Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Nucleus Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei: Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Basal Nucleus of Meynert: A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Karyometry: Microscopic study of the spacial distribution pattern of CHROMATIN in CELL NUCLEI and CELL NUCLEOLI.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Myoxidae: A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Intranuclear Space: The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.AT-Hook Motifs: DNA-binding motifs, first described in one of the HMGA PROTEINS: HMG-I(Y) PROTEIN. They consist of positively charged sequences of nine amino acids centered on the invariant tripeptide glycine-arginine-proline. They act to fasten the protein to an AT RICH SEQUENCE in the DNA.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Coiled Bodies: A distinct subnuclear domain enriched in splicesomal snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR) and p80-coilin.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies: Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Lateral Thalamic Nuclei: A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Progeria: An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.TritiumInclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Nuclear Lamina: A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).PhosphoproteinsDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (1/34889)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/34889)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (3/34889)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (4/34889)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (5/34889)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (6/34889)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (7/34889)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (8/34889)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

*HOXD8

cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ...

*ZNF366

cell nucleus. Biological process. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation ... Zinc finger protein 366, also known as DC-SCRIPT (Dendritic cell-specific transcript), is a protein that in humans is encoded ... In COS-1 cells, DC-SCRIPT was shown to interact with the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain (ERDBD) and represses ER activity ... In the immune system of both mice and humans, DC-SCRIPT was found to be specifically expressed in dendritic cells (DCs).[8] ...

*NOBOX

cell nucleus. Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, ... Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (2): 175-7. doi:10.1093/jmcb/mju006. PMID 24620032.. ...

*DBP (gene)

cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • liver development. • ... DNA and Cell Biology. 18 (2): 165-73. doi:10.1089/104454999315556. PMID 10073576.. ...

*X-inactivation

... deficient cells and normal cells,[6] depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell's ... 2-4 cell stage[11] 2-8 cell stage[11] 2 Imprinted (paternal) X-inactivation 4-8 cell stage[10][12] Unclear if it takes place in ... Nucleus of a female cell. Top: Both X-chromosomes are detected, by FISH. Bottom: The same nucleus stained with a DNA stain ( ... An interphase female human fibroblast cell.[1] Arrows point to sex chromatin on DNA (DAPI) in cell nucleus(left), and to the ...

*Symbiogenesis

Viral eukaryogenesis, hypothesis that the cell nucleus originated from endosymbiosis. References[edit]. *^ "Mereschkowsky's ... On the origin of mitosing cells.[16] In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated ... endosymbiosis would save the cell more energy to develop a nuclear membrane than if the cell was to fold its cell membrane to ... If a cell's mitochondria or chloroplasts are removed, the cell does not have the means to create new ones.[54] For example, in ...

*Replication timing

In eukaryotic cells (cells that package their DNA within a nucleus), chromosomes consist of very long linear double-stranded ... all of the DNA in a cell is duplicated in order to provide one copy to each of the daughter cells after the next cell division ... Nucleus of a female amniotic fluid cell. Top: Both X-chromosome territories are detected by FISH. Shown is a single optical ... J Cell Biol 187: 623-635. *^ Gilbert DM (2001) Nuclear position leaves its mark on replication timing. J Cell Biol 152: F11-16. ...

*Heart

... and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei. ... The muscle cells make up the bulk (99%) of cells in the atria and ventricles. These contractile cells are connected by ... There are two types of cells in cardiac muscle: muscle cells which have the ability to contract easily, and pacemaker cells of ... For this reason sodium moves into the cell from outside, and potassium moves from within the cell to outside the cell. Calcium ...

*XPO1

cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • nucleolus. • cytosol. • host cell. • protein complex. • macromolecular complex. • ... Görlich D, Kutay U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (1): 607-60. ... cell. Biological process. • ribosomal small subunit export from nucleus. • intracellular transport of virus. • regulation of ... Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed (October 2007). "Exporting RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ...

*Promoter (genetics)

Relative location in the cell nucleusEdit. In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the ... A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable ... Some promoters are called constitutive as they are active in all circumstances in the cell, while others are regulated, ... Adachi, Noritaka; Lieber, Michael R. (2002). "Bidirectional Gene Organization". Cell. 109 (7): 807-9. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02 ...

*Geminiviridae

It is not clear if these particles can then leave the nucleus and be transmitted to surrounding cells as virions, or whether ... Replication occurs within the nucleus of an infected plant cell. First the single-stranded circular DNA is converted to a ... To overcome this block geminiviruses can induce plant cells to reenter the cell cycle from a quiescent state so that viral ... Geminivirus genomes encode only a few proteins; thus, they are dependent on host cell factors for replication: these include ...

*Spirogyra

... has a cell wall, nucleus, pyrenoid and spiral chloroplasts. It is very rare among the plant-like protists. ... Two adjoining cells near the common transverse wall give out protuberances known as conjugation tubes, which further form the ... One cell each from opposite lined filaments emits tubular protuberances known as conjugation tubes, which elongate and fuse, to ... The cytoplasm of the cell acting as the male travels through this tube and fuses with the female cytoplasm, and the gametes ...

*Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases

... valproic acid had a neuroprotective effect by preventing translocation of alpha-synuclein into cell nuclei.[24]. Vorinostat. In ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... The striatum, in red, includes the caudate nucleus (top), the putamen (right), and, when including the term 'corpus' striatum, ...

*Flowering plant

... these nuclei are segregated into separate cells by cytokinesis to producing 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells and an egg cell ... The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. As the zygote develops into an ... involving two successive cell divisions) to produce four cells (megaspores) with haploid nuclei.[60] One of these four cells ( ... While this pollen tube is growing, a haploid generative cell travels down the tube behind the tube nucleus. The generative cell ...

*Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

Once the virus newly infects a cell, the lipid membrane is shed and the virion travels to the nucleus. The viral genome is ... The viral episome is chromatinized upon entry into the host cell nucleus.[15] LANA tethers the viral DNA to cellular ... Thus, whereas KSHV genome is circular in the nucleus of latently infected cells, it is packaged into infectious viruses as a ... The virus then becomes enveloped with a lipid membrane as it transits the nucleus and the cytoplasm to exit the cell. ...

*Transcription (biology)

If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and splicing. ... the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells.[23] However, in other retroviruses, the host cell ... "Cell. 135 (2): 216-26. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050. PMC 3118044 . PMID 18957198.. ... Telomerase is often activated in cancer cells to enable cancer cells to duplicate their genomes indefinitely without losing ...

*Cochlear nerve

inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. The axons from the ... The central axons form synaptic connections with cells in the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem. ... Each type I axon innervates only a single inner hair cell, but each inner hair cell is innervated by up to 30 such nerve fibers ...

*Carcinoma

The clustered cancerous cells consist primarily of nucleus (purple); they have only a scant rim of cytoplasm. The surrounding ... Non-hematopoietic mesenchymal cells ⇨ sarcoma. *Hematopoietic cells *Bone marrow-derived cells that normally mature in the ... Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm.. Small cell carcinoma. Cells ... Certain combinations of mutations in the given progenitor cell ultimately result in that cell (also called a cancer stem cell) ...

*Queen bee

After approximately ten days, the queen cells are transferred from the cell building colony to small mating nuclei colonies, ... into a bar of queen cell cups. The queen cell cups are placed inside of a cell-building colony.[9]A cell-building colony is a ... The queen cells hatch inside of the mating nuclei. After approximately 7-10 days, the virgin queens take their mating flights, ... Queen cells start out as queen cups. Queen cups are larger than the cells of normal brood comb and are oriented vertically ...

*Near-infrared window in biological tissue

... ranging from cell membranes to whole cells. Cell nuclei and mitochondria are the most important scatterers. Their dimensions ...

*Alexander Dounce

... he focussed on studying cell nuclei and particularly the isolation of intact nuclei from tissue, which was a new field of ... Dounce, A. L.; Monty, K. J.; Pate, S. (1954). "Gel formation of cell nuclei isolated by improved procedure". FASEB J. 13: 201. ... Dounce, A. L. (1955). "The Isolation and Composition of Cell Nuclei and Nucleoli". In Chargaff, Erwin; Davidson, J.N. The ... A study of viscoelastic gel formation by isolated cell nuclei is brought to bear on the problem of how mammalian chromosomes ...

*Retina

... contains the nuclei and surrounding cell bodies (perikarya) of the amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells.[2] ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Ganglion cell layer - contains nuclei of ganglion cells, the axons of which become the optic nerve fibres, and some displaced ...

*Virus

The genome replication of most DNA viruses takes place in the cell's nucleus. If the cell has the appropriate receptor on its ... the host cell is destroyed by killer T cells and the virus-specific T-cells proliferate. Cells such as the macrophage are ... Release - Viruses can be released from the host cell by lysis, a process that kills the cell by bursting its membrane and cell ... The dendritic cells process the dead cancer cells and present components of them to other cells of the immune system.[243] ...

*HAMLET (protein complex)

Studies have shown that HAMLET is mostly localized to the nucleus within one hour of invading a tumor cell. Hamlet has been ... Cells also showed decreased levels of mTOR, a known inhibitor of macroautophagy. HAMLET cells and cells under conditions of ... It has been shown that HAMLET binds to the cell surface and rapidly invades cells, with tumor cells taking up far more protein ... is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces cell death in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. ...

*Platelet - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Platelets do not have a cell nucleus. They are disc-shaped, and are 1.5 to 3 micrometers in diameter. The body does not have a ... A platelet is a cell fragment that circulates in the blood. Platelets are involved in hemostasis through the making of blood ...

*Aktin bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

"Actin and ARPs: action in the nucleus". Trends in Cell Biology. 14 (8): 435-442. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.07.009. ISSN 0962-8924 ...

*Plasma cell

... Malignant plasma cells (plasmacytoma), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...

*Robert Y. Moore

Moore, Robert Y.; Speh, Joan C.; Leak, Rehana K. (2002-07-01). "Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization". Cell and Tissue Research ... The brain imaging focused primarily on two areas of the brain: the locus coeruleus, which is a nucleus in the pons responsible ... Through these brain images, Moore observed evidence suggesting a degeneration of nerve cells in these two areas. This was the ... He is credited with discovering the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the circadian clock, as well as, ...
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The Russian military has successfully tested what it described as the worlds most powerful non-nuclear air-delivered bomb, Russias state television reported Tuesday.
The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleoplasm, the gene is recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. Recruitment requires the transcriptional activator Hac1, which is produced upon induction of the UPR, and is constitutive in a strain lacking Opi1. Artificial recruitment of INO1 to the nuclear membrane permits activation in the absence of Scs2, indicating that the intranuclear localization of a gene can profoundly influence its mechanism of activation. Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an ...
Figure 5. Estimation of rhodopsin and phosducin in retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation. Proteins of the retinal homogenate and purified nuclear preparation were subjected to electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-phosducin (left panel) or anti-rhodopsin (right panel) antibody. A: 100 ng of phosducin standard; B: 100 ng of rhodopsin standard. Numbers under lanes represent the amount of total protein loaded, in μg.. ...
Synonyms for cell nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus?
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Virology, BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY, ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE-1, MYC TRANSGENIC MICE, NUCLEAR MATRIX, ZINC-FINGER, MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS, SEQUENCE MOTIF, RAR-ALPHA, PML, DOMAIN ...
Using the genetically amenable model organism C. elegans, a small worm commonly found on rotting fruits, FMI scientists have shown that the driving force for gene localization is encoded in the DNA sequence of promoters. Cell type-specific developmentally regulated promoters direct genes either to the nuclear interior when they are active or towards the compacted chromatin at the nuclear periphery when inactive. In muscle differentiation this is controlled by the presence of a "master regulatory" transcription factor called Hlh-1 (MyoD in mammals). Specific localization is not seen in committed embryonic cells nor for housekeeping genes. The authors find a dramatic increase in nuclear compartmentalization during the course of development and cell differentiation. This study opens the way to genetic analysis of nuclear organization and will allow the analysis of human diseases linked to nuclear function using worms as models ...
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence "gene expression" - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Cancer cell nucleus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a deformed nucleus (yellow) in a cancer cell. Healthy nuclei have a smooth membrane, that is spherical or ovoid, whereas this nucleus has indentations in several places. The nucleus contains the cells genetic information. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus (brown), which is responsible for producing components of ribosomes, the cells protein-manufacturing organelles. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C019/9935
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
The speckles do not overlap nuclear chromatin, so i assume it is specific staining. Not ALL cells have this speckle staining pattern. Therefore i assume that during mitosis, when there is rearrangment of the nucleous, residual procollagens are making their way into the nucleous and eventually make their way back out into the cytoplasm ...
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size ...
Import Export (2007) review. Director: Ulrich Seidl. Starring: Ekateryna Rak, Paul Hofmann, Michael Thomas, Natalja Epureanu, Brigitte Kren, Lidiya Oleksandrivna Savka, Petra Morzé, Georg Friedrich, Peter Linduska, Christina York
DNA is subjected to major cellular events, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. To control these processes, the architecture of the DNA is tightly regulated. Recent work, including two studies in this issue of The EMBO Journal, provides compelling evidence that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops. While cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather counteracts nuclear compartmentalization.. See also: J Gassler et al (December 2017) and. G Wutz et al (December 2017) ...
As you learned in BIO101, the cell nucleus is the storage area for all genetic material and constantly full of activity. The nucleus in fact contains not only DNA, but RNA and protein as well. This unit will take a detailed look at chromosomes, the cell nucleus, gene expression, and expression regulation. When we refer to "expression regulation," we are talking about the fact that not all genes are expressed in the cell at the same time. After all, though a liver cell and a nerve cell have the same genome (and thus the same DNA), they look and act completely differently. How does this happen? The answer is regulated gene expression!. ...
Dear all, I am searching for a method that will allow me to isolate intact nuclei from rat brain tissue (we arent tooled up for cell culture right now - otherwise I would use one of the many techniques available for such a situation). Many thanks. -- _____________________________________________________________________ Keith Hoek hoek at biosci.uq.edu.au mRNA transport http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/~hoek/Pg1.html ...
A critical step in the analysis of images is identifying the area of interest e.g. nuclei. When the nuclei are brighter than the remainder of the image an intensity can be chosen to identify the nuclei. Intensity thresholding is complicated by variations in the intensity of individual nuclei and their intensity relative to their surroundings. To compensate thresholds can be based on local rather than global intensities. By testing local thresholding methods we found that the local mean performed poorly while the Phansalkar method and a new method based on identifying the local background were superior. A new colocalization coefficient, the Hcoef, highlights a number of controversial issues. (i) Are molecular interactions measurable (ii) whether to include voxels without fluorophores in calculations, and (iii) the meaning of negative correlations. Negative correlations can arise biologically (a) because the two fluorophores are in different places or (b) when high intensities of one fluorophore ...
The progress of a reaction can be graphed 2-dimensionally as a reaction coordinate vs potential energy. Everyone has seen these potential energy profiles. From what I understand, the profile for a reaction is derived in this way: The potential energy of a set of nuclei can be graphed as dependent variable on a hyperdimensional surface. The extra dimensions include different states of the nuclei (vibrational rotational etc.)and their positions with respect to each other. If all but 2 dimensions can be set as constant, then those 2 independent variables (usually representing internuclear distance?) can be graphed with respect to the dependent variable of potential energy. The low points on this surface represent reactants, products, or intermediates. The saddle points represent transition states. The lowest energy path (the gradient) from reactant to transition state to product is the potential energy profile, which is graphed against a reaction coordinate ...
The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures and activities, encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes. It also contains the molecular machinery to replicate its DNA and to synthesize and process the three types of RNA : ribosomal (rRNA), messenger (mRNA), and transfer (tRNA). Mitochondria have a small DNA genome and produce RNAs to be used in this organelle, but the genome is so small that it is not sufficient even for the mitochondrion itself. On the other hand, the nucleus does not produce proteins; the numerous protein molecules needed for the activities of the nucleus are imported from the cytoplasm ...
This lecture introduces the nucleus and how information is transferred from stable stored information (DNA) converted to an intermediate (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) of variable stability, exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where mRNA is then translated into Protein. This is gene expression, the products of this process are used either within the cell, exported (exocytosis) or used to replace worn out components. We will study this topic looking at the key organelle in this process, the nucleus. ...
The animal cell nucleus houses the genetic material of the organism and therefore protects and maintains the blueprint for the cell and all its progeny. However, the nucleus is more than a simple repository for chromosomes. A dynamic organelle, the nucleus goes through astonishing transformations during each cell cycle, breaking down completely during mitosis and reforming afresh in each daughter cell after cell division. Within the nucleus, chromosomes are replicated and their DNA is transcribed to provide information that programs the physiology of the cell. Also, ribosomes assemble in the nucleus, then leave and carry out protein translation in the cytoplasm. All of this activity requires complex machineries that can respond to the changing needs of the cell throughout the cell cycle and may vary during development and by cell type.. One of the defining features of the nucleus is its unique architecture. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear envelope, a double layer of membranes punctuated by ...
This technique allows for efficient, highly purified cytoplasmic and nuclear-associated compartment fractionation utilizing NP-40 detergent in mammalian cells. The nuclear membrane is not disturbed during the fractionation thus leaving all nuclear and perinuclear associated components in the nuclear fraction. This protocol has been modified from Sambrook and Russell (2001) in order to downscale the amount of cells needed. To determine the efficiency of fractionation, we recommend using qPCR to compare the subcellular compartments that have been purified with equivalent amount of control whole cell extracts.
What is the main difference between a cell nucleus and a nucleoid? A. size of the organelle B. arrangement of the cytoskeleton C. movement of the flagella D. presence or absence of a surrounding membrane
There are several types of stereology, but instead of talking about all of these (which is the subject of books) this page will get you started with the most common and simplest form of stereology: Point Counting Stereology. In point counting stereology you typically project a uniform grid of points over an image, and then simply count how many points fall inside the particular compartments youre interested in quantifying the volume of (eg: Mitochondria, Nucleus). After counting ~1000 points (which should take under one hour) you can make estimates such as the fraction of non-nuclear cell volume occupied by mitochondria for a wild-type mouse (as averaged over a large area). In biology, a good stereologists would repeat this for three wild-type mice, and then three mutant mice... and at that stage the results should have enough accuracy to compare the conditions with good statistical accuracy and publish the results - results which may either support or reject the hypothesis that theres an ...
Get an answer for What are the main components and the purpose of the animal cell nucleus? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
In a bench-top experiment, atomic nuclei may have fused inside rapidly imploding bubbles of vapor in a liquid bombarded by sound waves, but many scientists find the evidence for bubble fusion unconvincing.
Regulated Transcrption: Advanced Look --, 2.) Nucleus Once the extracellular signal has been tranferred through a series of proteins and into the nucleus, transcripton factors within the nucleus are activated and prepare the regulated gene for transcription. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
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Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol.: A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lip
All I see its dead world And I know thats our fault Living Absent minded (Archeon - Dead World) If you want to deploy test RabbitMQ, migrate from one node/cluster to another one or just back up your Rabbit metadata, there is a simple way to do it through RabbitMQ API. API is available at…
As of 1 December 2017, a new SSNAP dataset will be in place. These changes will predominantly impact those teams who treat patients in...
In what ways will technical change alter the interests that join or divide various nuclear and non-nuclear countries, and how will it alter the likely outcomes of potential conflicts among them?
Cells infected for 24 hrs with C. Trachomatis. The cell nuclei are labelled in blue, the bacteria appear yellow, within the inclusion lumen. A bacterial protein secreted out the inclusion into the host cytoplasm id labelled in red ...
can somebody tell me what is inside a nucleus and a nuleolus?hello? . A nucleus has three main components: the nucleolus, the chromatin and the nuc...
What is Nucleus of CellIt is center part of cells.It is spherical in shapeIt has different parts likeNuclear MembraneNucleolus andChromosomesDifferent Parts of NucleusIt has different parts likeNuclear MembraneIt is outer skin or layer of nucleusIt separates nucleus from the CytoplasmThis membrane
The paper presents Iterated Conditional Modes based method for nuclei recognition in cytological images. It approximates nuclei by circles and
The Nucleus CMS core development team has released Nucleus CMS v3.65. This release includes a few minor bug fixes that are intended to make it compatible with PHP 5.4. It is recommended that only users who are having issues with PHP5.4 support upgrade at this time. There are some bugs with character encoding in the Admin area.. The change log can be found here.. ...
The nucleus of an atom always has a positive net charge of one or greater. The presence of protons contained exclusively in the nucleus causes a positive charge....
Biology Assignment Help, How is the fluid that fills the nucleus called, The aqueous fluid that fills the nuclear region is known as karyolymph, or nucleoplasm. In the fluid there are proteins, enzymes and other significant substances for the nuclear metabolism.
A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates proteins that perform specific activities. Proteins can vary from enzymes...
Do I need a licence to import/export starting material for an ATMP from/to the EU?The HTA regulates establishments that undertake the procurement, testing, processing, storage, distribution, import and export of tissues and cells for human use. This includes any steps involved in the handling of tissues and cells prior to them being manufactured into medicines.
Browse Nuclei products on Labviva. Find relevant scientific protocols, papers and to help find the right product for your application.
What are the gens? They are the parts of DNA present on the chromosomes and they control the individuals hereditary traits, And the hereditary traits are transferred from the parents to their offspring through ...
This is the edge of a lung cancer. The cancer is composed of bizarre epithelial cells. They grow next to an area of normal fibrous tissue.. The nuclei in the cancer cells are much larger than in the normal areas. They vary wildly in shape.. With your study partners, find:. ...
mySQL error with query CREATE TABLE nucleus_plug_cc_pending( id int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment, cbody text NOT NULL, cuser varchar(40) default NULL, cmail varchar(100) default NULL, cemail varchar(100) default NULL, cmember int(11) default NULL, citem int(11) NOT NULL default 0, ctime datetime NOT NULL default 0000-00-00 00:00:00, chost varchar(60) default NULL, cip varchar(15) NOT NULL default , cblog int(11) NOT NULL default 0, PRIMARY KEY (id)) TYPE=MyISAM;: You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near TYPE=MyISAM at line ...
Nuclei were first described by Brown in 1833 and were quickly recognized as a constant feature of animal and plant cells. Typically they are spherical or ovoid bodies, but other shapes are not...
http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/nuclear-response-robot-market. We all know the story, "Let me go I am old," the very very brave man who went into the melted down nuclear facility in Japan, pushing his younger colleagues out of the way of harm.. Nuclear response robots are being built out so the nuclear industry can build out devices that leverage rapid safe response. Well, now is the time to use robots in this nuclear industry.. According to Susan Eustis, lead author of the team that put the study together, "Until now, robot technology has not been robust enough to reasonably supplement human tasks in handling of nuclear situations. That is no longer the case, robots have sufficient mobility, size, sensors, and tooling to be effective in a variety of situations." Nuclear response robots are anticipated to have significant market growth as people in the industry begin to recognize the value of automated process in dealing with radiation.. Nuclear responder robots are mobile automated ...
Radioisotopes in Water Resources & the Environment Non-power uses of nuclear technology for medicine, industry or transport, information from the World Nuclear Association.
The overall objective of this study has been to address some of the longstanding questions concerning functional organization of the interphase nucleus. This was achieved by using recently developed high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques for a precise localization of specific DNA and RNA sequences in conjunction with immunocytochemistry and biochemical fractionation. This study is based on the philosophy that new insights may be gained by an approach that attempts to interrelate genomic organization, spatial arrangement of RNA metabolism, and nuclear substructure within the mammalian cell nucleus. The nuclear distribution of an exogenous, viral RNA (Epstein-Barr Virus, EBV) within nuclear matrix preparations was studied by developing an approach which couples in situ hybridization with biochemical fractionation procedures. EBV RNA molecules accumulate in highly localized foci or elongated tracks within the nucleus of lymphoma cells. These RNA tracks were retained with spatial and
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cells genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cells nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression-the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Dissolution of the condensed chromatin structures of isolated thymocyte nuclei and the disruption of deoxyribonucleoprotein by inorganic phosphate and a phosphoprotein
Completely surrounding the nucleus, the nuclear envelope sequesters the genomic information of the cell, probably protecting it from the various enzymes and processes that occur within the cytoplasm. It is composed of two concentric membranes, each of which has a distinct protein composition: the outer membrane, which faces the cytoplasm; and the inner membrane, facing the nuclear interior. The inner and outer membranes are separated by the perinuclear space. Both the outer membrane and the perinuclear space are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and studded with ribosomes. Any proteins made on the nuclear outer membrane-bound ribosomes drop into the perinuclear space and are transported through the inner membrane into the nucleus. The major transport pathway in and out of the nucleus, however, is thought to be through nuclear pores.. The inner membrane is coated with a mesh-like network of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. Various nuclear structures, including the ...
To further investigate the mRNAs that are released from the nucleus upon compound treatment, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis using total cell extracts, nuclear fractions, and cytoplasmic fractions of cells transfected with NS1, untreated, or treated with 1 (Table S10). We then focused our analysis on mRNAs that did not have their levels altered by NS1 in the total cell extract but showed increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios in the presence of NS1 and reduced nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios upon compound treatment, indicating release of mRNA export block by the compound. These mRNAs were then subjected to gene set enrichment analysis. As shown in Fig. S2 D, a major response network of mRNAs released into the cytoplasm by 1 included the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF1-α) pathway, which is involved in antiviral response. Changes in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios of HIF1-α and PDGF-α, which is connected to the HIF1-α pathway, were further confirmed by quantitative PCR (Fig. 5 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - pRb2/p130 and p107 control cell growth by multiple strategies and in association with different compartments within the nucleus. AU - Zini, Nicoletta. AU - Trimarchi, Carmela. AU - Claudio, Pier Paolo. AU - Stiegler, Peter. AU - Marinelli, Fiorenzo. AU - Maltarello, Maria Cristina. AU - La Sala, Dario. AU - De Falco, Giulia. AU - Russo, Giuseppe. AU - Ammirati, Giuseppe. AU - Maraldi, Nadir Mario. AU - Giordano, Antonio. AU - Cinti, Caterina. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - It has been recently reported that retinoblastoma family proteins suppress cell growth by regulating not only E2F-dependent mRNA transcription but also rRNA and tRNA transcription and, through HDAC1 recruitment, chromatin packaging. In the present study we report data showing that these various control strategies are correlated, at least in part, with nuclear compartmentalization of retinoblastoma proteins. In a first series of experiments, we showed that pRb2/p130 and p107 are not evenly distributed within the ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and MAPK kinases (MEKs) leads to their translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Once the transduced signal has abated, the kinases shuttle back to the cytoplasm. However, MAPKs do not appear to have nuclear export signal (NES) motifs coded within their amino acid sequences. Adachi et al. resolve this enigma by showing that MAPK binds to MEK in the nucleus, and both utilize the NES motif found on MEK to relocalize to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of MAPK was blocked by the specific NES inhibitor leptomycin B. Also, when injected into the nucleus, MAPK relocalized to the cytoplasm with coinjected MEK, but not with a MEK mutant in which the NES was disrupted. Finally, nuclear injection of a protein fragment that includes the MAPK-binding site on MEK decreased MAPK export. Thus, transport of MAPK from the nucleus to the cytoplasm appears to require association of MAPK with MEK.. Adachi, M., Fukuda, M., and Nishida, E. (2000) Nuclear ...
BACKGROUND Heterochromatin has been reported to be a major silencing compartment during development and differentiation. Prominent heterochromatin compartments are located at the nuclear periphery and inside the nucleus (e.g., pericentric heterochromatin). Whether the position of a gene in relation to some or all heterochromatin compartments matters remains a matter of debate, which we have addressed in this study. Answering this question demanded solving the technical challenges of 3D measurements and the large-scale morphological changes accompanying cellular differentiation. RESULTS Here, we investigated the proximity effects of the nuclear periphery and pericentric heterochromatin on gene expression and additionally considered the effect of neighboring genomic features on a genes nuclear position. Using a well-established myogenic in vitro differentiation system and a differentiation-independent heterochromatin remodeling system dependent on ectopic MeCP2 expression, we first identified ...
Alexey Polilov has counted the nuclei in these wasps, both as adults and pupae. All of them. This is not as hard as it might sound, if youre coming in with the expectation that most invertebrates have thousands, or tens of thousands, of neurons. Just one abdominal ganglion in crayfish holds about 600 neurons. But the total number of nuclei in the adult wasp was less than 400. And this wasp is capable of some complicated behaviour, not least of which is flying. I dont know of anyone who thinks that powered flight is a simple behaviour that can be controlled only by a simple circuit with a handful of neurons. Flying is hard ...
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We continued our tidal creek import/export measurements during the 2017 field season. Weve measured the tidal exchange of materials (water, sediment, carbon, nutrients) several times at high-elevation and low-elevation marsh sites, to understand if marsh geomorphology influences the exchange of these materials.. ...
Global B2B marketplace, portal. International Business to Business Marketplace. Send targeted trade leads, post trade offers, find new business partners. Thousands of companies, trade offers. Product Showrooms, Suppliers, Business News, Business Keywords, More. Get a free Business Website at Global B2B Directory.
Discussion: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) account for 5-10% of soft tissue sarcomas, and most occur in adults in the retro-peritoneum and axial soft tissue. Parenchymatous organs and bones are also rarely primary sites for this sarcoma. FNA of LMS can provide a pre-operative diagnosis in both primary and recurrent tumors. Aspirates of low-grade classical LMS range from sparse to highly cellular and show cohesive, spindle-shaped cells aligned in parallel fascicles. Dispersed cells and stripped nuclei can also be seen, but the cohesive cells predominate. The cytoplasm is eosinophilic and granular. Nuclei are often blunt-ended (cigar-shaped), but may also be spindle-shaped or ovoid; nuclear segmentation or indentation is common in nuclei of both shapes. The nuclei contain evenly distributed chromatin, nucleoli, and occasional intranuclear inclusions can also be identified. Fibrotic connective tissue fragments may also be seen. High-grade classical LMS frequently shows background necrotic debris, anaplastic ...
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Advenviral Vector - Gene Insertion Nucleus Tumor Cell , Gene insertion nucleus tumor cell. Adenovirus inserting gene into tumor cell nucleus. Nuclear por, nucleus, episome, DNA, mRNA, ribosome, protein, transcription, translation, oncology, immunity .
Answer (1 of 2): Frogs red blood cells each contain a nucleus (unlike those of humans).In fact, there are no nuclei in the blood cells of any mammal, which is thought to be due to evolutionary mutation.Why do frogs have nuclei in their red blood cells? A better question to ask would be, why do humans NOT have nuclei in their red blood cells?. Based on human evolutionary history, it is likely that we (along with all other mammals) are derived from a species that did, at some point, have nuclei-containing red blood cells. The fact that we currently dont have nuclei in our red blood cells is probably due to genetic mutation and can, in Darwinian terms, be described as a biological improvement:Red blood cells that lack nuclei are able to bend and stretch into different shapes more easily, making them able to fit into smaller capillaries.Also, the lack of a nucleus also means that each cell has more space to carry oxygen - which is what red blood cells are designed to do within the body. What are the
The nucleus is the major site of gene expression in eukaryotic cells, separating the nuclear genome from cytoplasmic activities. Packed inside the membrane-bound nucleus are the chromosomes, consisting of long strands of DNA bound with a variety of proteins. The nucleus is the major site of transcription, where the genes carried on the chromosomes are copied into RNA sequences. These primary RNA sequences are processed in the nucleus, modified by the enzymatic addition of caps and tails, as well as splicing together of genetic sequences. Functional RNA molecules exit the nucleus through nuclear pores, and assemble in the cytoplasm on ribosomes where they are used to translate the RNA sequence information into chains of amino acids. Gene expression is controlled in the nucleus by a variety of means, including differential packing of chromatin and the number and type of transcription factors. A special region of the nucleus called the nucleolus is the site of ribosome synthesis. ...
One of the functions of the cell nucleus is to help regulate gene expression by controlling molecular traffic across the nuclear envelope. Here we investigate, via stochastic simulation, what effects, if any, does segregation of a system into the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments have on the stochastic properties of a motif with a negative feedback. One of the effects of the nuclear barrier is to delay the nuclear protein concentration, allowing it to behave in a switch-like manner. We found that this delay, defined as the time for the nuclear protein concentration to reach a certain threshold, has an extremely narrow distribution. To show this, we considered two models. In the first one, the proteins could diffuse freely from cytoplasm to nucleus (simple model); and in the second one,... the proteins required assistance from a special class of proteins called importins. For each model, we generated fifty parameter sets, chosen such that the temporal profiles they effectuated were very ...
|P>Eukaryotic transcription is a highly regulated process, and acetylation plays a major role in this regulation. Acetylation can occur on histones, DNA-binding TF (Transcription Factors), acetylases, nuclear import factors, non-nuclear proteins (Alpha-tubulin) and proteins that shuttle from the nucleus to [...]
Inside the nucleus is one or several nucleoli surrounded by a matrix called the nucleoplasm. The nucleoplasm is a liquid with a gel-like consistency (similar in this respect to the cytoplasm), in which many substances are dissolved. These substances include nucleotide triphospates, enzymes, proteins, and transcription factors. There also exists a network of fibers in the nucleoplasm known as the nuclear matrix. Genetic material (DNA) is also present in the nucleus, the DNA is present as a DNA-protein complex called chromatin. The DNA is present as a number of discrete units known as chromosomes. There are two types of chromatin: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Euchromatin is the least compact form of DNA, and the regions of DNA which constitute euchromatin contain genes which are frequently expressed by the cell. In heterochromatin, DNA is more tightly compacted. Regions of DNA which constitute heterochromatin generally contain genes which are not expressed by the cell (this type of ...
After washing to remove non-specifically bound antibodies, the substrate is incubated with an anti-human antibody conjugated to fluorescein. When results are positive, a stable three-part complex forms, consisting of fluorescent antibody bound to human antinuclear antibody that is bound to nuclear antigen. This complex can be visualized with the aid of a fluorescent microscope. In positive samples, the cell nuclei will show a bright apple-green fluorescence with a staining pattern characteristic of the particular nuclear antigen distribution within the cells. If the sample is negative for ANA, the nucleus will show no clearly discernible pattern of nuclear fluorescence. The cytoplasm may demonstrate weak staining while the non-chromosome region of mitotic cells demonstrates brighter staining ...
Courtesy Photo , The Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response Force participates...... read more read more Courtesy Photo , The Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response Force participates in Exercise Vibrant Response 13 at Camp Atterbury, Ind., July 31, 2012. Exercise Vibrant Response is a training event for the DCRF. The exercise focuses on Department of Defense support of civil authorities in a in a consequence management role. The DCRF is part of DoDs scalable response capability to assist civilian responders in saving lives, relieving human suffering and provide critical support to enable support to enable community recovery following a catastrophic CBRN incident. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Ashley Reed/Released) see less , View Image Page ...
A group of researchers at Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) Lisboa has revealed the mechanism by which cellular nuclei reach their position within muscle cells. This discovery, now published in Nature Cell Biology, can have important implications in therapeutic strategies to treat muscular diseases.
Lee Ann, I asked a similar question months ago and got no help other than a hearty good luck! :-) So I did some investigating and can offer two IHC suggestions: Anti-activated Caspase-3. Cleavage (activation) of procaspase-3 (CPP32, apopain, YAMA) irreversibly commits the cell to the caspase cascade and cell death via apoptosis. Antibodies are available that react only with the Caspase-3 cleavage fragment(s) and not procaspase-3. Similarly, anti-PARP p85 fragment. PARP (poly ADP-ribose) is the nuclear substrate for activated Caspase-3 which cleaves PARP into the 25kDa and 85kDa fragments. Antibodies are available that react specifically with the PARP 85kDa fragment. Neither of these should stain necrotic cells as far as I know. As you point out TUNEL labeling of fragmented DNA doesnt discriminate between the two processes. I wish someone would find a protein expressed only by necrotic cells. Regards, Brett Brett M. Connolly, Ph.D. Merck Research Laboratories Department of Pharmacology ...
In order to scan nuclear reactors for forbidden uses such as weapon-making, researchers are now working on remotely monitoring nuclear activity by focusing on ethereal particles known as antineutrinos.
Veja Foto de stock de Confocal Light Micrograph Of A Cultured Cell In Which The Microtubules Have Been Stained Green And The Cell Nucleus Blue. Encontre fotografias premium e de alta resolução na Getty Images.
PTEN is a lipid and protein phosphatase that is a well-known tumor suppressor through its ability to counter the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and reduce phosphorylation and activation of the kinase Akt. PTEN ubiquitylation and nuclear transport have been reported to contribute to its tumor suppression activity, PTEN has been implicated in brain development, and reduction of PTEN activity has been associated with enhanced neuronal survival. Howitt et al. investigated PTEN trafficking in the brains of mice after ischemia. In the region near the infarct, PTEN exhibited a predominantly nuclear localization, whereas in distal regions or in uninfarcted areas, PTEN was predominantly cytoplasmic. Because the abundance of the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase Ndfip1 increased in the surviving neurons, the authors investigated whether this protein may contribute to PTEN trafficking. Indeed, in mice engineered to lack Ndfip1 in neurons, PTEN remained cytoplasmic in the periinfarct area and the ...
The eukaryotic kingdom appears not to have contained very many of these TCS genes to start with, and the animal kingdom may just have lost the very few it possessed. This makes sense from the point of view of cellular control because while TCSs are very useful in the small genomed and non-nuclear membrane containing bacteria, its less clear how useful they are in eukaryotes as a whole. Introducing a membrane around the nucleus makes it harder for proteins to get in and bind to the DNA, and introducing systems of membranes inside a far bigger cell makes it harder for a simple two-component system to sense whats going on. Added to which, cells inside a multicellular organism dont really need to sense whats going on, they get told whats going on by the surrounding cells and circulating hormones ...
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Export registry sections as XML to simplify registry diffs; Author: Stephane Rodriguez.; Updated: 22 Jan 2003; Section: Win32/64 SDK & OS; Chapter: Platforms, Frameworks & Libraries; Updated: 22 Jan 2003
Administrators can import a group space archive (.EAR) using WebCenter Spaces and WLST commands.. On import, all group spaces included in the archive are created or re-created on the target application. Existing group spaces are deleted then replaced, and new group spaces are created.. If you intend to import group spaces with names identical to those available on the target application, ensure that those group spaces are offline in the target application. It is not possible to overwrite a group space, on import, if it is online. For details, see "Taking a Group Space Offline" in Oracle Fusion Middleware Users Guide for Oracle WebCenter.. Groups spaces are locked during an import operation to prevent simultaneous imports/exports of the same group space. If someone else is importing a particular group space, all subsequent attempts to import (or export) the same group space are blocked.. All group spaces must have a security policy. When you import a brand new group space you must ensure that ...
Is unique in that it presents the timely topic of functional organization of the cell nucleus entirely from the plant biologists perspective
Repeated duplication of the entire complement of genes within a single nucleus. It occurs in many actively metabolizing plant tissues, where it is evidenced by enlargement of the cell nuclei. The resultant multiplication of genes increases the amounts of messenger RNAs available to the cell, and hence permits the synthesis of large quantities of proteins. Compare gene amplification. ...
Nucleus vs Nucleolus Every organism has the most basic component of life, which is the cell, and in almost all cells there is the nucleus. The nucleus is found
HOPA = Hemalaun, Orange G, Phosphormolybdenic acid, Aniline blue Cell nuclei are stained with hemalaun or Weigerts iron-hematoxylin and then counterstained with a dye mixture of orange-phosphormolybden with aniline blue.. ...
I am looking for NLS for lac-Z gene. I believe the NLS is now available commercially, but I have looked up some common suppliers with no success. I would appreciate if anyone can help me out with this. Or if knows of any source where I can get hold of NLS-LacZ plasmid. Thanks Obaid Khan ...
The structure of matter can be investigated using scattering experiments, both of whole nuclei and of electrons. Knowledge of the radius of one nuclear isotope can be used to calculate the radius of any other.
Alltogether 25200 nuclear volumes of the kidneys of 63 castrated rats after different treatment with estradiol and actinomycin were estimated. 1. An increase of 14% of nuclear volume in the straight...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
Fig. 3. Chromocentres are located close to the nuclear periphery. (A) NucleusJ was used to compute the distance between the limit of the Hoechst DNA staining (blue) and the chromocentres (Cc, pink), boundary [d(Cc border)] or barycentre [d(Cc barycentre)]. The barycentre of the nucleus d(Nuc barycentre) (white cross) is also indicated. (B) Graphical representation of chromocentre distribution in respect to the limit of Hoechst DNA staining among the three cell types. The theoretical uniform distribution of chromocentres (top) is compared to observed distributions for d(Cc border) (middle) and d(Cc barycentre) (bottom). The uniform distribution of chromocentres is obtained by placing the same number of chromocentres as in the corresponding datasets between the periphery and the corresponding nuclear barycentres, for each nucleus of the dataset. Chromocenters and nuclei numbers are given at the bottom of the figure. The scales of the graphs were standardized by setting the maximum d(Nuc ...
Polyploidy, the occurrence of more than two complete sets of chromosomes in a single nucleus, is an important process contributing to eukaryotic evolution. Polyploidy is also a widespread speciation mechanism and is common ...
Definition of Triangular nucleus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Here are some of the differences: S.N. Character Prokaryotes Eukaryotes 1. Term Origin Greek for "primitive nucleus" Greek for "true nucleus" 2. Definition Organisms made up of cell(s) that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles. Organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus as well as membrane-bound … Read more Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. ...
Nucleus: The nucleus is the "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cells DNA, which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle, but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. Within the nucleus there are dense bodies called nucleoli, which contain ribosomal RNA. In eukaryotes, the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope ...
View Notes - After the from BIOLOGY bi 101 at Montgomery. Meanwhile, the mRNA molecule passes through a pore in the nucleus and proceeds into the cellular cytoplasm where it moves toward the
The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has existed since the late 1800s. In the past decade, interest in...
Relocalization of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus of heat stressed HUVECs.Cells were incubated at 37 °C (CONT) or were subjected to a heat stress (HS)
Reference: Klimenko A.I., Age-related characteristics of the concentration of RNA, DNA and proteins in the nuclei of rat liver cells following hydrocortisone induction, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 615-619 ...
Question - FNAC test says dycohesive clusters with variable cytoplasm, irregular nuclei with moderate anisokaryosis with isolated bizarre cells. Suggestions?. Ask a Doctor about Epithelial cells, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
The action of dexamethasone is initiated by, and strictly dependent upon, the interaction of the drug with its receptor followed by its translocation into the nucleus where modulates gene expression. Where the drug localizes at the intranuclear level is not yet known. We aimed to study the localization of the drug in nuclear lipid microdomains rich in sphingomyelin content that anchor active chromatin and act as platform for transcription modulation. The study was performed in non-Hodgkins T cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1 cell line). We found that when dexamethasone enters into the nucleus it localizes in nuclear lipid microdomains where influences sphingomyelin metabolism. This is followed after 24 h by a cell cycle block accompanied by the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), growth arrest and DNA-damage 45A (GADD45A), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes and by the reduction of signal
View Notes - Lecture 6 10 from BICD 110 at UCSD. Lecture 6 10/10/07 Nuclear Import/Export Nuclear Import Receptors Importins Helps cargo get into nucleus does this by binding to cargo (protein with
The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to investigate the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We show that CrmA can actively enter and exit the nucleus and we demonstrate the role of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in this shuttling process. CrmA contains a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is functionally conserved in the anti-apoptotic cellular serpin PI-9. Besides this leucine-rich export signal, additional sequences mapping to a 103-amino-acid region flanking the NES contribute to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of CrmA. Although YFP-tagged CrmA is primarily located in the cytoplasm, shifting its localization to be predominantly nuclear by fusion of a heterologous nuclear localization signal did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microtubular spindle dynamics and chromosome complements from somatic cell nuclei haploidization in mature mouse oocytes and developmental potential of the derived embryos. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Chang, Chia Yi. AU - Lu, Chien Cheng. AU - Hsieh, Fon Jou. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Background: The aim of this study was to investigate haploidization of somatic cell nuclei in non-enucleated mature oocytes regarding spindle formation, chromosomes and developmental potential. Methods: Mouse cumulus cells were injected into metaphase II oocytes. Some injected oocytes were examined for morphological changes of chromosomes and the spindle immediately, and at 30 min, 1 h or 2 h after the injections. The remaining oocytes were activated by Sr 2+ after various incubation periods and observed for formation of a second polar body and pseudo-polar body. Cytogenetic analysis was performed for some of the resulting zygotes. The progress to ...
Recent investigations have elucidated several molecular pathways for the nuclear import and export of proteins (Kau and Silver, 2003; Weis, 2003) across transport passageways or nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) (Dreger, 2003). The NPC is a large (125 MDa) multimeric protein structure that perforates the nuclear envelope and channels proteins greater than 60 kDa into or out of the nucleus. The constituents of the NPC have been described in yeast (Rout et al., 2000) and mammalian cells (Cronshaw et al., 2002). Proteins targeted for receptor-mediated transport across the NPC must either contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES). Protein NLS are typically short clusters of basic amino acids, often preceded by an acidic amino acid or proline residue. However, a NLS may also consist of bipartite clusters of basic amino acids separated by a spacer region of approximately ten amino acids, often flanked by a neutral or acidic amino acid. Previously described NLSs are ...
Recent studies have established that glucose deprivation causes inhibition of the nuclear tRNA export process in S. cerevisiae (30, 46). While the mechanism responsible for regulating nuclear tRNA export in response to the glucose level is not understood, findings from this study strongly suggest that it is most likely due to the function of the nuclear tRNA export receptors and the intranuclear tRNA chaperone Utp8p being controlled by glucose availability (Fig. 4). How the glucose level influences Utp8p function in nuclear tRNA export is not known, but evidence obtained suggests that the ability of the tRNA export receptors to function in nuclear tRNA export in response to glucose availability is most likely related to regulation of nuclear reimport of the tRNA export receptors after a round of tRNA export to the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). This conclusion is in accordance with previous studies showing cytoplasmic accumulation of several nuclear export receptors, including the nuclear tRNA export ...
In previous studies, we have provided evidence that prodynorphin gene expression and dynorphin B expression orchestrate cardiac differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells.7 The present investigation has revealed that dynorphin B-like material is detectable in undifferentiated GTR1 ES cells and that a substantial increase in dynorphin B-related immunostaining occurs in ES-derived cardiomyocytes. The possibility that the process of cardiogenesis may require the intracellular action of dynorphin peptides is supported by the observation that κ opioid binding sites are expressed in a highly purified preparation of ES cell nuclei. Such a hypothesis is further inferred from the finding that a direct exposure to dynorphin B of nuclei isolated from undifferentiated cells results in a remarkable activation of the transcription rate of GATA-4, Nkx-2.5, and prodynorphin genes. Within this context, the observed increase in the Bmax value for the selective κ opioid receptor ligand [3H]U-69 in nuclei ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons in purified rat liver nuclei. T2 - induction of enzyme activities and binding to DNA with and without monooxygenase catalyzed formation of active oxygen. AU - Rogan, Eleanor G. AU - Mailander, P.. AU - Cavalieri, Ercole. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Purified rat liver nuclei covalently bound low levels of seven aromatic [14C]hydrocarbons to nuclear DNA. Iduction with 3 methylcholanthrene increased the binding of six carcinogenic hydrocarbons, but did not raise the level of binding of noncarcinogenic anthracene. Removal of the nuclear envelope by Triton N 101 eliminated binding and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities and cytochrome P 450 from the nuclei. Binding of two strong carcinogens, benzo[α]pyrene and 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene, to nuclear DNA was compared to the levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and cytochrome P 450 in nuclei from uninduced and benz[α]anthracene, 3 methylcholanthrene, and phenobarbital ...

Lirias: Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence...Lirias: Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence...

Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and ... Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence for ... the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei ... When compared with our previously reported population of labeled globular bushy cells (GBC; Smith et al., 1991, J. Comp. Neurol ...
more infohttps://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/183923

cell nuclei | ScienceBlogscell nuclei | ScienceBlogs

... manage to get their contents out of the cell? Cells are walled all the way around; they dont really have doors for letting ... Cells that "spit" out their contents and messenger RNA that is not so swift at delivering its message. Those are two brand new ... The first story arose from a simple question: How do secretory cells - those that produce copious amounts of such substances as ...
more infohttps://scienceblogs.com/tag/cell-nuclei

Glossary: Cell NucleusGlossary: Cell Nucleus

A cell with a large central nucleus. The dark mass within the nucleus are the chromosomes ... The center of a cell, where [most] of the DNA, packaged in chromosomes, is contained. ...
more infohttps://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/abc/cell-nucleus.htm

Nucleus of the cell mapped in 3D - UPI.comNucleus of the cell mapped in 3D - UPI.com

... researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells DNA in unprecedented ... Now, for the first time, researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cells ... Nucleus of the cell mapped in 3D. "With SPRITE, we were able to see thousands of molecules -- DNAs and RNAs -- coming together ... June 8 (UPI) -- The nucleus of the cell is where the action happens, but its not easy to analyze the behavior of a massive ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Science_News/2018/06/08/Nucleus-of-the-cell-mapped-in-3D/5741528486951/?utm_source=upi&utm_campaign=mp&utm_medium=1

What Cell Has No Nucleus? | Reference.comWhat Cell Has No Nucleus? | Reference.com

... cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. They are distinct from the ... Red blood cells, while not considered to be prokaryotes, also do not have a nucleus. This helps them to maximize space inside ... the cell for haemoglobin, which is essential in the transport of oxygen. By comparison, white blood cells do contain a nucleus. ... According to Reference.com, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/cell-nucleus-1593b753f5a229d8

Cell nucleus - WikipediaCell nucleus - Wikipedia

Nuclei per cell. Most eukaryotic cell types usually have a single nucleus, but some have no nuclei, while others have several. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ... The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells.[5] In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nuclei

Chromatin Condensates in the Cell NucleusChromatin Condensates in the Cell Nucleus

The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has existed since the late 1800s. In the past ... Chromatin Condensates in the Cell Nucleus. The idea that liquid droplets contribute to the structure of the cell interior has ... Across the cell nucleus, the liquid-like condensates organize spatially and temporally, interacting with one another ( ... Tags: chromatin BJ cover art Cell Interior Histone Proteins Related articles. * Understanding the Trajectories of Cell ...
more infohttps://www.biophysics.org/blog/chromatin-condensates-in-the-cell-nucleus

Cell nucleusCell nucleus

... In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells ... Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm - a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and ... The nucleus, being the largest sub-cellular compartment, varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres. It is surrounded by a ... Nuclei have two primary functions: * to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm ...
more infohttp://www.fact-index.com/c/ce/cell_nucleus.html

Cell nucleusCell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in ... The cell nucleus contains the majority of the cells genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Cell_nucleus.html

cell nucleus with pores, ileum Dr. Jastrows electron microscopic atlascell nucleus with pores, ileum Dr. Jastrow's electron microscopic atlas

cell nucleus with several pores of the nuclear membrane from rat ileum (for unlabelled original image click here, please!) C = ... ileum, cell nucleus, nuclear pore Electron microscopic atlas Overview Homepage of the workshop Page H. Jastrow & B. ... Mne = äußereKernmembran; Mni = innereKernmembran; N = Nucleus (Zellkern); Nc = Nucleolus (Kernkörperchen); Pnu = Porus nuclei ( ...
more infohttp://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/EM/eigeneEM/26751E.html

How does the nucleus control a cells activities? | Reference.comHow does the nucleus control a cell's activities? | Reference.com

A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ... What does the nucleus do in a plant cell?. A: The function of the nucleus in the plant cell is to store the plants DNA and ... Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?. A: The nucleus can be thought of as the control center of a ... A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/nucleus-control-cell-s-activities-6d73985851eeac84

Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm.  - PubMed - NCBITransport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. - PubMed - NCBI

Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm.. Görlich D1, Kutay U. ... The compartmentation of eukaryotic cells requires all nuclear proteins to be imported from the cytoplasm, whereas, for example ... These receptors shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, and they bind transport substrates either directly or via adapter ... transfer RNAs, messenger RNAs, and ribosomes are made in the nucleus and need to be exported to the cytoplasm. Nuclear import ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611974?dopt=Abstract

staining Drosophila S2 cell nucleistaining Drosophila S2 cell nuclei

... Toby Lieber liebert at rockvax.rockefeller.edu Wed Jun 17 14:18:40 EST 1998 *Previous ... Hi, I have been trying to counterstain nuclei of Drosophila S2 cells that have been fixed in paraformaldehyde. As we dont have ... and SYTOX Green which does stain but is very unstable in S2 cell nuclei and does not last over night. Does anyone have any ...
more infohttp://bio.net/bionet/mm/dros/1998-June/004023.html

What could you use for the nucleus in a plant cell model - AnswersWhat could you use for the nucleus in a plant cell model - Answers

Cell Biology (cytology) Does a plant cell have both a nucleus and a cell wall. ?. Yes most cells have a nucleus. A plant cell ... Does a plant cell have a bigger nucleus than an animal cell. ?. a plant cell nucleus is the same size as an animal cell nucleus ... Is a nucleus a plant cell. ?. No. The nucleus is the part of the cell that holds the DNA. Plant cells have a nucleus, but a ... Is nucleus found in an animal cell or in a plant cell. ?. the nucleus is found in all cells A nucleus is neither a plant nor ...
more infohttps://www.answers.com/Q/What_could_you_use_for_the_nucleus_in_a_plant_cell_model

Associations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus.  - PubMed - NCBIAssociations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus. - PubMed - NCBI

Associations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus.. Spector DL1, Fu XD, Maniatis T. ... Examination of cells at different stages of mitosis revealed that the SC-35 speckled staining pattern is lost during prophase ... or when the cells were heat shocked. In contrast, snRNP antigens become diffusely distributed after RNase A digestion or heat ... and speckles containing SC-35 begin to reform in the cytoplasm of anaphase cells. In contrast, snRNP antigens do not associate ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1833187?dopt=Abstract

Microscopic View of Animal Cell Nucleus Art Print by | Art.comMicroscopic View of Animal Cell Nucleus Art Print by | Art.com

Microscopic View of Animal Cell Nucleus Art Print. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed ...
more infohttps://www.art.com/products/p30046067133-sa-i8835181/microscopic-view-of-animal-cell-nucleus.htm

News on cell nucleusNews on cell nucleus

... bioinformatics on the subject of cell nucleus can be found on this page. ... The cell contains transcripts of the genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This ... A major obstacle to in-cell genome editing is, well, the cell itself."Human cells dont like to take in stuff," explained UC ... 19 Current news about the topic cell nucleus. rss You can refine your search further. Select from the filter options on the ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/news/topic/cell-nucleus/

Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease | EurekAlert! Science NewsCodependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease | EurekAlert! Science News

A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate lives is helping ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease Penn study sheds light on biology of leading ... Codependence of cell nucleus proteins key to understanding fatty liver disease. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine ... PHILADELPHIA - A new appreciation for the interplay between two cell nucleus proteins that lead both intertwined and separate ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-07/uops-coc072616.php

Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei Stock Photo & More Pictures of Cell | iStockSmooth Muscle Cells Nuclei Stock Photo & More Pictures of Cell | iStock

And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/za/photo/smooth-muscle-cells-nuclei-gm860041352-142250009

Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei Stock Photo & More Pictures of Cell | iStockSmooth Muscle Cells Nuclei Stock Photo & More Pictures of Cell | iStock

And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Cell photos available for quick and easy ... Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. ... Smooth muscle cells. Nuclei - Stock image. .... Spain, Cell, ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/sg/photo/smooth-muscle-cells-nuclei-gm860041352-142250009

The Nucleus | Cell Nucleus | HistoneThe Nucleus | Cell Nucleus | Histone

Cell biology elaborated. Detailed literature and easily digestible. Enjoy. ... The Nucleus - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online ... Many different types in a cell; highly variable in cell. types, organisms, and at different times in the same. cell type. ... THE NUCLEUS: FUNCTIONS. It stores the cells hereditary material, or. DNA.. Site of DNA replication. Site of DNA transcription ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/presentation/280419609/The-Nucleus

Apologetics Press - Cell Nuclei: Anything but RandomApologetics Press - Cell Nuclei: Anything but Random

Cell Nuclei: Anything but Random. by Caleb Colley, Ph.D.. At the heart of biological evolutionary theory is randomness. ... of the cell-the nucleus-is organized in a recognizable pattern.. In their cytology textbook, Cell Biology, Roberts, Nowinski, ... "the net result of cell division is the formation of two cells that match each other and the parent cell precisely in their gene ... Pfeiffer, John (1964), The Cell (New York: Time).. Roberts, E.D.P., Wiktor W. Nowinski, and Francisco A. Saez (1970), Cell ...
more infohttp://apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=12&article=1920

Cell nucleus - wikidocCell nucleus - wikidoc

Although most cells have a single nucleus, some cell types have no nucleus, and others have many nuclei. This can be a normal ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin [nucleus] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) or [nuculeus] ... Cell nucleus simple:Cell nucleus sk:Bunkové jadro sl:Celično jedro sr:Једро sh:Jezgra (stanica) fi:Tuma sv:Cellkärna th:นิวเคลี ... Anucleated and polynucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Cell_nucleus

Cell nucleus - WikipediaCell nucleus - Wikipedia

Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cells ... Anucleated cells can also arise from flawed cell division in which one daughter lacks a nucleus and the other has two nuclei. ... In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed ... The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus

Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs | PNASTransplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs' eggs | PNAS

In 9 cases the egg nucleus was found in the exovate, while the egg proper consisted of cells containing normal nuclei which ... is still nucleus-dependent. Therefore, if the egg nucleus could be replaced by one from a differentiated cell, the nature of ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs. Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/38/5/455.full
  • Anatomically, the axons of SBCs cross the midline in the dorsal component of the trapezoid body and typically innervate the medial superior olive (MSO) on both sides, the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO), and the contralateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL). (kuleuven.be)
  • Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. (kuleuven.be)
  • This process begins in the nucleus, where a copy of the segment called messenger RNA, or mRNA, is created. (reference.com)
  • After being formed, the mRNA exits the nucleus. (reference.com)
  • Associations between distinct pre-mRNA splicing components and the cell nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Through a series of experiments involving x-ray crystallography, biochemistry, enzymology, and other methodologies, the researchers were able to show how this process of un-tagging the mRNA molecules works in human cells for the first time. (anl.gov)
  • Compared with the control NP cells, IL-1β significantly increased caspase-3 activity, NP cell apoptosis ratio and mRNA/protein expression of Bax, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, but decreased mRNA expression of Bcl-2. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
  • Yeast genetic studies have identified cdc2 as an essential gene for cell division in yeast. (scribd.com)
  • The scientists developed a probability map for the nucleus and determined that CBP pockets are more likely to be located closest to the gene regions with which they are known to modify ("Scientists Prove. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
  • The company uses a proprietary transcriptome profiling platform, NETSseq, that reveals gene expression in any human brain cell type of interest from healthy and diseased individuals. (onenucleus.com)
  • Neurons and nonneuronal cells in the developing brain dynamically regulate gene expression as neural connectivity is established. (pnas.org)
  • However, the specific gene programs activated in distinct cell populations during the assembly and refinement of many intact neuronal circuits have not been thoroughly characterized. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we take advantage of recent advances in transcriptomic profiling techniques to characterize gene expression in the postnatal developing lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) at single-cell resolution. (pnas.org)
  • Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development. (pnas.org)
  • Upon virus entry into the host cell, the viral DNA genome is directed into the nucleus by an as-yet-undefined mechanism and is subsequently transcribed and replicated by a combination of host cell machinery and virus gene products ( 1 , 17 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The role of VP22, which is encoded by gene UL49 ( 11 ), is unclear, but it does not contain a recognizable NLS, thereby suggesting that VP22 would not be targeted to the nucleus by the classical pathway during virus infection. (asm.org)
  • Single-cell-based normalization enabled us to acquire morphologically unbiased data and we finally correlated changes in gene positioning to changes in transcriptional profiles. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • An analysis of neighboring genomic context revealed that gene location within the nucleus is rather dependent on CpG islands, GC content, gene density, and short and long interspersed nuclear elements, collectively known as RIDGE (regions of increased gene expression) properties. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • But in AML cells, there are mutations in a gene call U2AF1, which result in RNA splicing errors. (ecancer.org)
  • If we truly have two distinct mechanisms through which Mer acts - cancer cell signaling and regulation of gene expression within the nucleus - then we would have additional ways to target this cancer-causing agent," Graham says. (innovations-report.com)
  • SINC-seq constructs two individual RNA-seq libraries, nucRNA and cytRNA, per cell, quantifies gene expression in the subcellular compartments, and combines them to create novel single-cell RNA-seq data. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The protein kinase C-related PKC-L(eta) gene product is localized in the cell nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The tumor promoters phorbol esters are thought to induce changes in cell growth and gene expression by direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). (asm.org)
  • The results of western blotting demonstrated that BNIP3 expression was significantly upregulated in NP cells subjected to ND for 24 h, which coincided with AIF translocation to the cell nucleus and alterations in cell viability and Δψm. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In parallel with the development of xylem vessels, the differentiation of phloem-conducting cells has been demonstrated by the translocation of symplasmic tracers from the host to the parasite. (mdpi.com)
  • The phenotype switch to fibroblasts was associated with translocation of p21 Cip1/WAF1 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. (bmj.com)
  • With SPRITE, we were able to see thousands of molecules -- DNAs and RNAs -- coming together at various 'hubs' around the nucleus in single cells," said grad student Sofia Quinodoz. (upi.com)
  • These receptors shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, and they bind transport substrates either directly or via adapter molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleoplasm : Contain a variety of particles with other molecules involved in maintenance and development of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • In research published June 4 in Cell , Rockefeller University scientists have uncovered crucial steps in the dynamic dance that dilates and constricts the nuclear pore complex-the latest advance in their ongoing efforts to tease apart the mechanism by which its central channel admits specific molecules. (phys.org)
  • For instance, it has been shown that often less than 1% of the administered drug molecules during chemotherapy enter tumor cells and bind to the nuclear DNA. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which PKC molecules transduce signals into the cell nucleus are unknown. (asm.org)
  • New research suggests that the nucleus of a mammal cell is made up of component parts arranged in a pattern which can be predicted statistically ("Scientists Prove. (apologeticspress.org)
  • This loss of correlation between cell size and hydraulic permeability suggests that regulation of volume change is disrupted irreversibly due to inflammatory stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • That cancer cell function can be correlated with deformations in the nucleus suggests that major challenges in particle-based, nuclear-targeted therapy can be overcome,' says Odom. (nanowerk.com)
  • This suggests nuclei increase in size in the neoplastic cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our recent finding that Mer also resides in the nucleus suggests there may be additional ways that Mer is promoting cancer from within the cell," he says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at Caltech used an analytical technique called SPRITE to create 3D maps of the cell nucleus. (upi.com)
  • Now, for the first time, researchers have mapped the cell nucleus in 3D, revealing the packaging and organization of a cell's DNA in unprecedented detail. (upi.com)
  • The researchers then direct ultrafast pulses of light -- similar to that used in LASIK surgery -- at the cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Since this initial research on human ovarian and cervical cancer cells, the researchers have gone on to study effects of the drug loaded gold nanostars on 12 other human cancer cell lines. (nanowerk.com)
  • University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have revealed new details of how the physical properties of the nucleus influence how cells can move around different environments - such as "soft" tissue like brain and fat, or "stiff" tissue like cartilage or bone. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers removed the nucleus from cells or disconnected them from the cell's structural scaffolding known as the "cytoskeleton. (eurekalert.org)
  • To rapidly release the attached cargo inside the nucleus, the researchers applied a small external electrical potential through the nanoneedle. (healthimaging.com)
  • The researchers coupled miniscule particles of silver, a metal that is not rejected by cells and is an efficient reflector of light, with a small portion of the HIV protein responsible for its highly efficient ability to enter a cell and its nucleus. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. (biologists.org)
  • Cancer researchers are looking to nanoparticles as a drug carrier capable of localizing and directly releasing drugs into the cell nucleus, thereby circumventing the multi drug-resistance and intracellular drug-resistance mechanisms to effectively deliver drugs to the vicinity of DNA, leading to a high therapeutic efficacy. (nanowerk.com)
  • 1984 ), the relationship between vegetative nucleus ( VN ) and generative cell ( GC, then sperms, S ) in development of male gametophyte ( MG ) becomes more and more interesting subject for researchers. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, to observe cells at all is to observe strict organization in the human body itself, for the body is composed in a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • An illustration showing an example of the structure and organization of DNA in the nucleus of a human cell. (mit.edu)
  • Collectively, these data suggest an intracellular function for versican in vascular cells where it appears to play a role in mitotic spindle organization during cell division. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this context, specific and well-organized nuclear organization recently demonstrated for human sperm cells may be of special interest. (biologists.org)
  • However, much less is understood regarding the spatial organization of these events within the three-dimensional context of the mammalian cell nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • The use of increasingly sophisticated molecular techniques and the availability of a large number of antibodies and also nucleic acid probes has advanced our understanding of the temporal and spatial organization of nuclear functions, as well as revealed the complex nature of the mammalian cell nucleus. (rupress.org)
  • A new approach using comparative neuromorphology is taken in this study dealing with the organization of the efferent nuclei of cranial nerves. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 4.1 The Positions of the Eye Moving Nuclei and the Organization of Muscle Innervation. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 8.2.3.2 Somatotopic Organization of the Ambiguus Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • He is credited with discovering the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the circadian clock, as well as, describing its organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were fixed and immunostained for versican and images of fluorescently labeled cells were obtained by confocal microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • used a nucleus-targeted green fluorescent protein to investigate the shapes and sizes of living nuclei from several Arabidopsis tissues and cell types via confocal microscopy. (plantcell.org)
  • By utilizing time-lapse confocal microscopy of live cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged protein, we now report in detail the intracellular trafficking properties of VP22 in expressing cells, as opposed to the intercellular trafficking of VP22 between expressing and nonexpressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, while in some ways homologous to cerebellar molecular layer stellate cells, SSCs exhibit properties that place them in a computationally unique position in the entire cochlear nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abnormal pattern of subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease can be studied through variations in the shape and frequency of firing patterns. (hindawi.com)
  • The irregular and arrhythmic behaviors of subthalamic nucleus firing pattern under normal conditions can easily be transformed to those caused by Parkinson's disease through simple parameter modifications in the proposed model. (hindawi.com)
  • The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a part of the basal ganglia (BG) and thus has a role in modulating voluntary motor function. (jneurosci.org)
  • SPRITE involves the tagging of different regions within the nucleus with molecular barcodes. (upi.com)
  • Later, after the cell is allowed to function as it would, the complexes are broken open and scientists examine the molecular barcodes to see which complexes are interacting with each other and where. (upi.com)
  • Although snRNP antigens are also concentrated in these nuclear regions, we show that the two types of spliceosome components are localized through different molecular interactions: The distribution of SC-35 was not affected by treatment with DNase I or RNase A, or when the cells were heat shocked. (nih.gov)
  • In the current edition of Molecular Cell, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München describe how cells "decide" which of these two directions to take. (bionity.com)
  • One of the most promising applications of quantum dots is molecular imaging in living cells, according to Min-Feng Yu, PhD, associate professor of mechanical science and engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and colleagues. (healthimaging.com)
  • The molecular layer domain comprises the parallel fiber input from granule cells, terminating on fusiform cell apical dendrites and onto cartwheel and SSC cells, both of which in turn control fusiform activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cells have devised many structures for transporting molecular cargo across their protective borders, but the nuclear pore complex, with its flower-like, eight-fold symmetry, stands out. (phys.org)
  • The molecular mass of the neutral endonuclease present in neuronal differentiated PC12 cell nuclei is 32000 as determined by activity gel analysis (zymography). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Excitatory inputs contacting apical dendrites of FCs come from granule cell parallel fibers located in the superficial molecular layer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knowing this, the team was able to purify human Gle1 from cells in high quantities for the first time, and then, using Caltech's Molecular Observatory beamline at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, obtain its crystal structure. (anl.gov)
  • Overlooked molecular machine in cell nucleus may hold key to treating aggressive leukaemia. (ecancer.org)
  • Together they hijack the innate immune system's molecular processes and trigger oncogenesis in myeloid blood cells. (ecancer.org)
  • Identification of the molecular partners of ERα and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Obviously this problem can be solved only by the development of a method for testing directly whether nuclei of differentiating embryonic cells are or are not themselves differentiated. (pnas.org)
  • By the methods of quantitative cytophotometry, we have identified the changes in the nucleus and of some intranuclear compartments in the early stages of infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). (scirp.org)
  • The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The role of the nucleus in embryonic differentiation has been the subject of investigations dating back to the beginnings of experimental embryology. (pnas.org)
  • These include protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell division or reproduction. (enotes.com)
  • Cells from each group were tested under step osmotic loading and the transient volume-response was captured via time-lapse microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An Insight Toolkit (ITK) processing framework for segmenting and tracking nuclei in time-lapse microscopy images using coupled active contours is presented in this paper. (insight-journal.org)
  • Remodelling of the sperm nucleus was studied by electron microscopy at 1.5 and 3 h after fertilization and, in addition, at 14 h in cybrids. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here we experimentally characterise the optical properties of PRC nuclei using bright-field defocusing microscopy to capture near-field intensity distributions behind individual nuclei. (osapublishing.org)
  • The Northwestern CCNE team, led by Teri Odom, also reported that it was able to directly image at nanoscale dimensions how nanoparticles interact with a cancer cell's nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Dr. Odom and her collaborators published their results in the journal ACS Nano ( 'Direct observation of nanoparticle cancer cell nucleus interactions' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Using an electron microscope, Odom and her team found their drug loaded nanoparticles dramatically change the shape of the cancer cell nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • 3, left) The release of AS1411 from gold nanostars via fs-pulsed excitation resulted in increased deformation of the cancer cell nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory treated cells exhibited altered F-actin cytoskeleton expression relative to untreated cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Western blot of pure nuclear extracts confirmed the presence of versican in the nucleus, and multifluorescent immunostaining showed strong colocalization of versican and nucleolin, suggesting a nucleolar localization of versican in nondividing cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hence, in VP22-expressing cells the subcellular localization of the protein is regulated by the cell cycle such that initially cytoplasmic protein becomes nuclear during cell division, resulting in a gradual increase over time in the number of nuclear VP22-expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • We have previously studied the subcellular localization of VP22 using immunofluorescence of transiently transfected cells and have shown that, consistent with the lack of an NLS, transiently expressed VP22 localizes primarily in the cytoplasm of expressing cells ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Localization of PKC-L in the cell nucleus is shown both by immunofluorescence staining and by subcellular fractionation experiments of several human cell lines, including the human epidermoid carcinoma line A431. (asm.org)
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such facts have justified the belief that the early events in cell differentiation depend on an interaction between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Many functions of the cell are controlled by the nucleus. (enotes.com)
  • By blocking several functions of nucleolin, AS1411 can ultimately result in tumor cell death. (nanowerk.com)
  • For example, complete internalization of nanoconstructs inside the nucleus is not necessary if induced physical changes in nuclear phenotype can disrupt nuclear functions. (nanowerk.com)
  • These results suggest that sAC modulates multiple physiological processes in shark cells, including nuclear functions. (ucsd.edu)
  • this has been associated with decreasing amounts of satellite cells, but also to alterations in their activation, proliferation, and/or differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • We demonstrated that in satellite cells the RNA pathways undergo alterations during aging, possibly hampering their responsiveness to muscle damage. (hindawi.com)
  • The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml) for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. (scielo.br)
  • Head direction (HD) cells in the rat limbic system fire according to the animal's orientation independently of the animal's environmental location or behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • These cells fire as a function of the animal's directional heading independently of its location and ongoing behavior and are believed to represent the animal's perceived orientation in its environment ( Taube, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and FFI in this circuit are not well understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Later on this theory was disproved by numerous experiments showing that, during early cleavage at least, the distribution of the nuclei can be changed at will without altering the pattern of development. (pnas.org)
  • The nuclear auto-digestion assay for DNase catalyzing internucleosomal DNA cleavage revealed that nuclei from neuronal differentiated PC12 cells contain acidic and neutral endonucleases, while nuclei from undifferentiated PC12 cells have only acidic endonuclease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The presence of DNA in mammalian cell cytoplasm triggers an immune response by binding to a dimeric enzyme, which inserts between DNA double helices to form the "rungs" of a ladder-like structure, as an LMU team has now shown. (bionity.com)
  • The present study created a cell culture model under ND conditions to investigate the roles of the nutrientsensitive protein Bcell lymphoma 2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDainteracting protein (BNIP3) and the mitochondrial prodeath protein apoptosisinducing factor (AIF) in the death pathway of NP cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • I may not have described it clearly in the title but I only want the nuclei fraction, excluding the mitochondrial fraction. (protocol-online.org)
  • Nothing can stop caustic mitochondrial enzymes from pouring into the nucleus and finally killing the cell. (russia-ic.com)
  • This new method of getting into and detecting exactly what is going on in the nucleus of cell has distinct advantages over current methods," said Molly Gregas, a graduate student in the laboratory of Tuan Vo-Dinh, R. Eugene and Susie E. Goodson Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering, professor of chemistry and director of The Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics at Duke's Pratt School of Engineering. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Leveraging SINC-seq, we discover distinct natures of correlation among cytRNA and nucRNA that reflect the transient physiological state of single cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are three main types of processes in the cell: chemical, electrical, and mechanical. (healthimaging.com)
  • Our observations indicate that PI3-K/Akt pathways have a dual role in both survival and cell death processes depending on the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • They noted that spherical nuclei-the most abundant type overall and the predominant nuclear shape in the meristems-were just one of many nuclear shapes found within the epidermal and pavement cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Many of the local actions of snake venoms are mediated by a direct action on skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and platelets (17). (scielo.br)