Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Primitive Streak: A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Metencephalon: The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsContact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Myxococcales: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Receptor, EphA4: An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.TailFibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.PhosphoproteinsActin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Cortactin: A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/32044)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/32044)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (3/32044)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (4/32044)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (5/32044)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (6/32044)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (7/32044)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (8/32044)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

2005. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Transnational urbanism: Attending to everyday practices and mobilities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 227-233.. Smith, Michael Peter. Transnational urbanism revisited. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 235-244.. Beaverstock, Jonathan V. Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled inter-company transferees in New York citys financial district. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 245-268.. Yeoh, Brenda S. A. and Katie Willis. Singaporean and British transmigrants in China and the cultural politics of contact zones Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 269-285.. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Friendship, networks and transnationality in a world city: Antipodean transmigrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 287-305.. Clarke, Nick. Detailing transnational lives of the middle: British working holiday ...
Given the foolish consistency that comes with being the hobgoblin of little minds, there was no chance that our big-brained president would be consistent on the issue of "chain migration." In November, President Donald Trump decried the practice of immigrants sponsoring other family members for permanent residency: "CHAIN MIGRATION must end now! Some people come in, and they bring their whole family with them, who can be truly evil. NOT ACCEPTABLE!" When the White House released its proposed framework for immigration reform in January, the presidents sentiments were clear: In the future, immigrants would be able to sponsor only spouses and minor children for permanent residency. No more parents or siblings. But the presidents distaste for "chain migration" apparently doesnt apply to his extended family.. On Thursday, the presidents in-laws, Amalija and Viktor Knavs, became naturalized U.S. citizens, thanks to the sponsorship of their immigrant daughter, first lady Melania Trump. Good for ...
We first examined the effect of afadin on cell movement in response to PDGF stimulation using wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells. The expression level of afadin in both cell types is shown in Fig. 1A. Wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells were sparsely plated on μ-Slide VI Flow dishes pre-coated with vitronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that binds to αvβ3 integrin (Schvartz et al., 1999), and were directionally stimulated with PDGF. Wild-type NIH3T3 cells became polarized with the well-spreading leading edge toward the higher concentration of PDGF, whereas afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells showed elongated shapes and had a small leading edge that was randomly directed and was independent of the direction of the higher concentration of PDGF (Fig. 1B).. These results led us to assume that afadin is involved in directional cell movement. To examine this assumption, we performed a wound-healing assay by scratching the confluent monolayer of wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 ...
Since MMP activity is also regulated by TIMP binding (Nagase and Woessner, 1999) and the dissociation of TIMP-MMP complexes during gel electrophoresis prior to zymography assays acts to enhance the apparent activity of proMMP isoforms, soluble gelatinase activity in the cell‐conditioned media samples was assayed using a peptide substrate (Figure 6C). Both v‐Src3T3 and v‐Src FRNK S‐1034 cells contained high levels of soluble gelatinase activity, whereas NIH‐3T3 and the various v‐Src FRNK cell clones had ∼4‐fold lower levels of gelatinase activity secreted from the same number of cells (Figure 6C). Analysis of whole‐cell lysates also revealed that FRNK expression resulted in lower levels of cell‐associated gelatinase activity (Figure 6D). Although blotting analyses did not reveal significant changes in TIMP expression (data not shown), addition of recombinant TIMP‐2 to v‐Src3T3s inhibited Matrigel invasion activity in a dose‐dependent manner (Figure 6E). Taken together, ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
An initial step in solid tumor metastasis involves the migration of tumor cells through extracellular matrix. Several cancer cell migration strategies exist in vivo, and the local properties of collagen fibers are implicated in modulating migration behaviors. Yet, individual tumor cells also display heterogeneity in their intrinsic ability to migrate and metastasize. It remains unclear to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity contribute to the emergence of distinct migration phenotypes and whether certain migration phenotypes contribute more to metastasis than others. To study this, we generated 3D collagen matrices of varying densities and monitored single cancer cell migration in these matrices with time-lapse microscopy. We observed a collagen density threshold at 2.5mg/ml, above which 86% of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transition from single mesenchymal migration to collective cell migration, with a 50% increase in persistence after cell division. After seven days, these ...
The migration of T lymphocytes is a vital component of the immune system, with roles in immunosurveillance and inflammation. The role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase within T lymphocyte migration is unclear, with some evidence that it may be a disposable signal. Here, using Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the T cell line CEM cells, the role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream kinases was investigated. CCL22 mediated CEM cell migration and CXCL12 mediated peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration were shown to be independent of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase using several different broad-spectrum Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. However, these cells were Akt-dependent, as demonstrated by incubation with the Akt inhibitor Akti-1/2. Differences in the effect of the inhibitors on Akt activity were discovered, indicating that either Akt can be activated in the absence of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, or differences exist regarding the relative ...
Ilina, Elena I.; Armento, Angela; Sanchez, Leticia Garea; Reichlmeir, Marina; Braun, Yannick; Penski, Cornelia; Capper, David; Sahm, Felix; Jennewein, Lukas; Harter, Patrick N.; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Schulte, Dorothea; Le Guerroue, Francois; Behrends, Christian; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W.; Naumann, Ulrike; Mittelbronn, Michel ...
Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell moving paths, which may be easily
The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation ...
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
© 2014 UICC. The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-Associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated
How do cells move in a certain direction in the body-go to a wound site and repair it, for example, or hunt down infectious bacteria and kill it?
Cell migration is known to be related to not only physiological phenomena such as embryonic development, immune reaction, and wound healing, but also pathological phenomena such as asthma, vascular disease, and cancer metastasis. However, because genetic mutations of each cancer cell causing high migration ability depend on cell types, it still remains unclear that which pathways are the unity of cancer cell migration signaling irrespective of cancer cell types, and which pathways are the diversity depend on cell types. The aim of this study is to reveal the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration based on chemical genomic approach.. To understand the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration, the effects of 38 small compounds, whose target protein are already identified, on cell migration ability of 10 types of cancer cells were assessed quantitatively by wound healing assay. Two-way hierarchical clustering was done on migration ability ...
There are numerous biological examples where genes associated with migratory ability of cells also confer the cells with an increased fitness actually though these genes may not really have any known effect about the cell mitosis rates. motility guidelines. We make use of this romantic relationship to make up for motility-induced adjustments in cell size in the CPM therefore that in the fixed CPM, cell size is definitely self-employed of the cell motility. We discover that subject matter to similar amounts of compression, groupings of motile cells develop quicker than groupings of much less motile cells, in qualitative contract with natural findings and our earlier research. Raising compression is likely to decrease development prices. Get in touch with inhibition penalizes clumped cells by halting their development and provides motile cells an actually higher benefit. Finally, our model predicts cell size distributions that are constant with those noticed in groupings of neuroblastoma cells ...
Leukocyte migration is the hallmark of inflammation in vivo, and αMβ2 and Fg have been shown to contribute to leukocyte migration in multiple systems (23)(24). This study has used αMβ2 transfectants and selected mutants to dissect the molecular requirements for αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and its derivatives. The major conclusions of our study are the following. (a) Fg supports a chemotactic cell migration mediated by αMβ2. This response is dependent on Fg concentration and occurs at low (1-50 μg/ml) Fg levels. (b) The αM I domain is necessary but not sufficient to support cell migration to Fg. In contrast to cell adhesion to Fg, efficient migration requires the β2 subunit. (c) The P1 and P2 peptides, as well as the D100 fragment, support cell migration. Thus, the same Fg derivatives that mediate αMβ2-dependent cell adhesion also support cell migration. (d) The P2 peptide stimulates αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and the P1 peptide, in a manner similar to other αMβ2 ...
Would you like to study Behaviour & Social Culture or Business and Economics? All information about Introduction to Migration Studies in Maastricht: admission requirements, deadlines and grants.
We have previously shown that BMP4 reduces proliferation and increases migration of breast cancer cells in vitro [10]. As these results were derived from cells grown in 2D monolayer culture, we set out to analyze the effect of BMP4 in a more physiological setting by employing 3D culture systems. We approached this issue by using both a biological gel (Matrigel, the standard 3D culture environment) and a synthetic material with RGD peptides and MMP-degradable peptide links (PEG gel).. The two materials studied provided dissimilar 3D environments as first evidenced by differences in the morphology of the normal and cancer cell clusters. The MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells had a polarized acini structure in Matrigel, as previously shown [17], while in PEG gel the cells formed irregular non-polarized structures. Similarly, the morphology of the different cancer cells varied between the two 3D models, with the structures formed in Matrigel again corresponding to those previously reported ...
Effect of TGFβ1 on the phenotype, migratory ability, and survival of CD16− monocytes. PBMCs were depleted of CD16+ cells using miniMACS magnetic selection. T
Course IA (p85/p110) phosphoinositide three-kinases play A serious function in regulating cell advancement, survival, and motility. Activating mutations during the p110alpha isoform of the class IA catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) are generally found in human cancers. These mutations lead to elevated proliferation and transformation in cultured cells, but their effects on cell motility and tumor metastasis have not been evaluated. We utilized lentiviral-mediated gene transfer and knockdown to create secure MDA-MB-231 cells wherein the endogenous human p110alpha is replaced with both wild-variety bovine p110alpha or the two most frequent activating p110alpha mutants, the helical area mutant E545K along with the kinase area mutant H1047R. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was hyperactivated in cells expressing physiologic levels of helical or kinase domain mutants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Group choreography. T2 - Mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells. AU - Montell, Denise J.. AU - Yoon, Wan Hee. AU - Starz-Gaiano, Michelle. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.. AB - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to ...
Background: Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. Results: This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell ...
All-and genes, ATRA activates a RAR-dependent epithelial differentiation program. pro-migratory determinant to an anti-migratory mediator. Inhibition of the Level1 path not really just takes on a part in the anti-migratory actions of ATRA; it is usually relevant also for the … Continue reading →. ...
Vol 10: Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Examples of collective cell migration. First column: schematic representation of different migratory types. The regions where cells are interacting are depicted
miR-21 is a key molecule in a wide range of cancers, and identifying its functional role in BC has direct clinical implications. We show here that knockdown of miR-21 suppresses cell growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, and suppresses MCF-7 xenograft growth. This result is consistent with the findings of Si et al. [9]. Interestingly, our study suggests that LNA-antimiR-21 also suppresses the growth and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 in vitro, in contrast to a recent report that found no effect of LNA-antimiR-21 on the growth of MDA-MB-231 in vitro or in vivo, although anti-miR-21-treated tumors were slightly smaller than control tumors [10]. One possibility could be differences in transfection efficiency, or miRNA ASO potency. Our results suggest that, as an oncomir, miR-21 also affects cell migration.. MCF-7 cells are hormone-sensitive and difficult to culture in vivo. Therefore, we used 17-estradiol to facilitate MCF-7 cells growth in nude mice, which is a common technique. Recently, ...
Cell migration is a basic developmental function that serves to build tissues, organs, and whole animals. Defects in cell migration are associated with birth defects and cancer, in particular the metastasis of tumors. Over the past forty years researchers have used the fruit fly to understand the genetic basis of development, including cell migration, but many of the tools and approaches used are beyond the skills and understanding of an undergraduate and advanced high school lab. We have developed a practical lab that allows students to use fly oogenesis to understand how genes regulate cell migration. Students learn to sort males from females, recognize fly genetic markers to identify wild type and mutant animals, hand-dissect ovaries, perform histochemical staining to reveal gene expression in this tissue, and visualize normal and aberrant cell migration using light microscopy to distinguish the effect of a key mutation in a gene required for cell migration. From this approach, students learn ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death. T2 - Cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA. AU - Jeon, Hyejin. AU - Zheng, Long Tai. AU - Lee, Shinrye. AU - Lee, Won Ha. AU - Park, Nammi. AU - Park, Jae-Yong. AU - Heo, Won Do. AU - Lee, Myung Shik. AU - Suk, Kyoungho. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Small G protein superfamily consists of more than 150 members, and is classified into six families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, Ran, and RGK families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions such as cell proliferation/differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. The small G proteins have also been shown to regulate cell death/survival and cell shape. In this study, we compared the role of representative members of the six families of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death/survival, two cellular phenotypes that are associated with ...
Tumor cell migration is a key step in the formation of cancer metastasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed serinethreonine kinase, has been intensely studied for over a decade as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recent data have shown that mTOR also plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Here, we briefly review recent advances regarding mTOR signaling in tumor cell motility. We also discuss recent findings about the mechanism by which rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo.. ...
Gersende Alphonse is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Isolation and Characterization of a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Subpopulation Having Stem Cell Characteristics, Evaluation of the Cell Invasion and Migration Process: A Comparison of the Video Microscope-based Scratch Wound Assay and the Boyden Chamber Assay
Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, such as Brownian motion, intermittent and persistent random-walks, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns. Recent extensions of this model describe the oscillatory motion ...
Shop Angio-associated migratory cell protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Angio-associated migratory cell protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Directional cell locomotion is critical in many physiological processes, including morphogenesis, the immune response, and wound healing. It is well known that in these processes cell movements can be guided by gradients of various chemical signals. In this study, we demonstrate that cell movement can also be guided by purely physical interactions at the cell-substrate interface. We cultured National Institutes of Health 3T3 fibroblasts on flexible polyacrylamide sheets coated with type I collagen. A transition in rigidity was introduced in the central region of the sheet by a discontinuity in the concentration of the bis-acrylamide cross-linker. Cells approaching the transition region from the soft side could easily migrate across the boundary, with a concurrent increase in spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, cells migrating from the stiff side turned around or retracted as they reached the boundary. We call this apparent preference for a stiff substrate durotaxis. In addition to
Cell migration and invasion are central to achieving functions such as wound repair and immune response. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells migrate is important in determining the role of inflammatory cells in disease processes. Cell invasion is similar to cell migration; however, it requires a cell to migrate through an extracellular matrix (ECM) or basement membrane extract (BME) barrier by first enzymatically degrading the barrier in order to become established in a new location.. In vitro cell migration, chemotaxis, and invasion assays can provide invaluable insights into the progression of inflammation by identifying factors that regulate directional migration of leukocytes. With cell culture solutions from Corning, you can perform relatively simple, consistent in vitro assays to study the bodys wound healing and immune responses.. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Our research is aimed at understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell migration, and how defects in cell migration contribute to human disease. We use both in vitro approaches including cell culture systems and human studies, and in vivo studies using zebrafish as a genetic model system.. Cell migration plays a central role in many different disease processes including cancer, heart disease, asthma and arthritis. Insight into the mechanisms that regulate cell migration will contribute to our understanding of basic cellular processes, but may also aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches for a wide variety of medical conditions. Despite extensive interest in the receptors and mechanisms that regulate cell migration, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. What are the mechanisms by which a cell initiates and then subsequently stops directional cell migration and how is this altered in disease? How are signaling events coordinated both temporally and ...
By Cindy Bontrager. The 2017 space migration project is underway to reallocate spaces vacated as a result of the 2016 space migration project. The space migration process allows the university to make strategic, transparent space changes that provide long-term benefits to campus. This phase includes space in Anderson, Fairchild, Holton, Leasure and Seaton halls, as well as Hale Library and Unger Complex - the former old Foundation building. Additional information regarding the available space as well as a schedule of building tours and proposal guidelines is available on the space migration website.. The process for submitting and reviewing space migration proposals will follow a similar format as the previous projects. Concept proposals must be approved and submitted by a dean or vice president by Dec. 16. Final space migration outcomes are expected to be announced by April 17, 2017. The general project timeline and working group members can be found on the space migration website. Other ...
Dynamic signals linking the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion receptors are essential for morphogenesis during development and normal tissue homeostasis. Abi1 is a central regulator of actin polymerization and a binding partner of the Abl kinases. The α4 integrin receptor is associated with enhanced protrusive activity and regulation of directional cell migration. Among integrin subunits, α4 predominantly accumulates at the leading edge of migrating cells. We identified Abi1 as a crucial linker between α4 and the actin nucleation machinery at the leading edge. We generated Abi1 knockout mice and found that loss of Abi1 phenocopies knockout of α4. Mice lacking Abi1 or α4 exhibit mid-gestational lethality with abnormalities in placental and cardiovascular development. Abi1 null mice have reduced angiogenesis in the yolk sac, edema, and hemorrhage. Additionally, allantoic explants derived from Abi1 mutant mice exhibit impaired vascular plexus elaboration (Fig. 1).. ...
I have too many tabs open on my computer, so here are some studies/writings which all touch on migration/population movements in some way: Biographical Memoirs of Henry Harpending [pdf]: The late Henry Harpending of West Hunter blog, along with Greg Cochran, wrote the 10,000 Year Explosion, did anthropological field work among the Ju/hoansi, and pioneered population genetics.…
p53 Target Gene SMAR1 Is Dysregulated in Breast Cancer: Its Role in Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
First-in-class chemical compound might control metastases. It´s the spread of the original cancer tumor that kills most people. That´s why cancer researchers vigorously search for drugs that can prevent metastases, the spread of cancer. The research team co-led by Angela Wandinger-Ness, PhD, and Larry Sklar, PhD, at the University of New Mexico Cancer Center has found a chemical compound that appears to control cell migration and adhesion, two important characteristics of metastatic cancer cells. The team recently published a paper describing how the first-in-class compound acts on various cells.. Dr. Wandinger-Ness, a UNM Professor of Pathology and Director of the Fluorescence Microscopy and Cell Imaging Shared Resource, studies proteins called GTPases. GTPases act like chemical switches to control how cells behave: how much a cell grows, what shape it assumes, when it enters the next growth stage, and how tightly it sticks to its surroundings, among several hundred other things. Dr. ...
The paucity of detectable apoptotic cells in tissues where many cells undergo apoptosis demonstrates the efficiency of cell-clearance mechanisms. Apoptotic cells are thought to release factors that signal their presence to scavenger cells such as macrophages, but the nature of these signals is unclear (see commentary by Gregory). Elliott et al. found that supernatant from thymocytes in which apoptosis was induced recruited more monocytes in a migration assay than did supernatant from live cells. Similarly, supernatant from apoptotic cells introduced into a subcutaneous air pouch in mice recruited more macrophages than did supernatant from live cells. Treatment of the supernatant from the apoptotic cells with apyrase, which hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates, blocked the recruitment of macrophages to the air pouch. Of various nucleotides tested, ATP and UTP were the most efficient at recruiting monocytes in in vitro migration assays, and both nucleotides were detectable in the ...
ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase control MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP action and affect cell migration: a comparison between mesothelioma and mesothelial cells., Journal of cellular physiology, vol.207,(2),2006,pp 540-552 ...
Angiogenic growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration is a key step towards tumor angiogenesis. When cells are migrating, caveolin-1, the principle protein component of caveolae, is excluded from the leading edge and polarized to the cell rear. The migration-stimulated caveolin rear translocation appears to play an important role in endothelial cell polarization and directional movement. In
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The migration assay (also known as the Boyden Chamber Assay) is a commonly used test to study the migratory response of endothelial cells.
J:86051 Muller M, Jabs N, Lork DE, Fritzsch B, Sander M, Nkx6.1 controls migration and axon pathfinding of cranial branchio-motoneurons. Development. 2003 Dec;130(23):5815-26 ...
March 2005--Denise Montell has been studying cell migration for a decade, trying to figure out why some epithelial cells stay put in their tissue of origin while a more adventurous group restlessly seeks opportunities for growth elsewhere. Migratory cells are industrious workers-essential for development, wound healing and immune surveillance-but a small subset travels for less benevolent purposes, fueling metastases that can kill.. "Wed like to understand how epithelial cells become migratory and invasive," Montell says, "from both a basic science and a clinical point of view.". Her pursuit will be greatly assisted by advances in live-cell imaging now enabling investigators to track the movement of individual protein molecules as they initiate, carry out and conclude their journeys.. "Were going to see things," says Montell, who directs the IBBS Center for Cell Dynamics, "that we just wouldnt be able to detect any other way.". Montell has long employed a forward genetics approach-inducing ...
Combine all this false science with a brand new fabricated bioethics that condones and is even complicit in these scientific myths and you have fabricated ethical guidelines that justify whatever either field wants to do.
Human Cell is the official English-language journal of the Japan Human Cell Society. The journal serves as a forum for international research on all aspects of ...
A. During early development, a snake embryo was exposed to a toxin that interferes with normal migration and differentiation of mesoderm. Name the major structures of the integument most affected by this exposure and how each.
Rep. Bob Goodlattes (R-Va.) Securing Americas Future Act, H.R. 4760, now has 90 cosponsors! Rep. Goodlattes legislation would end chain migration and the visa lottery, mandate use of the E-Verify system, and grant work permits to DACA recipients.
Pres. Trump fully endorsed Sen. Chuck Grassleys bill, the Secure and Succeed Act, in a statement today. In his endorsement, he also called on Senators to oppose anything that doesnt include his four pillars of ending Chain Migration and the Visa Lottery, securing the border, and granting amnesty to the 1.8 million DACA-eligible illegal aliens.
HEF-1/ Cas-L, 0.1 ml. HEF1 is a multifunctional protein involved in integrin-based signaling that affects cell motility, growth, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation.
Sheetz, M. P., Dubin-Thaler, B. J., Giannone, G., Jiang, G. and Döbereiner, H.-G. (2004) Functional Phases in Cell Attachment and Spreading, in Cell Migration in Development and Disease (ed D. Wedlich), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527604669.ch1 ...
Johns Hopkins researchers have found a way to directly observe cell migration -- in real time and in living tissue. In a report in the June 5 issue of Developmental Cell , the scientists say their advance could lead to strategies for controlling both normal growth and the spread of cancer, processes that depend on the programmed, organized movement of cells across space.
An apparatus and method of use for assaying cellular motility in response to a concentration gradient of a chemotactic agent. Generally, the apparatus includes a chamber having a region for receiving
Zinselmeyer Bernd H, Heydari Sara, Sacristán Catarina, Nayak Debasis, Cammer Michael, Herz Jasmin, Cheng Xiaoxiao, Davis Simon J, Dustin Michael L, McGavern Dorian B: PD-1 promotes immune exhaustion by inducing antiviral T cell motility paralysis. The Journal of experimental medicine 210(4): 757-74, Apr 2013 ...
Scientists at The University of Manchester have identified the method by which cells control the recycling of molecules, a process that is essential for them to move. The discovery provides researchers with a better understanding of how our bodies heal wounds.
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buildroot}/etc/ ...and placed in the final destination of: /etc I keep getting the entire %{buildroot} created on the destination host. TIA ...
Long blue notes echo in my soul. Whole?No. The blue notes invademy soul, metastasize like rock hardtumors. Cancerous cells move glacier-like along the line of my spine, tillsitting up straight feels like balancingthe whole world on my back. Thosenotes carry me homewhere I crawl into bed, wait to die. Exhale my…
... : Lakshmi Ramgopal, aka Lykanthea, this debut release of her is dated 2014, yet, I found it only a few days ago, and I am stunned - where was I in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of cysteine-rich protein 61 in the epidermal growth factor-induced migration of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. AU - Chin, Li Han. AU - Hsu, Sung Po. AU - Zhong, Wen-Bin. AU - Liang, Yu Chih. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is among the most aggressive types of malignant cancer. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ATC, and patients with thyroid carcinoma typically exhibit increased cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61). In this study, we found that EGF treatment induced cell migration, stress fiber formation, Cyr61 mRNA and protein expressions, and Cyr61 protein secretion in ATC cells. The recombinant Cyr61 protein significantly induced cell migration; however, inhibition of Cyr61 activity by a Cyr61-specific antibody abrogated EGF-induced cell migration. EGF treatment also affected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker protein expression, as evidenced by an increase in vimentin and ...
Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in
Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised hope for an improved treatment by targeting therapy-refractory cancer stem cells. However, an unambiguous role of salinomycin against cancer cell migration and metastasis formation remains elusive. Findings: We report that salinomycin effectively inhibits cancer cell migration in a variety of cancer types as determined by Boyden chamber assays. Additionally, cells were treated with doxorubicin at a concentration causing a comparable low cytotoxicity, emphasizing the anti-migratory potential of salinomycin. Moreover, single-cell tracking by time-lapse microscopy demonstrated a remarkable effect of salinomycin on breast cancer cell motility. Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. Conclusions: Our findings clearly show that salinomycin can strongly inhibit cancer cell migration independent of the ...
The secreted semaphorin Sema3E controls cell migration and invasiveness in cancer cells. conversely RNAi-based knock-down or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by gamma-secretase inhibitors mogroside IIIe downregulated PlexinD1 amounts. Notably both Notch1 and Notch3 appearance favorably correlates with PlexinD1 amounts in prostate cancers as well such as additional tumor types. In prostate malignancy cells Sema3E-PlexinD1 axis was previously reported to regulate migration; however implicated mechanisms were not elucidated. Here we display that in these cells PlexinD1 activity induces the manifestation of the transcription element Slug downregulates E-cadherin levels and enhances cell migration. Moreover our mechanistic data determine PlexinD1 mogroside IIIe like a pivotal mediator of this signaling axis downstream of Notch in prostate malignancy cells. In fact on one hand PlexinD1 is required to mediate cell migration and E-cadherin rules elicited by Notch. On the other hand PlexinD1 ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
Morphogenetic movements such as cell migration are crucial for the development of multicellular organisms. Cells that are born at distinct locations in the developing animal often undergo precise, spatiotemporally regulated migration to distant sites where they eventually build specialized tissues and organs. How input from multiple signaling pathways is coordinated to ensure proper cell movement remains one of the main challenges in the field of cell migration and developmental biology.. The migration of border cells (BCs) in the Drosophila egg chamber provides a unique system with which to genetically dissect the mechanisms regulating invasive cell migration in vivo (Montell, 2003; Rorth, 2002). During oogenesis, a group of approximately eight cells, called BCs, is specified at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicular epithelium (Montell et al., 1992). At stage 9 of oogenesis, BCs change their shape, exit the epithelium and become migratory (Fig. 1A). BCs comprise two inner cells, called ...
TDE0214-mediated regulation of motility.PilZ domain proteins have been studied in several motile bacteria, and they are often implicated in regulation of cell motility (12, 13, 26-28). In these bacteria, mutations in the genes encoding those c-di-GMP effectors have different effects on cell motility. For instance, disruptions of B. burgdorferi plzA and V. cholerae plzB impair the cell motility (27, 28). In contrast, mutations of E. coli ycgR and Caulobacter crescentus dgrA or dgrB have no impact on the wild-type cell motility (12, 13, 70). Instead, mutations in these three genes can relieve the inhibition of motility that is caused by either deletions of PDE proteins or overexpression of DGC proteins, highlighting that these PilZ domain proteins affect cell motility only at conditions where the level of c-di-GMP is elevated (12, 13, 26). In this report, we found that inactivation of TDE0214 impaired the cell motility (Fig. 4; see also Movies S1 and S2 in the supplemental material), which is ...
Our data clearly show that Hh signaling is involved in specifying the peripheral-central pattern of the germ disc, similar to the role of Hh signaling in determining the D-V pattern of the vertebrate neural tube (Dessaud et al., 2008). The cell migration defects of At-ptc and At-smo RNAi embryos correlated with patterning defects in the germ disc. In the central region of the At-ptc RNAi germ disc, prevention of CM cell migration was accompanied by a lack of central gene expression and by ectopic expression of peripheral genes. In the peripheral region of the moderately affected At-smo RNAi germ disc, continued CM cell migration was accompanied by a lack of peripheral gene expression and by an expansion of central gene expression. Moreover, severely affected At-smo RNAi embryos exhibited prevention or delay of CM cell migration. This defect was concurrent with an early predominance of central gene expression over the germ disc. The simultaneous observation of cell migration defects and ...
Many human cancers express elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Available clinical data establish the protective effect of COX-2 inhibition on human cancer progression. According to the study by Medical College of Georgia, showed that the COX-2 product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) acts on cognate receptor EP4 to promote the migration of A549 lung cancer cells. Treatment with PGE(2) enhances tyrosine kinase c-Src activation, and blockade of c-Src activity represses the PGE(2)-mediated lung cancer cell migration. PGE(2) affects target cells by activating four receptors named EP1 to EP4. Use of EP subtype-selective ligand agonists suggested that EP4 mediates prostaglandin-induced A549 lung cancer cellmigration, and this conclusion was confirmed using a short hairpin RNA approach to specifically knock down EP4 expression(7 ...
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
MDGA proteins have been studied in humans (De Juan et al., 2002; Díaz-López et al., 2005), rats (Litwack et al., 2004), mice (Takeuchi et al., 2007), chickens (Fujimura et al., 2006) and medaka (Sano et al., 2009). Here we identified and cloned three MDGA orthologs in zebrafish, MDGA1, MDGA2A and MDGA2B. We found MDGA2A to be expressed in a subset of motoneurons, especially in the ones of the cranial, trigeminal and facial nerves. Morpholino mediated knockdown of MDGA2A led to aberrant cell migration of trigeminal neurons and to defasciculation and increased branch formation of the trigeminal as well as facial nerve. These results demonstrate that MDGA2A interactions are necessary for proper migration, axon outgrowth and bundling in cranial motoneurons.. In agreement with our current findings, MDGAs in other species have already been implicated in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In rats, MDGA positive cells were found in the pontine migratory stream, suggesting that these ...
To study the physiological role of L-selectin shedding in lymphocyte biology, we have mutagenized the cleavage site of mouse L-selectin and directed the expression of mutant or WT L-selectin to T lymphocytes by transgenesis. L-Selectin transgenic mice were bred with L-selectin KO mice to generate lines in which either WT or nonshedding L-selectin was only expressed on T lymphocytes, and lines expressing physiological levels of L-selectin at the cell surface were selected for lymphocyte migration studies. We deleted the Ly22 epitope recognized by mAb T28 to distinguish transgenic from endogenous L-selectin during backcrossing to L-selectin KO mice. The anti-Ly22 antibody T28 inhibits L-selectin-dependent binding to PLNs in the frozen section assay (31). However, we could detect no differences in the function of transgenic Ly22− (WT) and endogenous Ly22+ (C57BL/6) L-selectin either in rolling assays or in short-term trafficking to PLNs. We have compared the migration pathways of T cells ...
The migration of multiple cells as a cooperativeunit known as collective cell migration is a common phenomenon in development, cancer and healing
Skin cell migration is essential for skin wound healing. Steps for cell migration are often disrupted in non‐healing wounds, causing patient morbidity and even fatality. Currently‐available treatments are unsatisfactory. To identify novel wound‐healing targets, we took two approaches. First, we studied the migratory gene profiles in human keratinocytes (HKs). Second, we investigated secreted molecules from TGFalpha‐stimulated human keratinoytes, which contained a strong motogenic, but not mitogenic, activity. In the first study, the main challenge is to separate genes that are often simultaneously induced by pleiotropic signals of a given growth factor, including migration, proliferation and metabolism. Therefore, we designed the following steps. First, we took advantage of a unique response of HKs to TGF‐beta, which inhibits proliferation but not migration of the cells, to suppress selectively the proliferation signal‐responding genes. Second, we independently stimulated HKs with ...
Although an increased expression level of XIAP is associated with cancer cell metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To verify the specific structural basis of XIAP for regulation of cancer cell migration, we introduced different XIAP domains into XIAP−/− HCT116 cells, and found that reconstitutive expression of full length HA-XIAP and HA-XIAP ΔBIR, both of which have intact RING domain, restored β-Actin expression, actin polymerization and cancer cell motility. Whereas introduction of HA-XIAP ΔRING or H467A mutant, which abolished its E3 ligase function, did not show obvious restoration, demonstrating that E3 ligase activity of XIAP RING domain played a crucial role of XIAP in regulation of cancer cell motility. Moreover, RING domain rather than BIR domain was required for interaction with RhoGDI independent on its E3 ligase activity. To sum up, our present studies found that role of XIAP in regulating cellular motility was uncoupled from its caspase
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds and ubiquitinates the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Nutlin-3a (Nutlin) is a preclinical drug that binds MDM2 and prevents the interaction between MDM2 and p53, leading to p53 stabilization and activation of p53 signaling events. Previous studies have reported that Nutlin promotes growth arrest and/or apoptosis in cancer cells that express wild-type p53. In the current study, Nutlin treatment caused a cytoskeletal rearrangement in p53 wild-type human cancer cells from multiple etiologies. Specifically, Nutlin decreased actin stress fibers and reduced the size and number of focal adhesions in treated cells. This process was dependent on p53 expression but was independent of p21 expression and growth arrest. Consistent with this, Nutlin-treated cells failed to form filamentous actin-based motility structures (lamellipodia) and displayed significantly decreased directional persistence in response to migratory cues. ...
eicosapentaenoic acid as fish oil) effects the level of burnout from the n-3 fatty acids can decrease NK cell (natural killer cell) activity in healthy subjects, a modulator of the less inflamitory that has little or no effect on cell motility. Including large blocks of micro- and minisatellites Alu-repeats closing the gaps in chromosome 19, (during the final stage of the Human Genome Project) YAC yeast artificial chromosome, is for activating the cytotoxicity of natural killers NK. The inflammatory (20:3 ω-6) the presence in steps (dietary oils 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6,20:3n-6, 18:2n-6,20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3and 20:5n-3, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 showed a histopathological lesion indicative of lipoid liver degeneration till…) of a food supply move forward for a certain distance a random walk and the amount needed to code for amino acids is taking a step in the right direction also known as social gliding motility or a worse random walk sensing. Via isolated normal sweat ducts, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC; ...
Durotaxis is a form of cell migration in which cells are guided by rigidity gradients, which arise from differential structural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Most normal cells migrate up rigidity gradients (in the direction of greater stiffness). The process of durotaxis requires a cell to actively sense the environment, process the mechanical stimulus, and execute a response. Originally, this was believed to be an emergent metazoan property, as the phenomenon requires a complex sensory loop that is dependent on the communication of many different cells. However, as the wealth of relevant scientific literature grew in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, it became apparent that single cells possess the ability to do the same. The first observations of durotaxis in isolated cells were that mechanical stimuli could cause the initiation and elongation of axons in the sensory and brain neurons of chicks and induce motility in previously stationary fish epidermal keratocytes. ECM ...
A new study published in Nature Communications could help biologists understand how various types of migratory cells, such as immune cells, find their way through tissues in the human body. The research, by scientists at McGill University in Montreal and the Radboud University Medical Center in the Netherlands, focuses on a complex of proteins, known as podosomes, found in the membrane of migratory cells and in certain invasive cancer cells. In essence, podosomes mechanically push on the cell membrane, enabling the cell to probe its surroundings and select its migration path through the tissue matrix. Previous studies of cells in tissue culture have shown that individual podosomes occur in a network or cluster where their components assemble and disassemble rapidly in migrating cells. Visually, the networks look like city hubs (podosomes) connected by road-like spokes, composed of actin cytoskeleton filaments. Biologists have been trying to understand the complex dynamics and function of these networks
During activation in response to injury and inflammation, microglial cells can actively migrate into the damaged region of the brain. To fulfill this function, microglia bear receptors for motility factors such as IL-10, epidermal growth factor, complement 5A, and hyaluronan (Turley et al., 1994; Nolte et al., 1996, 1997; Huettner et al., 1997). C13NJ microglial cells represent an interesting model to study cell migration because wound healing is rapidly achieved when chemoattractant factors that are present in 10% serum are added. However, to avoid the possible contribution of cell proliferation to the migration, we performed the assay in the absence of serum. Under these conditions, NT (10 nm) induces a marked activation of cell migration with an effect representing ∼35% of that measured in the presence of serum. An identical result was obtained by using the modified Boyden chamber. Although the NT effect on cell migration defined using the chemotaxis assay was totally blocked by both PI ...
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
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Actin-based cell migration is a key process for morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion [1]. Cell migration has been extensively studied on two-dimensional (2D) substrates. It typically involves a combination of front protrusion, rear contraction and graded adhesion [1]. At the leading edge, actin polymerization forms flat and wide protruding lamellipodia [2]. At the rear, myosin-induced contraction and disassembly of the actin networks generate contraction and forward translocation of the cell body [2]. Dynamic adhesions [3,4] are formed in the lamellipodia region, mature and disassemble as they move towards the centre of the cell [5]. The migration speed of cells is determined by a delicate balance among actin polymerization, myosin-powered retrograde actin flow, and an effective adhesion drag [6].. In a more physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) environment, however, cell migration is far less understood due to both the technical challenges and the complexity of migratory ...
The ordered, directional migration of T-lymphocytes is a key process during immune surveillance, and immune response. T-cell migration is a complex, highly coordinated process. This requires cell adhesion to the high endothelial venules or to the extracellular matrix by a series of surface receptor/ligand interactions involving adhesion molecules of the integrin family including lymphocyte function associated molecule-1 (LFA-1), phosphorylation- dependent signalling cascades and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Mechanisms that regulate T-cell migration are of considerable relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of various diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and the inflammatory arthropathies ...
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
It has been reported that HAX1 is a multi-functional protein which protects cells from apoptosis, modulates autophagy, regulates membrane protein trafficking and promotes cell migration. Many studies have shown it has many different intra-cellular binding partners (including integrin β6 subunit) and exists in multiple cellular locations, including the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. This behaviour seemed unlikely for a single protein. My lab discovered that there are at least eight different HAX1 isoforms in humans and this might explain why multiple roles and sub-cellular locations are described for HAX1. In this study, I sought not only to confirm the role of HAX1 in cell behaviour, but also to examine specifically the role of HAX1 isoforms in different biological functions. I screened a panel of cancer cell lines for αvβ6-dependent migration, including breast (MCF10.CA1a), pancreatic (CFPac1 and Panc04.03), and αvβ1-dependent migration in cervical cancer (HeLa); siRNA designed to ...
Our central finding is that a relatively small change in total Rac1 activity can serve as a switch that regulates the overall intrinsic pattern of cell migration of a cell. By using at least three different approaches (mutagenesis, RNA interference, and manipulation of the extracellular environment between 2D and 3D), we demonstrate that moderate levels of active Rac support random motility by selectively promoting peripheral lamellae that permit cell turning, but reductions of active Rac by ≥30% instead support directionally persistent migration using axial lamellae.. This role of Rac in regulating the capacity for random versus directionally persistent motility was found for a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells, suggesting that it is a common phenomenon. Moderate changes in Rac activity did not necessarily affect the velocity of cell migration, and in a 3D environment, suppression of Rac activity occurred together with increased velocity, indicating the ...
Cell motility is essential for many morphogenetic and regenerative processes, also contributing to the development of numerous diseases, including cancer. For 2D, cell movement starts with protrusion of the cell membrane followed by the formation of new adhesions at the cell front that link the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, generation of traction forces that move the cell forwards and disassembly of adhesions at the cell rear. Although valuable knowledge has been accumulated through analysis of various 2D models, some of these insights are not directly applicable to migration in 3D. In any case, all these processes are regulated by environmental signals from the surrounding microenvironment that allow cells to guide and regulate their directional movement. Unraveling the intrinsic mechanisms that cells use to define their migration is crucial for advancing in the development of new technologies in regenerative medicine and treatment of cancer. Due to the complexity of all these ...
The migration of effector or memory T cells to the graft is a critical event in the rejection of transplanted organs. The prevailing view is that the key steps involved in T cell migration - integrin-mediated firm adhesion followed by transendothelial migration - are dependent on the activation of Gαi-coupled chemokine receptors on T cells. In contrast to this view, we demonstrated in vivo that cognate antigen was necessary for the firm adhesion and transendothelial migration of CD8+ effector T cells specific to graft antigens and that both steps occurred independent of Gαi signaling. Presentation of cognate antigen by either graft endothelial cells or bone marrow-derived APCs that extend into the capillary lumen was sufficient for T cell migration. The adhesion and transmigration of antigen-nonspecific (bystander) effector T cells, on the other hand, remained dependent on Gαi, but required the presence of antigen-specific effector T cells. These findings underscore the primary role of ...
Previously, we found that β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal I), an enzyme that adds sialic acids to N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, is up-regulated by ionizing radiation (IR) and cleaved to a form possessing catalytic activity comparable to that of the Golgi-localized enzyme. Moreover, this soluble form is secreted into the culture media. Induction of ST6Gal I significantly increased the migration of colon cancer cells via sialylation of integrin β1. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms underlying ST6Gal I cleavage, solubilization and release from cells, and addressed its functions, focusing primarily on cancer cell migration. We performed immunoblotting and lectin affinity assay to analyze the expression of ST6 Gal I and level of sialylated integrin β1. After ionizing radiation, migration of cells was measured by in vitro migration assay. α2, 6 sialylation level of cell surface was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell
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We have shown that β-Pix contributes to the migration of HCE cells on fibronectin. A role for β-Pix in cell migration has been demonstrated in various cell types. 13,27 -29 Although HCE cells have been immortalized by simian virus 40 and may exhibit the increased rates of cell cycle progression and cell migration compared with primary human corneal epithelial cells, they are widely studied as a model of the latter cells because of the limited availability of human corneal tissue and the short lifespan of the primary cells. Further studies with normal corneal epithelial cells will be necessary to confirm a physiological role for β-Pix in the migratory response of corneal epithelial cells to fibronectin. We have also shown that fibronectin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of β-Pix as well as its accumulation at focal adhesions in HCE cells. Endothelin-1 induces the phosphorylation of β-Pix as well as its translocation to focal adhesions to activate Rho family GTPases in endothelial cells. ...
CELL migrations are essential events that occur during embryonic development and throughout the life of animals. Many detailed studies in tissue culture cells have identified and characterized molecular components involved in the migration of individual cultured cells. Less is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms acting in vivo. A number of characterized cell migrations have attracted attention and have been developed as models to study cell migration in vivo. Well-known examples are neural crest cells in vertebrates, lateral line primordium in zebrafish, germ cells in both vertebrates and Drosophila, as well as tracheal cells and border cells in Drosophila.. Due to the sophisticated genetics tools in Drosophila, including the ability to easily generate clones of mutant cells, border cells have become a powerful system for studying cell migration in vivo. Border cells are a group of ∼8 cells that arise from the follicular epithelium of the egg chamber. The follicular epithelium is ...
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we have mapped the expression of the signaling component of two secreted class III Semaphorins, Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema 3F, at time points that correspond to neural crest cell migration within the hindbrain region of the chick. Both Semaphorins are expressed within rhombomeres at levels adjacent to crest-free mesenchyme and expression of the receptor components essential for Semaphorin activity by neural crest cells suggests a function in restricting neural crest cell migration. By using bead implantation and electroporation in ovo, we define a role for both Semaphorins in the maintenance of neural crest cell streams in proximity to the
Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. They are derived from the ectoderm germ layer, but are sometimes called the fourth germ layer because they are so important and give rise to so many other types of cells. They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unique astrocyte ribbon in adult human brain contains neural stem cells but lacks chain migration. AU - Sanai, Hader. AU - Tramontin, Anthony D.. AU - Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo. AU - Barbaro, Nicholas M.. AU - Gupta, Halin. AU - Kunwar, Sandeep. AU - Lawton, Michael T.. AU - McDermott, Michael W.. AU - Parsa, Andrew T.. AU - Verdugo, José Manuel Garcia. AU - Berger, Mitchel S.. AU - Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo. PY - 2004/2/19. Y1 - 2004/2/19. N2 - The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a principal source of adult neural stem cells in the rodent brain, generating thousands of olfactory bulb neurons every day. If the adult human brain contains a comparable germinal region, this could have considerable implications for future neuroregenerative therapy. Stem cells have been isolated from the human brain, but the identity, organization and function of adult neural stem cells in the human SVZ are unknown. Here we describe a ribbon of SVZ astrocytes lining the lateral ventricles of the adult ...
Bacterial products such as toxins can interfere with a variety of cellular processes, leading to severe human diseases. Clostridium difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB are the primary contributing factors to the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD). While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been shown that these toxins can alter chemotactic responses of neutrophils and intestinal epithelial cells leading to innate immune responses and tissue damages. The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. We investigated here the direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays and microfluidic devices. It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. Similar
The endocytic protein dynamin participates in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions such as podosomes, pseudopodia, and invadopodia, which facilitate cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of dynamin in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions at the leading edge of cancer cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed dynamin 2 isoform facilitates cell migration by stabilizing F-actin bundles in filopodia of the lung cancer cell line H1299. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin 2 decreased cell migration and filopodial formation. Furthermore, dynamin 2 and cortactin mostly colocalized along F-actin bundles in filopodia of serum-stimulated H1299 cells by immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopy. Knockdown of dynamin 2 or cortactin inhibited the formation of filopodia in serum-stimulated H1299 cells, concomitant with a loss of F-actin bundles. Expression of wild-type cortactin rescued the punctate-like ...
Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are essential for cell migration and cancer invasion, but the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating these processes remain to be elucidated. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type Iγ (PIPKIγ) binds talin and is required for focal adhesion formation in EGF-stimulated cells, but its role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics and cancer invasion is poorly understood. We show here that overexpression of PIPKIγ promoted focal adhesion formation, whereas cells expressing either PIPKIγK188,200R or PIPKIγD316K, two kinase-dead mutants, had much fewer focal adhesions than those expressing WT PIPKIγ in CHO-K1 cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PIPKIγ, but not PIPKIγK188,200R, resulted in an increase in both focal adhesion assembly and disassembly rates. Depletion of PIPKIγ by using shRNA strongly inhibited formation of focal adhesions in HCT116 cells. Overexpression of PIPKIγK188,200R or depletion of PIPKIγ reduced the
Shepherd JD, Huganir RL (2007). "The cell biology of synaptic plasticity: AMPA receptor trafficking". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol ... Therefore, it is possible that myosin may drive the lateral movement of AMPA receptors in the perisynpatic region to the PSD. ... Cell. 127 (1): 85-97. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.037. PMID 17018279. Kim DY, Kim SH, Choi HB, Min C, Gwag BJ (2001). "High ... Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.057. PMC 2585749 . PMID 18984164. Nicoll RA, Tomita S, Bredt DS (March 2006 ...
Seema Singh (April 2008). "India Takes an Open Source Approach to Drug Discovery". Cell. 133: 201-203. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... "Join the movement - Open Source Drug Discovery". Osdd.net. Retrieved 2015-04-30. ... WP5 - Micro array gene expression for human cells and tissues with the best inhibitors. This involves identification of ... compounds with higher binding affinity for the target without altering expression profile of host cell. WP6 - Medicinal ...
... including oriented cell division, cell-cell intercalation and chemotactic cell movement,[4] have been proposed to explain the ... Cellular movements[edit]. The formation of the primitive streak in the blastocyst involves the coordinated movement and re- ... Cells from the lateral posterior marginal zone replace those cells that left Koller's Sickle by meeting at the center of this ... Even before the streak is visible, epiblast cells have started to move.[7] Two counter-rotating flows of cells meet at the ...
Movement diagrams[edit]. Below are diagrams indicating each piece's movement. Pieces are paired with their promotion. Pieces ... Sannin shōgi (hex board, 7 cells per side, 3-player game). *Yonin shōgi (9×9, 4-player game) ... Movement and capture[edit]. An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an ... The flying silver cannon has the same powers of movement as the flying gold cannon. (mRpRFAcpR) ♦. ☆. ♦ ...
Bhowmick DK (March 1967). "Electron microscopy of Trichamoeba villosa and amoeboid movement". Exp. Cell Res. 45 (3): 570-89. ...
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1976.tb01352.x. Sleigh MA (1985). "Origin and evolution of flagellar movement". Cell Motil. 5: 137-138 ... akrokont: cells with flagella inserted apically subakrokont: cells with flagella inserted subapically pleurokont: cells with ... An example of a eukaryotic flagellate cell is the mammalian sperm cell, which uses its flagellum to propel itself through the ... The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the interior of the flagellum is accessible to the cell's ...
"Dynamic DNA helicase-DNA polymerase interactions assure processive replication fork movement". Molecular Cell. 27 (4): 539-549 ... Bodescot, M; Brison, O (1994). "Efficient second-strand cDNA synthesis using T7 DNA polymerase". DNA and Cell Biology. 13 (9): ... Richardson, CC (1983). "Bacteriophage T7: minimal requirements for the replication of a duplex DNA molecule". Cell. 33 (2): 315 ...
2001). "Dual function of rhoD in vesicular movement and cell motility". Eur. J. Cell Biol. 80 (6): 391-8. doi:10.1078/0171-9335 ... 2007). "Rho plays a central role in regulating local cell-matrix mechanical interactions in 3D culture". Cell Motil. ... Cell Biol. 5 (3): 195-204. doi:10.1038/ncb935. PMID 12577064. Jaffe AB, Aspenström P, Hall A (2004). "Human CNK1 Acts as a ... Cell. Biochem. 297 (1-2): 121-9. doi:10.1007/s11010-006-9336-y. PMID 17029007. Tan W, Martin D, Gutkind JS (2007). "The ...
Mitchison TJ, Cramer LP (February 1996). "Actin-based cell motility and cell locomotion". Cell. 84 (3): 371-9. doi:10.1016/ ... Walker MH, Mackenzie C, Bainbridge SP, Orme C (November 1979). "A study of the structure and gliding movement of Gregarina ... Ménard R (February 2001). "Gliding motility and cell invasion by Apicomplexa: insights from the Plasmodium sporozoite". Cell. ... and penetrate host cells in their immediate environment. The sporozoites emerge within the host cell, begin to feed, and ...
The motion is performed by motor cells in a flexible segment just below the flower, called a pulvinus. The motor cells are ... Lang A.R.G.; Begg J.E. (1979). "Movements of Helianthus annuus leaves and heads". J Appl Ecol. 16: 299-305. doi:10.2307/2402749 ... The segment flexes because the motor cells at the shadow side elongate due to a turgor rise. Heliotropism is a response to ... Hart, J.W. (1990). Plant Tropisms: And other Growth Movements. Springer. p. 36. Retrieved 2012-08-08. "Phototropism and ...
"Team/Movement «". Woundedkneeskateboards.net. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "Andy Kessler". Juice Magazine. Retrieved ... FEET] VENICE SKATEBOARD PARK". Cell-Less Productions. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "The Living Legacy: George Powell inspired by ... cell-lessproductions.com. Retrieved October 29, 2009. "Wounded Knee Skateboards". Wounded Knee Skateboards. Retrieved 2015-11- ...
Kulkarni SV, Gish G, van der Geer P, Henkemeyer M, Pawson T (2000). "Role of p120 Ras-GAP in directed cell movement". J. Cell ... Su L, Agati JM, Parsons SJ (2003). "p190RhoGAP is cell cycle regulated and affects cytokinesis". J. Cell Biol. 163 (3): 571-82 ... Cell. Biol. 14 (11): 7173-81. PMC 359251 . PMID 7935432. McGlade J, Brunkhorst B, Anderson D, Mbamalu G, Settleman J, Dedhar S ... Cell Growth Differ. 11 (7): 343-54. PMID 10939588. Shiota M, Tanihiro T, Nakagawa Y, Aoki N, Ishida N, Miyazaki K, Ullrich A, ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... Movement Disorders. 21 (9): 1510-3. doi:10.1002/mds.21011. PMID 16817193. Gélinas JF, Clerzius G, Shaw E, Gatignol A (September ... ADAR is able to both modify and regulate the output of gene product, as inosine is interpreted by the cell to be guanosine. ... ADAR1 is an interferon ( IFN )-inducible protein (one released by a cell in response to a pathogen or virus), so it would make ...
Presynaptic motor axons stop 30 nanometers from the sarcolemma, the cell membrane of a muscle cell. This 30-nanometer space ... Papapetropoulos S, Singer C (April 2007). "Botulinum toxin in movement disorders". Semin Neurol. 27 (2): 183-94. doi:10.1055/s- ... Cell stem cell. 18 (1): 134-43. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.10.002. PMID 26549107. ... 50-60% of the patients that are diagnosed with LEMS also have present an associated tumor, which is typically small-cell lung ...
August 2008). "TCTP protects from apoptotic cell death by antagonizing bax function". Cell Death Differ. 15: 1211-20. doi: ... Wolter KG, Hsu YT, Smith CL, Nechushtan A, Xi XG, Youle RJ (December 1997). "Movement of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria ... that accelerates programmed cell death". Cell. 74 (4): 609-19. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90509-O. PMID 8358790. Sedlak TW, ... In healthy mammalian cells, the majority of BAX is found in the cytosol, but upon initiation of apoptotic signaling, Bax ...
Movement of cells is vital for the function of the immune system, and especially for antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells ... so when one cell moves the rest follow in response to the gradient and initial cell movement. Mechanical effects like the ... but causes movement of the dendritic cells up a fixed chemical gradient. Other leukocytes also exhibit haptotactic movement: ... which is highly influenced by the cell's velocity, which is in turn influenced by direction of cell motility. Cells migrate ...
Modified donor T cells were engineered to attack the leukemia cells, to be resistant to Alemtuzumab, and to evade detection by ... Im, Wooseok; Moon, Jangsup; Kim, Manho (2017-04-11). "Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 for Gene Editing in Hereditary Movement ... For example, when one is planning to use the cell's NHEJ to create a mutation, the cell's HDR systems will also be at work ... Researchers at SGMO mutated CCR5 in CD4+ T cells and subsequently produced an HIV-resistant T-cell population. Gene editing is ...
The process of IFT involves movement of large protein complexes called IFT particles or trains from the cell body to the ... The outward or anterograde movement is powered by kinesin-2 while the inward or retrograde movement is powered by cytoplasmic ... Sedmak T, Wolfrum U (April 2010). "Intraflagellar transport molecules in ciliary and nonciliary cells of the retina". J. Cell ... Scholey, JM (2008). "Intraflagellar transport motors in cilia: moving along the cell's antenna". Journal of Cell Biology. 180 ( ...
... amoeboid movement and cell motility in general, changes in cell shape, endocytosis and exocytosis, cell contractility and ... This rapid turnover is important for the cell's movement. End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of ... Actin in cells[edit]. Intracellular actin cytoskeletal assembly and disassembly are tightly regulated by cell signaling ... Microfilaments have a tough, flexible framework which helps the cell in movement.[2] ...
"Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.057. PMC 2585749 . PMID 18984164.. ... One possibility is that, during LTP, there is lateral movement of AMPA receptors from perisynpatic sites directly to the PSD.[ ... Shepherd JD, Huganir RL (2007). "The cell biology of synaptic plasticity: AMPA receptor trafficking". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.037. PMID 17018279.. *^ Kim DY, Kim SH, Choi HB, Min C, Gwag BJ (2001). "High abundance of GluR1 ...
ActA localizes to the old pole of the bacterium and spans both the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall, lateral diffusion ... Ireton K, Cossart P (1997). "Host-pathogen interactions during entry and actin-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes". ... All mutants except the actA mutants were similar to wild-type concerning association with F-actin and cell-cell spreading. ... Welch, Matthew D. (2007). "Actin-based motility and cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes". In Goldfine, Howard; Shen, ...
Ishikawa, K; Maejima, K; Komatsu, K (2013). "Fig mosaic emaravirus p4 protein is involved in cell-to-cell movement". Journal of ... Like all plant viruses, FMV encodes a movement protein (MP) to enable it to move between cells, usually by increasing the size ... Once the virion has entered a cell, RdRp binds to host mRNA and uses endonuclease activity to cleave the 5' methylated cap for ... Lazarowitza, SG; Beachy, RN (April 1999). "Viral Movement Proteins as Probes for Intracellular and Intercellular Trafficking in ...
The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling ... MacDougald1, Ormond A. and Burant, Charles F. (September 2007) "The Rapidly Expanding Family of Adipokines" Cell Metabolism 6: ...
... their morphology and movement in situ and in vitro. =Journal of Cell Biology". 67: 400-418. Greenburg, Gary; Hay, Elizabeth ... a study of cell movement in vivo". Developmental Biology. 42 (2): 346-361. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(75)90339-5. Bard, Jonathan; ... cell shape, and the control of cell growth and differentiation. She asserted that the basis of many scientific ideas originate ... the regeneration of the limb is achieved when differentiated cells begin to dedifferentiate and become stem cells. In 1957, Don ...
Cell 88, 39-48. Meier, J., Vannier, C., Serge, A., Triller, A., Choquet, D., and M-247 (2001). Fast and reversible trapping of ... He discovered that receptors move in living neurons and that these movements in and out synapses participate to synaptic ... During his post-doc at Duke, he discovered that cells can respond and adapt to the mechanical properties of their environment. ... Nature Neuroscience 4, 253-260 Borgdorff, A.J., and Choquet, D. (2002). Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements. Nature ...
"Dr". The Plant Cell. Retrieved 24 September 2016. Chen, M. H.; Citovsky, V. (2003). "Systemic movement of a tobamovirus ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus ... the movement protein (MP) which is necessary for the virus to move between cells and the coat protein (CP). The read-through ...
... elections cell. Retrieved 10 October 2014. Malik Siraj Akbar (2011). The Redefined Dimensions of Baloch Nationalist Movement. ... His father, Sardar Doda Khan Zehri, was a tribal leader and an activist in the Pakistan Movement who played a crucial role in ... "GEO elections monitoring cell: Sanaullah Zehri". GEO News, ...
7. Zee DS, Yamazaki A, Butler PH, Gucer G. Effects of ablation of flocculus and paraflocculus on eye movements in primate. J ... Given that the fastigial oculomotor region receives inputs from the Purkinje cells of the dorsal vermis and also axon ... Neuronal signals for smooth pursuit eye movements are initiated in the frontal and parietal eye centers, and then mediated by ... 6. Vahedi K, Rivaud S, Amarenco P, Pierrot-D eseilligny C. Horizontal eye movement disorders after posterior vermis infarctions ...
H. Gruler, Cell Movement Analysis in a Necrotactic Assay, Blood Cells 10: 107 (1984).Google Scholar ... Directed Movement Applied Electric Field Neural Crest Cell Polar Field Neurospora Crassa These keywords were added by machine ... H. Gruler, Cell Movement and Symmetry of the Cellular Environment, Z. Naturforsch. 43c: 754 (1988).Google Scholar ... Gruler H. (1991) Cell Movement and Automatic Control. In: Peliti L. (eds) Biologically Inspired Physics. NATO ASI Series ( ...
Chemotactic cell movement during Dictyostelium development and gastrulation.. Dormann D1, Weijer CJ. ... Many developmental processes involve chemotactic cell movement up or down dynamic chemical gradients. Studies of the molecular ... when propagating waves of cAMP coordinate the chemotactic movement of tens of thousands of cells, resulting in multicellular ... Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK.. ...
Cell Biol. 9, 276-286 (2007). [PubMed]. M. Bailly, Moving away from death: When caspase-11 meets cofilin. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, ... Thus, caspase 11 now appears to influence multiple inflammatory cell processes: cytokine secretion, apoptosis, and cell ... Caspases are well known for their roles in programmed cell death and for their roles in maturation of inflammatory cytokines. ... now show that caspase 11 also has a role in regulating actin dynamics that contributes to cell migration. Leukocytes deficient ...
... of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass track. The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma ... Cellular racetrack accurately clocks brain cancer cell movement. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Journal. Cell Reports. Funder. NIH/ ... of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass "track." The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma ... They tested PDGF to see if it would prime the glioblastoma cells for movement rather than growth by growing the glioblastoma ...
PIP3, PIP2, and cell movement--similar messages, different meanings?. Insall RH1, Weiner OD. ... B) Spatial distribution of PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4,5)P3, and actin polymerization in cells before stimulation and during chemotaxis, ... Actin filaments which extend toward the cell body are capped by various F-actin capping proteins. Immediately below the ... This ensures that newly nucleated filaments are always oriented toward the membrane and away from the cell body. ...
They discovered an entirely new type of cell movement whereby the nucleus helps propel cells through the matrix like a piston ... scientists used an innovative technique to study how cells move in a three-dimensional matrix, similar to the structure of ... "When a cell is in the matrix, the nucleus tends to be at the back of the cell, and the cell body is very tubular in shape," ... They discovered an entirely new type of cell movement whereby the nucleus helps propel cells through the matrix like a piston ...
Yi WulightLight controls cell movementliving cellsMax PlanckNational Institute of HealthNews & Featuresphotonicsphotonics.com ... A photoactivatable protein enables control of cell movement in living cells. Activation of Rac in the red circle led to ... we can now use light to control where and how cells move. This is quite valuable in studies where cell movement is the focus of ... Light Controls Cell Movement Photonics.com. Aug 2009 CHAPEL HILL, NC, Aug., 19, 2009 - One of the biggest challenges in ...
Yi WulightLight controls cell movementliving cellsMax PlanckNational Institutes of HealthNews & Featuresphotonicsphotonics.com ... A photoactivatable protein enables control of cell movement in living cells. Activation of Rac in the red circle led to ... we can now use light to control where and how cells move. This is quite valuable in studies where cell movement is the focus of ... "Because we first tested this new technology on a protein that initiates cell movement, ...
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new way in which nerve cells can control movement. In a study ... Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new way in which nerve cells can control movement. In a study ... This is where the neurons transfer signal substances that can be taken up by the muscle cells to make them contract. ... The researchers believe that this is to control movements better.. Related Stories. *Blood-clotting factor may cause ...
Cell-to-Cell Movement of GFP-Tagged BYV.. As illustrated in Fig. 1A, the GFP ORF was engineered downstream of the subgenomic ... Cell-to-cell movement of the GFP-expressing BYV (BYV-GFP) and its mutant variant lacking most of the HSP70h ORF (BYV-GFP-ΔXho) ... HSP70 homolog functions in cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus. Valery V. Peremyslov, Yuka Hagiwara, and Valerian V. Dolja ... One is the CI protein from potyviruses that is involved in RNA replication and in cell-to-cell movement (38, 42). Another is a ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
... a ganglion cell in the retina of primates was found to react to movement. The cell was named Upsilon and is similar to Y cells ... Because the upsilon cells are rare, simultaneously taking readings from several such cells using the above method was not ... This finding ends four decades of search for the movement-detecting cells in the retina. ... Biologists know of 22 different types of ganglion cells. However, the function of only a quarter of these cells is known, ...
The findings deepen the understanding of how cells initiate movement, and have implications for conditions dependent on cell ... A new multi-disciplinary study at Penn illuminates a crucial step in the process of cell movement. The protein they examined, ... Exo70, induces a reshaping of the cells plasma membrane, a necessary step in how a cell migrates from one location to another ... underscoring the importance of the molecule in helping cells make directed movements. ...
You will have all the basic imformation about the movement of fluid in cells. There will be a lot of information about ... Fluid Movement in Cells. You will have all the basic imformation about the movement of fluid in cells. There will be a lot of ...
J Cell Sci 2017 130: 3809-3817; doi: 10.1242/jcs.206532. Interkinetic nuclear migration and basal tethering facilitates post- ... TFCP2L1 represses multiple lineage commitment of mouse embryonic stem cells through MTA1 and LEF1. Kuisheng Liu, Yan Zhang, ... Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and ...
Scientists at The University of Manchester have identified the method by which cells control the recycling of molecules, a ... By studying the movement of fibroblast cells using sophisticated imaging techniques, Dr Morgan and the team identified the role ... The next step will be to investigate how Syndecan-4 can be manipulated to control cell movement with a view to developing novel ... Once they have been used by the cell, integrins are moved from the surface to a store inside the cell. When the time is right ...
Cells that form facial features need surrounding embryonic tissues to stiffen so they can move and develop, according to new ... the tissue holding the NC cells stiffens and becomes denser with cells which triggers the cells orchestrated movement. ... "Weve known that cell movement is essential for many processes in the body including the formation of embryos and cancer spread ... that the mechanical properties of the environment surrounding embryonic cells has been shown to be crucial in cell movement and ...
Put an end to tedious and time-wasting manual cell counting. The cost of consumables for automated cell counters is a common ... No more excuses for counting cells manually. Now that there is a cell counter with a reusable slide, it is surprisingly ... We have started a movement to show lab managers everywhere that with affordable options available, "too expensive" is no longer ... With a reusable slide, almost any lab can now afford to put an end to manual cell counting. ...
Development of Spinal Connections that Control Movement. Samuel L. Pfaff, PhD. Investigator, HHMI Professor, Gene Expression ... Cell Biology Seminar. April 2, 2019 , 10:30 am-12:00 pm iCAL ...
What begins as a disordered, chaotic motion changes into an orderly movement. As this happens the cells also change from a ... Finding sheds new light into mysterious process of cell movement during development. 15.08.2002 ... By labeling the nerve cells with fluorescent protein, the biologists determined that the trilobite cells moved much slower and ... the researchers report the discovery that a single protein facilitates the movements of cells within the developing embryo of ...
... like simple body movements, the beating of the heart or movement of the wind, into electricity, using zinc oxide (ZnO) ... A microbial fuel cell (MFC) that operates on plant waste has been developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... "Quite simply, this technology can be used to generate energy under any circumstances as long as there is movement," said Wang. ... The process of generating energy from movement made the researchers to conclude that it was most effective to develop a method ...
Purdue-based startup measures movement in cells to improve cancer drug development. ... There are differences in how cells respond to drugs in a three-dimensional environment, which means the results that occur in ... "Our technology can measure a cancer tumors response to cancer therapy, such as metabolism and cell division. This can tell how ... "It breaks down the changes into different frequencies, and we can tell how a cells membranes, mitochondria, nucleus and even ...
... in cells of length 3.5 μm (average of all cells), 2.4 μm (SW cells), 2.7 μm (ST cells), and 3.9 μm (PD cells). We divided the ... After the ST cell develops into a PD cell, PleC localizes to the new flagellar pole. The PD cell divides to yield a SW cell and ... Each Caulobacter cell division produces a pair of distinct daughter cells (Fig. 1): a motile swarmer (SW) cell with a single ... ST cells are unpinched and lack polarly localized PleC-EYFP. PD cells are longer than SW cells, are curved, possess a pinched ...
Coupling to actin flow supports directional transport of virus particles during entry and cell-cell transmission, and local ... and how they spread from cell to cell and cause systemic infections, is incompletely understood. Recent advances from single ... discuss how viruses take advantage of cellular mechanisms that normally drive the movements of proteins and lipids on the cell ... virus tracking experiments have revealed conserved patterns of virus movements on the plasma membrane, including diffusive ...
  • Suspecting they might be generated from increased intracellular pressure, the team used sophisticated microelectrodes to measure the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid inside the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Locomotion involves the detection and transduction of extracellular chemical and mechanical signals, integration of the signals into an intracellular signal, and the spatio-temporal control of the intracellular biochemical and mechanical responses that lead to force generation, morphological changes and directed movement. (umn.edu)
  • Systemic infection of plant viruses proceeds through three steps: intracellular replication, cell-to-cell movement, and long-distance movement ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Its intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking in leaf epidermis, and tubular formation on the surface of protoplasts were analysed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Migrating cells possess intracellular gradients of active Rho GTPases, which serve as central hubs in transducing signals from extracellular receptors to cytoskeletal and adhesive machinery. (elsevier.com)
  • However, it is unknown whether shallow exogenously induced intracellular gradients of RhoGTPases are sufficient to drive cell polarity andmotility. (elsevier.com)
  • It is shown that chemotaxis, galvanotaxis, galvanotropism, contact guidance, etc., are functions of cells having a goal-seeking system which is an automatic controller having a closed-loop feedback system. (springer.com)
  • R. T. Tranquillo, D. A. Lauffenburger, and S. H. Zigmond, A Stochastic model for Leukocyte Random Mobility and Chemotaxis Based on Receptorbinding Fluctuations, J. Cell Biol. (springer.com)
  • E. L. Becker, H. J. Showell, P. H. Naccache, and R. Sha'afi, Enzymes in Granulocyte Movement: Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of Na + , K + AT-Pase, in Leukocyte Chemotaxis, J. I. Gallin and P. G. Quie, eds. (springer.com)
  • Recent experiments show that chemotaxis, especially in response to members of the FGF, PDGF and VEGF families of growth factors, plays a key role in the guidance of mesoderm cells during gastrulation in chick, mouse and frog embryos. (nih.gov)
  • B) Spatial distribution of PI(4,5)P 2 , PI(3,4,5)P 3 , and actin polymerization in cells before stimulation and during chemotaxis, as revealed by GFP-tagged PH domains and phalloidin. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Boire talks to ecancer at the Cancer Research UK Brain Tumour Conference 2018 in London about potential routes for cancer cell, and also immune cell, entry into the leptomeningeal space. (ecancer.org)
  • Interestingly, visualization of dInR -depleted BC clusters, using time-lapse imaging, revealed a delay in detachment of BC clusters from the surrounding anterior follicle cells and altered protrusion dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • Quantitative analysis of in vivo two-photon time-lapse image sequences reveals that loss of either pcdh19 or ncad impairs cell movements during neurulation, disrupting both the directedness of cell movements and the coherence of movements among neighboring cells. (rupress.org)
  • Clusters of several high-GFP cells were tracked in living mice for up to 7 weeks, and an analysis of time-lapse sequences revealed that they moved centripetally at an average rate of 26 μm/d. (arvojournals.org)
  • These process become even more important during the multicellular stages of development, when propagating waves of cAMP coordinate the chemotactic movement of tens of thousands of cells, resulting in multicellular morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • What has been most surprising is the observation that E-Cad is a key component in cell movement, when its role was previously assumed to be that of keeping cells static," explains Jordi Casanova , head of the Development and Morphogenesis in Drosophila Lab at IRB Barcelona and CSIC research professor. (healthcanal.com)
  • Pectin methylesterase (PME), cell wall enzyme, is known as a factor of plant growth and morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Cell motions continue to be disordered and do not develop the same sense of direction and purpose in the mutant as they do in normal embryos. (innovations-report.com)
  • But Chandrasekhar and his Missouri team discovered that this movement does not take place in trilobite embryos. (innovations-report.com)
  • The sculpting of embryos during development involves coordinated movement of cells in large groups. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which actomyosin drives collective cell movement in vertebrate embryos. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data provide the first evidence that amotl2 is essential for cell movements in vertebrate embryos. (uniprot.org)
  • To gain insight into cell behaviour during the implantation period, which cannot be reproduced in vitro, the general approach proposed here consists of labelling cells before implantation, at the blastocyst stage, and monitoring their distribution after implantation, in cultures of embryos between days 5.5 and 6.5. (europa.eu)
  • Embryos that are morphant for pcdh19 exhibit severely disrupted brain morphology, which is caused at least in part by a defect in cell movements in the anterior neural plate. (rupress.org)
  • H. Gruler and R. Nuccitelli, New insights into galvanotaxis and other directed cell movements an analysis of the translocation distribution function, in: Ionic Currents in Development, R. Nuccitelli, ed. (springer.com)
  • Activation of Rac in the red circle led to localized cell protrusion and translocation of the kinase PAK to the cell edge (right hand image, Pak in red). (photonics.com)
  • Inactivation of the HSP70h gene by replacement of the start codon or by deletion of 493 codons resulted in complete arrest of BYV translocation from cell to cell. (pnas.org)
  • The factors that regulate plasma cell localization are poorly defined. (rupress.org)
  • ADAR is able to both modify and regulate the output of gene product, as inosine is interpreted by the cell to be guanosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under stable conditions (eletrochemical equilibrium), the Cl- and Na+ ions exist in a higher concentration outside the cell than inside. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • Reminiscences of work with Alex Hope: the movement of water and ions in giant algal cells, 1963-1967. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is because the plants cells would naturally lose essential mineral ions by osmotic diffusion back into the soil moisture. (docbrown.info)
  • Not good, it means the root hair cells can't use diffusion on its own to absorb minerals from the soil, in fact, without active transport, mineral ions would move out of the root hairs. (docbrown.info)
  • In a new study from the University of Pennsylvania and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, scientists used an innovative technique to study how cells move in a three-dimensional matrix, similar to the structure of certain tissues, such as the skin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells that form facial features need surrounding embryonic tissues to stiffen so they can move and develop, according to new UCL-led research. (phys.org)
  • Nolte and John Turek, the company's executive vice president and chief financial officer, created technology that uses holography and lasers to study a cell's phenotype, or the observable traits that result from how cells in tissues interact with their environment. (purdue.edu)
  • Modeling cell movement in anisotropic and heterogeneous network tissues. (aimsciences.org)
  • Mathematical analysis of a kinetic model for cell movement in network tissues. (aimsciences.org)
  • Hydrogels can mimic a variety of tissues and can be specialized to replicate various properties of different cells. (labroots.com)
  • Cell death was found in anterior tissues of npc1 morphants at later stages, consistent with findings in mammals. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Phloem cells are living cells and the phloem tube tissues carry dissolved sugars (food) from the leaves to the rest of the plant, including the growing regions and the storage organs. (docbrown.info)
  • Corneal flatmount tissues were examined three dimensionally under a laser confocal microscope and the location of each BrdU-labeled cell in the corneal epithelium (basal or suprabasal) was determined. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tumor cells employ a number of strategies to move in vivo , either as individual cells or collectively as cohesive groups of cells that maintain cell-cell contacts ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, the significance of VLA-2 (α 2 β 1 ) integrin in the movement of human rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells in the liver was characterized by in vivo videomicroscopy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo microscopy showed that RDX2C2(I - ) cells migrated in a manner similar to control RDpF cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo, climbing fibers spike continuously, including during movements when parallel fibers are simultaneously conveying sensorimotor information to PCs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Components of the spindle midzone may therefore be required in vivo for anaphase spindle movement. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • So through iterative in vivo selection of some mouse models I was able to create some subpopulations of cancer cells that grow within the leptomeningeal space. (ecancer.org)
  • H. Gruler, Cell Movement Analysis in a Necrotactic Assay, Blood Cells 10: 107 (1984). (springer.com)
  • The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma patients, has the potential, they say, to predict how quickly and aggressively a given cancer might lethally spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Quinones-Hinojosa says results of several experiments with the assay suggest that tumors with the fastest cells paralleled the quicker recurrence and other clinical outcomes of 14 glioblastoma patients at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • Animated Dynamics received a six-month SBIR Phase I grant worth $150,000 from the National Science Foundation to develop a microscope attachment to help scientists study the motion and dynamics inside a cell. (purdue.edu)
  • The second in our series of cell dynamics meetings now turns to organelles. (biologists.org)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health's Cancer Genome Atlas , glioblastoma -- an aggressive cancer of the glial cells of the brain -- accounts for about 15 percent of all adult brain tumors in the U.S., and even with surgery and other treatment, only 3 to 5 percent of people with the tumor survive five years. (eurekalert.org)
  • They tested PDGF to see if it would prime the glioblastoma cells for movement rather than growth by growing the glioblastoma cells from two different tumors on the racetracks with 20 nanograms per milliliter of PDGF. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some cells from one of the tumors -- belonging to the fastest 25 percent of cells from that tumor -- responded to the PDGF treatment by moving about two times faster than controls made up of untreated glioblastoma cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conversely, the slowest 25 percent of the cells in the tumors moved at the same slower pace as the control tumor cells, meaning that PDGF strongly affected the faster cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • To see if their speed test had the potential to predict which brain tumors were the most aggressive, the scientists grew cells from 14 patient glioblastomas in PDGF, then placed them on the racetracks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human tumors display a surprising paucity of mutations when compared with an equivalent mass of normal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Remarkably, even within large tumors, the majority of mutations, especially driver mutations, are contained within most neoplastic cells, and genetic heterogeneity is limited. (sciencemag.org)
  • show in primary tumors that short-range dispersal combined with a minimal selective growth advantage allows malignant cells within an established tumor to overtake other populations, leading to a marked decrease in the genetic diversity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most cancer deaths are not due to the formation of the primary tumor, instead people die from secondary tumors originating from the first malignant cells, which are able to travel and colonize vital organs of the body such as the lungs or the brain. (phys.org)
  • However, many tumors can adapt their mode of movement in response to external stimuli, and several lines of evidence support the idea of cross-talk between integrin-mediated cell-ECM interactions and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions that may be key to the plasticity observed in tumor cells ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Right now, the only way to find out if the T cells are attacking the cancer is to wait to see if the tumors shrink, but that can take months. (brightsurf.com)
  • The new T cell imaging technology can also reveal, indirectly, where other unsuspected tumors are. (brightsurf.com)
  • Consistently, disrupting actin arc formation via formin inhibition results in less centralized TCR MCs, missegregated integrin clusters, decreased T-B cell adhesion, and diminished TCR signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Intriguingly, PAPC has been shown to modulate cell adhesion by antagonizing the function of C-cadherin ( Chen and Gumbiner, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • This is quite valuable in studies where cell movement is the focus of the research, including embryonic development, nerve regeneration and cancer metastasis," he added. (photonics.com)
  • It will also be important to test whether this mechanism is involved in tumour progression and metastasis as disruptions in cell movement are often seen in cancer, as well as in vascular disorders and chronic inflammatory disease. (nanowerk.com)
  • In conclusion, silencing Oct4 promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. (labome.org)
  • The work, funded by national charity Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund, uncovers new evidence that PAK4 plays a key role in enabling cancer cells to grow and to spread from the pancreas into other areas of the body, a process called metastasis. (medindia.net)
  • PAK4 plays a key role in enabling cancer cells to grow and to spread from the pancreas into other areas of the body, a process called metastasis. (medindia.net)
  • Cell movement plays an important role in cancer research because of the role of metastasis in tumor development. (healthcanal.com)
  • By helping us better understand how cell movement occurs, we can better understand metastasis," said Thompson. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using a new dense electrode array, scientists were able to measure the activity of several upsilon cells simultaneously, and achieved a novel understanding of how these cells detect movement. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • The scientists say the upsilon cells are just the tip of the iceberg. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Scientists at Georgia have now come up with a new technology, called "nanogenerator", that converts mechanical energy from body movements or even the flow of blood in the body into electric energy. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists studying these migrations didn t know how cells determined where to go. (innovations-report.com)
  • A mechanism that cells use to group together and move around the body - called 'chase and run' - has been described for the first time by scientists at UCL. (phys.org)
  • Scientists know that cancer cells recruit healthy cells and use them to travel long distances , but how this process takes place and how it could be controlled to design new therapies against cancer remains unknown. (phys.org)
  • Since 1774, when microscopist Bonaventura Corti discovered "torrents" of fluid inside plant cells, scientists have known that even tiny units of life bustle with motile activity. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Scientists had thought that as cells move through a material, they degrade it at the same time. (labroots.com)
  • Surprisingly, the scientists observed that the cells paused before moving. (labroots.com)
  • The scientists suggest that the enzyme is then stuck to an inhibitor that halts any degrading actions of the enzyme as the cell moves to a Point B. At that Point B, the enzyme or enzymes then digest the material surrounding the cell. (labroots.com)
  • Scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) now reveal a new function for E-Cad, one that contrasts with its accepted role in impeding cell movement. (healthcanal.com)
  • The dissociated early embryonic cells of the fresh water fish, Oryzias latipes, protrude hyaline lobopodia, which tend to rotate around the cell circumference in a propagating wave. (biologists.org)
  • They found that another molecule on the surface of the cell, called syndecan-4, is able to detect and interpret subtle changes in the cell's surroundings to decide how it should respond. (nanowerk.com)
  • The attachment will turn a standard microscope into a biodynamic microscope that studies a cell's phenotype, or the observable traits that result from how cells interact with their environment. (purdue.edu)
  • Our work elucidated a highly intriguing question: how cells move when they are in the complex and physiologically relevant environment of a 3-D extracellular matrix," said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Department of Orthodontics at Penn's School of Dental Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that the pressure was significantly higher in cells moving in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix compared to cells moving along a two-dimensional surface or in a three-dimensional matrix that wasn't cross linked like the fibroblast-derived matrix. (eurekalert.org)
  • In their physiologic environment, cells are in contact with surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and with neighboring cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These experiments make it unlikely that streak formation involves known cell-cell intercalation mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that centriole movements are microtubule dependent and that abscission is more dependent on other mechanisms than positioning of centrioles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This strong orientation suggests that specific mechanisms direct cell movement, in addition to the non-specific dispersive mechanism of the contact inhibition of cell movement. (biologists.org)
  • Our analysis of virus distribution in the PME antisense plants suggested that TMV systemic movement may be a polar process in which the virions enter and exit the vascular system by two different mechanisms, and it is the viral exit out of the vascular system that involves PME. (nih.gov)
  • article{osti_1346443, title = {Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli}, author = {Männik, Jaana and Bailey, Matthew W. and O'Neill, Jordan C. and Männik, Jaan and Burkholder, ed. (osti.gov)
  • Cells were also transfected with siRNA to knockdown retromer function and then exposed to either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • The investigators hope that identifying how they shut off the enzymatic degradation will allow them to shut off the inhibitor during secretion, speeding up cell movement by consequence. (labroots.com)
  • Significantly, when retromer was knocked down with siRNA in non-polarized RPE cells, APP secretion is reduced an average of 38% in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • On the other hand, presynaptic activation of LC cells induces an increase in the mRNA of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in NE cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using live-cell confocal microscopy, they observed that the nucleus could be pulled forward, away from the rear of the cell, with the nucleus dividing the cell into low-pressure and high-pressure compartments. (eurekalert.org)
  • By studying the movement of fibroblast cells using sophisticated imaging techniques, Dr Morgan and the team identified the role of Syndecan-4. (nanowerk.com)
  • Human fibroblast cells (pink) in the process of slingshotting themselves forward in a 3D scaffold designed to mimic the conditions of the body (blue). (sciseek.com)
  • Although cells with depleted centrosomes can divide, the presence of centrosomes ensures efficient formation of the mitotic spindle and facilitates cell division [ 8 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • potyvirus group), a novel long-distance movement factor was identified that facilitates vascular-associated movement in tobacco. (plantcell.org)
  • Dr Morgan explains: "When we changed the way Syndecan-4 senses the environment outside the cell, we were able to alter the way that it transmits signals into the cell and control integrin recycling. (nanowerk.com)
  • During the performance of practiced movements, we found that parallel fiber and climbing fiber co-activity failed to produce supralinear Ca 2+ signals. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cortical area V6A, located in the SPL of primates, carries signals related to the distance of targets from the eyes, and contains neurons with arm movement-related activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • The EGF receptor (EGFR) upon activation signals increased cell movement. (rupress.org)
  • These mutant cells undergo symmetric cell division, producing two daughter cells of similar size, each possessing a paralyzed flagellum. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings indicate that as B cells differentiate into plasma cells they undergo a coordinated change in chemokine responsiveness that regulates their movements in secondary lymphoid organs and promotes lodgment within the bone marrow. (rupress.org)
  • Notably, juxtanuclear SCV localization that occurs by 8 to 14 h postinfection is followed by significant centrifugal displacement of a subset of SCVs toward the host cell periphery by 24 h postinfection. (asm.org)
  • One characteristic trait of SCVs is their localization to a juxtanuclear, Golgi apparatus-associated region of the host cell several hours postinfection ( 1 , 5 , 41 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these studies show that npc1 is required early for proper cell movement and cholesterol localization and later for cell survival. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Mutational analyses showed that the C-terminal regions (between aa positions 287 and 475) were not essential for localization to plasmodesmata, cell-to-cell trafficking, complementation of movement of 50KP-deficient virus, or tubule formation on protoplasts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Initially, activation of actin polymerization within the T cell at the periphery of its contact with the APC drives the spreading of the T cell across the surface of the APC. (rupress.org)
  • The 50KP-GFP fluorescence distributed as small irregular spots or a fibrous network structure on the periphery of epidermal cells and on protoplasts of both plant species. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Early observations with pigment and ink tracers have revealed the existence of centripetal movement in the corneal epithelium from the periphery to the center. (arvojournals.org)
  • We present a detailed simulation study of the effects of these additions on the invasive behaviour of tumour cells and the tumour's response to chemotherapy. (aimsciences.org)
  • Modelling collective cell behaviour. (aimsciences.org)
  • A similar series of events takes place in secondary immune responses except with faster kinetics and substantially greater accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow ( 6 )( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Then I discussed some novel findings, both from myself and others, that might explain how immune cells might exit the space and how we might actually therapeutically intervene in this area. (ecancer.org)
  • The long-distance movement defect was specifically complemented by HC-Pro supplied in trans by a transgenic host. (plantcell.org)
  • To address whether the defect in cell-to-cell movement of UR-hel is caused by its replicase alone and whether only the RNA helicase domain is involved in the cell-to-cell movement, we analyzed various chimeric viruses constructed from TMV-U1 and TMV-R and movement-competent revertants isolated from UR-hel. (asm.org)
  • Cognate combination of the RNA helicase domain and MP could not rescue the defect in cell-to-cell movement of UR-hel. (asm.org)
  • Centriole movement towards the intercellular bridge was only seen occasionally and was highly cell-line dependent. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this review is to present the current mechanistic understanding for how IAVs facilitate cell entry, replication, virion assembly, and intercellular movement, in an effort to highlight some of the unanswered questions regarding the coordination of the IAV infection process. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used to illustrate macromolecular traffic through plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. (nih.gov)