 8 (UPI) -- The nucleus of the cell is where the action happens, but its not easy to analyze the behavior of a massive ...
... cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. They are distinct from the ... Red blood cells, while not considered to be prokaryotes, also do not have a nucleus. This helps them to maximize space inside ... the cell for haemoglobin, which is essential in the transport of oxygen. By comparison, white blood cells do contain a nucleus. ... According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. ...
Nuclei per cell. Most eukaryotic cell types usually have a single nucleus, but some have no nuclei, while others have several. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ... The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells.[5] In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is ...
The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has existed since the late 1800s. In the past ... Chromatin Condensates in the Cell Nucleus. The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has ... Across the cell nucleus, the liquid-like condensates organize spatially and temporally, interacting with one another ( ... Neither artificial membrane slabs, nor live cells imaged under conditions in which cells have a shabby life that doesnt last ...
GPSeq relies on gradual restriction digestion of chromatin from the nuclear lamina toward the nucleus center, followed by ... The location of genetic and epigenetic elements in mammalian nuclei is measured by gradual DNA fragmentation. ... the radial organization of chromatin in mammalian cells remains largely unexplored. Here we describe genomic loci positioning ... Single-cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure. Nature 502, 59-64 (2013). ...
... In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells ... Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm - a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and ... The nucleus, being the largest sub-cellular compartment, varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres. It is surrounded by a ... Nuclei have two primary functions: * to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm ...
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... The cell nucleus contains the majority of the cells genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized ...
cell nucleus with several pores of the nuclear membrane from rat ileum (for unlabelled original image click here, please!) C = ... ileum, cell nucleus, nuclear pore Electron microscopic atlas Overview Homepage of the workshop Page H. Jastrow & B. ... Mne = äußereKernmembran; Mni = innereKernmembran; N = Nucleus (Zellkern); Nc = Nucleolus (Kernkörperchen); Pnu = Porus nuclei ( ...
A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ... What does the nucleus do in a plant cell?. A: The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plants DNA and ... Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?. A: The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a ... A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ...
Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm.. Görlich D1, Kutay U. ... The compartmentation of eukaryotic cells requires all nuclear proteins to be imported from the cytoplasm, whereas, for example ... These receptors shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, and they bind transport substrates either directly or via adapter ... transfer RNAs, messenger RNAs, and ribosomes are made in the nucleus and need to be exported to the cytoplasm. Nuclear import ...
Rhythmic coupling among cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.. Colwell CS1.. Author information. 1. Mental Retardation Research ... SCN cells were extensively dye coupled during the day when the cells exhibit synchronous neural activity but were minimally dye ... Dye coupling among SCN cells was activity-dependent. To determine if the transfer of dye between SCN cells may be actively ... Scale bar = 100 μm. Bottom: Higher magnification (400×) view of labeled cells within the SCN. Scale bar = 10 μm. ...
... which coincided with AIF translocation to the cell nucleus and alterations in cell viability and Δψm. Furthermore, BNIP3 ... Nutrient deprivation induces apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells via activation of the BNIP3/AIF signalling pathway ... Nutrient deprivation (ND)induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cell death serves an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration ... The present study demonstrated that cells subjected to ND for up to 72 h exhibited a timedependent increase in cell death and ...
Cell Biology (cytology) Does a plant cell have both a nucleus and a cell wall. ?. Yes most cells have a nucleus. A plant cell ... Does a plant cell have a bigger nucleus than an animal cell. ?. a plant cell nucleus is the same size as an animal cell nucleus ... Is a nucleus a plant cell. ?. No. The nucleus is the part of the cell that holds the DNA. Plant cells have a nucleus, but a ... Is nucleus found in an animal cell or in a plant cell. ?. the nucleus is found in all cells A nucleus is neither a plant nor ...
... awarded National Science Foundation grant to explore the use of microwave technology to characterize the nucleus of a live cell ... "Normal cells tend to have fairly uniform morphology with a consistent nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. The nuclei of abnormal cells ... "High-frequency microwave has the advantage of being able to penetrate through the cell and into the nucleus, like an x-ray is ... Penetrating a Cells Nucleus for Better, More Accurate Cancer Screening (IMAGE) view more ...
Microscopic View of Animal Cell Nucleus Art Print. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed ...
... bioinformatics on the subject of cell nucleus can be found on this page. ... The cell contains transcripts of the genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This ... A major obstacle to in-cell genome editing is, well, the cell itself."Human cells dont like to take in stuff," explained UC ... 19 Current news about the topic cell nucleus. rss You can refine your search further. Select from the filter options on the ...
"The Nucleus". MBInfo. "Learn about the Cell Nucleus". cellnucleus.com. Website covering structure and function of the nucleus ... Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... The cell nucleus contains all of the cells genome, except for the small amount of mitochondrial DNA and, in plant cells, ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ...
A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate lives is helping ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease Penn study sheds light on biology of leading ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine ... PHILADELPHIA - A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
Cell biology elaborated. Detailed literature and easily digestible. Enjoy. ... The Nucleus - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online ... Many different types in a cell; highly variable in cell. types, organisms, and at different times in the same. cell type. ... THE NUCLEUS: FUNCTIONS. It stores the cells hereditary material, or. DNA.. Site of DNA replication. Site of DNA transcription ...
This organelle is the control center of the cell, storing the DNA and hereditary information inside chromosomes. ... Kids learn about cell nucleus in the science of biology. ... How many nuclei are in a cell? Most cells only have one nucleus ... Cell. The Cell. Cell Cycle and Division. Nucleus. Ribosomes. Mitochondria. Chloroplasts. Proteins. Enzymes. The Human Body. ... Cell Nucleus. The nucleus is perhaps the most important structure inside animal and plant cells. It is the main control center ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma is associated with cell-cell junction in A431 epithelial cells. Cell Biol Int ... Rapid changes in phospholipid metabolism in the nuclei of Swiss 3T3 cells induced by treatment of the cells with insulin-like ... Inositol lipids are regulated during cell cycle progression in the nuclei of murine erythroleukaemia cells. Biochem J 357:905- ... I. The phospholipid composition of the liver-cell nucleus. Biochim Biophys Acta 70:406-416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Cell Nuclei: Anything but Random. by Caleb Colley, Ph.D.. At the heart of biological evolutionary theory is randomness. ... of the cell-the nucleus-is organized in a recognizable pattern.. In their cytology textbook, Cell Biology, Roberts, Nowinski, ... "the net result of cell division is the formation of two cells that match each other and the parent cell precisely in their gene ... Pfeiffer, John (1964), The Cell (New York: Time).. Roberts, E.D.P., Wiktor W. Nowinski, and Francisco A. Saez (1970), Cell ...
Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may ... Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback ... recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which ... Cells 2016, 5, 27. AMA Style. Belaadi N, Aureille J, Guilluy C. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus. ...
Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin [nucleus] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) or [nuculeus] ... Cell nucleus simple:Cell nucleus sk:Bunkové jadro sl:Celično jedro sr:Једро sh:Jezgra (stanica) fi:Tuma sv:Cellkärna th:นิวเคลี ... Anucleated and polynucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal ...
In 9 cases the egg nucleus was found in the exovate, while the egg proper consisted of cells containing normal nuclei which ... is still nucleus-dependent. Therefore, if the egg nucleus could be replaced by one from a differentiated cell, the nature of ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs. Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King ...
The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is transplanted into a frogs egg and gives rise to a normal frog. Such ... The nuclei of most normal frog cells contain two of the bodies called nucleoli; the nuclei of cells carrying the mutation never ... Transplanted Nuclei and Cell Differentiation, by Sir John B. Gurdon. The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is ... The broken cell with its cytoplasm-protected nucleus is injected into the recipient egg. The amount of donor-cell cytoplasm ...
This problem is encountered ubiquitously in cell biology and developmental biology. Our work is mo-tivated by the observation ... cell tracking), but also prevent robust statistical analysis (e.g. modeling of fluores-cence distribution). We therefore ... We study the problem of segmenting multiple cell nucle-i from GFP or Hoechst stained microscope images with a shape prior. ... segment dense cell nucleus shape prior rand index increase prevent robust statistical analysis corresponding energy term ...
  • Now, for the first time, researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cell's DNA in unprecedented detail. (upi.com)
  • The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome , except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA , organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins , such as histones , to form chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the lipids on the double membrane of a eukaryote cell's nucleus? (physicsforums.com)
  • How does the nucleus control a cell's activities? (reference.com)
  • A cell's nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates proteins that perform specific activities. (reference.com)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
  • It is the main control center for the cell and acts kind of like the cell's brain. (ducksters.com)
  • The most important function of the nucleus is to store the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA. (ducksters.com)
  • Several different kinds of experiment have revealed the dependence of cell differentiation on the activity of the genes in the cell's nucleus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Now, a team of investigators from the Northwestern University Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (Northwestern CCNE) has developed star-shaped nanoparticle that can deliver a drug directly to a cancer cell's nucleus an important feature for many potential anticancer therapies. (nanowerk.com)
  • The Northwestern CCNE team, led by Teri Odom, also reported that it was able to directly image at nanoscale dimensions how nanoparticles interact with a cancer cell's nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • They are attracted to a protein on the cancer cell's surface that conveniently shuttles the nanostars to the cell's nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for the small amount of mitochondrial DNA and, in plant cells, plastid DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these membranes serve to separate the cell's genetic material from the rest of the cell contents, and allow the nucleus to maintain an environment distinct from the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell nucleus contains the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Standing guard between a cell's nucleus and its main chamber, called the cytoplasm, are thousands of behemoth protein structures called nuclear pore complexes. (anl.gov)
  • NPCs are like the bouncers of a cell's nucleus, tightly guarding exactly what goes in and out. (anl.gov)
  • Now, an international team of scientists report in Nature Cell Biology on a long-overlooked part of a leukaemic cell's internal machinery called the spliceosome, where they found a hyperactive form of a protein called IRAK4 that sends cells on a cancer-causing frenzy. (ecancer.org)
  • Now that they know to look more closely at this seemingly obscure, tiny molecular machine in the cell's nucleus - the spliceosome - it creates a way to find genetic coding miscues that fuel other subsets of AML that also depend on a hyperactive IRAK4. (ecancer.org)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus contains polytene chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus. (nature.com)
  • Does a liver cell contain the same chromosomes as a cheek cell? (reference.com)
  • They organize into chromosomes prior to the cell dividing. (ducksters.com)
  • The chromosomes in nucleus is called nuclear genome which is enclosed by the nuclear envelop. (omicsonline.org)
  • In dividing valve interstitial cells, a strong signal for versican was observed in and around the condensed chromosomes during the various stages of mitosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Schermelleh, Lothar (2003): Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell nucleus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition to harboring the chromosomes and supporting the coordinated expression of a host of genes, the nucleus also participates in the transport of a variety of macromolecules to and from the cytoplasm. (plantcell.org)
  • The discrete and comparatively stable territories that chromosomes occupy within the nucleus are separated by interchromosomal domains through which transcribed RNA and other macromolecules can diffuse (reviewed in Lamond and Earnshaw, 1998 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The human cancer cell nucleus contains 46 or more chromosomes, each bearing portions of the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the exception of lamina-associated domains, the radial organization of chromatin in mammalian cells remains largely unexplored. (nature.com)
  • GPSeq relies on gradual restriction digestion of chromatin from the nuclear lamina toward the nucleus center, followed by sequencing of the generated cut sites. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Radial organization of chromatin in human cells. (nature.com)
  • Colour enhanced Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of a glandular cell, showing nucleus, chromatin (magenta), which appears as dense aggregations of small granules, and heterochromatin, occurring in irregular clumps adjacent to the nuclear envelope and around the nucleolus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • To analyze possible changes of chromosome arrangements from one cell cycle to the next, nuclei were photobleached in G2 maintaining a contiguous zone of unbleached chromatin at one nuclear pole. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Accordingly, chromatin patterns observed in daughter nuclei differed significantly from the mother cell nucleus, indicating that CT neighborhoods were not preserved during mitosis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Simultaneous immunodetection of lamin B on two-color replication labeled neuroblastoma cell nuclei revealed specific attachment of the mid-to-late replicating chromatin compartment not only along the periphery but also inside the nucleus along invaginations of the lamina. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 4D-live cell observation of lamin C-GFP expressing CHO cells with mid-to-late replicating chromatin labeled simultaneously revealed concomitant movements of replication foci attached to lamin invaginations. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • B. R. Zirkin, "A cytochemical Study of the Nonhistone Protein Content of Condensed and Extended Chromatin," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1973, pp. 394-398. (scirp.org)
  • This is supported by the work of Backman, 7 who also observed the enlargement, crowding, and increased chromatin content of nuclei in the epithelial cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Processes such as mitosis or meiosis (cell division) cause an increase in density of chromatin strands. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Changes in chromatin content directly affect the refractive index of the cell nucleus. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • However, at the early stages of mitosis VP22 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it immediately binds to the condensing cellular chromatin and remains bound there through all stages of mitosis and chromatin decondensation into the G 1 stage of the next cycle. (asm.org)
  • In the nucleus, ERα assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. (mcponline.org)
  • At the fully ripening and overripening stages, the nucleus became abnormal, and the structure of chromatin collapsed (Plate Ⅰ 4, 5). (cnki.com.cn)
  • We find that some nuclei efficiently focus incident light confirming earlier predictions based on comparative studies of chromatin organisation in nocturnal and diurnal mammals. (osapublishing.org)
  • Cell differentiation in embryogenesis involves extensive changes in gene expression structural reorganization within the nucleus, including chromatin condensation and nucleoprotein immobilization. (upenn.edu)
  • The rheological character of the nucleus is thus set largely by nucleoplasm/chromatin, whereas the extent of deformation is modulated by the lamina. (upenn.edu)
  • In this study, we tried to spatially quantify fractal dimensions, which are mathematical barometers for any structures, of chromatin fibers in living cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, we made cells with two fluorescent probes on chromatin fibers. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Dynamic nucleosome movement tells Structural information of topological chromatin domains in human cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Future epigenetic analysis of these cells will help determine specific chromatin profiles in somatic cells that have an impact on nuclear reprogramming procedures. (ehu.es)
  • The mapping efforts showed molecules associated with inactive genes tend to interact with a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus, which features proteins that represses DNA and keeps genes turned off. (upi.com)
  • Proteins can vary from enzymes to structural components, but they are needed for almost all processes in a cell and the human body. (reference.com)
  • This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
  • Ribosome - Ribosomes are made inside the nucleolus and then sent outside the nucleus to make proteins. (ducksters.com)
  • Translation - The RNA is used to configure amino acids into special proteins for use in the cell. (ducksters.com)
  • Each human cell contains around 6 feet of DNA which is tightly packed, but very organized with proteins. (ducksters.com)
  • However, PIP 2 can also directly regulate a vast array of proteins and is emerging as a crucial messenger with the potential to distinctly modulate biological processes critical for both normal and pathogenic cell physiology. (springer.com)
  • 2006). The widespread protein CBP acts on certain genes within the cell nucleus, causing them to make specific proteins at different times throughout the life of the cell ("Scientists Prove. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Also, scientists at Purdue University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have created a technique that automatically locates and maps proteins involved in regulated cell behavior ("New Cell Imaging. (apologeticspress.org)
  • And while it may be very useful to try to put things such as DNA and proteins in the perspective of a cell, "the amazing beauty and complexity of a cell is not always easy to grasp because of the very small sizes involved. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Embedded within the inner membrane, various proteins bind the intermediate filaments that give the nucleus its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This size selectively allows the passage of small water-soluble molecules while preventing larger molecules, such as nucleic acids and larger proteins, from inappropriately entering or exiting the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells are physically linked to a network of proteins around them, which allows them to sense and respond to mechanical cues like pushing and pulling from their immediate environment. (phys.org)
  • They'd shown in the earlier papers that contractility of myosin-II proteins just inside the cell membrane in the area known as the cell cortex triggered the movement, but what was sensing the cellular deformation and then activating myosin II was an open question. (the-scientist.com)
  • Ruprecht, Stefan Wieser, a biophysicist at the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona, and their team focused on proteins from the outer surface of zebrafish cells confined beneath coverslips in culture to see if any of these proteins were responsible for the switch from not moving to moving. (the-scientist.com)
  • To connect nuclear deformation with cell motility, the researchers performed a small-molecule screen in human cancer cells and determined that intracellular calcium, stretch-sensitive proteins in the nuclear envelope, and an enzyme called cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) were involved. (the-scientist.com)
  • These SAP are candidate effector proteins potentially involved in interaction with plant and insect cell components. (apsnet.org)
  • Efforts to understand nuclear organization in plant cells have received little assistance from the better-studied animal nuclei, because plant proteomes do not contain recognizable counterparts to the key animal proteins involved in nuclear organization, such as lamin nuclear intermediate filament proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Very little is known about the proteins or pathways that lead to the observed diversity in nuclear morphology or about the mechanisms that link the differentiated state of a cell to changes in nuclear morphology. (plantcell.org)
  • A. G. Aminev, S. P. Amineva and A. C. Palmenberg, "Encephalomyocarditis Virus (EMCV) Proteins 2A and 3BCD Localize to Nuclei and Inhibit Cellular mRNA Transcription but Not rRNA Transcription," Virus Research, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 59-73. (scirp.org)
  • The interaction between the mitochondrial and the nuclear genome is in part mediated by proteins (and possibly also RNAs) which are encoded in the nucleus and imported into mitochondria. (biologists.org)
  • As a consequence, herpesviruses must target several classes of their gene products, including transcription factors, DNA replication factors, scaffold proteins, and capsid proteins, to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Such NLS-containing proteins are translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus through the nuclear pores, a process mediated by cellular proteins typified by the heterodimeric complex of importin α and β proteins ( 15 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, transient expression of these proteins in isolation from other virus products is sufficient to allow their localization to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • However, in many cases protein localization observed by transient expression of individual virus genes does not correlate with the subcellular targeting of the same proteins during virus infection, and there are several examples of virus proteins which lack recognizable NLSs but which are nonetheless directed to the nucleus during virus infection. (asm.org)
  • Several proteins have been shown to piggyback into the nucleus via an interaction with an NLS-containing partner either of viral origin, as is the case with the capsid proteins VP5 ( 31 , 40 ) and VP23 ( 40 ), or of cellular origin, as has been suggested for the transactivator of immediate-early gene expression VP16, which appears to be directed into the nucleus by the cellular protein HCF ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • These are the messengers that carry genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where they are then translated into proteins. (anl.gov)
  • Once the mRNA reaches the cytoplasmic side, it must surrender the ticket-otherwise, the mRNA could travel back into the nucleus, and the proteins it encodes wouldn't get made. (anl.gov)
  • Moreover, a mitochondrion contains proteins launching apoptosis (programmed cell death). (russia-ic.com)
  • So, when mitochondria enter the nucleus, they destroy DNA, as well as cell proteins. (russia-ic.com)
  • Migdall and Graham think it's likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence "gene expression" - helping to decide which parts of the cells' DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, the levels of phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt), and the levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins and apoptosis ratio of NP cells were also determined by western blot analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMP2 alleviated IDD via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by inhibiting NP cell apoptosis and decreasing the levels of matrix proteins. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • transient response of differentiating K562 cells vs. eryth- We note that subcellular fractionation of proteins roid cells under a perturbation of sodium butyrate from single cells by electroporation was first reported by (NaB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila , having both germ line micronuclei and somatic macronuclei, must possess a specialized nucleocytoplasmic transport system to import proteins into the correct nucleus. (asm.org)
  • To understand how Tetrahymena can target proteins to distinct nuclei, we first characterized FG repeat-containing nucleoporins and found that micro- and macronuclei utilize unique subsets of these proteins. (asm.org)
  • This finding implicates these proteins in the differential permeability of the two nuclei and implies that nuclear pores with discrete specificities are assembled within a single cell. (asm.org)
  • Localization studies of 13 putative importin (imp) α- and 11 imp β-like proteins revealed that imp α-like proteins are nucleus specific-nine localized to the germ line micronucleus-but that most imp β-like proteins localized to both types of nuclei. (asm.org)
  • The geometry-controlled kinetics of TFs target-search illustrates the influence of nuclear architecture on gene regulation, and has strong implications on how proteins react in the nucleus and how their function can be regulated in space and time. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transcription factors are proteins that control the expression of genes in the nucleus, and they do this by binding to other proteins or DNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • First, however, these regulatory proteins need to overcome the challenge of finding their targets in the nucleus, which is crowded with other proteins and DNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Much research to date has focused on measuring how fast proteins can diffuse and spread out throughout the nucleus. (elifesciences.org)
  • However these measurements only make sense if these proteins have access to the same space within the nucleus. (elifesciences.org)
  • These findings, together with information about where and when different proteins interact in the nucleus, will be essential to understand how the organization of the genome within the nucleus can control the expression of genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • We think these 'hubs' may help the cell keep DNA that are all turned on or turned off neatly organized in different parts of the nucleus to allow cellular machinery to easily access specific genes within the nucleus. (upi.com)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression -the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (wikidoc.org)
  • The question is whether or not the progressive specialization of cells during development is accompanied by the loss of genes no longer required in each cell type. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For example, does an intestine-cell nucleus retain the genes needed for the synthesis of hemoglobin, the protein characteristic of red blood cells, and a nerve-cell nucleus the genes needed for making myosin, a protein characteristic of muscle cells? (scientificamerican.com)
  • If unwanted genes are lost, the possibility exists that it is the progressive loss of different genes that itself determines the specialization of cells, as August Weismann originally proposed in 1892. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The clearest alternative is that all genes are retained in all cells and that the genes are inactive in those cells in which they are not required. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The nucleus can change its physical properties to match the surrounding tissue, perhaps to maintain homeostasis or control what genes are activated in response to stimuli. (phys.org)
  • When we refer to "expression regulation," we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. (wikibooks.org)
  • Our data reveal that genes involved in brain development are dynamically regulated in all major cell types of the LGN, suggesting that the establishment of neural connectivity depends upon functional collaboration between multiple neuronal and nonneuronal cell types in this brain region. (pnas.org)
  • Most cell types exhibit significant transcriptional changes across development, dynamically expressing genes involved in distinct processes including retinotopic mapping, synaptogenesis, myelination, and synaptic refinement. (pnas.org)
  • Our data suggest that genes associated with synapse and circuit development are expressed in a larger proportion of nonneuronal cell types than previously appreciated. (pnas.org)
  • On average, nuclei yielded fewer genes than intact cells did, but throughput and capture efficiency were comparable. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of most genes was highly correlated between single nuclei and cells, but lncRNA and mitochondrial transcripts were strongly enriched in nuclei and cells respectively, as expected. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cheng S, Li X, Lin L, Jia Z, Zhao Y, Wang D, Ruan D and Zhang Y: Identification of aberrantly expressed genes during aging in rat nucleus pulposus cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Nonetheless, compared to a simulated random distribution, we found that genes are not randomly located within the nucleus. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. (innovations-report.com)
  • 7] reported that the gene expression with single nu- parallel transcriptional and genomic analyses on the clei is similar to that with entire single cells, with only same single cell by fractionating the cytRNAs and nuclei 3.5% of the genes exhibiting differential expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • The nucleolus is prominent within the nucleus. (scribd.com)
  • Nucleolus - The nucleolus is a large structure in the nucleus that mainly makes ribosomes and RNA. (ducksters.com)
  • Some scientists think that the nucleolus plays an important role in cell aging. (ducksters.com)
  • Light and electron microscopic examination of cell nuclei has revealed many readily identifiable nuclear structures including the nucleolus, electron dense heterochromatin, and a variety of granular and fibrillar structures including interchromatin granules, perichromatin granules, and perichromatin fibrils (for review see Spector, 1993 ). (rupress.org)
  • C. C. Morton, J. A. Brown, W. M. Holmes, W. E. Nance and B. Wolf, "Stain Intensity of Human Nucleolus Organizer Region Reflects Incorporation of Uridine in to Mature Ribosomal RNA," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1983, pp. 405-413. (scirp.org)
  • Yeast genetic studies have identified cdc2 as an essential gene for cell division in yeast. (scribd.com)
  • The scientists developed a probability map for the nucleus and determined that CBP pockets are more likely to be located closest to the gene regions with which they are known to modify ("Scientists Prove. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
  • The genomic code is mostly stored within the nucleus and gene expression is controlled there, so getting drugs inside this most important organelle is a long sought goal of many researchers. (medgadget.com)
  • There is an emerging view that there are hierarchical levels of gene regulation, reaching from epigenetic modifications at the DNA- and histone level to a higher order functional nuclear topology, in the context of which gene-activating and -repressing processes influence the gene expression profile of an individual cell beyond the sequence information of the DNA. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Neurons and nonneuronal cells in the developing brain dynamically regulate gene expression as neural connectivity is established. (pnas.org)
  • However, the specific gene programs activated in distinct cell populations during the assembly and refinement of many intact neuronal circuits have not been thoroughly characterized. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we take advantage of recent advances in transcriptomic profiling techniques to characterize gene expression in the postnatal developing lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) at single-cell resolution. (pnas.org)
  • Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development. (pnas.org)
  • This transcriptomic resource provides a cellular map of gene expression across several cell types of the LGN, and offers insight into the molecular mechanisms of circuit development in the postnatal brain. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the variable quality of some samples, they were able to measure gene expression in nuclei of neuronal and nonneuronal cells from both organisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon virus entry into the host cell, the viral DNA genome is directed into the nucleus by an as-yet-undefined mechanism and is subsequently transcribed and replicated by a combination of host cell machinery and virus gene products ( 1 , 17 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The role of VP22, which is encoded by gene UL49 ( 11 ), is unclear, but it does not contain a recognizable NLS, thereby suggesting that VP22 would not be targeted to the nucleus by the classical pathway during virus infection. (asm.org)
  • Single-cell-based normalization enabled us to acquire morphologically unbiased data and we finally correlated changes in gene positioning to changes in transcriptional profiles. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • An analysis of neighboring genomic context revealed that gene location within the nucleus is rather dependent on CpG islands, GC content, gene density, and short and long interspersed nuclear elements, collectively known as RIDGE (regions of increased gene expression) properties. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • But in AML cells, there are mutations in a gene call U2AF1, which result in RNA splicing errors. (ecancer.org)
  • If we truly have two distinct mechanisms through which Mer acts - cancer cell signaling and regulation of gene expression within the nucleus - then we would have additional ways to target this cancer-causing agent," Graham says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Microarray gene expression profiling, quantitative gene expression analysis, and immunohistochemistry was used to investigate molecular variations between nucleus pulposus (NP) and anulus fibrosus (AF) of the dog intervertebral disc (IVD). (ovid.com)
  • Gene insertion nucleus tumor cell. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • Adenovirus inserting gene into tumor cell nucleus. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • Retrovirus used as vector to insert gene encoding granulocyte-macrophage CSF into tumor cell nucleus. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • Gene immunotherapy and tumor targeting using a gene vector which directs dendritic cells in the body to make the same protein found on the cancer cell. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • Vectors with tumor-cell-specific gene delivery battle ovarian cancer cells. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • SINC-seq constructs two individual RNA-seq libraries, nucRNA and cytRNA, per cell, quantifies gene expression in the subcellular compartments, and combines them to create novel single-cell RNA-seq data. (deepdyve.com)
  • RNA-seq with nuclear RNA (nucRNA) expressions with the same single single nuclei (nucRNA-seq) [7, 8] is an emerging option cell are essential to assess the validity of using for profiling gene expressions of cells in tissues that nucRNA-seq, especially for the analysis of transient cannot be readily dissociated, such as the adult brain biological processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, we know of no work that has However, this was performed by comparing nucRNA-seq reported an integrated nucRNA-seq and cytRNA-seq vs. single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) from different single with the same cell to study RNA transport and gene cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gene regulation relies on transcription factors (TFs) exploring the nucleus searching their targets. (elifesciences.org)
  • Another purpose may be to localize the nucleus near key receptors, such as phytochrome, to facilitate spatial integration and transduction of cellular signals into the nucleus, especially when considering the necessity of phytochrome import into the nucleus for changes in gene expression in response to red light. (wikipedia.org)
  • As showcased by the new 3D maps, the genome that is the six feet of DNA is joined in the nucleus by nuclear bodies, the cellular machinery designed to survey and augment the reams of genetic coding. (upi.com)
  • The new 3D maps -- published this week in the journal Cell -- have allowed scientists to understand how DNA occupies space within the nucleus, as well as the ways different chromosomal regions interact with the surrounding cellular machinery. (upi.com)
  • According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. (reference.com)
  • They are distinct from the eukaryotes, which are the cellular organisms that contain a nucleus. (reference.com)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope , a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina ), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton , which supports the cell as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we discuss our current understanding of PIPKs in the regulation of cellular processes from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Perhaps these new advances constitute substantial progress in scientific examination of cellular life, but they certainly are not the first observations of incredibly sophisticated organization in the cell. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Cellular divisions of organic matter were identified and given the name "cells" as long ago as 1663 by the English scientist Robert Hooke (Pfeiffer, 1964, p. 9). (apologeticspress.org)
  • Reports of cellular organization do not surprise creationists, who understand that each cell is built according to fundamental design principles. (apologeticspress.org)
  • In the future, the dyes can be replaced with therapeutic agents that act on the processes within cellular nuclei, potentially helping to overcome a wide range of diseases that currently have limited treatment options. (medgadget.com)
  • Here we use a cellular system for monitoring messenger RNA (mRNA)expression to characterize the movement in real time of single mRNA-protein complexes (mRNPs) in the nucleus of living mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We will investigate how cells are coping and adapting to having extra genomic material by studying changes in cellular dynamics and using experimental evolution (led by the Sherlock Lab ). (embl.org)
  • Although cellular function often requires maximization of surface area relative to volume, notably in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, traditional representations of the nucleus depict a rounded structure with little internal organization. (plantcell.org)
  • Therefore, the cellular status can be monitored by the refractive index of the cell and used as a diagnostic indicator. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Herpesviruses have a well-defined replication phase within the nucleus, where they are known to exploit many of the cellular processes performed there. (asm.org)
  • The implicated link between survival and cell death pathways during apoptosis opens new pharmacological opportunities to modulate apoptosis in cancer, for example through the manipulation of Akt's cellular localization. (diva-portal.org)
  • Their activation influences cellular signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways, both of which regulate essential cellular mechanisms including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The regulated transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus controls many cellular processes. (asm.org)
  • This is in contrast to most other methods for cell analysis, which do not account for inter-cellular variation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cellular response to scaffold materials is of great importance in cellular and tissue engineering, and it is perhaps the initial cell contact with the scaffold that determines development of new tissue. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The integration of stimuli in plant cells is not fully understood, but the movement of the cell nucleus provides one example of a cellular process that underlies plant behavior, and highlights the importance of the cytoskeleton in solving spatial problems within the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their cytology textbook, Cell Biology , Roberts, Nowinski, and Saez wrote: "[I]t has been demonstrated that beyond the organization visible with the light microscope are a number of more elementary structures at the macromolecular level that constitute the 'ultrastructure' of the cell. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This problem is encountered ubiquitously in cell biology and developmental biology. (psu.edu)
  • The goal of this course is to teach both the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. (mit.edu)
  • Lectures and class discussions will cover the background and fundamental findings in a particular area of nuclear cell biology. (mit.edu)
  • This course covers the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. (mit.edu)
  • The techniques and logic used to address important problems in nuclear cell biology is emphasized. (mit.edu)
  • Lectures cover broad topic areas in nuclear cell biology and class discussions focus on representative papers recently published in the field. (mit.edu)
  • 1 Departments of Anatomy and Structural Biology and Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Figure 1: Schematic illustrating our approach to studying nuclear organisation and its evolutionary origins, using comparative genomics, quantitative cell biology, and experimental evolution. (embl.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Scientists from MSU Belosersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology Bioenergy Dept under supervising of academician V.P. Skulachev have performed an electron-microscopic research of cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), which showed that under some heart pathologies cell nuclei might contain mitochondrial clusters. (russia-ic.com)
  • Efferent System of Cranial Nerve Nuclei : A Comparative Neuromorphological Study, Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology by George Szekely, 9783540562078. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plant's DNA and control the activity of the cell through protein synthesis. (reference.com)
  • The present study created a cell culture model under ND conditions to investigate the roles of the nutrientsensitive protein Bcell lymphoma 2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDainteracting protein (BNIP3) and the mitochondrial prodeath protein apoptosisinducing factor (AIF) in the death pathway of NP cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 2006). Systems biologists worked with mathematicians to identify, for the first time, "spatial relationships" governing the distribution of an important control protein in the nucleus, in relation to other components within the nuclei of mammal cells ("Scientists Prove. (apologeticspress.org)
  • First, it binds to nucleolin, a protein overexpressed in cancer cells and found both on the cell surface and within the cell nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • The nucleus of higher eukaryotes is considered to display a highly dynamic interaction of DNA and protein factors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The nucleus in fact contains not only DNA, but RNA and protein as well. (wikibooks.org)
  • Yellow fluorescence protein (YFP)-tagged SAP11 accumulated in Nicotiana benthamiana cell nuclei, whereas the nuclear targeting of YFP-tagged SAP11 mutants with disrupted NLS was inhibited. (apsnet.org)
  • this protein is a potential phytoplasma effector that may alter plant cell physiology. (apsnet.org)
  • used a nucleus-targeted green fluorescent protein to investigate the shapes and sizes of living nuclei from several Arabidopsis tissues and cell types via confocal microscopy. (plantcell.org)
  • To visualize the PNC in living cells, a fusion protein between PTB and green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated. (rupress.org)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. (plantcell.org)
  • The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with nucleoli, and the presence in them of actin bundles that support vesicle motility suggest that the structures might function both in mRNA export from the nucleus and in protein import from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (plantcell.org)
  • We have previously shown that the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP22 localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm of expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • By utilizing time-lapse confocal microscopy of live cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged protein, we now report in detail the intracellular trafficking properties of VP22 in expressing cells, as opposed to the intercellular trafficking of VP22 between expressing and nonexpressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Hence, in VP22-expressing cells the subcellular localization of the protein is regulated by the cell cycle such that initially cytoplasmic protein becomes nuclear during cell division, resulting in a gradual increase over time in the number of nuclear VP22-expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Thus, VP22 utilizes an unusual pathway for nuclear targeting in cells expressing the protein which differs from the nuclear targeting pathway used during intercellular trafficking. (asm.org)
  • The focus on IRAK4 started over five years ago when Cincinnati Children's cancer biologist Kakajan Komurov - working on a separate research project - noticed that every time he analysed cancerous cells from patients, he saw high levels of the IRAK4 protein with extra coding sequences. (ecancer.org)
  • Since the mid-1990s, doctors have had the protein Mer in their sights - it coats the outside of cancer cells, transmitting signals inside the cells that aid their uncontrolled growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • A University of Colorado Cancer Center study, recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, found another home for Mer - inside cancer cells' nuclei - and perhaps another role for this protein that can point the way to novel, targeted treatments. (innovations-report.com)
  • We've known that leukemic B and T cells have a lot of Mer on their surface, while normal lymphocytes have none, and that this protein promotes cancer cell survival," says Justine Migdall, MD/PhD candidate working in the lab of Douglas Graham, MD, PhD, CU Cancer Center investigator and associate professor of pediatrics and immunology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our results also demonstrate that ErbB3 nuclear localization is transient as it is exported out of the nucleus by the nuclear receptor protein crm-1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Donor cells for transplantation were derived from E15 striatum/subventricular zone tissue that was dissociated and cultured in a serum-free mediums supplemented with EGF (epidermal growth factor) or bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When EGF-responsive precursor cells were used as donor cells for transplantation into myelin-deficient shiverer mice, donor-derived cells were located within the caudal trigeminal areas and stained by myelin basic protein antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, nucleus-specific protein import and nuclear function in Tetrahymena are regulated by diverse, specialized karyopherins. (asm.org)
  • Image analysis can provide genetic as well as protein level information from fluorescence stained fixed or living cells without loosing tissue morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • have developed a new technique to track single protein molecules in the nucleus of mammalian cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • A transcription factor called c-Myc and another protein called P-TEFb were tracked and while they diffused at similar rates, they 'explored' the space inside the nucleus in very different ways. (elifesciences.org)
  • A protein called ANGUSTIFOLIA was also recently discovered to regulate nucleus movement in the dark by forming a complex that adjusts the alignment of actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, to observe cells at all is to observe strict organization in the human body itself, for the body is composed in a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • McCreery is currently a Ph.D. student in the Neu Lab where she studies the biophysical relationship between cells and tissues to gain insights about tissue development and pathology. (phys.org)
  • Understanding tissue pathology on multiple scales-and specifically how changes in tissues are propagated to the cell nucleus that houses your DNA-will help us develop solutions in regenerative medicine that manipulate the form and function of cells . (phys.org)
  • Similar to people, cells that make up tissues and organs in the human body are actually able to understand and protect their sort of personal space," explains Alexis Lomakin, a cell biologist at the St. Anna Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna and a coauthor of one of the new studies. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cells and Tissues - 3 (Nucleus, Cell Division. (tcyonline.com)
  • Furthermore, SAP11 was detected by immunocytology in nuclei of young sink tissues of China aster plants infected with AY-WB. (apsnet.org)
  • Furthermore, spindle-shaped nuclei were found in differentiated root epidermal and cortex tissue, oriented along the long axis of the cell, and rod-like nuclei were located within vascular tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, Arabidopsis behaves genetically as a diploid, but vegetative adult tissues are composed of a mixture of cells with nuclei ranging in ploidy levels from 2C (where C = haploid genome complement) to 64C. (plantcell.org)
  • High throughput, single-cell transcriptomic profiling can rapidly profile frozen mouse and human tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the present study, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells isolated from moderately degenerated IVD tissues exhibited a senescent phenotype with increased senescence rates, detected by senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase (SA‑β‑gal) staining, and reduced growth and migratory abilities. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our previous research revealed that among all of the dysregulated microRNAs in the degenerated nucleus pulposus tissues of patient with IVDD, miRNA-494 (miR-494) is the most significantly increased. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The levels of collagen II, aggrecan, transcription factor SOX9 (SOX9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP‑13) were examined using western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in NP tissues and cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was demonstrated that rhBMP2 also significantly decreased the inflammatory response in NP tissues and cells, based on levels of IL‑6, TNF‑α and IL‑10. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We tested whether cells of different lineages might have different capacities for reprogramming following SCNT, comparing cells isolated from five different tissues of transgenic zebrafish for their developmental potential when used as SCNT donor cells. (ehu.es)
  • This process begins in the nucleus, where a copy of the segment called messenger RNA, or mRNA, is created. (reference.com)
  • After being formed, the mRNA exits the nucleus. (reference.com)
  • Associations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • The spatial and temporal generation of PIP 2 synthesized by the phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) tightly regulates the activation of receptor signaling pathways, endocytosis and vesicle trafficking, cell polarity, focal adhesion dynamics, actin assembly and 3' mRNA processing. (springer.com)
  • Boronenkov IV, Loijens JC, Umeda M, Anderson RA (1998) Phosphoinositide signaling pathways in nuclei are associated with nuclear speckles containing pre-mRNA processing factors. (springer.com)
  • Through a series of experiments involving x-ray crystallography, biochemistry, enzymology, and other methodologies, the researchers were able to show how this process of un-tagging the mRNA molecules works in human cells for the first time. (anl.gov)
  • α-2-Macroglobulin, cytokeratin-18, and neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) mRNA were higher in NP compared to AF and AC, and desmocollin-2 mRNA was higher in NP than AF. (ovid.com)
  • Cheng and Hwang intend to create the microwave equivalent of optical coherence tomography for single cell depth profiling to reveal intracellular details such as changes in nuclear morphology and DNA content. (eurekalert.org)
  • Normal cells tend to have fairly uniform morphology with a consistent nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. (eurekalert.org)
  • The morphology of three different gradations of vacuolated nuclei is described and the distribution of the affected cells in the liver lobules in relation to blood supply is discussed. (springer.com)
  • 4.2 Neuronal Morphology in the Eye Moving Nuclei. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 5.2 The Neuronal Morphology in the Accessory Abducens Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Flow cytometry enables single-cell analysis, but tissue morphology is lost in the process, and temporal events cannot be observed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Material surface morphology has strong effects on cell cytoskeleton and morphology, and it is thought that cells may react to the topography of collagen and surrounding cells during tissue embryology. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Cell and nucleus morphology were also considered, with nuclear deformation linked to cell signaling. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In this paper we propose a two-stage graph cut based model for segmentation of touching cell nuclei in fluorescence microscopy images. (muni.cz)
  • An illustration showing an example of the structure and organization of DNA in the nucleus of a human cell. (mit.edu)
  • Collectively, these data suggest an intracellular function for versican in vascular cells where it appears to play a role in mitotic spindle organization during cell division. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this context, specific and well-organized nuclear organization recently demonstrated for human sperm cells may be of special interest. (biologists.org)
  • However, much less is understood regarding the spatial organization of these events within the three-dimensional context of the mammalian cell nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • The use of increasingly sophisticated molecular techniques and the availability of a large number of antibodies and also nucleic acid probes has advanced our understanding of the temporal and spatial organization of nuclear functions, as well as revealed the complex nature of the mammalian cell nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • Plant cells can exhibit highly complex nuclear organization. (plantcell.org)
  • Recently, however, the nuclei of animal cells have been found to show considerable spatial and structural organization at the chromosomal level. (plantcell.org)
  • CellMagicWorld」This laboratory is studying functional organization of the cell nucleus using mammalian and fission yeast cells. (go.jp)
  • A new approach using comparative neuromorphology is taken in this study dealing with the organization of the efferent nuclei of cranial nerves. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 4.1 The Positions of the Eye Moving Nuclei and the Organization of Muscle Innervation. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Somatotopic Organization of the Ambiguus Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Moreover, defects in AnPcpA significantly disrupted the microtubule organization and nucleation, suggesting that AnPcpA may affect nucleus positioning by influencing microtubule organization. (asm.org)
  • In these experiments, single SCN neurons are voltage clamped with a whole-cell patch electrode that contains biocytin (2 mg/mL). (nih.gov)
  • Under these conditions, the neurons do not generate spontaneous action potentials but still receive synaptic input from surrounding cells. (nih.gov)
  • Precise explanation of a group of coupled spiking neurons is far beyond our understanding, but if we go deeper and consider a single neuron alone, we can see that any spiking pattern depends on the presence of the ion channel in the cell membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • One significant neuronal response is called burst firing, which can be seen in different cells of the brain such as hippocampus, cortical neurons, mid-brain, and subthalamic nucleus. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, this bursting behavior can be observed in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in ventral mid-brain which are related to Parkinson's disease when there is a loss in the amount of these DA and substantia nigra cells [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Neurons in several of the aforementioned BG nuclei express α4β2 nAChRs, α7 nAChRs, and α6β2 nAChRs ( Quik and Wonnacott, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, we used this single-cell expression atlas to identify the Prkcd-Cre mouse line as a tool for selective manipulation of relay neurons during a late stage of sensory-driven synaptic refinement. (pnas.org)
  • Using rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, which are differentiated to sympathetic neurons by nerve growth factor (NGF), we investigated whether DNase gamma-like enzyme is present in neuronal cells and is involved in neuronal cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell sorting has become an indispensable tool used for isolation of different samples ranging from large tumor cells and neurons to small nuclei and bacteria. (selectscience.net)
  • The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a eukaryotic cell because it contains most of the genetic material that carries the instructions for. (reference.com)
  • In fact, the definition of a eukaryotic cell is that it contains a nucleus while a prokaryotic cell is defined as not having a nucleus. (ducksters.com)
  • Nucleus found in eukaryotic cell such as animal and plant cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • The nucleus is an immensely complex structure at the heart of every eukaryotic cell: gated by nuclear pores, scaffolded by a laminar mesh, and tethered to the genome. (embl.org)
  • The nucleus is the most visible organelle of the eukaryotic cell and, in terms of function, arguably the most critical. (plantcell.org)
  • June 8 (UPI) -- The nucleus of the cell is where the action happens, but it's not easy to analyze the behavior of a massive genome inside an area 50 times smaller than the width of a human hair. (upi.com)
  • A major obstacle to in-cell genome editing is, well, the cell itself. (bionity.com)
  • After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. (wikibooks.org)
  • Defects in the nuclear compartment, or its ability to remodel, have dramatic consequences for genome integrity and cell survival. (embl.org)
  • We will use it now to investigate how the nucleus and cell cycle control machinery communicate to ensure that copies of the genome are safely encapsulated before the cell divides. (embl.org)
  • At later stages in the replication cycle, assembly of the herpesvirus particle is initiated within the nucleus as the newly replicated virus DNA genome is packaged into assembling capsids ( 39 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have reported 481 species of T-UCRs within human neuroblastoma cells, mostly from intragenic exon and/or intron sequences within the Ref-seq genome, but 37% were found transcribed from noncoding intergenic sites in the neoplastic cell genome [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nucleus is a complex environment where biochemical reactions are spatially organized in an interaction network devoted to transcription, replication, or repair of the genome ( Misteli, 2001 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were fixed and immunostained for versican and images of fluorescently labeled cells were obtained by confocal microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such cells were followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy over time-scales of up to 20 hours covering major parts or the complete cell cycle. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Confocal microscopy demonstrated engrafted GFP cells that were immunopositive for glial cells marker GFAP or CNPase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Generally, the HCC grade is determined by the characteristics of liver cell nuclei. (spie.org)
  • Therefore, it is preferable that CAD systems utilize only liver cell nuclei for HCC grading. (spie.org)
  • Cerebro-hepatic Syndrome with Cystic Degeneration of the Liver-cell Nuclei [Syndrome hépato-encéphalique: transformation kystique des noyaux des cellules hépatique]. (rcpsych.org)
  • Recently Russian scientists have found another alcoholic trouble these poor people have mitochondria moving to cell nucleus. (russia-ic.com)
  • This technique allows producing tons of nuclei full of mitochondria. (russia-ic.com)
  • Mitochondria always come to cardiomyocyte nuclei of alcoholic rats. (russia-ic.com)
  • Mitochondria are cell s power stations, which are autonomous. (russia-ic.com)
  • In general, appearance of mitochondria in nucleus is similar to building nuclear power plant in the Kremlin. (russia-ic.com)
  • Mitochondria in cell nucleus have been first noticed in 1958, H. Hoffman and G. Grigg, Australian electron microscopists, when they observed utrathin slices of adult mice lymph nodes. (russia-ic.com)
  • Later other researchers have detected mitochondria in nuclei of various cancer cells and cardiacs cardiomyocytes. (russia-ic.com)
  • Four out of five rats had mitochondria in cardiomyocyte nuclei. (russia-ic.com)
  • Meanwhile the mitochondrial network that pierces the cell splits to single mitochondria, which start moving towards the nucleus. (russia-ic.com)
  • According to the scientists, a small site of nuclear membrane breaks for a moment, and mitochondria enter the nucleus before the gap closes. (russia-ic.com)
  • Then mitochondria swell and lose their membranes being inside the nucleus. (russia-ic.com)
  • These results suggest that the DNase gamma-like endonuclease present in neuronal differentiated PC12 cell nuclei is involved in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, induced by NGF deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human nucleus pulposus cell (HNPC) apoptosis plays an important role in the development of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Annexin V-PE/7-AAD assays and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect the cell apoptosis rates and miR-494 expression. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - MicroRNA-494 inhibition protects nucleus pulposus cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis by targeting JunD. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The researches have analyzed tons of electronic microphotographs and concluded that they were dealing with cells, which were going to die (cells were at the primary stage of apoptosis). (russia-ic.com)
  • Thus, levofloxacin-induced apoptosis exhibits characteristics of anoikis, the process by which cell death is triggered by separation from the extracellular matrix, which contains COL2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Background: During disc degeneration, inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is correlated with nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the protective role of TGF-β1 against TNF-α-mediated NP cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. (portlandpress.com)
  • TGF-β1 was added into the culture medium to investigate its protective effects against TNF-α-induced NP cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Flow cytometry assay was used to analyze NP cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Results: In TNF-α-treated NP cells, TGF-β1 significantly decreased NP cell apoptosis, declined caspase-3 and -8 activity, and decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3 (cleaved-caspase-3) but increased expression of Bcl-2. (portlandpress.com)
  • Conclusion: TGF-β1 helps to inhibit TNF-α-induced NP cell apoptosis and the Fas/FasL pathway may be involved in this process. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this study, we document a novel role for the PI3-K/Akt pathway during cell death induced by apoptin, a tumour-selective inducer of apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nuclear Akt acts as apoptosis stimulator rather than as a repressor, as it likely gains access to a new set of substrates in the nucleus. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the explant culture, pancreatic MFBs which derived from fat storing fibroblastic cells underwent apoptosis or converted again to fibroblasts. (bmj.com)
  • Concurrently, recombinant human (rh)BMP2 pretreatment also significantly decreased the apoptosis ratio of interleukin (IL)‑1β‑treated NP cells via downregulating the level of cleaved caspase‑3 and upregulating the level of uncleaved poly (adenosine 5'‑diphosphate‑ribose) polymerase. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, rhBMP2 inhibited cell apoptosis via upregulating the phosphorylation levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and LY29400 pretreatment inhibited the effects of BMP2 in IL‑1β treated NP cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HeLa cells stained for nuclear DNA with the blue fluorescent Hoechst dye . (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. (wikidoc.org)
  • To address possible long-range movements of chromosome territories (CTs) during an entire interphase, fluorescence labeling of a small number of CTs was performed in living HeLa cells stably expressing histone H2B-GFP. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Analysis through the cell cycle using immunolabeling with a monoclonal antibody, SH54, specifically recognizing PTB, demonstrated that the PNC dissociates at the beginning of mitosis and reforms at late telophase in the daughter nuclei. (rupress.org)
  • Multiple SCN cells are stained after intracellular injection of the tracer biocytin. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclei of cells in our bodies is where much of the important intracellular processes take place. (medgadget.com)
  • A special device and a chamber were used to provide the intracellular microelectrophoresis of native cell nuclei. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular versican was detected in the nucleus and cytosol of vascular smooth muscle cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of human lung cells ( MRC-5 line) stained with MitoTracker Red CMXRos and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin, which target the intracellular mitochondrial network and cytoskeletal actin filaments, respectively. (microscopyu.com)
  • and when you squish the cells, it is very clear that the intracellular organelles were affected, so we were then thinking, 'Maybe the sensor is not at the surface, but it's in fact inside the cell,'" says Ruprecht. (the-scientist.com)
  • The results indicate that pancreatic MFBs are transient and suggest that intracellular localisation of p21 Cip1/WAF1 can contribute to the phenotype conversion of these cells to fibroblasts in culture and experimental injury. (bmj.com)
  • Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ABSTRACT The success of nuclear reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to depend on factors present in the egg. (ehu.es)
  • On the left, a cell is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it disintegrates and re-assembles during mitosis there should be some if the conditions in the nucleus are specialized. (physicsforums.com)
  • Examination of cells at different stages of mitosis revealed that the SC-35 speckled staining pattern is lost during prophase and speckles containing SC-35 begin to reform in the cytoplasm of anaphase cells. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear envelope (NE) is a cell cycle dependent structure that disperses at the onset of mitosis (late prophase) and reassembles around the reforming nucleus in the late telophase. (scribd.com)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its nucleus has disintegrated in preparation of division. (wikidoc.org)
  • Yet different species have evolved vastly divergent ways to organise their nuclei - for example, some completely dismantle their nuclear envelope during mitosis, while others keep it intact. (embl.org)
  • We will further study the dynamics of nuclear pore complexes throughout the fission yeast cell cycle, both their intensive remodelling during mitosis but also their homeostasis throughout interphase. (embl.org)
  • In both humans and mice, clustering of single nuclei transcriptomes mapped to known cell subsets in anatomically distinct brain regions and compared well with previously reported results from low-throughput single nuclei sequencing. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leveraging SINC-seq, we discover distinct natures of correlation among cytRNA and nucRNA that reflect the transient physiological state of single cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nuclear grooves and invaginations substantially increase the surface area of the nucleus and have been suggested to function in signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (Lui et al. (plantcell.org)
  • Nutrient deprivation (ND)induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cell death serves an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration disease. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Akiyama C, Shinozaki-Narikawa N, Kitazawa T, Hamakubo T, Kodama T, Shibasaki Y (2005) Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma is associated with cell-cell junction in A431 epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Because the nucleo-skeletal component Lamin A/C is not expressed in either type of stem cell, we knocked down Lamin A/C in human epithelial cells and measured a deformability similar to that of adult hematopoietic stem cells. (upenn.edu)
  • Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells , have no nuclei , and a few others including osteoclasts have many . (wikipedia.org)
  • How and why did these different strategies emerge, and do the nuclei of extant eukaryotes retain any shared, fundamental organisational principles? (embl.org)
  • Obviously this problem can be solved only by the development of a method for testing directly whether nuclei of differentiating embryonic cells are or are not themselves differentiated. (pnas.org)
  • and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feng C, Liu H, Yang M, Zhang Y, Huang B and Zhou Y: Disc cell senescence in intervertebral disc degeneration: Causes and molecular pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Wang S, Liu C, Sun Z, Yan P, Liang H, Huang K, Li C and Tian J: IL-1β increases asporin expression via the NF-κB p65 pathway in nucleus pulposus cells during intervertebral disc degeneration. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Now, Habib and colleagues leverage the scalability of droplet-based microfluidics to perform high-throughput single-nucleus RNA-Seq on frozen archived mouse and human samples in a method they call DroNc-Seq. (sciencemag.org)
  • The nucleus of abnormal cells look different than normal ones," says Cheng. (eurekalert.org)
  • The nuclei of abnormal cells can be larger or smaller than normal cells, or are bizarrely shaped. (eurekalert.org)
  • Abnormal pattern of subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease can be studied through variations in the shape and frequency of firing patterns. (hindawi.com)
  • The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The pulsed light cleaves the bond attachments between the gold surface and the DNA aptamers, which then can enter the nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • To verify that these containers actually enter the nucleus, the researchers filled them with a variety of dyes and monitored their progress using various microscopy techniques. (medgadget.com)
  • At the same time they are, with the exception of the future dorsal lip cells, still undetermined and therefore their nuclei cannot be irreversibly differentiated. (pnas.org)
  • The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Publications] Mitome, M.: 'Circadian rhythm of nitric oxide production in the dorsal region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in rats'Neuroscience Letters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transcription - The nucleus makes RNA which can be used to carry messages and copies of DNA instructions. (ducksters.com)
  • Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR validation demonstrated that the two targets and two candidate lncRNAs were significantly upregulated in degenerated NP cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the nucleus, ErbB3 interacts with transcription complexes, and thereby has a role in transcriptional regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This article reviews these latest advances and presents our current understanding on the mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these predicted targets were enriched in the regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus, positive regulation of cell cycle processes and interferon‑β production. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Together they hijack the innate immune system's molecular processes and trigger oncogenesis in myeloid blood cells. (ecancer.org)
  • Our observations indicate that PI3-K/Akt pathways have a dual role in both survival and cell death processes depending on the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • 2016. "Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus. (mdpi.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) While a great deal of the potential for nanotechnology to improve cancer therapy lies with the ability of nanoparticles to deliver drug payloads directly to tumors, an equally important consideration is whether nanoparticles can then get their drug payload to their intended target inside tumor cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Kumar MS, et al: Suppression of non-small cell lung tumor development by the let-7 microRNA family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of western blotting demonstrated that BNIP3 expression was significantly upregulated in NP cells subjected to ND for 24 h, which coincided with AIF translocation to the cell nucleus and alterations in cell viability and Δψm. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Co-expression of nuclear Akt significantly potentiates cell death induced by apoptin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, BMP2 treatment significantly upregulated the levels of collagen II, aggrecan and SOX9, but downregulated the levels of MMP‑13 and CTX‑II in IDD rats and NP cells in a dose‑dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • All of the other cell types used were capable of producing cloned fish, albeit with significantly lower efficiency. (ehu.es)
  • Despite their close apposition around much of the nucleus, the two membranes differ substantially in shape and contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of a typical mammalian cell will have about 3000 to 4000 pores throughout its envelope, each of which contains an eightfold-symmetric ring-shaped structure at a position where the inner and outer membranes fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Caltech used an analytical technique called SPRITE to create 3D maps of the cell nucleus. (upi.com)
  • The researchers then direct ultrafast pulses of light -- similar to that used in LASIK surgery -- at the cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Since this initial research on human ovarian and cervical cancer cells, the researchers have gone on to study effects of the drug loaded gold nanostars on 12 other human cancer cell lines. (nanowerk.com)
  • Researchers at University of Basel in Switzerland have now developed polymer nanocontainers that can move through the nuclear membrane and into the nucleus, ferrying drugs along. (medgadget.com)
  • In two independent studies, researchers find that the organelle is responsible for a switch that allows cells to start moving when they're squeezed. (the-scientist.com)
  • Many of the same researchers, again working in two independent teams, have now found that the nucleus is responsible for sensing changes in pressure and triggering the signaling cascade that leads cells to get moving. (the-scientist.com)
  • First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. (biologists.org)
  • 1984 ), the relationship between vegetative nucleus ( VN ) and generative cell ( GC, then sperms, S ) in development of male gametophyte ( MG ) becomes more and more interesting subject for researchers. (springer.com)
  • The phenotype switch to fibroblasts was associated with translocation of p21 Cip1/WAF1 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. (bmj.com)
  • 5 The Protection of the Eye: The Accessory Abducens Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 5.1 The Position of the Accessory Abducens Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • These investigations are aimed at studying the influence of the electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus (abducens nucleus) on responses of lateral geniculate cells in rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results show that: Electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus always produced excitatory discharges whose latency varied from 30 to 400 ms. Interestingly, an electrical pulse applied to the abducens nucleus was capable of enhancing the light-evoked responses without altering the spontaneous rate of firing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Most cells which were sensitive to electrical activation of the abducens nucleus had their receptive field located peripherally (greater than 50 degrees). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 6.4 The Control of Movement at the Secondary Mandibular Joint: The Mammalian Trigeminal Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Proliferation of neural stem cells in trigeminal nucleus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However some transplanted cells within the spinal trigeminal nucleus were immunoreactive for neuronal marker NeuN. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our data indicate that EGF-responsive neural precursor cells can engraft robustly in the caudal trigeminal nucleus in the brainstem following cisternal transplantation in neonatal mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the other hand, bFGF-responsive precursor cells differentiated into neuron in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The role of the nucleus in embryonic differentiation has been the subject of investigations dating back to the beginnings of experimental embryology. (pnas.org)
  • At first it was supposed by Roux, Weismann and others that differentiation is the result of qualitative nuclear divisions, different blastomeres thereby receiving the different kinds of nuclei which determine their subsequent differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • The cleavage nuclei have, therefore, been regarded as identical, and differentiation has been ascribed primarily to the well-known localizations in the egg cytoplasm. (pnas.org)
  • The possibility that nuclei might differentiate in response to regional differences in the cytoplasm, and that such nuclear changes might have reciprocal effects on the cytoplasm during cell differentiation, was suggested by Morgan. (pnas.org)
  • 6 - 8 In other words, its differentiation, while potentially complete, is still nucleus-dependent. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, if the egg nucleus could be replaced by one from a differentiated cell, the nature of the ensuing development should reveal the character of the transplanted nucleus-complete differentiation would indicate that irreversible nuclear differentiation had not occurred, while limited differentiation would indicate that it had. (pnas.org)
  • In order to make such tests of nuclear differentiation it is first necessary to develop a method of transplantation that leaves both the transplanted nucleus and the recipient egg cytoplasm in undamaged condition. (pnas.org)
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such facts have justified the belief that the early events in cell differentiation depend on an interaction between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Physical plasticity of the nucleus in stem cell differentiation" by J. David Pajerowski, Kris Noel Dahl et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Micromanipulation methods indeed show that nuclei in human embryonic stem cells are highly deformable and stiffen 6-fold through terminal differentiation, and that nuclei in human adult stem cells possess an intermediate stiffness and deform irreversibly. (upenn.edu)
  • Transplantation of bFGF-responsive precursor cells into neonatal cisterna magna also resulted in their differentiation into glial cells in the spinal trigeminal tract. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The irregular and arrhythmic behaviors of subthalamic nucleus firing pattern under normal conditions can easily be transformed to those caused by Parkinson's disease through simple parameter modifications in the proposed model. (hindawi.com)
  • The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a part of the basal ganglia (BG) and thus has a role in modulating voluntary motor function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rhythmic coupling among cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • In mammals, the part of the nervous system responsible for most circadian behavior can be localized to a pair of structures in the hypothalamus known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (nih.gov)
  • Publications] Mitome, M.: 'Constructing suprachiasmatic nucleus chimeras in vivo'Biological Rhythm Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Constructing suprachiasmatic nucleus chimeras in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Surgeons removing cancerous tumors also might find the gold nanostars useful for eradicating any stray cancer cells in surrounding tissue. (nanowerk.com)
  • Detachin™ provides rapid, gentle, and effective detachment of a wide variety of adherent cells, including primary cells, from all commercially available tissue culture plasticware. (onenucleus.com)
  • The 3D cell culture market is set to explode over the coming years, as companies push the science of tissue generation to new places. (corning.com)
  • We found that the cartilage cell nucleus becomes less stiff when the native cartilage tissue environment is disrupted with enzymes. (phys.org)
  • First, we took a live piece of tissue and then poked a cell nucleus with a nanoscale needle. (phys.org)
  • Unfortunately, a focus on fresh cells left behind the vast collection of potentially informative frozen tissue samples. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using shallow sequencing, the authors focused on exon-mapped reads of nuclei from murine frozen brain tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now, by enabling single-cell profiling of frozen samples, techniques such as DroNc-Seq allow archived tissue samples to rise from the dead and teach us about human health, disease, and the effects of our therapies. (sciencemag.org)
  • 4 The surgical treatment option relies on early detection of malignant cells such that minimal tissue is removed and the chance of metastasis is reduced. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Mechanical compression often induces degenerative changes of disc nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. (portlandpress.com)
  • Previously, many scientists thought each section of the nucleus and each chromosome were quarantined in their own area. (upi.com)
  • Finally, a model is presented on the chromosome positioning in mammalian nuclei depending on cell cycle and nuclear shape. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This study partially fills the noticeable gaps between our knowledge of the elementary DNA-protamine structure and the higher-order chromosome packing in human sperm cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, whether any relationship exists between the distribution of nuclear invaginations and chromosome domains within the animal nucleus remains to be determined. (plantcell.org)
  • During the initiation and progression of the neoplastic state, chromosome portions can be duplicated, deleted, translocated or inverted, and these lesions often aggravate the rate of progression and metastasis of the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The significance of excluding the nonliver cell nuclei for HCC grading is experimentally evaluated. (spie.org)
  • Here we experimentally characterise the optical properties of PRC nuclei using bright-field defocusing microscopy to capture near-field intensity distributions behind individual nuclei. (osapublishing.org)
  • Nucleoplasm : Contain a variety of particles with other molecules involved in maintenance and development of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • Nucleoplasm - The nucleoplasm is the liquid that fills the inside of the nucleus. (ducksters.com)
  • The nuclear envelope separates the fluid inside the nucleus, called the nucleoplasm, from the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each human cell contains total 2 meter of genomic DNA in a cell nucleus with a 10-micro-meter diameter. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, a live cell observation system was developed that facilitates time-lapse confocal (4D) microscopy over elongated time periods which made it possible to follow a complete cell cycle or more. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • An Insight Toolkit (ITK) processing framework for segmenting and tracking nuclei in time-lapse microscopy images using coupled active contours is presented in this paper. (insight-journal.org)
  • We combined fluorescent microscopy with atomic force microscopy to measure stiffness of nuclear, cell and the local matrix without disrupting their interactions. (phys.org)
  • During the ripening of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill Dahong) the ultrasturture of nucleus in pericarp cell was observed by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. (cnki.com.cn)
  • These examples of nuclear movement in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli highlight the role of the nucleus as a highly mobile command center necessary for integration of cell signaling and also emphasize the importance of cytoskeletal structure in mediating the transduction of signaling from outside the cell to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the nucleus depends on the size of the cell it is contained in, with a nucleus typically occupying about 8% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an inverse correlation between the intranuclear glycogen content and the size of the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • In addition, BNIP3 overexpression increased AIF expression and BNIP3 knockdown decreased AIF expression in NP cells subjected to ND. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Overexpression of lnc‑HRK‑2:1, with validated higher expression levels, in normal NP cells induced a senescent phenotype, with enhanced rates of senescence detected by SA‑β‑gal staining in cells, decreased growth and migratory abilities and improved expression levels of CCL5 and PNPT1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Collectively, these results suggested that upregulation of lnc‑HRK‑2:1 prompted NP cell senescence in IVD degeneration, which may be associated with increased expression levels of CCL5 and PNPT1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, expression of Fas and FasL in TNF-α-treated NP cells partly decreased by TGF-β1, whereas exogenous FasL increased expression of Fas and FasL in NP cells treated with TGF-β1 and TNF-α. (portlandpress.com)
  • 6 Control of Jaw Movements and Facial Expression: The Trigeminal and Facial Nuclei. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 6.5 The Control of Facial Expression: The Mammalian Facial Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The expression of C‑telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX‑II) in the sera or cell supernatants was determined by ELISA. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , meaning kernel or seed ) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is an organelle within the cell. (ducksters.com)
  • from Latin [ nucleus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) or [ nuculeus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) , "little nut" or kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered, and was first described by Franz Bauer in 1802. (wikidoc.org)
  • The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • With SPRITE, we were able to see thousands of molecules -- DNAs and RNAs -- coming together at various 'hubs' around the nucleus in single cells," said grad student Sofia Quinodoz. (upi.com)
  • The envelope protects the nucleus from the rest of the cytoplasm in the cell and keeps the special molecules within the nucleus from getting out. (ducksters.com)
  • They allow for smaller molecules to pass through such as messenger RNA molecules, but keep larger DNA molecules inside the nucleus. (ducksters.com)
  • These large molecules must be actively transported into the nucleus instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous reports have shown that EGFR family members are present in the nucleus, either as full-length molecules, as in the case of EGFR ( 9 ) and ErbB2 ( 10 ), or truncated as for γ-secretase-cleaved ErbB4 ( 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The microscopic blob of jelly called the cell is a remarkable entity. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Cattin, Müller, and colleagues had described a technique in 2015 in which they used microscopic cantilevers to confine cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Using their microscopic cantilevers, Lomakin and colleagues made a similar observation and proposed that the nucleus is working as a sensor that, when deformed, signals to cells to seek more elbow room. (the-scientist.com)
  • In addition, electron microscopic examination in optimally fixed cells revealed that the PNC is composed of multiple strands, each measuring ∼80-180 nm diam. (rupress.org)
  • Dr. Odom and her collaborators published their results in the journal ACS Nano ( 'Direct observation of nanoparticle cancer cell nucleus interactions' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Using an electron microscope, Odom and her team found their drug loaded nanoparticles dramatically change the shape of the cancer cell nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Between 1877 and 1878, Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is clearly shown by the nonsurvival of hybrid embryos produced by fertilizing the egg of one species (after removal of the egg's nucleus) with the sperm of another species. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Until this technique was developed the only kind of nucleus that could be made to penetrate an egg was the nucleus of a sperm cell, and this was obviously of limited use for an analysis of those interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm that lead to the majority of cell differences in an individual. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Whereas recent studies demonstrated a well-defined nuclear architecture in human sperm nuclei, little is known about the mode of DNA compaction above the elementary structural unit of nucleoprotamine toroids. (biologists.org)
  • Human sperm cells were obtained from the semen of 10 healthy, fertile donors. (biologists.org)
  • In conclusion, ND induced NP cell death partially via activation of the BNIP3/AIF signalling pathway. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway is well known for the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and some metabolic routes. (diva-portal.org)