Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (1/2190)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Differential transcriptional activity associated with chromatin configuration in fully grown mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. (2/2190)

It was previously shown that fully grown ovarian germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes of adult mice exhibit several nuclear configurations that differ essentially by the presence or absence of a ring of condensed chromatin around the nucleolus. These configurations have been termed, respectively, SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (nonsurrounded nucleolus). Work from our and other laboratories has revealed ultrastructural and functional differences between these two configurations. The aims of the present study were 1) to analyze the equilibrium between the SN and the NSN population as a function of the age of the mice and the time after hCG-induced ovulation and 2) to study the polymerase I (pol I)- and polymerase II (pol II)-dependent transcription in both types of oocytes through the detection of bromouridine incorporated into nascent RNA. We show 1) that ovarian GV oocytes exhibiting the SN-type configuration can be found as soon as 17 days after birth in the C57/CBA mouse strain and 2) that the SN:NSN ratio of ovarian GV oocytes is very low just after hCG-induced ovulation and then increases progressively with the time after ovulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SN configuration correlates strictly with the arrest of both pol I- and pol II-dependent transcription in mice at any age. Finally, we show that ribosomal genes are located at the outer periphery of the nucleolus in the NSN configuration and that pol I-dependent perinucleolar transcription sites correspond to specific ultrastructural features of the nucleolus. Altogether, these results provide clear-cut criteria delineating transcriptionally active GV oocytes from those that are inactive, and confirm that the SN-type configuration is mostly present in preovulatory oocytes.  (+info)

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (3/2190)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

Structure and functions of nucleolin. (4/2190)

Nucleolin is an abundant protein of the nucleolus. Nucleolar proteins structurally related to nucleolin are found in organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals. The association of several structural domains in nucleolin allows the interaction of nucleolin with different proteins and RNA sequences. Nucleolin has been implicated in chromatin structure, rDNA transcription, rRNA maturation, ribosome assembly and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Studies of nucleolin over the last 25 years have revealed a fascinating role for nucleolin in ribosome biogenesis. The involvement of nucleolin at multiple steps of this biosynthetic pathway suggests that it could play a key role in this highly integrated process.  (+info)

Gene expression and chromatin organization during mouse oocyte growth. (5/2190)

Mouse oocytes can be classified according to their chromatin organization and the presence [surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes] or absence [nonsurrounded nucleolus (NSN) oocytes] of a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin around the nucleolus. Following fertilization only SN oocytes are able to develop beyond the two-cell stage. These studies indicate a correlation between SN and NSN chromatin organization and the developmental competence of the female gamete, which may depend on gene expression. In the present study, we have used the HSP70.1Luc transgene (murine HSP70.1 promoter + reporter gene firefly luciferase) to analyze gene expression in oocytes isolated from ovaries of 2-day- to 13-week-old females. Luciferase was assayed on oocytes after classification as SN or NSN type. Our data show that SN oocytes always exhibit a higher level of luciferase activity, demonstrating a higher gene expression in this category. Only after meiotic resumption, metaphase II oocytes derived from NSN or SN oocytes acquire the same level of transgene expression. We suggest that the limited availability of transcripts and corresponding proteins, excluded from the cytoplasm until GVBD in NSN oocytes, could explain why these oocytes have a lower ability to sustain embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage at which major zygotic transcription occurs. With this study we have furthered our knowledge of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in oogenesis.  (+info)

Nuclear and nucleolar targeting of human ribosomal protein S25: common features shared with HIV-1 regulatory proteins. (6/2190)

The nuclear and nucleolar targeting properties of human ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) were analysed by the expression of epitope-tagged RPS25 cDNAs in Cos-1 cells. The tagged RPS25 was localized to the cell nucleus, with a strong predominance in the nucleolus. At the amino terminus of RPS25, two stretches of highly basic residues juxtapose. This configuration shares common features with the nucleolar targeting signals (NOS) of lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators, including human immunodeficiency viruses' (HIV) Rev proteins. Deletion and site-directed mutational analyses demonstrated that the first NOS-like stretch is dispensable for both nuclear and nucleolar localization of RPS25, and that the nuclear targeting signal is located within the second NOS-like stretch. It has also been suggested that a set of continuous basic residues and the total number of basic residues should be required for nucleolar targeting. Signal-mediated nuclear/nucleolar targeting was further characterized by the construction and expression of a variety of chimeric constructs, utilizing three different backbones with RPS25 cDNA fragments. Immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated a 17 residue peptide of RPS25 as a potential nuclear/nucleolar targeting signal. The identified peptide signal may belong to a putative subclass of NOS, characterized by compact structure, together with lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators.  (+info)

Expression of the transcriptional repressor protein Kid-1 leads to the disintegration of the nucleolus. (7/2190)

The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two Cys2His2-zinc finger clusters of four and nine zinc fingers at the COOH terminus. It was the first KRAB-zinc finger protein for which a transcriptional repressor activity was demonstrated. Subsequently, the KRAB-A domain was identified as a widespread transcriptional repressor motif. We now present a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein is targeted to the nucleolus and adheres tightly to as yet undefined nucleolar structures, leading eventually to the disintegration of the nucleolus. The tight adherence and nucleolar distribution can be attributed to the larger zinc finger cluster, whereas the KRAB-A domain is responsible for the nucleolar fragmentation. Upon disintegration of the nucleolus, the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor disappears from the nucleolar fragments. In the absence of Kid-1, the KRIP-1 protein, which represents the natural interacting partner of zinc finger proteins with a KRAB-A domain, is homogeneously distributed in the nucleus, whereas coexpression of Kid-1 leads to a shift of KRIP-1 into the nucleolus. Nucleolar run-ons demonstrate that rDNA transcription is shut off in the nucleolar fragments. Our data demonstrate the functional diversity of the KRAB and zinc finger domains of Kid-1 and provide new functional insights into the regulation of the nucleolar structure.  (+info)

The beta4 integrin interactor p27(BBP/eIF6) is an essential nuclear matrix protein involved in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly. (8/2190)

p27(BBP/eIF6) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that was originally identified as p27(BBP), an interactor of the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta4 and, independently, as the putative translation initiation factor eIF6. To establish the in vivo function of p27(BBP/eIF6), its topographical distribution was investigated in mammalian cells and the effects of disrupting the corresponding gene was studied in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In epithelial cells containing beta4 integrin, p27(BBP/eIF6) is present in the cytoplasm and enriched at hemidesmosomes with a pattern similar to that of beta4 integrin. Surprisingly, in the absence and in the presence of the beta4 integrin subunit, p27(BBP/eIF6) is in the nucleolus and associated with the nuclear matrix. Deletion of the IIH S. cerevisiae gene, encoding the yeast p27(BBP/eIF6) homologue, is lethal, and depletion of the corresponding gene product is associated with a dramatic decrease of the level of free ribosomal 60S subunit. Furthermore, human p27(BBP/eIF6) can rescue the lethal effect of the iihDelta yeast mutation. The data obtained in vivo suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of p27(BBP/eIF6) in ribosome biogenesis or assembly rather than in translation. A further function related to the beta4 integrin subunit may have evolved specifically in higher eukaryotic cells.  (+info)

Secologanin tryptamine alkaloids are a group of compounds found in certain plants, including the Rauvolfia serpentina plant, which is commonly used in traditional medicine. These compounds are derived from the amino acid tryptophan and are biosynthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve secologanin, an intermediate compound in the biosynthesis of alkaloids. The secologanin tryptamine alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including sedative, analgesic, antihypertensive, and antipsychotic effects. Some of the most well-known compounds in this group include reserpine, ajmaline, and yohimbine. Reserpine, for example, is a potent antihypertensive agent that is used to treat high blood pressure. Ajmaline is used to treat certain types of heart arrhythmias, while yohimbine is used to treat erectile dysfunction. In the medical field, secologanin tryptamine alkaloids are studied for their potential therapeutic applications, as well as their potential side effects and interactions with other medications. They are also used in traditional medicine for a variety of purposes, including treating anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

The RNP is small (approximately 7S) and contains most of the nonribosome-associated 5S RNA molecules in HeLa cells. The 5S RNA ... complex in human and mouse cells has been analyzed using patient autoantibodies. ... Indirect immunofluorescence indicates that the L5/5S complex is concentrated in the nucleolus. L5 may therefore play a role in ... A 5S rRNA/L5 complex is a precursor to ribosome assembly in mammalian cells J Cell Biol. 1988 Mar;106(3):545-56. doi: 10.1083/ ...
Spindle B cells have a prominent nucleolus. They are found more commonly and also have an elongated profile but are slightly ... The mechanism of action of tebentafusp works by placing T cells in proximity to melanoma cells by targeting the gp100 protein, ... The last cell type usually has the most aggressive behavior and carries a poorer prognosis for the patients long-term survival ... Three distinct cell types are recognized in choroidal and other uveal melanomas: (1) spindle A, (2) spindle B, and (3) ...
Ribosomes are assembled in a cell compartment called the nucleolus. .. The particular EMG1 gene mutation known to cause Bowen- ... A shortage of this protein in the nucleolus would impair ribosome production, which may reduce cell growth and division ( ... which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive ... which process the cells genetic instructions to create new proteins. ...
... nuclei and nucleoli of HEP-2 cell plus individual antigens; SS-A, SS-B, Sm/RNP, Scl-70, centromere, PCNA, and Jo1 (all of which ... claudin-5/TMVCF constitutes tight junction strands in endothelial cells. J Cell Biol (1999) 147(1):185-94. doi: 10.1083/jcb. ... showed how interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells alters mitochondrial activities in host cells, providing a receptive ... Modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes blood-brain barrier phenotype in cultured brain endothelial cells. Sci Rep (2019 ...
They are composed of cells with central, bland nuclei; small, inconspicuous nucleoli; and abundant, finely vacuolated, foamy ... the appearance of residual tumor cells can mimic xanthoma cells. They may show abundant clear-to-vacuolated, foamy cytoplasm ... as well as basal cell hyperplasia, should alert to this differential. Tumor cells usually retain prostatic epithelial ... The histiocytic nature of the cells is demonstrated by a positive result on staining with CD68. [1, 2] Rare cases may ...
The nucleolus within the cell nucleus is also a condensate, which appears as a diffuse dark speck under the microscope. This is ... Close-ups of cell nuclei in a human cell culture: HMGB1 protein (green) is usually found throughout the nucleus (dotted line). ... Close-ups of cell nuclei in a human cell culture: HMGB1 protein (green) is usually found throughout the nucleus (dotted line). ... This impaired the vital functions of the cells - with the mutated protein, more cells in a culture died compared to a culture ...
Spindle B cells have a prominent nucleolus. They are found more commonly and also have an elongated profile but are slightly ... The mechanism of action of tebentafusp works by placing T cells in proximity to melanoma cells by targeting the gp100 protein, ... The last cell type usually has the most aggressive behavior and carries a poorer prognosis for the patients long-term survival ... Three distinct cell types are recognized in choroidal and other uveal melanomas: (1) spindle A, (2) spindle B, and (3) ...
Epithelioid cells (larger polygonal cells with one or more prominent nucleoli).. * Intermediate cells (similar to but smaller ... spindle-shaped cells with slender nuclei and lacking visible nucleoli).. * Spindle-B cells (spindle-shaped cells with larger ... Cell type is the most commonly used predictor of outcome following enucleation, with spindle-A cell melanomas carrying the best ... Mean diameter of the ten largest nucleoli. *Mean of the longest nucleoli (MLN) is measured along a central 5-mm long strip, e.g ...
The cells were of uniform size with obscured nucleoli (Fig. 6A and B). The nuclei of the tumor cells were oval and mitotic ... The tumor cells are uniform in size with obscured nucleoli. (C) The nuclei of the tumor cells are oval and mitotic figures are ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that ,5% of cells expressed Ki-67 in two cases ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki‑67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that Introduction. Intracranial ...
Compare with normal columnar cells. Nucleoli are occasionally visible. AGC. (obj. 20x). Comments: picture quality:. On a scale ... Endocervical smear: sheet of atypical cells of glandular type with enlarged nuclei and a regular chromatin pattern. ... Atypia of glandular cells (AGC) Filter by language: English / Fran ais / Portugues / 丫斏. -. Go back to the Histopathology list ... Home / Training / Manuals / Cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas / Atypia of glandular cells (AGC) Cytopathology ...
... null contains large-budded cells with nuclear extensions at the nuclear envelope, adjacent to the nucleolus; homozygous null ... Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a ...
The tumor cells were round to oval with fine chromatin, small inconspicuous nucleoli, indistinct cell borders, and light ... with inner layer of epithelial cells and outer layer of myoepithelial cells. At higher magnification, the tumor cells showed ... The luminal epithelial cells of the tumor are positive for C-kit and CEA; the abluminal myoepithelial cells of the tumor are ... The luminal epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, C-kit, and CEA, while the abluminal myoepithelial cells ...
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional phosphoprotein localized predominantly within the nucleoli of eukaryotic cells. ... The inefficient delivery of proteins into mammalian cells remains a major barrier to realizing the therapeutic potential of ...
... students will use cell model diagrams to interact with both animal and plant cells and explore the structure and function of ... Learn the basic functions of the following animal cell organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes ... Using cell model diagrams, students will interact with both animal and plant cells and explore the structure and function of ... Students will be able to contrast different cell types (plant and animal cells), based on their structure and function. ...
Nucleolus Fluorescent Staining. Nucleolus Bright Green 60 nmol N512. Nucleolus Fluorescent Staining. Nucleolus Bright Red 60 ... Cell Staining. Cell Double Staning Kit /Live Cell Staining /Dead Cell Staining /Nuclear Staining /Mitochondria Staning /Tissue ... Cell Proliferation / Cell Cytotoxicity Assay. Cell Proliferation / Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Kits /Related Reagents ... Live Cell Staining. Code. Product name. Unit size. C326. Live Cell Staining. -Cellstain- Calcein-AM 1 mg C375. Live Cell ...
... an Applications Scientist at Molecular Devices to learn more about cell painting and the impact it is having on cell biology ... Nucleoli, cytoplasmic RNA. Dye: SYT0 14 green fluorescent nucleic acid stain. F-actin cytoskeleton, Golgi, plasma membrane. Dye ... In a Cell Painting assay you would use up to six fluorescent dyes to label different components of the cell. That would include ... The idea is to paint as much of the cell as possible so you can get a representative image of the cell. And then from these ...
Otto Heinrich Warburg demonstrated in 1924 that cancer cells show an increased dependence on glycolysis to meet their energy ... and how it is the enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate observed in tumor cells, even in the presence of normal levels of ... HPA024305: Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows positivity in nucleus but not nucleoli, plasma membrane, ... Vander Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB. 2009. Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell ...
The melanoma cells have large nuclei, often with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli, and show nuclear pseudoinclusions due to ... perivascular epithelioid cell tumors), and anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Balloon cell, small cell, and desmoplastic variants ... The malignant cells often nest or cluster in groups in an organoid fashion; however, single cells predominate at the junction ... Other prognostically significant variables include the degree of pigmentation and cell type, with a nonepithelioid cell type ...
Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR. while ... fumigatus cell wall mutants influenced phagosome maturation in airway epithelial cells. Taken together, this live-cell 4D ... fumigatus cell wall mutants influenced phagosome maturation in airway epithelial cells. Taken together, this live-cell 4D ... Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR. while ...
Higher magnification showing enlarged vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, indistinct cell borders, and the inflammatory ...
... and leukemic cells have characteristic prominent nucleoli, indicating robust ribosome synthesis.. The rate of ribosome ... HectD1 controls hematopoietic stem cell regeneration by coordinating ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. Cell Stem Cell 28 ... Molecular Cell 62(1): 104-10, Apr 2016.. Paralkar VR, Mishra T, Luan J, Yao Y, Kossenkov AV, Anderson SM, Dunagin M, Pimkin M, ... Given that rRNA accounts for the bulk of the transcriptional output of the cell, the inability to map datasets to rDNA has ...
Method for the demonstration of nucleoli in lymphocytes and other blood and bone marrow cells - September 01, 1964 ...
Cells treated with PBS showed defined normal nucleoli. In contrast, KS Y-1 cells treated with the topical formulation exhibited ... Immunodeficient mice [BNX-nude mice] were injected subcutaneously with neoplastic cell lines: KS Y-1 cells [5×106 cells] until ... The topical treatment of Dermos™ has proven to be quite effective in vivo against xenotransplanted KS Y-1 cells in nude mice ... To characterize the early steps accompanying apoptosis, KS cells were monitored by 3D epifluorescence confocal microscopy 48 ...
... the module details each phase of this cell process. It provides an overview of the structure of cell components that are ... between mitosis and cancer is explored as is the mechanism by which anti-cancer drugs work to slow down or prevent cell ... These then decondense into the ordinary chromatin of interphase, a nucleolus appears in each newly formed nucleus, and the cell ... cell the basic structural unit of all living things membrane layer of tissue that forms the boundary of a cell or cell part ...
In most cell types chromocenters are attached to the nuclear lamina or to nucleoli. ... Cell Cycle, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.210377.112, pages 2925 - 2926, published on 23.08.2013. Cell Cycle, online ... ranging from gene silencing to maintenance of genomic integrity and cell division. The most prominent heterochromatin domains ...
LC: light chain). (D) SPIN1 and uL18 co-localize in the nucleolus. H1299 cells were transfected with GFP-SPIN1 and Flag-uL18 ... cells, but not in HCT116p53-/-cells. Using these cell lines for cell viability assays, we observed that SPIN1 ablation more ... Cell viability assay. Request a detailed protocol To assess the long-term cell survival, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) ( ... Cell suspensions were seeded at 2000 cells per well in 96-well culture plates at 12 hr post-transfection. Cell viability was ...
Histopathological analysis of the biopsy showed sheets of epithelioid cells with prominent nucleoli and vesicular cells on a ... A) High power 400×. Haematoxylin and eosin stain showing epithelioid cells and vesicular cells and pigment. (B) Medium power ... Yazici B, Setzen G, Meyer DR, et al. Giant cell angiofibroma of the nasolacrimal duct. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2001;17:202- ... vaccination with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with allogenic tumour lysate, and whole body hyperthermia accompanied by low ...
The cells show high nuclear variation, thickened nuclear envelopes and occasional prominent nucleoli. The cells also have ... The tumor cells show increased nuclear size, prominent nucleoli and are forming tubular structures. TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ ... The tumor cells form acini, small sack like spaces surrounded by malignant glandular cells. STOMACH (GASTRIC) CANCER osms.it/ ... The tumor cells form tubular structures and are surrounded by fibrosis. TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Fluoropyrimidine-based ...
... cells and nucleoli were shrunken, microvilli appeared on the cell membrane surface, apoptotic bodies appeared around the ... HT-29 cells were seeded into a 96-well culture plate at 5000 cells/well for 16 h for attachment. The cells were then treated ... Figure 5 Gambogic acid increases the expression of caspase-9, -8 and -3 mRNAs in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were treated for 48 h ... Figure 6 Effects of gambogic acid on the expression of apoptosis-related factors in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were treated with ...
  • Close-ups of cell nuclei in a human cell culture: HMGB1 protein (green) is usually found throughout the nucleus (dotted line). (mpg.de)
  • Endocervical smear: sheet of atypical cells of glandular type with enlarged nuclei and a regular chromatin pattern. (iarc.fr)
  • Using histone-fluorescent parental isolates, we tracked male and female nuclei during fertilisation in the model ascomycetes Neurospora crassa using live-cell-imaging. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Higher magnification showing enlarged vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, indistinct cell borders, and the inflammatory component. (webpathology.com)
  • The term mitosis refers specifically to the process whereby the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell splits into two identical daughter nuclei prior to cell division. (visionlearning.com)
  • In other cases the two nuclei place themselves side by side, the nuclear membrane between them disappears, and the contents fuse togethernuclear thread with nuclear thread, and nucleolus with nucleolusso completely that the separate constituents of the nuclei are not visible. (yourdictionary.com)
  • These acids are found in the nuclei of cells and help to synthesize proteins, replicate cells, store and transmit cellular information, and govern the cell's chemical processes. (yourdictionary.com)
  • c) Cells with abundant granular to glassy cytoplasm and nuclei with coarse irregularly distributed chromatin and macroprominent nucleoli (Pap, ×40). (cytojournal.com)
  • however, the presence of large rhabdoid cells and tissue fragments of round to oval hyperchromatic nuclei with scant cytoplasm cells excluded adenocarcinoma. (cytojournal.com)
  • Histologic examination revealed a hypercellular tumoral proliferation formed by large atypical monomorphic cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant light eosinophilic cytoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • Histopathological analysis of the biopsy showed sheets of epithelioid cells with prominent nucleoli and vesicular cells on a routine haematoxylin and eosin stain (fig 3). (bmj.com)
  • The background comprises prominent eosinophils with plasma cells and small lymphocytes. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The superficial epithelium is characterized by hyperkeratosis, a thickening of the granular cell layer, and enlarged squamous cells containing a large open nucleus, with an accompanying prominent nucleolus. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells are larger than in CLL, with a prominent central nucleolus . (yourdictionary.com)
  • As the researchers found out, BPTAS is caused by a special genetic change that causes an essential protein to migrate to the nucleolus, a large proteinaceous droplet in the cell nucleus. (mpg.de)
  • This protein has the task of organizing the genetic material in the cell nucleus and facilitates the interaction of other molecules with the DNA, for example to read genes. (mpg.de)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows positivity in nucleus but not nucleoli, plasma membrane, nor cytoplasm. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • But what all these life forms have in common is that their genetic code is copied from cell to cell thanks to the process of mitosis, whereby the nucleus of a cell splits into two before the cell divides. (visionlearning.com)
  • Chromosomes are made of a material called chromatin, which is dispersed throughout the cell nucleus during interphase. (visionlearning.com)
  • Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus . (yourdictionary.com)
  • The nucleolus is elongated, and its longest measurement lies in the direction of the equatorial plane of the nucleus. (yourdictionary.com)
  • In the earlier accepted notion of direct segmentation, usually known as the schema of Remak, division was described as commencing in the nucleolus , as thereafter spreading to the nucleus, and as ultimately implicating the cell-substance. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The ORF3 protein also enters the cell nucleus, specifically targeting the nucleolus . (yourdictionary.com)
  • This latter feature differentiates Trichamoeba from the otherwise similar Saccamoeba which has a nucleus with a single large nucleolus . (yourdictionary.com)
  • the chromatin and the nuclear-cellular ratio (N/C) of each plasma cell. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional phosphoprotein localized predominantly within the nucleoli of eukaryotic cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Students will know the names and functions of the major organelles found in eukaryotic cells. (ti.com)
  • Mitochondria exist in most eukaryotic cells and play a very important role in oxidative metabolism by generating ATP as an energy source. (dojindo.com)
  • Haematoxylin and eosin stain showing epithelioid cells and vesicular cells and pigment. (bmj.com)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-251MG shows positivity in cytoplasm. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, most of the tumor was more cellular, consisting of closely-spaced, overlapping, anaplastic round cells with scant cytoplasm and readily identifiable mitotic activity. (pathologyoutlines.com)
  • Membraneless intracellular compartments formed through liquid-liquid phase separation from the surrounding CYTOPLASM or nucleoplasm or by the concentration of proteins and nucleic acids into droplets as they aggregate on static cellular structures such as CELL MEMBRANES. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nucleolar components involved in ribosome biogenesis cycle between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm in interphase cells. (yourdictionary.com)
  • We believe the answer is probable, since some of the systemic disease clinical manifestations of COVID-19 cannot be explained solely by the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins with cell membranes of tissues that exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (frontiersin.org)
  • The most commonly stained cell components are cell membranes, proteins, and nucleotides. (dojindo.com)
  • Small neutral molecules and positively charged molecules can pass through viable cell membranes and remain inside of cells, depending on their reactivity or hydrophilicity. (dojindo.com)
  • Negatively charged molecules cannot pass through viable cell membranes. (dojindo.com)
  • Ester can pass through viable cell membranes, where it is hydrolyzed by cellular esterases into a negatively charged molecule under physiological conditions. (dojindo.com)
  • These compounds are neutral molecules that pass through cell membranes and covalently conjugate with cell proteins. (dojindo.com)
  • CFSE is also an ester compound that passes through viable cell membranes. (dojindo.com)
  • MitoRed and Rh123 readily pass through cell membranes and accumulate in mitochondria. (dojindo.com)
  • Cell membranes of viable cells are impermeable to these fluorescent dyes,except for the Hoechst dyes, and these dyes can therefore be used as fluorescent indicators of dead cells. (dojindo.com)
  • Hoechst dyes are positively charged under physiological conditions and can pass through viable cell membranes. (dojindo.com)
  • Acute tip re-orientation occurred only in cells where forward growth was countered by hyphal friction sufficient to generate a tip force of ∼ 8.7 μN (1.2 MPa), more than that required to penetrate host-cell membranes. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The particular EMG1 gene mutation known to cause Bowen-Conradi syndrome is thought to make the protein unstable, resulting in a decrease in the amount of EMG1 protein that is available in the nucleolus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a PhD student with Alex Brand in the Aberdeen Fungal Group and a post-doc with Rob Arkowitz in Nice, I generated novel techniques via cross-faculty approaches to define previously-impossible-to-measure live-cell applied-forces and fluorescent protein dynamics within invasive pathogenic fungi against tissue-soft substrates. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Genes Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body or the code for functional ribonucleic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Only a few tumours have been reported originating from this location including lymphoma, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma, 2 adenocarcinoma, 3 angiofibroma, 4 and squamous cell carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma. (cytojournal.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was excluded since the spindle cells that are present in this case look different from pleomorphic cells such as "tadpole" and "fiber" cells that are seen particularly in keratinizing type of SCC. (cytojournal.com)
  • which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is evidence that cell proliferation in Spitz nevi, as in other types of nevi and in melanoma, is primarily mediated by activating mutations affecting genes in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAP kinase pathway. (medscape.com)
  • However, the sequential fungal cell biology of fertilisation and the associated nuclear dynamics after plasmogamy are poorly understood. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In most cell types chromocenters are attached to the nuclear lamina or to nucleoli. (cipsm.de)
  • The nucleolus appears to form a part of t-he Linin network, but has usually also a strong affinity for nuclear stains. (yourdictionary.com)
  • I, B) out of which is evolved the nucleolus and nuclear network (figs. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Histopathological examination of the tumor mass revealed an admixture of spindle cells and epithelioid cells. (cytojournal.com)
  • Microscopy: two core biopsies of skeletal muscle and fibrous tissue which are infiltrated by a lymphoid proliferation comprising large malignant cells. (radiopaedia.org)
  • SPIN1 ablation activates p53, suppresses cell growth, reduces clonogenic ability, and induces apoptosis of human cancer cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • To investigate the effect of gambogic acid (GA) on apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. (wjgnet.com)
  • Cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Hoechst 33342 staining, and quantified by flow cytometry. (wjgnet.com)
  • The proper regulation and spatial organization of heterochromatin is crucial for a broad range of cellular processes, ranging from gene silencing to maintenance of genomic integrity and cell division. (cipsm.de)
  • Testing of IgG autoantibodies to human cellular antigens was performed by the HEp-2 cell immunofluorescence assay using slides from INOVA Diagnostics, San Diego, CA (Cat # 508100) following the manufacturer's instructions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Warburg effect is the enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate observed in tumor cells, even in the presence of normal levels of oxygen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The tumor cells are bland, spindled or round, and lie within a myxoid matrix. (pathologyoutlines.com)
  • Tumor cells were arranged in solid sheets [Fig. 2(A)]. Numerous mitosis and necrosis were observed. (medscape.com)
  • Some cells replicate faster and others slower, and the entire process can be interrupted. (visionlearning.com)
  • Some of which are mummified and some have large nucleoli. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The large cells are also positive with MUM1. (radiopaedia.org)
  • MUM1 is positive for BCL6 is negative within these large cells. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Ki67 shows a high proliferation rate within the malignant large cells. (radiopaedia.org)
  • d) Large bizarre cells with strap-like, rhabdoid morphology (Pap, ×20). (cytojournal.com)
  • [ 1 ] Several subtypes of medulloblastoma have been recognized including: (1) desmoplastic/nodular type, (2) medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, (3) large-cell variant, and (4) anaplastic medulloblastoma. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant proliferation showing large monomorphic cells with some epithelioid (A1E/AE3) or angiocentric aspects without clear vascular differentiation. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization recognizes some variations of osteosarcoma, which differ in location, clinical presentation and level of cell atypia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluorescent esterase substrates may also be used in cell viability assays in place of tetrazolium analogs such as MTT or WST. (dojindo.com)
  • Relative cell viability was assessed using MTT assays. (wjgnet.com)
  • Positively charged molecules are usually cell membrane permeable and accumulate in mitochondria. (dojindo.com)
  • Since it has an amine-reactive succinimidyl group, fluorescein derived from CFSE can covalently bond to proteins or other amino groups in the cell or on the cell membrane. (dojindo.com)
  • Human cells have a surface membrane (called the cell membrane) that holds the contents together. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, this membrane is not just a sac, it is an active participant in the life of a cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The membrane controls what chemicals and other substances can enter and leave the cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The membrane also has receptors that identify the cell to other cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Various activities and structures of a cell can be targeted for staining with fluorescent compounds (Fig. 1). (dojindo.com)
  • Scientists in the preceding years had already been seeing faint structures in cells , but their dyes were not good enough to reveal what any of these structures did. (visionlearning.com)
  • Throughout the 19th century, as microscopes developed, scientists had been seeing clues of structures in dividing cells of eukaryotes . (visionlearning.com)
  • Unfortunately, the dyes killed the cells, and since the structures under the microscope were difficult to see as it was, Flemming's forerunners weren't sure they were seeing anything characteristic of a live, functional cell. (visionlearning.com)
  • The patient received 20 sessions of radiotherapy (50 Gy) to the right maxillary antrum, and also immunological therapy (vaccination with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with allogenic tumour lysate, and whole body hyperthermia accompanied by low dose interferon). (bmj.com)
  • WB: Wild type HAP1, HEK293, A431, wild-type A549 and wild-type Jurkat whole cell lysate. (abcam.com)
  • This cell, the zygote, divides many times, and as it divides, the descendant cells develop different characteristics and functions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Synonyms include Spitz's nevus, Spitz tumor, and spindle and epithelioid cell nevus. (medscape.com)
  • Pigmented spindle cell nevus (Reed nevus) is regarded by most authorities as a clinically and histologically distinct variant of Spitz nevus. (medscape.com)
  • These esterase substrates, therefore, can serve as assay probes of cell viability. (dojindo.com)
  • Although the typical size is about 0.5-2 mm, the shape, abundance, and location of mitochondria vary by cell type, cell cycle, and cell viability.Therefore, visualization of mitochondra is important. (dojindo.com)
  • This immunophenotype excluded a carcinoma, a lymphoid, melanocytic, germ cell, or neuroglial proliferation, and the diagnosis of sellar and suprasellar epithelioid angiosarcoma was made. (medscape.com)
  • Immunological cell death (ICD) is correlated with chemoresistance. (bvsalud.org)
  • H-29 cells were used for in vitro experiments in this study. (wjgnet.com)
  • All compounds were evaluated for their estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cells in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results showed that compounds 1-4 significantly promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, and the proliferation was antagonized by the specific ER antagonist ICI182,780, suggesting that compounds 1-4 might have the estrogen-like effect in vitro potentially. (bvsalud.org)
  • In vitro primary neuronal cells were obtained from the hippocampus of rat embryos and were treated with CORT, and MAD2B overexpression was performed using lentivirus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tissues and Organs Tissues are related cells that are joined together. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The average number of mitochondria per cell is from 100 to 2,000. (dojindo.com)
  • This killed the cells, just as the earlier dyes had killed the cells of other laboratory animals. (visionlearning.com)
  • In Cell Division I: The Cell Cycle , we learned that Flemming observed how chromosomes became visible in patterns that repeated each time the cells of fire salamanders divided. (visionlearning.com)
  • Ester is a suitable functional group for staining viable cells. (dojindo.com)
  • Human cells vary in size, but all are quite small. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In addition to human cells, the human body has foreign cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To evaluate the survival of patients according to plasma cell morphology. (bvsalud.org)
  • Visualization of a cell with fluorescent compounds provides a wide variety of information for the analysis of cell functions. (dojindo.com)
  • Succinimidyl ester compounds can also be used to improve retention of the fluorescent derivative within the cell. (dojindo.com)
  • Nucleotide staining with fluorescent intercalators is mostly used for dead cell detection. (dojindo.com)
  • Once converted into fluorescent products by esterase, these compounds are retained by cells because of their negative charges. (dojindo.com)
  • Fluorescent staining using CTC is another method used to detect viable bacterial cells. (dojindo.com)
  • The nucleolus shows an unstainable point at the centre known as the endonucleolus or nucleoluolus (Auerbach). (yourdictionary.com)
  • The rate at which mitosis occurs depends on the cell type. (visionlearning.com)
  • low mitotic rate TYPES ▪ Embryonic origin of GI tract (e.g. foregut, midgut, hindgut) Foregut tumors (e.g. stomach) ▪ Type I ▫ Most common ▫ Originates from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells ▫ In association with high gastrin levels secondary to chronic atrophic gastritis ▫ Small, usually benign ▪ Type II ▫ Originates from ECL cells ▫ In association with high gastrin levels induced by gastrinomas (e.g. (osmosis.org)
  • Objective: To identify the different types of plasma cells in multiple myeloma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Each plasma cell was identifid by the letter P followed by 3 digits. (bvsalud.org)
  • intermediate plasma cells and mature plasma cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Morphological aspects of plasma cells of 55 cases of multiple myeloma from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed in two laboratories in Kinshasa. (bvsalud.org)
  • increased levels of aberrant and immature plasma cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The integration of these aberrant and immature plasma cells in the definitions of survival groups showed that the group of good responders represented 38.2 of patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: We found a great number of aberrant and immature plasma cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Students will be able to contrast different cell types (plant and animal cells), based on their structure and function. (ti.com)
  • We observed a significant increase in IFN-γ-producing CD8 + T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent mice that repeatedly aspirated A. fumigatus conidia in contrast to mice challenged with A. versicolor , a species that is not typically associated with invasive, disseminated disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Covalently conjugated molecules can stay in the cell for several weeks. (dojindo.com)
  • Calcein and BCECF can be converted into electrically neutral molecules by the addition of acetyl or acetoxymethyl groups to their phenolic OH or carboxylic groups, which allows them to freely permeate into the cell. (dojindo.com)
  • I joined the MRC CMM in 2021 as Senior Experimental Officer to support the CMM teams with experimental, technological and analytical know-how to visualise and measure how fungal pathogens respond, regulate and impinge on host model organisms at the single-cell level. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Some cells, such as blood cells, move freely in the blood and are not attached to each other. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Intrinsic cardiac neuronal somata varied in size and shape, up to 36% containing multiple nucleoli. (nih.gov)
  • The body is composed of many different types of cells, each with its own structure and function. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Airway IFN-γ + CD8 + T-cells were decreased and lung germination was eliminated in mice that aspirated A. fumigatus conidia that were formaldehyde-fixed or heat-inactivated. (cdc.gov)
  • The advantage of this method is very quick detection and the possibility of detecting VNC (viable but non-culturable) bacterial cells. (dojindo.com)
  • Neutrophilia may result from a shift of cells from the marginal to the circulating pool (shift neutrophilia) without an increase in the total blood granulocyte pool (TBGP) or from a true increase in TBGP size (true neutrophilia). (medscape.com)
  • During early infection, the neutrophil count may actually decrease briefly because of margination of cells from the blood. (medscape.com)
  • This is followed rapidly by egress of cells from the marrow, resulting in an increase in the TBGP and blood neutrophilia. (medscape.com)
  • After the egg and sperm join together (fertilization), the fertilized egg is just a single cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Compare with normal columnar cells. (iarc.fr)
  • This effect is due to the depth and density of the pigmented cells (or melanin granule dispersion) and the physical properties of light absorption and reflection described by the Tyndall light phenomenon or effect. (medscape.com)
  • Nucleoli are occasionally visible. (iarc.fr)