Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Endodermal Sinus Tumor: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)Mesonephroma: A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Uveal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.LondonFellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saudi ArabiaCell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (1/2190)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Differential transcriptional activity associated with chromatin configuration in fully grown mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. (2/2190)

It was previously shown that fully grown ovarian germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes of adult mice exhibit several nuclear configurations that differ essentially by the presence or absence of a ring of condensed chromatin around the nucleolus. These configurations have been termed, respectively, SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (nonsurrounded nucleolus). Work from our and other laboratories has revealed ultrastructural and functional differences between these two configurations. The aims of the present study were 1) to analyze the equilibrium between the SN and the NSN population as a function of the age of the mice and the time after hCG-induced ovulation and 2) to study the polymerase I (pol I)- and polymerase II (pol II)-dependent transcription in both types of oocytes through the detection of bromouridine incorporated into nascent RNA. We show 1) that ovarian GV oocytes exhibiting the SN-type configuration can be found as soon as 17 days after birth in the C57/CBA mouse strain and 2) that the SN:NSN ratio of ovarian GV oocytes is very low just after hCG-induced ovulation and then increases progressively with the time after ovulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SN configuration correlates strictly with the arrest of both pol I- and pol II-dependent transcription in mice at any age. Finally, we show that ribosomal genes are located at the outer periphery of the nucleolus in the NSN configuration and that pol I-dependent perinucleolar transcription sites correspond to specific ultrastructural features of the nucleolus. Altogether, these results provide clear-cut criteria delineating transcriptionally active GV oocytes from those that are inactive, and confirm that the SN-type configuration is mostly present in preovulatory oocytes.  (+info)

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (3/2190)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

Structure and functions of nucleolin. (4/2190)

Nucleolin is an abundant protein of the nucleolus. Nucleolar proteins structurally related to nucleolin are found in organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals. The association of several structural domains in nucleolin allows the interaction of nucleolin with different proteins and RNA sequences. Nucleolin has been implicated in chromatin structure, rDNA transcription, rRNA maturation, ribosome assembly and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Studies of nucleolin over the last 25 years have revealed a fascinating role for nucleolin in ribosome biogenesis. The involvement of nucleolin at multiple steps of this biosynthetic pathway suggests that it could play a key role in this highly integrated process.  (+info)

Gene expression and chromatin organization during mouse oocyte growth. (5/2190)

Mouse oocytes can be classified according to their chromatin organization and the presence [surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes] or absence [nonsurrounded nucleolus (NSN) oocytes] of a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin around the nucleolus. Following fertilization only SN oocytes are able to develop beyond the two-cell stage. These studies indicate a correlation between SN and NSN chromatin organization and the developmental competence of the female gamete, which may depend on gene expression. In the present study, we have used the HSP70.1Luc transgene (murine HSP70.1 promoter + reporter gene firefly luciferase) to analyze gene expression in oocytes isolated from ovaries of 2-day- to 13-week-old females. Luciferase was assayed on oocytes after classification as SN or NSN type. Our data show that SN oocytes always exhibit a higher level of luciferase activity, demonstrating a higher gene expression in this category. Only after meiotic resumption, metaphase II oocytes derived from NSN or SN oocytes acquire the same level of transgene expression. We suggest that the limited availability of transcripts and corresponding proteins, excluded from the cytoplasm until GVBD in NSN oocytes, could explain why these oocytes have a lower ability to sustain embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage at which major zygotic transcription occurs. With this study we have furthered our knowledge of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in oogenesis.  (+info)

Nuclear and nucleolar targeting of human ribosomal protein S25: common features shared with HIV-1 regulatory proteins. (6/2190)

The nuclear and nucleolar targeting properties of human ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) were analysed by the expression of epitope-tagged RPS25 cDNAs in Cos-1 cells. The tagged RPS25 was localized to the cell nucleus, with a strong predominance in the nucleolus. At the amino terminus of RPS25, two stretches of highly basic residues juxtapose. This configuration shares common features with the nucleolar targeting signals (NOS) of lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators, including human immunodeficiency viruses' (HIV) Rev proteins. Deletion and site-directed mutational analyses demonstrated that the first NOS-like stretch is dispensable for both nuclear and nucleolar localization of RPS25, and that the nuclear targeting signal is located within the second NOS-like stretch. It has also been suggested that a set of continuous basic residues and the total number of basic residues should be required for nucleolar targeting. Signal-mediated nuclear/nucleolar targeting was further characterized by the construction and expression of a variety of chimeric constructs, utilizing three different backbones with RPS25 cDNA fragments. Immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated a 17 residue peptide of RPS25 as a potential nuclear/nucleolar targeting signal. The identified peptide signal may belong to a putative subclass of NOS, characterized by compact structure, together with lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators.  (+info)

Expression of the transcriptional repressor protein Kid-1 leads to the disintegration of the nucleolus. (7/2190)

The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two Cys2His2-zinc finger clusters of four and nine zinc fingers at the COOH terminus. It was the first KRAB-zinc finger protein for which a transcriptional repressor activity was demonstrated. Subsequently, the KRAB-A domain was identified as a widespread transcriptional repressor motif. We now present a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein is targeted to the nucleolus and adheres tightly to as yet undefined nucleolar structures, leading eventually to the disintegration of the nucleolus. The tight adherence and nucleolar distribution can be attributed to the larger zinc finger cluster, whereas the KRAB-A domain is responsible for the nucleolar fragmentation. Upon disintegration of the nucleolus, the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor disappears from the nucleolar fragments. In the absence of Kid-1, the KRIP-1 protein, which represents the natural interacting partner of zinc finger proteins with a KRAB-A domain, is homogeneously distributed in the nucleus, whereas coexpression of Kid-1 leads to a shift of KRIP-1 into the nucleolus. Nucleolar run-ons demonstrate that rDNA transcription is shut off in the nucleolar fragments. Our data demonstrate the functional diversity of the KRAB and zinc finger domains of Kid-1 and provide new functional insights into the regulation of the nucleolar structure.  (+info)

The beta4 integrin interactor p27(BBP/eIF6) is an essential nuclear matrix protein involved in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly. (8/2190)

p27(BBP/eIF6) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that was originally identified as p27(BBP), an interactor of the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta4 and, independently, as the putative translation initiation factor eIF6. To establish the in vivo function of p27(BBP/eIF6), its topographical distribution was investigated in mammalian cells and the effects of disrupting the corresponding gene was studied in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In epithelial cells containing beta4 integrin, p27(BBP/eIF6) is present in the cytoplasm and enriched at hemidesmosomes with a pattern similar to that of beta4 integrin. Surprisingly, in the absence and in the presence of the beta4 integrin subunit, p27(BBP/eIF6) is in the nucleolus and associated with the nuclear matrix. Deletion of the IIH S. cerevisiae gene, encoding the yeast p27(BBP/eIF6) homologue, is lethal, and depletion of the corresponding gene product is associated with a dramatic decrease of the level of free ribosomal 60S subunit. Furthermore, human p27(BBP/eIF6) can rescue the lethal effect of the iihDelta yeast mutation. The data obtained in vivo suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of p27(BBP/eIF6) in ribosome biogenesis or assembly rather than in translation. A further function related to the beta4 integrin subunit may have evolved specifically in higher eukaryotic cells.  (+info)

In ATT, a human autoimmune serum, we found anti-nucleolar antibodies that recognized nucleolar antigens confined to a single nucleolar compartment, the dense fibrillar component (DFC). We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and cryoultrathin sections without embedding. The antigens were solubilized by incubation with 2M NaCl but not by RNase or DNase treatment. The ATT serum crossreacted with rat liver nucleoli and PtK1 cell nucleoli in which immunofluorescence labelling displayed a clumpy pattern. During mitosis, the antigens dispersed in the cytoplasm until late telophase, when they gathered in the prenucleolar bodies. In human peripheral lymphocytes, or HeLa cells treated with actinomycin D, the antigens were still present but the fluorescence intensity decreased. By immunoblotting using human nuclear extracts, the ATT serum bound to a 116,000 Mr protein at dilutions up to 1:2000. The reactivity of this band diminished ...
in Journal of Cell Science (1993), 105 ( Pt 1). The precise distribution of DNA and RNA within the human Sertoli cell nucleolus has been investigated, at the ultrastructural level, by cytochemical and molecular immunocytochemical techniques. In Sertoli ... [more ▼]. The precise distribution of DNA and RNA within the human Sertoli cell nucleolus has been investigated, at the ultrastructural level, by cytochemical and molecular immunocytochemical techniques. In Sertoli cells, the nucleolar components show a typical spatial distribution. The fibrillar centres are not surrounded by a layer of dense fibrillar component, but come in contact only with strands of dense fibrillar component. These fibrillar parts of strands are the extensions of granular strands connected to a large granular mass. These strands delimit numerous nucleolar interstices in which chromatin fibres are clearly obvious. Using the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase/immunogold procedure for detecting DNA, we find ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fractions of HeLa DNA differing in their content of guanine + cytosine. AU - Schildkraut, Carl L.. AU - Maio, Joseph J.. PY - 1969/12/14. Y1 - 1969/12/14. N2 - DNA isolated from preparations of HeLa cell nucleoli has been fractionated into six components which band in CsCl at densities corresponding to their G + C contents according to the relation: ρ{variant} = 0.98 (G + C) + 1.659, where ρ{variant} refers to buoyant density and (G + C) to the average mole fraction of guanine + cytosine. This nucleolar DNA is significantly enriched with respect to two satellite bands: a light satellite (ρ{variant} = 1.686 g/ml.) and a heavy satellite (ρ{variant} = 1.712 g/ml.). In an alkaline CsCl density gradient, the light satellite DNA can be separated into two complementary strands, as demonstrated by base composition analysis.. AB - DNA isolated from preparations of HeLa cell nucleoli has been fractionated into six components which band in CsCl at densities corresponding to their G + C ...
The nature and localization of DNA contained in the fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component (the fibrillar complex) in the nucleoli, was studied in human LEP cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia A and in mitotic chromosomes of stimulated lymphocytes. A novel procedure for isolating the intact fibrillar complex from LEP cells was used; the complex contains DNA that hybridizes to secondary constrictions of mitotic chromosomes and to 28 S rDNA sequences, on Southern blots. Electron microscopic DNA-DNA in situ hybridization was performed, with (a) a probe prepared from DNA extracted from the fibrillar complex of LEP cells, (b) a probe for human total genomic DNA, and (c) a probe for the transcribed part of human rDNA. On the basis of the results obtained we conclude that the ribosomal RNA genes in human Sertoli cells and spermatogonia A are predominantly associated with the dense fibrillar component, including the border region between fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component. ...
The higher proliferation rate of cancer cells requires an increased rate of protein synthesis. Thus, cancer cells often show increased rates of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription and have more ribosomes and larger nucleoli, which are nuclear structures that function in ribosome biogenesis. Neumüller et al. identified genes in yeast that, when ablated, resulted in smaller or larger nucleoli. A similar analysis in Drosophila enabled the identification of evolutionarily conserved molecular complexes that increase or decrease nucleolar size when the complex constituents were targeted by RNA interference. Understanding how cells regulate rDNA transcription could provide new therapeutic avenues for interfering with the unrestricted growth that occurs in cancer.. ...
The reconstruction of the nucleolus after mitosis was analyzed by electron microscopy in cultured mammalian (L929) cells in which nucleolar RNA synthesis was inhibited for a 3 h period either after or before mitosis. When synchronized mitotic cells were plated into a concentration of actinomycin D sufficient to block nucleolar RNA synthesis preferentially, nucleoli were formed at telophase as usual. 3 h after mitosis, these nucleoli had fibrillar and particulate components and possessed the segregated appearance characteristic of nucleoli of actinomycin D-treated cells. Cells in which actinomycin D was present for the last 3 h preceding mitosis did not form nucleoli by 3 h after mitosis though small fibrillar prenucleolar bodies were detectable at this time. These bodies subsequently grew in size and eventually acquired a particulate component. It took about a full cell cycle before nucleoli of these cells were completely normal in appearance. Thus, nucleolar RNA synthesis after mitosis is not ...
Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization procedures have led to enormous progress in the visualization of the spatial organization and dynamics of transcription and RNA‐processing machinery in eukaryotic cells. It is well established that the nucleus is a highly organized structure composed of many different territories, subdomains and organelles (Lamond and Earnshaw, 1998). A state‐of‐the‐art account of the nuclear architecture of plant cells was given by P.Shaw (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK). Mapping of the RNA polymerase I transcription and rRNA processing sites, using different pre‐rRNA, snoRNA and nucleolar protein probes, indicates that the plant cell nucleolus is organized as a series of concentric layers in which transcription and successive rRNA processing reactions occur. As in vertebrate cells, plant cells contain coiled bodies (CBs), nuclear organelles of still poorly defined function. Since CB components include several small RNAs, and also proteins related to ...
The rat liver nucleolus, after fragmentation induced by ethionine treatment, has been found to undergo complete reformation by adenine in the presence of a dose of cycloheximide sufficient to cause inhibition of protein synthesis by 90-95%. In contrast, actinomycin D given along with adenine was followed by the appearance of a small compact mass containing only the fibrillar component with no evident granules. This structure resembled pseudonucleoli seen in the anucleolate mutant of Xenopus laevis or in certain early stages of amphibian oocytes. Actinomycin D administered 2 hr after adenine induced a segregation of the fibrillar and granular components of nucleoli similar to that induced in the normal nucleolus. The implications of these findings in relation to nucleolar organization are briefly discussed.. ...
Previous reports have shown that Wee1 degradation can be suppressed by activation of the G2/M checkpoint in the presence of DNA damage (12) that also causes nucleolar disruption (6). Therefore, it is possible that depletion of NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF induces DNA damage, which in turn causes nucleolar disruption as well as Wee1 accumulation via G2/M checkpoint activation. To test this hypothesis, we examined the levels of Chk1 phosphorylation at Ser317 (Chk1-pS317), a marker of G2/M checkpoint activation, and γH2A.X, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. The Chk1-pS317 signal was undetectable for cells with nucleolar disruption caused by depletion of NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF, whereas the signal was clear for cells treated with etoposide, which induces DNA damage and G2/M checkpoint activation (fig. S7A). Furthermore, NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF depletion caused nucleolar disruption but did not increase γH2A.X signal, even though etoposide treatment increased it (fig. S7B). In addition, neither the ...
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The NF-κB transcription factor is one of the most important regulators of the cellular life/death balance and its aberrant activation is associated with cancer ( 4). Therefore, identifying mechanisms for switching off aberrant NF-κB activity could have a major therapeutic benefit. Here, we reveal a novel pathway for down-regulating NF-κB transcriptional activity and inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells that involves activation of the p38 pathway, inhibition of the cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase complex, and consequent nucleolar targeting of RelA. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the complexities of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, these findings have considerable relevance to understanding the mechanisms of chemoprevention and cancer therapeutics.. The data presented here provide evidence that p38-mediated inhibition of cyclin D1/CDK4 stimulates the NF-κB pathway to induce nucleolar sequestration of RelA. This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, p38 was rapidly ...
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This family represents the N-terminal region of Pescadillo. Pescadillo protein localises to distinct substructures of the interphase nucleus including nucleoli, the site of ribosome biogenesis. During mitosis pescadillo closely associates with the periphery of metaphase chromosomes and by late anaphase is associated with nucleolus-derived foci and prenucleolar bodies. Blastomeres in mouse embryos lacking pescadillo arrest at morula stages of development, the nucleoli fail to differentiate and accumulation of ribosomes is inhibited. It has been proposed that in mammalian cells pescadillo is essential for ribosome biogenesis and nucleologenesis and that disruption to its function results in cell cycle arrest [1]. This family is often found in conjunction with a PF00533 domain. ...
The precise location of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis within the nucleolus is the subject of recent controversy; some investigators have detected nascent RNA in the dense fibrillar components (DFCs) while others have localized transcription to the f
Author Summary Eukaryotic genomes are compartmentalized within nuclei such that physiological events, including transcription and DNA replication, can efficiently occur. The mechanisms that regulate this organization represent an exciting, and equally enigmatic, subject of research. In mammals, the identification of elements that influence these associations has been impeded by the complex nature of the genomes. Here, we report the identification and characterization of such an element. We demonstrate that the integration of a 5S rDNA gene, a 119 base pair noncoding RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III, into a new genomic location can significantly influence the association of the host region with the nucleolus. This positioning has drastic, inhibitory effects on the transcription of a neighboring protein coding gene transcribed by RNA polymerase II, demonstrating a functional relationship between localization and gene expression. We also provide data that suggest this may be an endogenous phenomenon,
In the interphase cell nucleus, the ribosomal genes are located in the fibrillar centers and in the associated dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus (Hernandez-Verdun, 1983; 1986; Goessens,...
Definition of nucleolus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is nucleolus? Meaning of nucleolus as a legal term. What does nucleolus mean in law?
The interphase nucleus exists as a highly dynamic system, the physical properties of which have functional importance in gene regulation. Not only can gene expression be influenced by the local sequence context, but also by the architecture of the nucleus in three-dimensions (3D), and by the interactions between these levels via chromatin modifications. A challenging task is to resolve the complex interplay between sequence- and genome structure-based control mechanisms. Here, we created a collection of 277 Arabidopsis lines that allow the visual tracking of individual loci in living plants while comparing gene expression potential at these locations, via an identical reporter cassette. Our studies revealed regional gene silencing near a heterochromatin island, via DNA methylation, that is correlated with mobility constraint and nucleolar association. We also found an example of nucleolar association that does not correlate with gene suppression, suggesting that distinct mechanisms exist that ...
Location of the nucleolar ribosomal chromatin at telophase: as the nucleolus becomes active the ribosomal chromatin and associated ribonucleoprotein transcripts compose the more peripherally located dense fibrillar component
The present study clearly demonstrates that DOX-induced acute cardiac toxicity was significantly exacerbated in Mrp1−/− mice. Whereas morphometric analysis of electron micrographs of the heart showed significant damage to the mitochondria and the cytoplasm after DOX treatment, consistent with previous findings (Yen et al., 1996), this injury was not different in the two genotypes. In contrast, the nucleus showed significantly more damage after DOX treatment of Mrp1−/− mice, with fragmentation of the nucleolus, segregation of granular and fibrillar components, and condensation of nucleoli with compacted chromatin. The nucleolus is the primary site of transcription, assembly, and processing of cellular RNA (Antoniali et al., 2014), with a tripartite organization that reflects the different steps of ribosomal biogenesis. RNA polymerase I transcription starts in the fibrillar center, with the dense fibrillary component the site of initial stages of pre-rRNA processing and a granular ...
Viruses are suspected of significant roles in autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms are unclear. We get some insight by considering demands a virus places on host cells. Viruses require production of their own proteins, RNA and/or DNA, but also production of additional cellular machinery, such as ribosomes, to handle the increased demands. Since the nucleolus is a major site of RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly, nucleoli are targeted by viruses, directly when viral RNA and proteins enter the nucleolus and indirectly when viruses induce increased expression of cellular polyamine genes. Polyamines are at high levels in nucleoli to assist in RNA folding. The size and activity of nucleoli increase directly with increases in polyamines. Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. Sudden expression of a large concentration of Alu elements from the disrupted
The present invention is concerned with granular components comprising an enzyme, specified polymeric binding material, and a mixture of coating components. The granular components are particularly suitable for use in detergent compositions.
The nucleus in plants and animals is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined subregions or suborganelles. These include the nucleolus, interphase chromosome territories and coiled bodies. We have visualized transcription sites in plants at both light- and electron-microscopy level by the incorporation of BrUTP. In the nucleolus many dispersed foci are revealed within the dense fibrillar component, each of which probably corresponds to a single gene copy. In the nucleoplasm there are also many dispersed foci of transcription, but not enough to correspond to one site per transcribed gene. We have shown that in wheat, and probably many other plant species, interphase chromosome territories are organized in a very regular way, with all the chromosomes in the Rabl configuration, all the centromeres clustered at the nuclear membrane and all the telomeres located at the nuclear membrane on the opposite side of the nucleus. However, despite this regular, polarized structure, there is no
The polarity is related to the number of cytoplasmic processes projecting from the perikaryon. Many neurons are multipolar and, typically, one axon and many dendrites extend from the perikaryon (Fig. 1). Some neurons in the brain and ventral regions (horns) of the spinal cord are multipolar. g. the eye) and they have two cytoplasmic processes, one an Cell body (perikaryon) Dendrites Nucleus Dendrite Nucleolus Cytoplasm Myelin sheath Node of Ranvier Interruption indicating variable length Axon terminal Skeletal muscle cell Fig. If connective tissue is damaged, it may be repaired by the ability of fibroblasts to undergo mitosis and to synthesise new matrix. If fibroblasts are actively secreting matrix proteins, their appearance is changed: their nuclei are larger and relatively palely stained and nucleoli are apparent (Chapter 3, see Fig. 2). This appearance is a result of the activity of the DNA (and nucleolus) in the synthetic processes which produce new molecules for the extracellular matrix. ...
The nucleolus is found in the nucleus of a cell and appears as a dark spherical region when seen through a microscope. The nucleolus is one of the largest physical structures within the nucleus and...
The nucleolus is a cellular structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Some cells have several nucleoli, which work as a...
To investigate the function of the nucleolar protein Nop2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we constructed a strain in which NOP2 is under the control of a repressible promoter. Repression of NOP2 expression lengthens the doubling time of this strain about fivefold and reduces steady-state levels of 60S ribosomal subunits, 80S ribosomes, and polysomes. Levels of 40S subunits increase as the free pool of 60S subunits is reduced. Nop2p depletion impairs processing of the 35S pre-rRNA and inhibits processing of 27S pre-rRNA, which results in lower steady-state levels of 25S rRNA and 5.8S rRNA. Processing of 20S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA is not significantly affected. Processing at sites A2, A3, B1L, and B1S and the generation of 5 termini of different pre-rRNA intermediates appear to be normal after Nop2p depletion. Sequence comparisons suggest that Nop2p may function as a methyltransferase. 2-O-ribose methylation of the conserved site UmGm psi UC2922 is known to take place during processing of 27S ...
A comprehensive overview of the diversity of nucleolar function Data presented comes from a wide spectrum of species Leading edge studies presented shed
Nucleolar localization of U4 and U5 snRNAs does not depend on U6 snRNA. Fluorescein-labeled U4 or U5 snRNA were injected into the nuclei of Xenopus oocytes that
Reversible static detention of VHL and MDM2 by the nucleolar architecture. MCF7 cells were transfected to express GFP-tagged MDM2 (A), B23 (B), or VHL (C-G) a
Nucleus vs Nucleolus Every organism has the most basic component of life, which is the cell, and in almost all cells there is the nucleus. The nucleus is found
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Differential screening of entire cell proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) often leads to the identification of several differentially expressed but functionally unrelated target...
Principal Investigator:FUJIWARA Tateki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:General fisheries
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The lymph nodes have been grossly abnormal, sound, nodular masses (Figure 1C), from which a contact preparing confirmed little, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and outstanding nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment confirmed effacement of ordinary architecture by irregular, crowded nests of compact, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia containing atypical nuclei had been existing within the periphery of your nests (Determine 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and calculated 5 to 6 μm in diameter (marginally more compact than the usual human purple cell), with nuclei that were roughly two to three μm in diameter. Occasional cells ended up markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei that contains multiple nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes ended up grossly irregular, reliable, nodular masses (Determine 1C), from which a touch preparation confirmed modest, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and notable nucleoli (Figure 1D). Histologic assessment showed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of little, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia that contains atypical nuclei had been present for the periphery of the nests (Figure 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and calculated five to six μm in diameter (marginally smaller than the usual human purple mobile), with nuclei that were somewhere around two to three μm in diameter. Occasional cells were markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei containing many nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes were grossly irregular, stable, nodular masses (Determine 1C), from which a touch preparing showed little, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and outstanding nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment confirmed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of small, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia made up of my response atypical nuclei ended up existing with the periphery on the nests (Determine 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and measured 5 to 6 μm in diameter (slightly lesser than the usual human crimson cell), with nuclei that were approximately 2 to 3 μm in diameter. Occasional cells were markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei get more made up of several nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes were being grossly abnormal, reliable, nodular masses (Figure 1C), from which a touch preparing confirmed tiny, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and distinguished nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment showed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of smaller, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia containing atypical nuclei ended up present within the periphery from the nests (Determine 1F). The individual cells had scant cytoplasm and measured five to six μm in diameter (a bit scaled-down than the usual human pink mobile), with nuclei that were about 2 to 3 μm in diameter. Occasional cells ended up markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei containing multiple nucleoli (Figure 1G ...
Université de Liège - ULg , Services généraux (Faculté des sciences) , Relations académiques et scientifiques (Sciences) ,] ...
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On 17 August 1940, Flying Officer John Nine Gun Coghlan, from Southsea and of 56 Squadron RAF, was killed in France. He was 25.
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Nucleoli are usually stained as small, slightly elongated circles in the nucleus. The number and shape of the nucleoli depend a lot on the cell type. Some proteins localize to the rim of the nucleolus, which is visible as a thin circle around the nucleolus.. The staining for fibrillar center and/or dense fibrillar components appears as a spotty cluster in most cell lines but can also appear as a single, bigger spot in other cell lines.. Read more about the proteome of the nucleoli.. ...
Digestive organs result from the endoderm. subunit (SSU) processome. The nucleolus is definitely a subnuclear structure that exhibits dynamic morphological changes during cell cycle. The nucleolus serves as the site for rRNA biosynthesis, processing and maturation, and also as the site for assembly of ribosome large and small subunit [15]. Rabbit Polyclonal to UBE2T Therefore, disruption of the nucleolus function is normally detrimental to a cell [15]. Recently, evidence has shown that some nucleolar factors are also essential for organogenesis during embryogenesis. For example, loss-of-function of confers small eyes and hypoplastic digestive organs [16] and mutation leads to neurodegeneration [17] in zebrafish. In this work, we sought to address the question how Def, as a nucleolar factor, regulates organogenesis of digestive organs in zebrafish. We focused on a specific question: can Defs function in the liver be uncoupled from that in the exocrine pancreas and intestine? Does Def regulate ...
Rabbit antibodies to RNA polymerase I from a rat hepatoma have been used to localize the enzyme in a variety of cells at the light and electron microscopic level. In interphase cells the immunofluorescence pattern indicated that polymerase I is contained exclusively within the nucleolus. That this fluorescence, which appeared punctated rather than uniform, represented transcriptional complexes of RNA polymerase I and rRNA genes was suggested by the observation that it was enhanced in regenerating liver and in a hepatoma and was markedly diminished in cells treated with actinomycin D. Electron microscopic immunolocalization using gold-coupled second antibodies showed that transcribed rRNA genes are located in, and probably confined to, the fibrillar centers of the nucleolus. In contrast, the surrounding dense fibrillar component, previously thought to be the site of nascent pre-rRNA, did not contain detectable amounts of polymerase I. During mitosis, polymerase I molecules were detected by ...
A Robertsonian translocation 45,XY, t(13q; 14q) was detected in the leukocyte cultures of a phenotypically normal male. Silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions revealed that both acrocentrics involved in the translocation had lost their nucleolus organizers.
Nucleostemin, a protein found in the nucleoli of highly proliferative cells (such as stem cells and some cancer cell lines), may help regulate cell proliferation. Tsai and McKay, who previously identified nucleostemin, have now investigated the mechanisms whereby it is targeted to the nucleolus. The authors used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and inverse FRAP (iFRAP) to show that nucleostemin tagged with green fluorescent protein shuttled rapidly and bidirectionally between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm of cultured CHO and U2 OS cells. Mutation of a GTP-binding motif (G1) that blocked the ability of nucleostemin to bind GTP also blocked its nucleolar localization, as did deletion of an N-terminal basic (B) domain. FRAP, together with further mutational analysis, indicated that GTP binding relieved the inhibitory action of a domain between G1 and the C terminal on nucleolar localization of the B domain and was required for long-term retention of nucleostemin in the nucleus. ...
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that controls cell proliferation and survival downstream of integrin-matrix receptors. However, under deprivation of anchorage, FAK translocates to the nucleus. The nucleolus, a non-membrane structure within the nucleus, is important in the control of ribosome biogenesis, regulates the sequestration of nuclear proteins, and increased nucleolar size is a marker of aggressive tumors. Nucleostemin, a nucleolar-localized protein, acts to modulate cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent cell growth. Although many drugs have low efficacy on tumor cells cultured in suspension, nanomolar small molecule FAK inhibitor (PF-271 or PND-1186) addition can prevent anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells as spheroids through mechanism(s) that remain unresolved. Here, we show that pharmacological FAK inhibitor (FAK-I) treatment or kinase-dead (KD) FAK re-expression analyses reduced breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1-L) anchorage-independent ...
Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents. The nuclear organelle, the nucleolus, is emerging as a central regulator of transcription factor activity and cell growth and death. Nucleolar function is dysregulated in the majority of cancers which promotes cancer growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Hence, this
The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis but how its developmental activity is regulated is largely unknown. We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain-containing protein HICp40 and that this is associated with their proliferation and continuing self-renewal. However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak) and released into the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the molecular switch that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. In this brief discussion we examine the wider implications of these findings and address some of the unanswered questions that remain.
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were st
The pharmacologic inhibition of RNA Pol I is becoming a potentially important therapeutic strategy in cancer (7, 19, 23). The therapeutic index using Pol I inhibition relies at least in part on the fact that tumor cells are often found to be in an anabolic state, with higher levels of ribosome biosynthesis than their corresponding normal counterparts (7, 9, 43). A validated assay that can determine whether there is indeed an increase in Pol I activity in routinely obtained tissue specimens, as well as a similarly applicable pharmacodynamic marker of target inhibition, would be a valuable companion diagnostic for such therapeutic trials.. We developed a CISH assay to examine the level of expression of the 5′ETS/45S rRNA gene in routinely processed human clinical tissue FFPE specimens. In contrast to the highly stable 18S/28S rRNA, the 5′ETS region is processed cotranscriptionally and is short-lived, and hence well suited for use as a marker for Pol I transcription activity (17). As of now, we ...
As cells mature, from the most immature or blast cell to the final mature stage, they undergo numerous biochemical, structural and metabolic changes. The cytologic features of cells, as observed on Wrights stained peripheral blood and bone marrow smears, reflect such biochemical and structural developments. The general features of cell differentiation are common to most blood cells. Immature cells have delicate, fine nuclear chromatin which gradually becomes coarsely clumped or condensed. The size of the nucleus decreases; nucleoli are reduced in number or lost completely as in red cells. The nuclear shape which is initially round or oval may become uniquely confirgured as in myeloid cells. Mitotic competence is lost as cells differentiate.. ...
Cell proliferation is a crucial cellular process which influences development. In plants, meristems are formed by actively proliferating cells, in which the main expression of proliferation is the existence of a cell division cycle. Many cell activities are influenced by the cell proliferation status and cell cycle progression, among them ribosome biogenesis, which is morphologically expressed as the nucleolus. The connection is established through nucleolar proteins, which regulate the synthesis and processing of preribosomal precursors and, at the same time, are targets of various cell cycle regulators, such as certain kinases. Nucleolin is one of these nucleolar proteins, whose level increases with cell proliferation and depends on the cell cycle stages. Not only the levels, but also other important features of the protein, such as its distribution in situ in the nucleolus, its phosphorylation and its physiological degradation, depend on these parameters. Furthermore, since the nucleolar ...
This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the forkhead-associated domain of the Ki-67 antigen. The encoded protein may bind RNA and may play a role in mitosis and cell cycle progression. Multiple pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 5, 10, 12, 15, and 19.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009 ...
Definition of chromatin nucleolus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
L3: medium to large homogenous cells with moderate cytoplasm that is intensely basophilic with prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles; at least one prominent nucleoli (may be 2-4), round to oval nucleus, finely stippled homogenous chromatin, cytologically identical to Burkitt s and Burkitt s like lymphoma (small noncleaved); has mature phenotype (i.e. expresses surface immunoglobulin); fat vacuoles are Sudan black+, Oil red O+ and PAS -; cytoplasm is methyl green-pyronine ...
Abstract :. Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs/IDRs) constitute about one third of protein sequence space in humans and enable complex conformational and functional behaviors that underlie diverse biological processes. IDPs can function in the context of discrete multi-component assemblies but recently have been shown to undergo phase separation for form mesoscale cellular structures such as membraneless organelles and transcriptionally silent regions of chromatin. Due to their heterogeneous and transient conformations, IDPs/IDRs are challenging to characterize at atomic resolution, making it difficult to establish detailed "disorder-function relationships". We will discuss our multidisciplinary strategies toward understanding the roles of protein disorder in regulation of apoptosis and cell division, nucleolar structure and function, and interactions with small molecules. A key goal is to illustrate the diversity and uniqueness of disorder-function relationships. ...
Compared with nucleolar proteins, proteins concentrated in splicing speckles have a more complex architecture, with half of the proteins containing two or more recognizable conserved motifs or domains. The domain that occurs most commonly amongst proteins in the splicing speckles is the RNA recognition motif RRM (25/65 proteins) (Table II). This is an abundant motif in the human proteome (http://www.ensembl.org/IPtop500.html). Despite the fact that the nucleolus is also involved in (ribosomal) RNA processing, RRM domains are not that abundant amongst published nucleolar proteins (3/97), but instead a more diverse array of other RNA‐binding motifs (e.g. KH and RGG domains) appears to be utilized by these proteins. Half of the splicing proteins with RRM(s) also contain an RS domain. RS domain‐containing proteins are abundant amongst splicing proteins (21/65) (Mintz et al., 1999; Sutherland et al., 2001). Despite the functional relationship between Cajal bodies and splicing proteins, only one ...
NPM1 - NPM1 (untagged)-Human nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) (NPM1), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The lymph nodes were being grossly irregular, reliable, nodular masses (Figure 1C), from which a contact preparation confirmed small, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli (Figure 1D). Histologic examination confirmed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of small, atypical cells (Figure 1E). Syncytia that contains atypical nuclei have been existing in the periphery of your nests (Determine 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and calculated five to six μm in diameter (marginally smaller than the usual human pink cell), with nuclei which were somewhere around 2 to three μm in diameter. Occasional cells ended up markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei containing a number of nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
Plasmid pYNL-C1_fibrillarin from Dr. Yasushi Okadas lab contains the insert fibrillarin and is published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 7;112(14):4352-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418468112. Epub 2015 Mar 23. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script. It was generated because a ref change was pushed to the repository containing the project pdl. The branch, master has been updated via e3d159110c14776aac179e687718fad0ba72f363 (commit) via 7f8c26570999383c49ebc4dfc309ca8e10ef49b1 (commit) via 726bacdafde2832b10931b5ce2ddfdd526213429 (commit) from dd1d3f8a2e01d5266374313cb7ce4e3d8e3d4ab9 (commit) Those revisions listed above that are new to this repository have not appeared on any other notification email; so we list those revisions in full, below. - Log ----------------------------------------------------------------- commit e3d159110c14776aac179e687718fad0ba72f363 Author: Derek Lamb ,[email protected], Date: Thu Feb 28 23:24:59 2013 -0700 Add pdl executable to .gitignore commit 7f8c26570999383c49ebc4dfc309ca8e10ef49b1 Author: Derek Lamb ,[email protected], Date: Thu Feb 28 23:22:10 2013 -0700 Update Known_problems with RAST to PNM conversion error in Netpbm. No workaround in the test suite, ...
Polyclonal antibody for B23/NPM1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. B23/NPM1 information: Molecular Weight: 32575 MW; Subcellular Localization: Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm
Polyclonal antibody for HDM2/MDM2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. HDM2/MDM2 information: Molecular Weight: 55233 MW; Subcellular Localization: Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus.
Animal Cell Anatomy - EnchantedLearning.com A Labeled Diagram of the Animal Cell and its Organelles Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells, which means they possess a true nucleus. The cell nucleus is a sphericalshaped body encompassing a nucleolus, chromosomes with DNA, nucleoplasm and some other organelles with the help. ...
Sie sind hier: Subcellular recruitment of fibrillarin to nucleoplasmic proteasomes: Implications for processing of a nucleolar autoantigen. ...
Common variant: intermediate-sized lymphocyte, high N/C ratio, round or irregular nuclear contour, moderately condensed chromatin, prominent central nucleoli, deeply basophilic cytoplasm with protrusions, no ...
can somebody tell me what is inside a nucleus and a nuleolus?hello? . A nucleus has three main components: the nucleolus, the chromatin and the nuc...
Staub E, Fiziev P, Rosenthal A, Hinzmann B; , Bioessays 2004;26:567-581.: Insights into the evolution of the nucleolus by an analysis of its protein domain repertoire. PUBMED:15112237 EPMC:15112237. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoclonal antibody to a nucleolar antigen of human B-lymphoblastoid cells. AU - Todorov, I. T.. AU - Philipova, R. N.. AU - Zhelev, N. Z.. AU - Hadjiolov, A. A.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of rRNA transcription with Actinomycin D caused redistribution of the 41 5.6 antigen, but even at long term drug action it remains associated with the nucleolar remnants.. AB - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of ...
Introduction. The yak (Bos grunniens) is an important domestic animal on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, where they number more than 13 million, constituting about 90% of the world yak population. Yaks are an important resource for farm products such as meat, milk, fibre and hides and they are also used as beasts of burden.. In most vertebrates, the pineal body is located on the roof of the diencephalon. It has nervous and endocrine properties (Jin et al. 2003). It secretes mainly melatonin at night and plays an important role in regulation of the seasonal reproductive function of animals and affects the age of sexual maturity in mammals (Lerner, Case & Takahashi 1960; Luboshitzky & Lavie 1999). Inclusion bodies in pinealocytes of the mammalian pineal gland have been described in man, as in other mammals, in previous studies (Calvo et al. 1988; Cozzi & Ferrandi 1984; Koshy & Vettivel 2001; Meyer-Arendt & Santamarina 1956). These inclusion bodies may represent nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs), mineral ...
Page contains details about silicon-on-insulator embedded silicon germanium channel system . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The experiments in the previous section established that in CDC14-CFP MOB1-YFP cells, Cdc14p was released from the nucleolus and Mob1p bound to SPBs at the same time (Fig. 5 D). We did not observe any cells (n , 200) in which Mob1p was already at SPBs while Cdc14p was still in the nucleolus. In fact, ∼5% of early anaphase cells showed Cdc14p, but not Mob1p, at SPBs (unpublished data). This observation suggests that Cdc14p dissociates from Net1p shortly before Tem1p activation. In turn, this implies that MEN activity is not essential for the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus. If this is the case, then the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus should still occur in cells where the MEN is defective. To test this possibility, the resident nucleolar protein Net1p, which forms a complex with Cdc14p (Shou et al., 1999; Visintin et al., 1999), was fused to CFP in wild-type, cdc5-10, cdc15-1, and dbf2-2 cells that contained CDC14-YFP. We then monitored the localization of Cdc14p-YFP ...
Although the complex process of ribosome assembly in the nucleolus is beginning to be understood, little is known about how the ribosomal subunits move from the nucleolus to the nuclear membrane for transport to the cytoplasm. We show here that large ribosomal subunits move out from the nucleolus and into the nucleoplasm in all directions, with no evidence of concentrated movement along directed paths. Mobility was slowed compared with that expected in aqueous solution in a manner consistent with anomalous diffusion. Once nucleoplasmic, the subunits moved in the same random manner and also sometimes visited another nucleolus before leaving the nucleus.
PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class small molecule clinical candidate capable of disrupting the perinucleolar compartment, a subnuclear structure unique to metastatic cancer cells. This study aims to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metarrestin and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of metarrestin-regulated markers. METHODS: PK studies included the administration of single or multiple dose of metarrestin at 3, 10, or 25 mg/kg via intravenous (IV) injection, gavage (PO) or with chow to wild-type C57BL/6 mice and KPC mice bearing autochthonous pancreatic tumors. Metarrestin concentrations were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacodynamic assays included mRNA expression profiling by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for KPC mice. RESULTS: Metarrestin had a moderate plasma clearance of 48 mL/min/kg and a large volume of distribution of 17 L/kg at 3 mg/kg IV in C57BL/6 mice. The oral bioavailability after single-dose (SD) treatment was , 80%. In KPC mice treated with SD 25 mg/kg PO, plasma ...
View Notes - Exam 2 BIO from BIOL 1101 at Gainesville State. Exam 2 1. a. ribosomes b. nucleoid region c. nuclear envelope d. organelles e. nucleolus 2. a. prokaryote; a nucleoid region b.
The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish body stained with eosin
Buy Proteins of the Nucleolus (9789400758179): Regulation, Translocation, & Biomedical Functions: NHBS - Danton H ODay, Andrew Catalano, Springer-Verlag
Home » The nucleolar protein Viriato/Nol12 is required for the growth and differentiation progression activities of the Dpp pathway during Drosophila eye ...
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Balakin,A.G. et al. The RNA world of the nucleolus:Two major families of small RNAs defined by different box elements with related functions. Cell 86:823-834 (1996 ...
We present a general framework which can handle probabilistic versions of several classical models such as Petri nets, lossy channel systems, push-down aut
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Nucleus: The nucleus is the "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cells DNA, which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle, but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. Within the nucleus there are dense bodies called nucleoli, which contain ribosomal RNA. In eukaryotes, the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope ...
Cell Surface membrane. - Triliminar - 3 layers. - a partially permeable barrier controlling the exchange between the cell and its environment.. - act as recptors for hormones, neurotransmitters. - allow compartments to be formed inside the cell. Nucleus. - chromosomes contain DNA, the molecule of inheritance. DNA oraganised into genes which controls all the activities of the cell. - nuclear envelope - regulates the flow of substances in and out of the nucleus. - nucleolus…. ...
The nuclear material is DNA which is without histone proteins. It is naked (in direct contact with cytoplasm) and called as a nucleoid or genophore. They contain a single chromosome. Nucleolus and Nuclear membrane absent ...
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Synthesis of the ribosomal subunits from pre-rRNA requires a large number of trans-acting proteins and small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles to execute base modifications, RNA cleavages, and structural rearrangements. We have characterized a novel protein, RNA-binding domain-1 (RBD-1), that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. This protein contains six consensus RNA-binding domains and is conserved as to sequence, domain organization, and cellular location from yeast to human. RBD-1 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans. In the dipteran Chironomus tentans, RBD-1 (Ct-RBD-1) binds pre-rRNA in vitro and anti-Ct-RBD-1 antibodies repress pre-rRNA processing in vivo. Ct-RBD-1 is mainly located in the nucleolus in an RNA polymerase I transcription-dependent manner, but it is also present in discrete foci in the interchromatin and in the cytoplasm. In cytoplasmic extracts, 20-30% of Ct-RBD-1 is associated with ribosomes and, preferentially, with the 40S ribosomal subunit. Our data suggest that ...
0043] As used herein, the term "instructions for using said kit for characterizing cancer in a subject" includes instructions comprising the statement of intended use required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in labeling in vitro diagnostic products. The FDA classifies in vitro diagnostics as medical devices and required that they be approved through the 510(k) procedure. Information required in an application under 510(k) includes: 1) The in vitro diagnostic product name, including the trade or proprietary name, the common or usual name, and the classification name of the device; 2) The intended use of the product; 3) The establishment registration number, if applicable, of the owner or operator submitting the 510(k) submission; the class in which the in vitro diagnostic product was placed under section 513 of the FD&C Act, if known, its appropriate panel, or, if the owner or operator determines that the device has not been classified under such section, a statement of that ...
|p|Dyskeratosis congenita 1, dyskerin,is a member of the H/ACA snoRNPs (small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins). The H/ACA snoRNPs also include the NOLA1, 2 and 3 proteins. The protein encoded by this gene and the three NOLA proteins localize to the dense fibrillar components of nucleoli and to coiled (Cajal) bodies in the nucleus. Both 18S rRNA production and rRNA pseudouridylation are impaired if any one of the four proteins is depleted. The protein encoded by this gene is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cbf5p and Drosophila melanogaster Nop60B proteins. The gene lies in a tail-to-tail orientation with the palmitoylated erythrocyte membrane protein (MPP1) gene and is transcribed in a telomere to centromere direction. Both nucleotide substitutions and single trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms have been found in this gene.|/p|
Most mammalian snoRNAs are encoded within the introns of pre-mRNA genes. The majority of snoRNAs are released from the pre-mRNA via a splicing-dependent pathway, while some are processed via endonucleolytic cleavage of the pre-mRNA. The remaining mammalian snoRNAs, such as U3, U8 and U13, are expressed from independent genes and contain an m3G cap structure (9, 30, 43, 52). The biogenesis of box C/D snoRNAs takes place in the nucleoplasm, where the nascent transcribed RNAs are processed, assembled into RNPs, and transported to the nucleolus. The box C/D motif has been shown to be essential for each of these steps in snoRNP biogenesis. This RNA element is a protein binding site that has been proposed to participate in both the biogenesis and function of snoRNAs via the selective recruitment of specific box C/D binding factors (9, 41, 52).. Four common core proteins are associated with the mature snoRNP, namely, fibrillarin (Nop1p in yeast), NOP56, NOP58, and the 15.5K protein (Snu13p in yeast) ...
Schuldt, A. (2002). "Proteomics of the nucleolus". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (2): E35. doi:10.1038/ncb0202-e35. PMID 11835055. ... This phenomenon is demonstrated during the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, paraspeckles are present during interphase and during ... 2005). "Regulating gene expression through RNA nuclear retention". Cell. 123 (2): 249-63. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.033. PMID ... paraspeckles are now known to also exist in all human primary cells, transformed cell lines and tissue sections. Their name is ...
... to explore the functions of key proteins and molecular mechanisms in cell biology. Live cell imaging and proteomic studies have ... Boulon, Séverine; Westman, Belinda J.; Hutten, Saskia; Boisvert, François-Michel; Lamond, Angus I. (2010). "The Nucleolus under ... The Centre is also investigating how DNA is tightly wound and compacted so that it can fit into the nuclei of eukaryotic cells ... The Centre aims to enhance our understanding of how genes are regulated at both the single cell and whole organism level. ...
The nucleolus, which makes ribosomes in the cell, also disappears. Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach ... In animal cells, a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. In plant cells, a ... Some G0 cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle. In plant cells only, prophase is preceded by a pre-prophase stage. ... New cells are formed by mitosis and so are exact copies of the cells being replaced. In like manner, red blood cells have short ...
"PML regulates p53 stability by sequestering Mdm2 to the nucleolus". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (7): 665-72. doi:10.1038/ncb1147. ... "Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ... ARF sequesters Mdm2 in the nucleolus, resulting in inhibition of nuclear export and activation of p53, since nuclear export is ... Ivanchuk SM, Mondal S, Rutka JT (June 2008). "p14ARF interacts with DAXX: effects on HDM2 and p53". Cell Cycle. 7 (12): 1836-50 ...
"PML regulates p53 stability by sequestering Mdm2 to the nucleolus". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (7): 665-72. doi:10.1038/ncb1147. ... PML-NB distribution and concentration changes as the cell moves through the cell cycle. In G0 phase, few sumoylated PML-NBs are ... thus providing a means of modulating PML protein lability within the cell. PML is translated in the cytoplasm of the cell, but ... PML inactivation may cause cells to favor tumor progression by allowing the cell to accumulate additional genetic damage. Many ...
The gene expression patterns that define cell identity are inherited through cell division. This process is called epigenetic ... The transcription of rRNA genes takes place in a specialised structure of the nucleus called the nucleolus, where the ... Cell. 127 (5): 941-954. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.023. PMC 1876690 . PMID 17129781. Wang, D.; Bushnell, D. A.; Huang, X.; ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.10.016. Wang, Dong; Bushnell, David A.; Westover, Kenneth D.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kornberg, Roger D. ( ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Molecular Cell. 6 (6): 1331-42. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00131-3. PMID 11163207. Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 157 (4): 615-29. doi:10.1083/jcb.200201120. PMC 2173864 . PMID 12011111. Watkins NJ, Dickmanns A, ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a transcription factor required for T-cell expression of the interleukin 2 gene. ... Shin HJ, Kim SS, Cho YH, Lee SG, Rho HM (Mar 2002). "Host cell proteins binding to the encapsidation signal epsilon in ... Langland JO, Kao PN, Jacobs BL (May 1999). "Nuclear factor-90 of activated T-cells: A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... "Molecular analysis of the human chromosome 5q13.3 region in patients with hairy cell leukemia and identification of tumor ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... "Che-1 affects cell growth by interfering with the recruitment of HDAC1 by Rb". Cancer Cell. 2 (5): 387-99. doi:10.1016/s1535- ... "Che-1 affects cell growth by interfering with the recruitment of HDAC1 by Rb". Cancer Cell. 2 (5): 387-99. doi:10.1016/S1535- ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. AATF protein, human at the US National Library of ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. WDR12 participates in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation ... Depletion of WDR12 severely inhibits cell proliferation. It is observed that WDR12 siRNA silencing in vitro resulted in ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 170 (3): 367-78. doi:10.1083/jcb.200501141. PMC 2171466 . PMID 16043514. Rohrmoser M, Hölzel M, ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... that encodes a protein highly homologous to the mouse cell cycle protein p38-2G4". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 78 (1): 31-5 ... which varies with the cell cycle". Experimental Cell Research. 220 (2): 434-45. doi:10.1006/excr.1995.1335. PMID 7556453. ... This protein is also a transcriptional corepressor of androgen receptor-regulated genes and other cell cycle regulatory genes ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, ... Nature Cell Biology. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, ... Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP (August 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Nature Cell Biology. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond ... Nature Cell Biology. 8 (11): 1277-83. doi:10.1038/ncb1490. PMID 17041588. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, ... Mortensen P, Mann M (Nov 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J, Gygi SP ( ... Hu YH, Warnatz HJ, Vanhecke D, Wagner F, Fiebitz A, Thamm S, Kahlem P, Lehrach H, Yaspo ML, Janitz M (June 2006). "Cell array- ... V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Nature Cell Biology. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Yamamoto K, Yamamoto M, Hanada K, Nogi Y, Matsuyama T, ...
"Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 4100-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271 ... Experimental Cell Research. 259 (1): 239-46. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.4948. PMID 10942595. Brickner AG, Warren EH, Caldwell JA, ... deduced by analysis of randomly sampled cDNA clones from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1". DNA Research. 1 (1): 27-35. ... deduced by analysis of randomly sampled cDNA clones from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1 (supplement)". DNA Research. 1 ( ...
effects on nucleolar number/cell, volume/nucleolus and total nucleolar volume/cell". Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 42 ( ... leading to the idea that ERCs lead to shorter lifespan of cells. The ERC accumulate in the mother cell during the budding ... The Sgs1 gene mutations in yeast mother cells were shown to have accelerated aging, suggesting their function to cellular ... They determined that the generation of ERCs negatively influence the life spans of grande (cells with fully functional ...
"The Isolation and Composition of Cell Nuclei and Nucleoli". In Chargaff, Erwin; Davidson, J.N. The Nucleic Acids: Chemistry and ... After the end of World War II, he focussed on studying cell nuclei and particularly the isolation of intact nuclei from tissue ... early draft of original article) Dounce, A. L.; Monty, K. J.; Pate, S. (1954). "Gel formation of cell nuclei isolated by ... This allows for tissue and cells to be lysed by shear stress while leaving the smaller organelles intact. Dounce homogenizers ...
This type of modifying RNA is located in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells. It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and ... ACA30 was originally cloned from HeLa cells and belongs to the H/ACA box class of snoRNAs based on its structure and the ...
It is found within the nucleolus that binds p53. Nucleostemin regulates the cell cycle and affects cell differentiation, ... Tsai RY, McKay RD (Dec 2002). "A nucleolar mechanism controlling cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells". Genes Dev ... "A nonribosomal landscape in the nucleolus revealed by the stem cell protein nucleostemin". Mol. Biol. Cell. 16 (7): 3401-10. ... It is a marker for many stem cells and cancer cells. GNL3 has been shown to interact with Mdm2 and P53. GRCh38: Ensembl release ...
In mammals, the nucleolus of the oocyte is derived solely from maternal cells. The nucleolus, a structure found within the ... The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, ... Heasman, J. (2006). Maternal determinants of embryonic cell fate. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 17, 93-98. Song J., Slack J.M. (1994 ... 2005). Germ-layer specification and control of cell growth by Ectodermin, a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase. Cell. 121, 87-99. Birsoy B ...
"The cytoplasmic zinc finger protein ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 9 ... "Interaction of ZPR1 with translation elongation factor-1alpha in proliferating cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (6): ... Gangwani L (December 2006). "Deficiency of the zinc finger protein ZPR1 causes defects in transcription and cell cycle ... "Vav family proteins couple to diverse cell surface receptors". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (17): 6364-73. doi:10.1128/ ...
Cells are small with dark staining nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. Blastema is absent whereas calcospherites may be present ... tumour cells were reactive for Leu7 in 3 cases of 5, to vimentine in 4 of 6, to cytocheratin in 2 of 6, to epithelial membrane ... stated that genetic analysis of chromosome 7, 17, and Y may facilitate discrimination of MA from papillary renal cell carcinoma ... The symptoms may be similar to those classically associated with renal cell carcinoma, and may include polycythemia, abdominal ...
... is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the modification of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). This type of modifying RNA is usually located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell which is a major site of snRNA biogenesis. It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and also often referred to as a guide RNA. snoRNA MBII-202 belongs to the C/D box class of snoRNAs which contain the conserved sequence motifs known as the C box (UGAUGA) and the D box (CUGA). Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs. snoRNA MBII-202 was originally cloned from mouse brain tissues. Galardi, S.; Fatica, A.; Bachi, A.; Scaloni, A.; Presutti, C.; Bozzoni, I. (October 2002). "Purified Box C/D snoRNPs Are Able to Reproduce Site-Specific 2'-O-Methylation of Target RNA in Vitro". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6663-6668. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.19.6663-6668.2002. PMC 134041 . PMID ...
Small nucleolar RNA RZ107/R87 refers to a group of related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules which function in the biogenesis of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are modifying RNAs and usually located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell which is a major site of snRNA biogenesis. These two snoRNAs R87 and Z107 were identified in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana[1] and rice Oryza sativa[2] respectively. These related snoRNAs are predicted to belong to the C/D box class of snoRNAs which contain the conserved sequence motifs known as the C box (UGAUGA) and the D box (CUGA). Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs.[3] ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CD3EAP gene. CD3EAP has been shown to interact with T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain, POLR1E and POLR1C. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117877 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047649 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Yamazaki T, Hamano Y, Tashiro H, Itoh K, Nakano H, Miyatake S, Saito T (Jul 1999). "CAST, a novel CD3epsilon-binding protein transducing activation signal for interleukin-2 production in T cells". J Biol Chem. 274 (26): 18173-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.26.18173. PMID 10373416. Whitehead CM, Winkfein RJ, Fritzler MJ, Rattner JB (Mar 1998). "ASE-1: a novel protein of the fibrillar centres of the nucleolus and nucleolus organizer region of mitotic chromosomes". Chromosoma. 106 (8): 493-502. doi:10.1007/s004120050271. PMID 9426281. Yamamoto K, Yamamoto M, Hanada ...
... is a gene that codes for the protein Tubulin beta-1 chain in humans. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101162 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016255 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: TUBB1 tubulin, beta 1". Watts NR, Sackett DL, Ward RD, et al. (2000). "HIV-1 Rev Depolymerizes Microtubules to Form Stable Bilayered Rings". J. Cell Biol. 150 (2): 349-60. doi:10.1083/jcb.150.2.349. PMC 2180222 . PMID 10908577. Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, et al. (2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. PMID 11780052. Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, et al. (2002). "Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus". Curr. Biol. 12 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00650-9. PMID 11790298. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and ...
Common mode failure has a more specific meaning in engineering. It refers to events which are not statistically independent. Failures in multiple parts of a system may be caused by a single fault, particularly random failures due to environmental conditions or aging. An example is when all of the pumps for a fire sprinkler system are located in one room. If the room becomes too hot for the pumps to operate, they will all fail at essentially the same time, from one cause (the heat in the room).[6] Another example is an electronic system wherein a fault in a power supply injects noise onto a supply line, causing failures in multiple subsystems. This is particularly important in safety-critical systems using multiple redundant channels. If the probability of failure in one subsystem is p, then it would be expected that an N channel system would have a probability of failure of pN. However, in practice, the probability of failure is much higher because they are not statistically independent; for ...
Gamma-interferon-inducible protein Ifi-16 (Ifi-16) also known as interferon-inducible myeloid differentiation transcriptional activator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFI16 gene. This gene encodes a member of the HIN-200 (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with 200 amino acid repeats) family of cytokines. The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The protein localizes to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli, and interacts with p53, retinoblastoma-1 and BRCA1. It modulates p53 function, and inhibits cell growth in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. IFI16 has been shown to play a role in the sensing of intracellular DNA - a hallmark of virally infected cells - and has also been linked to the death of HIV-infected helper CD4 T cells by proptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Jadierko alebo bunkové jadierko alebo nukleolus (lat. nucleolus) je bunková organela resp. časť jadra s najväčšou proteosyntetickou aktivitou. Vyskytuje sa vo väčšine jadier eukaryotických buniek.[1] Je to silne svetlolomná štruktúra, ktorá sa intenzívne farbí, najmä zásaditými farbivami, a preto ju možno pozorovať aj pod svetelným mikroskopom. Jadierko nepredstavuje samostatnú bunkovú organelu v pravom zmysle slova, ale je produktom chromozómu. Nie je trvalou súčasťou jadra, mizne v profáznom štádiu mitózy a k jeho rekonštrukcii dochádza až v telofáze. Svojimi fyzikálnochemickými vlastnosťami sa odlišuje od hmoty jadra, od ktorej nie je oddelené žiadnou membránou. Geneticky a morfologicky je jadierko spojené s chromozómami. Tvar jadierka je guľovitý, eliptický alebo aj nepravidelný. Počet jadierok kolíše od jedného k trom. V mnohých druhoch buniek sa vo vnútri jadierka nachádza ešte menšia, ťažko farbiteľná, dynamická guľovitá ...
The Allen Mouse and Human Brain Atlases are projects within the Allen Institute for Brain Science which seek to combine genomics with neuroanatomy by creating gene expression maps for the mouse and human brain. They were initiated in September 2003 with a $100 million donation from Paul G. Allen and the first atlas went public in September 2006. As of May 2012[update], seven brain atlases have been published: Mouse Brain Atlas, Human Brain Atlas, Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, Developing Human Brain Atlas, Mouse Connectivity Atlas, Non-Human Primate Atlas, and Mouse Spinal Cord Atlas.[citation needed] There are also three related projects with data banks: Glioblastoma, Mouse Diversity, and Sleep.[citation needed] It is the hope of the Allen Institute that their findings will help advance various fields of science, especially those surrounding the understanding of neurobiological diseases. The atlases are free and available for public use online. In 2001, Paul Allen gathered a group of scientists, ...
A brain atlas is composed of serial sections along different anatomical planes of the healthy or diseased developing or adult animal or human brain where each relevant brain structure is assigned a number of coordinates to define its outline or volume. Brain atlases are contiguous, comprehensive results of visual brain mapping and may include anatomical, genetical or functional features. In most atlases, the three dimensions are: latero-lateral (x), dorso-ventral (y) and rostro-caudal (z). The possible sections are coronal saggital transverse Surface maps are sometimes used in addition to the 3D serial section maps Besides the human brain, brain atlases exist for the brains of the mouse, rhesus macaques, Drosophila and others. Notable examples include the Allen Brain Atlas, BrainMaps, and BigBrain. neuroanatomy stereotaxy Stereotaxic atlas connectome "NeuroMaps Viewer". Neuromaps.braininfo.org:8180. Retrieved 2016-01-30. "The Human Brain · Atlas of the Human Brain · www.thehumanbrain.info · ...
The design and production of Atlas was overseen by the DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense, in cooperation with Boston Dynamics. One of the robot's hands was developed by Sandia National Laboratories, while the other was developed by iRobot[2]. In 2013, DARPA program manager Gill Pratt compared the prototype version of Atlas to a small child, saying that "a 1-year-old child can barely walk, a 1-year-old child falls down a lot ... this is where we are right now"[1]. Atlas is based on Boston Dynamics' earlier PETMAN humanoid robot, and has four hydraulically-actuated limbs[3]. Constructed of aluminum and titanium, it stands approximately 5.9 feet tall, weighs 330 pounds (150 kg), and is illuminated with blue LEDs[1][3]. Atlas is equipped with two vision systems - a laser rangefinder and stereo cameras, both controlled by an off-board computer - and has hands with fine motor skill capabilities[3]. Its limbs possess a total of 28 degrees of freedom[4][3]. Atlas can navigate ...
... is a freely accessible high-resolution 3D digital atlas of the human brain, released in June 2013 by a team of researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and the German Forschungszentrum Jülich and is part of the European Human Brain Project. The isotropic 3D spatial resolution of the BigBrain atlas is 20 µm, much finer than the typical 1 mm resolution of other existing 3D models of the human brain such as the Allen Brain Atlas. In 2014, BigBrain was cited in the top 10 MIT Technology Review. The atlas was created from the brain of an unidentified 65-year-old woman who died with no known brain pathology. Her brain, after being removed from the skull, was first scanned using an MRI machine, then embedded in paraffin and sliced into 7,404 20 µm thick sections using a large-scale microtome. After each section was removed, the uncut face was photographed in order to provide an additional reference for removing distortion. The brain sections were placed on large glass slides and ...
Sgrifennir tudalennau Wicipedia ar bwnc iechyd er mwyn rhoi gwybodaeth sylfaenol, ond allen nhw ddim rhoi'r manylion sydd gan arbenigwyr i chi. Mae llawer o bobl yn cyfrannu gwybodaeth i Wicipedia. Er bod y mwyafrif ohonynt yn ceisio osgoi gwallau, nid ydynt i gyd yn arbenigwyr ac felly mae'n bosib bod peth o'r wybodaeth a gynhwysir ar y ddalen hon yn anghyflawn neu'n anghywir. Am wybodaeth lawn neu driniaeth ar gyfer afiechyd, cysylltwch â'ch meddyg neu ag arbenigwr cymwys arall! ...
Sgrifennir tudalennau Wicipedia ar bwnc iechyd er mwyn rhoi gwybodaeth sylfaenol, ond allen nhw ddim rhoi'r manylion sydd gan arbenigwyr i chi. Mae llawer o bobl yn cyfrannu gwybodaeth i Wicipedia. Er bod y mwyafrif ohonynt yn ceisio osgoi gwallau, nid ydynt i gyd yn arbenigwyr ac felly mae'n bosib bod peth o'r wybodaeth a gynhwysir ar y ddalen hon yn anghyflawn neu'n anghywir. Am wybodaeth lawn neu driniaeth ar gyfer afiechyd, cysylltwch â'ch meddyg neu ag arbenigwr cymwys arall! ...
4) was microinjected into the nucleus of NRK cells it became localized in nucleoli within 1-3 min (Fig. 5 B and C), which is ... Localization of signal recognition particle RNA in the nucleolus of mammalian cells. Marty R. Jacobson and Thoru Pederson ... It is noteworthy that SRP RNA previously was detected in RNA extracted from highly purified rat hepatoma cell nucleoli (31). ... 2, fluorescent SRP RNA microinjected into the nucleus of NRK cells became rapidly localized in nucleoli. Although the earliest ...
... the demonstration of virus particles in association with tumor cells and the physical identification of ultrastructural cell- ... Different Aspects Of Nucleoli In Cancer Cells. Continued. A major development in the recent study of virus tumors has been the ... Since the cells flourish in fluid suspension, growth can be quantitated by simple cell count. A special advantage for ... Concurrent with growth, the cells liberate the etiologic virus into the culture fluid at rates related to cell characteristics ...
Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... The number and shape of the nucleoli depend a lot on the cell type. Some proteins localize to the rim of the nucleolus, which ... Nucleoli. Nucleoli fibrillar center. Nucleoplasm. Nucleus. Peroxisomes. Plasma membrane. Rods & Rings. Vesicles. ... Cell category (RNA). Cancer category (RNA). Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line detectable (RNA). Cancer detectable (RNA). ...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute found that the size of the nucleolus plays an important role in protecting cells ... Size of Nucleolus Plays Important Role Protecting Cells Against Infection TOPICS:AgingCell BiologyHealthInfectionMax Planck ... The nucleolus is a small organelle present in the nucleus of cells, which regulates physiologic processes such as growth and ... The nucleolus (in green) of macrophage cells shrinks upon bacterial infection (left: uninfected macrophage, right: bacteria ...
Continued Presence of Nucleoli in Human Germ Cell Tumors during Mitosis. Susan Sheldon and John M. Lehman ... Continued Presence of Nucleoli in Human Germ Cell Tumors during Mitosis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A series of human germ cell-derived tumors were examined for the presence of nucleoli which persist through mitosis. Embryonal ... and the more differentiated elements of choriocarcinomas only rarely had persistent nucleoli. These nucleoli appeared to remain ...
Université de Liège - ULg , Services généraux (Faculté des sciences) , Relations académiques et scientifiques (Sciences) ,] ...
Cell Line. Cell Nucleolus / ultrastructure*. Female. Genes. Humans. Neoplasms / genetics*, ultrastructure. Ribosomes / ... Title: Cytogenetics and cell genetics Volume: 19 ISSN: 0301-0171 ISO Abbreviation: Cytogenet. Cell Genet. Publication Date: ... Previous Document: Synchronous VBM and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.. Next ... The tumor cells, whose modal chromosome numbers range from 42 to 68, possess variable numbers of acrocentrics (11--18). The ...
Here, we use intestinal epithelial T84 cells to characterize the trafficking of Stx delivered into the cytosol, in ways that ... Stx binding to the nucleoli of normal human enterocytes in vitro supports possible roles for nucleolar trafficking in toxin- ... We find that cytoplasmic Stx is transported into nucleoli. Stx nucleolar movement is carrier- and energy-dependent. ...
1970) in The Nucleolus, Nucleoli of tumor cells, ed H. Busch (Academic Press, New York).. ... Cell Culture and Transfection. HeLa cells were maintained in DME supplemented with 10% FBS at 37°C and 5% CO2. Cells were ... Cells were examined 48 h after transfection since cells overexpressing fusion proteins at a cytotoxic level underwent cell ... 2000) To be or not to be in the nucleolus. Nat. Cell Biol. 2:E107-E112, pmid:10854340.. ...
2). The nucleoli in lamin A/C-depleted cells showed the same ability as normal HeLa cells to remodel nucleoli during recovery ... Nucleoli are reorganized in cells with reduced lamin B1 expression. HeLa cells were co-transfected with the LB1-RNAi vector and ... 4A, bright field, nucleolus extract) as nucleoli in situ (Fig. 4A, bright field, whole cell). Using recognized markers - ... 4B, right blot). Nucleoli were isolated from untreated cells as well as cells treated with the transcriptional inhibitors DRB ...
Cell culture experiments. U-2 OS cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium. Jurkat cells were cultured in RPMI ... One control cell in metaphase and three depleted cells in mitosis are shown. Histogram depicts the percentage of mitotic cells ... Black columns, control cells; white columns, cells treated with HCA66 siRNA. (C) Control and HCA66-depleted U-2 OS cells ... Graph depicts the percentage of cells containing ≤4 or ,4 centrioles/cell. (D) Immunofluorescence of U-2 OS cells treated as in ...
Purification of Nuclei and Nucleoli from Arabidopsis Culture Cells. Nucleoli were routinely purified from nuclei isolated from ... Nucleolar, Nuclear, and Whole-Cell cDNA Libraries. Total RNA was extracted from whole cells, isolated nuclei, and nucleoli ... Plant nucleoli differ from animal nucleoli in their structural organization. The plant nucleolus contains a much larger ... In mammalian cells, evidence for mRNAs in the nucleolus is limited to a few spliced cellular mRNAs (e.g., c-myc), and the ...
The ATT serum crossreacted with rat liver nucleoli and PtK1 cell nucleoli in which immunofluorescence labelling displayed a ... The splicing co-factor Barricade/Tat-SF1 is required for cell cycle and lineage progression in Drosophila neural stem cells. ... on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at ... We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and ...
Phenomena we observed were irregularly shaped nucleoli, weaker silver staining reaction at the periphery of the nucleolus, and ... Nickel has toxic effects on nucleoli at higher concentrations. ... of nickel sulfate on root growth and nucleoli in root tip cells ... The effects of different concentrations of nickel sulfate on root growth and nucleoli in root tip cells of Allium cepa were ... EFFECTS OF NICKEL SULFATE ON ROOT GROWTH AND NUCLEOLI IN ROOT TIP CELLS OF ALLIUM CEPA ...
Differential screening of entire cell proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) often leads to the identification ... Isolation and purification of nucleoli and nucleolar chromatin from mammalian cells. Methods Cell. Biol. 17, 141-161.PubMed ... 2002) Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus. Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4100-4109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The purification of nucleoli from three Hodgkin nonadherent lymphoma cell lines is presented here. It is based on an original ...
The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish ... 1) High representation of cancer cells with distinct nucleoli, greater size and number of nucleoli per cell are characteristics ... Visintin R, Amon A. The nucleolus: the magicians hat for cell cycle tricks. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:372-7. CrossRefPubMed ... high prevalence of cancer cells with distinct nucleoli and presence of melanocytes with multiple nucleoli are features ...
Accumulation of c-Myc and proteasomes at the nucleoli of cells containing elevated c-Myc protein levels ... Accumulation of c-Myc and proteasomes at the nucleoli of cells containing elevated c-Myc protein levels ... Accumulation of c-Myc and proteasomes at the nucleoli of cells containing elevated c-Myc protein levels ... Accumulation of c-Myc and proteasomes at the nucleoli of cells containing elevated c-Myc protein levels ...
Isolation of Nucleoli from Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells and Dynamics of Nascent RNA within Isolated Nucleoli. ... Reference : Isolation of Nucleoli from Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells and Dynamics of Nascent RNA wi.... ... en] Here we describe a new, rapid method for isolating nucleoli from Ehrlich tumor cells that preserves their morphological ... Until now, methods for isolation of nucleoli were generally assumed to empty one of their three main compartments, the ...
In cells which had returned to interphase in the presence of actinomycin D, nucleoli were segregated into two components easily ... during mitosis Mitotic cells harvested from monolayer cultures of Chinese hamster embryonal cells, KB6 (human) cells, or L929 ( ... Stephanie Gordon Phillips; REPOPULATION OF THE POSTMITOTIC NUCLEOLUS BY PREFORMED RNA . J Cell Biol 1 June 1972; 53 (3): 611- ... control cells had large, irregularly shaped nucleoli which stained intensely for RNA with azure B and for protein with fast ...
Cells from other species often have multiple nucleoli. The nucleolus is a ribosome factory, composed of deoxyribonucleic acid ( ... The Nucleolus: The Magicians Hat for Cell Cycle Tricks. Current Opinions in Cell Biology (2000) 12: 372-377. ... The Nucleolus: An Old Factory with Unexpected Capabilities. Trends in Cell Biology (2000) 10: 189-196. ... A colored transmission electron micrograph of a mammalian tissue culture cell, showing the nucleus (red), nucleolus (orange), ...
The Isolation of Nucleoli from Ungerminated Pea Embryos F. B. Johnston, F. B. Johnston ... PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY ISOLATED PEA NUCLEOLI NON-IDENTICAL MECHANISMS OF MITOTIC ARREST BY RESPIRATORY INHIBITORS IN PEA ROOT ... F. B. Johnston, G. Setterfield, Herbert Stern; The Isolation of Nucleoli from Ungerminated Pea Embryos . J Biophys and Biochem ... A method is described for the isolation of nuclei and nucleoli from ungerminated pea embryos. Electron micrographs of the ...
Cell Culture and Transfection. HeLa cells were maintained in DME supplemented with 10% FBS at 37°C and 5% CO2. Cells were ... Cells were examined 48 h after transfection since cells overexpressing fusion proteins at a cytotoxic level underwent cell ... Nucleolar Components Involved in Ribosome Biogenesis Cycle between the Nucleolus and Nucleoplasm in Interphase Cells. J Cell ... and bleaching area were kept similar between the examined cells, there were variations in the FRAP rate from cell to cell that ...
We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain- ... This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the molecular switch that promotes mitotic cell ... However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like ... Animals, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Cell Cycle, Cell Differentiation, Cell Nucleolus, Humans ...
en] Anaphase ; Animals ; Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/pathology/ultrastructure ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleolus/ultrastructure ; ... Behaviour of nucleolus during mitosis. A comparative ultrastructural study of various cancerous cell lines using the Ag-NOR ... Then the interphase nucleoli recover their typical shape. These results suggest that when rRNA synthesis is impaired during ... Reference : Behaviour of nucleolus during mitosis. A comparative ultrastructural study of various.... ...
... with necrosis being the accidental result of interactions with pathogens and apoptosis being the product of a programmed cell ... What Does the Nucleolus Do in a Cell?. * Q: What Is Some Differences Between a Repeater and a Range Extender?. ... What Is the Job of Ciliated Cells?. A: In the lungs, ciliated cells move mucus along the respiratory tract and prevent ... How Do Blood Cells Resemble Unicellular Organisms?. A: Certain white blood cells resemble unicellular organisms, particularly ...
  • HeLa cells with compromised expression of the genes encoding lamins were analyzed using high-resolution imaging and pull-down assays. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, a single nucleolus is often made up of rRNA genes from two or more different NORs. (biologyreference.com)
  • In an initial stage, the rRNA genes are transcribed as a single unit within the nucleolus by RNA polymerase I. In order for this transcription to occur, several pol I-associated factors and DNA-specific trans-acting factors are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPM can be identified as among the genes that's upregulated 2 flip in the atria of canines fed with fat rich diet to induce obesity-related hypertension [62 63 The key function of NPM in regulating cell proliferation and development shows that NPM could possibly be contributory to early redecorating during atrial hypertension . (healthyguide.info)
  • The murine double minute ( mdm2 ) oncogene , which codes for the Mdm2 protein, was originally cloned, along with two other genes (mdm1 and mdm3) from the transformed mouse cell line 3T3-DM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removing MDM2 simultaneously with the H2AK119 E3 ligase Ring1 B/ RNF2 further induced these genes and synthetically arrested cell proliferation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Centre aims to enhance our understanding of how genes are regulated at both the single cell and whole organism level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to cell size through Sfp1, a transcription factor that controls the expression of at least 60 genes implicated in ribosome assembly. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia bearing cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (NPMc+ AML) shows a distinct gene expression profile characterized by up-regulation of genes involved in stem-cell maintenance. (springer.com)
  • The nucleolus is a nuclear substructure where the genes for three of the four ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) are transcribed and where ribosomal subunits are assembled. (els.net)
  • Here, we find that maturation of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) pRNA is required for establishment of heterochromatin at ribosomal RNA genes, the genetic component of nucleoli, and this process is inactivated in pluripotent ESCs. (nih.gov)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hypothesized that genes important to embryonic stem cell (ESC) function might be able to induce an embryonic state in adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is also a transcriptional corepressor of androgen receptor-regulated genes and other cell cycle regulatory genes through its interactions with histone deacetylases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an array is injected into germ line cells, which already contain mutant (specifically, loss of function) alleles of all three genes in their chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes play a role in germ line development to localize nanos mRNA to the posterior and localize germ cell determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes Oskar, nanos and germ cell-less (gcl) have important roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoli also participate in the formation of signal recognition particles and play a role in the cell's response to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the cell's nucleolus. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Certain types of cells may also have more than one nucleolus depending on the cell's ribosome production requirements. (reference.com)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
  • These are dynamic structures which specifically interact with each other within and between chromosome territories depending on the cell's physiological state (e.g., differentiation, cell cycle, cellular age etc. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major development in the recent study of virus tumors has been the demonstration of virus particles in association with tumor cells and the physical identification of ultrastructural cell-virus interrelationships. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The tumor cells, whose modal chromosome numbers range from 42 to 68, possess variable numbers of acrocentrics (11--18). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Isolation of Nucleoli from Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells and Dynamics of Nascent RNA within Isolated Nucleoli. (ac.be)
  • en] Here we describe a new, rapid method for isolating nucleoli from Ehrlich tumor cells that preserves their morphological integrity and high transcriptional activity. (ac.be)
  • Recently, NO has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on several tumor cells as an effector molecule of activated macrophage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous NO on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line and to try to clarify the possible mechanisms by which it kills tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Busch H, Daskal Y, Gyorkey F, Smetana K (1979) Silver staining of nucleolar granules in tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • In some patients suffering from cancers, it is also specifically expressed by the paraneoplastic tumor cells. (abcam.com)
  • In tumor cells, it is cytoplasmic. (abcam.com)
  • However, the usual treatment for each of these is chemotherapy, often in combination with an antibody targeted at the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third morphologic variant, anaplastic, consists of tumor cells which appear very differently from their normal B cell counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor cells may infiltrate into adjacent skeletal muscle or fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) analyses demonstrate that factors involved in rRNA transcription (upstream-binding factor [UBF]), processing (nucleolin, fibrillarin, and RNase MRP subunits, Rpp29), and ribosome assembly (B23) exchange rapidly between the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. (rupress.org)
  • These findings suggest that the rapid exchange of nucleolar components between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm may represent a new level of regulation for rRNA synthesis. (rupress.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes and plants, the situation is more complex, for the 5S DNA sequence lies outside the Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR) and is transcribed by RNA pol III in the nucleoplasm, after which it finds its way into the nucleolus to participate in the ribosome assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains nucleoplasm, nucleoli, and DNA. (smore.com)
  • The authors used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and inverse FRAP (iFRAP) to show that nucleostemin tagged with green fluorescent protein shuttled rapidly and bidirectionally between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm of cultured CHO and U2 OS cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nucleoplasm : Contain a variety of particles with other molecules involved in maintenance and development of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and cryoultrathin sections without embedding. (biologists.org)
  • In human peripheral lymphocytes, or HeLa cells treated with actinomycin D, the antigens were still present but the fluorescence intensity decreased. (biologists.org)
  • In early experiments, methionine starvation of HeLa cells blocked processing of the 32S intermediate ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Similar results were observed when HeLa cells or rat liver were exposed to the methylation inhibitor ethionine ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) oligomer is a major and stable entity in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • We applied a baculovirus-mediated gene silencing approach to deplete HeLa cells of the catalytic subunit of PP6 (PP6c) and analyzed changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome in mitotic cells by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Following its purification from various sources including calf thymus, human placenta, and HeLa cells, its activity was implicated in DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACA30 was originally cloned from HeLa cells and belongs to the H/ACA box class of snoRNAs as it has the predicted hairpin-hinge-hairpin-tail structure, has the conserved H/ACA-box motifs and is found associated with GAR1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomo Tanaka studies the processes by which eukaryotic cells maintain their genetic integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of this high-resolution, high-coverage localization data set in the context of transcriptional, genetic, and protein-protein interaction data helps reveal the logic of transcriptional co-regulation, and provides a comprehensive view of interactions within and between organelles in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic analysis revealed a complex network of newly found factors that govern critical cell size at Start, the most potent of which were Sfp1, Sch9, Cdh1, Prs3, and Whi5. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Due to its important role in ribosome production and genetic transcription, mutation or malfunction inside a nucleolus can lead to the development of disease as observed in the testing field. (reference.com)
  • Once it has gathered and attached to the right place on the cell s surface, it triggers a series of reactions, which causes the cell to divide and separate the cell s genetic information equally between the two new cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Tumors can form when cells divide uncontrollably, for example when cells make mistakes separating genetic information during division. (medicalxpress.com)
  • most of the genetic information and regulatory machinery responsible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics. (scribd.com)
  • Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. (wikipedia.org)
  • stated that genetic analysis of chromosome 7, 17, and Y may facilitate discrimination of MA from papillary renal cell carcinoma in difficult cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis is made either by testing of the fumarate hydratase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells and demonstrating reduced activity (≤60%) or by molecular genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the 'molecular switch' that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The pattern of RNA relocation associated with the mitotic spindle did not vary in the cell lines analyzed. (iospress.com)
  • Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prolymphocytoid variant of MCL was characterized by morphologic features similar to the paraimmunoblastic variant of small lymphocytic lymphoma with sheets of intermediate-sized to large cells with a single prominent nucleolus associated with a brisk mitotic rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, this study identified a mitotically regulated phosphorylation event in this critical complex and provided many other potential direct substrates of PP6 and pathways regulated by PP6 in mitotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • During mitotic progression, typically after the anaphase onset, the cell may undergo cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known as the ribosome production factory, malfunction of the nucleolus has been found to cause disease in humans. (reference.com)
  • Drs. Wang and Lemos looked at aging and what happens to rDNA in the cells of mice, dogs, and humans. (plos.org)
  • When the researchers looked at the 88 "clock sites" from the mouse rDNA in white blood cells from healthy adult humans and human embryonic stem cells, the latter were found to be much younger. (plos.org)
  • Size homeostasis in budding yeast requires that cells grow to a critical size before commitment to division in the late prereplicative growth phase of the cell cycle, an event termed Start. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The nucleolus during the cell cycle. (ac.be)
  • Reference : The nucleolus during the cell cycle. (ac.be)
  • To investigate changes at the centrosome during the cell cycle, we analyzed the composition of the pericentriolar material from unsynchronized and S-phase-arrested cells by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. (biologists.org)
  • To study changes at the centrosome during the cell cycle, we compared the protein composition of the pericentriolar material from unsynchronized Jurkat cells (66% in G1 phase, 25% in S phase, as verified by flow cytometry), and from Jurkat cells arrested in S phase by a double aphidicolin block (85% in S phase, 10% in G1). (biologists.org)
  • Visintin R, Amon A. The nucleolus: the magician's hat for cell cycle tricks. (springermedizin.de)
  • Hernandez-Verdun D. Assembly and disassembly of the nucleolus during the cell cycle. (springermedizin.de)
  • Cell cycle switch to endocycle: the nucleolus lends a hand. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1. What are the phases of the Cell Cycle? (brainmass.com)
  • Onion ( Allium ) cells in different phases of the cell cycle enlarged 800 diameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenomenon is demonstrated during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the authors propose that nucleolar residence of nucleostemin involves a cycle driven by its GTP-binding status and suggest that this provides a mechanism to rapidly and reversibly regulate the transition of stem cells between resting and proliferating states. (sciencemag.org)
  • Direct visualization of cell division using high-resolution imaging of M-phase of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • This approach visualizes cytokinesis and midbody formation as hallmarks of expansion of stem and somatic cells, and enables distinction from cell cycle variations. (nih.gov)
  • High-resolution microscopy in embryonic heart and brain tissues of enhanced green fluorescent protein-anillin transgenic mice allows live monitoring of cell division and quantitation of cell cycle kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Schemes of subcellular localization of the eGFP-anillin fusion protein during the cell cycle and of the CAG-eGFP-anillin fusion construct: Anillin is fused to the C terminus of eGFP and its expression is under control of the CAG promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleostemin regulates the cell cycle and affects cell differentiation, decreasing in amount as this differentiation progresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research in Yeast cell RNase MRP has shown a potential role in the regulation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Published in 1971 (Nucleolus), 1972 (Somatic) and 1974 (the others). (oxfam.org.uk)
  • NCL-1 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic and its levels of expression in cells of the embryo, gonad ( Frank and Roth, 1998 ) and adult somatic tissue (D. J. Frank, PhD thesis, University of Washington: Seattle, 2000) are inversely related to the size of nucleoli: cells with small nucleoli have high level expression of NCL-1, whereas cells with large nucleoli have low level expression. (biologists.org)
  • Stability is what is needed in a fully differentiated somatic cell. (bionews.org.uk)
  • It is commonly accepted that during early embryonic development, the original compact zygote NPBs gradually transform into reticulated nucleoli of somatic cells. (biologists.org)
  • Fully grown mammalian oocytes contain specific nucleoli, termed the nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), which exhibit distinct structural and functional differences compared with nucleoli in somatic cells ( supplementary material Fig. S1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Normal aging is associated with accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations and appearance of scattered cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient cells in a variety of organs ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • There is a progressive loss of midbrain DA neurons during normal aging ( 11 ), and the observed accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations may cause a respiratory chain deficiency that contributes to this cell loss ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inactive, or very low activity, in normal somatic cells. (uniprot.org)
  • This may reflect the need for greater efficiency of DNA repair and mutation avoidance in the germ line than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oocytes are substantially larger than the average somatic cell, and thus considerable metabolic activity is necessary for their provisioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian somatic cells, MUS81 and another structure specific DNA endonuclease, XPF (ERCC4), play overlapping and essential roles in completion of homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of chromosome 17 in BP1‐E cells either decreased or did not affect the frequency of persistent nucleolus‐like bodies. (iospress.com)
  • In contrast, in cells which received a normal chromosome 11, the frequency of nucleolus‐like bodies was closer to that of non‐transformed MCF‐10F cells. (iospress.com)
  • These results suggest that a normal chromosome 11 but not chromosome 17 contributes to the maintenance of an RNA surplus which accumulates in nucleolus‐like bodies during cell division of the human breast epithelial cells, at least in vitro. (iospress.com)
  • Vacuoles are large bodies of water in a cell that serve as a refridgerator for a cell, and it is found in both animals and plants. (smore.com)
  • The cells are just visible as small spherical bodies (arrows). (nih.gov)
  • The N-terminus of the coilin protein directs its self-oligomerization while the C-terminus influences the number of nuclear bodies assembled per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of stem cell pluripotency legislation of telomere duration inhibition of stem cell differentiation senescence and cell loss of life are among the pivotal jobs UTP24 performed by NS [5 48 Our group continues to be actively learning the function of NS in the center and cardiac cells for recent years [15 53 NS appearance is elevated during cardiac advancement and declines quickly after delivery with age group. (healthyguide.info)
  • MDM2 depletion in the absence of p53 promoted the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and diminished clonogenic survival of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, spermatocytic seminomas may show sarcomatoid differentiation, most commonly as undifferentiated spindled cells intermingled within the typical-appearing spermatocytic seminoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has been implicated in growth inhibition and the induction of differentiation of human cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell is also responsible for establishing and maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche, which ensures the renewal of stem cells and the differentiation of spermatogonia into mature germ cells that progress stepwise through the long process of spermatogenesis, ending in the release of spermatozoa in a process known as spermiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different pattern (intermediate type) is predominantly composed of cells with better differentiation towards skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPM also regulates activity of nuclear aspect kappa-light string enhancer of turned on B cells (NF-kB) in endothelial cells during maturing [64 65 Appearance of NPM mRNA boosts in carotid arteries and hearts of aged rats concomitantly connected with elevated NF-kB activity implying a job for NPM in regulating oxidative tension response. (healthyguide.info)
  • When cells became stressed, the nuclear non-coding RNA levels were reduced, coupled with an increase in cytoplasmic signal for the MCAT2 mRNA and protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, the serines underwent phosphorylation, which caused the peptide to detach from the nucleolus and move into nuclear speckles, where pre-mRNA splicing occurs. (alzforum.org)
  • Failure of these events can lead to major faults within a genome, potentially leading to the rise of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently we explore the dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of genome organization and nuclear architecture in a nucleolus-centered fashion in different model organisms and biological processes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • It was proposed that, in order to avoid damage to the DNA genome of the oocytes, the metabolism contributing to the synthesis of much of the oocyte's constituents was shifted to other maternal cells that then transferred these constituents to oocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dense bundles of microfilaments run the length of the cell connecting the basal to the apical hemidesmosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the nucleolus is dense and inactive in a mature oocyte, it is required for proper development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a wide variety of functions that range from the destruction of old blood cells to the control of the whole metabolism of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many autoantigens in lupus are, at least transiently, components of the nucleolus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many of the major autoantigens in autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are, at least transiently, components of the nucleolus (e.g., splicosome subunits). (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the dependence of cell growth on protein synthesis, regulation of translation is likely to play an important role in growth control. (biologists.org)
  • An additional way in which cells can regulate protein synthesis, and therefore growth, is through control of ribosome synthesis. (biologists.org)
  • To test the links between structure and function, we evaluated how nuclear lamins contribute to the organization of a major functional compartment, the nucleolus. (biologists.org)
  • After cell division, the nucleolus comes back together as a single compartment of fluid," said Shuichi Takayama, the study's principal investigator and a professor in the Wallace E. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University. (eurekalert.org)
  • transferrin - a blood plasma protein for iron ion delivery The occluding junctions of Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier, a structure that partitions the interstitial blood compartment of the testis from the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cells control the entry and exit of nutrients, hormones and other chemicals into the tubules of the testis as well as make the adluminal compartment an immune-privileged site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression is restricted to very few normal tissues and the most abundant expression is found in the epithelial cells of gastric mucosa. (abcam.com)
  • Although the factors that regulate cell division have been extensively studied ( Sherr and Roberts, 1999 ), the processes that control cell growth are just beginning to be elucidated ( Stocker and Hafen, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • In fact, recent studies have shown that one mechanism of cell growth regulation is achieved through an insulin receptor signaling pathway, one of the most downstream targets of which is the ribosomal protein S6 ( Weinkove and Leevers, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • In contrast the F.C. and D.F.C. are probably two aspects of the NORs whose typical distribution, relative to the other nucleolar components, gives the interphasic nucleolus its characteristic morphology. (uliege.be)
  • Our results suggest that biologically interpretable features based on explicit models of cell morphology will yield unprecedented power for pattern discovery in high-resolution, high-throughput microscopy images. (nih.gov)
  • Higher prevalence and size of nucleoli were associated with thicker and mitogenic tumors. (springermedizin.de)
  • In Kaplan-Meier analysis, increased prevalence and amount, but not size of nucleoli, were connected with shorter cancer-specific and disease-free survival. (springermedizin.de)
  • Peroxisomes are small vesicles found around the cell that break down toxic nutrients in a cell, being similar to lysosomes, and they are found in both animal and plant cells. (smore.com)
  • Vesicular transport is an active process in which materials move into or out of the cell enclosed as vesicles. (majortests.com)
  • During prophase I the nucleoli were found to be composed of a strongly impregnated central and a weakly impregnated peripheral component, probably corresponding to the pars fibrosa and pars granulosa, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Torrox, diplotene cells showed a lower number of nucleoli but larger nucleolar area than in leptotene cells, suggesting an increase in nucleolus size during prophase I. Significant differences were found among populations for nucleolar area but not for number of nucleoli, the smallest nucleolar area being observed in Torrox, which is the population harbouring the most parasitic B chromosome variant. (springer.com)
  • In spite of extensive and detailed analyses in the steps and mechanisms regarding the syntheses and assembly of the ribosome, little is known as to the spatial and temporal dynamics of these processes in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Apoptosis is a vital and regular part of overall organism function and is the programmed death of cells via the cells' own chemical processes. (reference.com)
  • We are beginning to understand how the biochemical processes carried out in the nucleolus relate to the observable structure. (els.net)
  • It also processes and transports materials out of the cell. (prezi.com)
  • [ 2 ] In the cortex, primary lymphoid follicles are composed of small collections of small lymphocytes within a supporting network of dendritic-reticulum cell processes. (medscape.com)
  • Using the nonisotopic approach of labelling with BrUTP, we have further investigated the dynamics of nascent ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) within morphologically intact isolated nucleoli at the electron microscope level. (ac.be)
  • The cells seen in our Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) photographs are located either in the algal zone or in the medulla tissue of various lichens (Figure 1). (creationresearch.org)
  • Of particular importance for the present report has been the observation, by electron microscopy (9), of definitive cell ultrastructures specific and, under some conditions, quantitatively related to infection of the cell and liberation of the virus. (chestofbooks.com)
  • As a result the opportunity has been afforded to apply the techniques of electron and fight microscopy for correlated studies, together with observations with tissue culture, aimed at the clarification of the dynamic aspects of cell response to the agent. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The nucleolus was identified by bright-field microscopy during the 1830s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work explores time-resolved emission imaging microscopy (TREM) for noninvasive imaging and mapping of live cells on a hitherto uncharted microsecond time scale. (pnas.org)
  • The nucleolus as visualised by optical microscopy. (els.net)