The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Performance of complex motor acts.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The position or attitude of the body.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/32044)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/32044)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (3/32044)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (4/32044)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (5/32044)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (6/32044)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (7/32044)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (8/32044)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

2005. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Transnational urbanism: Attending to everyday practices and mobilities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 227-233.. Smith, Michael Peter. Transnational urbanism revisited. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 235-244.. Beaverstock, Jonathan V. Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled inter-company transferees in New York citys financial district. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 245-268.. Yeoh, Brenda S. A. and Katie Willis. Singaporean and British transmigrants in China and the cultural politics of contact zones Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 269-285.. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Friendship, networks and transnationality in a world city: Antipodean transmigrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 287-305.. Clarke, Nick. Detailing transnational lives of the middle: British working holiday ...
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The ability of cancer cells to migrate through a complex three-dimensional (3D) environment is a hallmark event of cancer metastasis. Therefore, an in vitro migration assay to evaluate cancer cell migration in a 3D setting is valuable to examine cancer progression. Here, we describe such a simple migration assay in a 3D collagen-fibronectin gel for observing cell morphology and comparing the migration abilities of cancer cells. We describe below how to prepare the collagen-fibronectin gel castings, how to set up time-lapse recording, how to draw single-cell trajectories from movies and extract key parameters that characterize cell motility, such as cell speed, directionality, mean square displacement, and directional persistence. In our set-up, cells are sandwiched in a single plane between two collagen-fibronectin gels. This trick facilitates the analysis of cell tracks, which are for the most part 2D, at least in the beginning, but in a 3D environment. This protocol has been previously published in
Given the foolish consistency that comes with being the hobgoblin of little minds, there was no chance that our big-brained president would be consistent on the issue of chain migration. In November, President Donald Trump decried the practice of immigrants sponsoring other family members for permanent residency: CHAIN MIGRATION must end now! Some people come in, and they bring their whole family with them, who can be truly evil. NOT ACCEPTABLE! When the White House released its proposed framework for immigration reform in January, the presidents sentiments were clear: In the future, immigrants would be able to sponsor only spouses and minor children for permanent residency. No more parents or siblings. But the presidents distaste for chain migration apparently doesnt apply to his extended family.. On Thursday, the presidents in-laws, Amalija and Viktor Knavs, became naturalized U.S. citizens, thanks to the sponsorship of their immigrant daughter, first lady Melania Trump. Good for ...
We first examined the effect of afadin on cell movement in response to PDGF stimulation using wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells. The expression level of afadin in both cell types is shown in Fig. 1A. Wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells were sparsely plated on μ-Slide VI Flow dishes pre-coated with vitronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that binds to αvβ3 integrin (Schvartz et al., 1999), and were directionally stimulated with PDGF. Wild-type NIH3T3 cells became polarized with the well-spreading leading edge toward the higher concentration of PDGF, whereas afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells showed elongated shapes and had a small leading edge that was randomly directed and was independent of the direction of the higher concentration of PDGF (Fig. 1B).. These results led us to assume that afadin is involved in directional cell movement. To examine this assumption, we performed a wound-healing assay by scratching the confluent monolayer of wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 ...
Since MMP activity is also regulated by TIMP binding (Nagase and Woessner, 1999) and the dissociation of TIMP-MMP complexes during gel electrophoresis prior to zymography assays acts to enhance the apparent activity of proMMP isoforms, soluble gelatinase activity in the cell‐conditioned media samples was assayed using a peptide substrate (Figure 6C). Both v‐Src3T3 and v‐Src FRNK S‐1034 cells contained high levels of soluble gelatinase activity, whereas NIH‐3T3 and the various v‐Src FRNK cell clones had ∼4‐fold lower levels of gelatinase activity secreted from the same number of cells (Figure 6C). Analysis of whole‐cell lysates also revealed that FRNK expression resulted in lower levels of cell‐associated gelatinase activity (Figure 6D). Although blotting analyses did not reveal significant changes in TIMP expression (data not shown), addition of recombinant TIMP‐2 to v‐Src3T3s inhibited Matrigel invasion activity in a dose‐dependent manner (Figure 6E). Taken together, ...
Proliferation and tangential migration of neural precursor cells are essential determinants of CNS development. We have established cell culture models of both these processes using neural precursor cells grown as neurospheres. The pattern of migration that we observe in these cells is homotypic and occurs in the absence of a glial or neuronal scaffold, and is therefore equivalent to that previously described as chain migration. To determine the role of integrins in proliferation and migration, we have analysed the expression pattern of integrins on neurosphere cells and then performed blocking peptide and antibody experiments. Neurosphere cells express five major integrins, alpha5 beta1, alpha 6Abeta1, alphav beta1, alphav beta5 and alpha vbeta8 and, in addition, express low levels of alpha 6Bbeta1. Chain migration is inhibited by blocking the alpha 6beta1 integrin. Proliferation, by contrast, is inhibited by blocking the other beta1 integrins, alphav beta1 and alpha5 beta1. These results show ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration within the arterial wall is a crucial event in atherogenesis and restenosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC-chemokine receptor 2 (MCP-1/CCR2) signalling is involved in SMC migration processes but the molecular mechanisms have not been well characterized. We investigated the role of PI3Kγ in SMC migration induced by MCP-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: A pharmacological PI3Kγ inhibitor, adenovirus encoding inactive forms of PI3Kγ and genetic deletion of PI3Kγ were used to investigate PI3Kγ functions in the MCP-1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling pathway and migration process in primary aortic SMC. KEY RESULTS: The γ isoform of PI3K was shown to be the major signalling molecule mediating PKB phosphorylation in MCP-1-stimulated SMC. Using a PI3Kγ inhibitor and an adenovirus encoding a dominant negative form of PI3Kγ, we demonstrated that PI3Kγ is essential for SMC migration triggered by MCP-1. PDGF receptor
A broad range of biological processes such as morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer invasion depend on the collective migration of epithelial cells. Guidance of collective cell migration is commonly attributed to soluble or immobilized chemical gradients. I will present novel mechanisms of collective cellular guidance that are physical in origin rather than chemical. Firstly, I will focus on how the mechanical interaction between the tumor and its stroma guides cancer cell invasion. I will show that cancer associated fibroblasts exert a physical force on cancer cells that enables their collective invasion. In the second part of my talk I will focus on durotaxis, the ability of cells to follow gradients of extracellular matrix stiffness. Durotaxis is well established as a single cell phenomenon but whether it can direct the motion of cell collectives is unknown. I will show that durotaxis emerges in cell collectives even if isolated constituent cells are unable to durotax. Collective ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
An initial step in solid tumor metastasis involves the migration of tumor cells through extracellular matrix. Several cancer cell migration strategies exist in vivo, and the local properties of collagen fibers are implicated in modulating migration behaviors. Yet, individual tumor cells also display heterogeneity in their intrinsic ability to migrate and metastasize. It remains unclear to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity contribute to the emergence of distinct migration phenotypes and whether certain migration phenotypes contribute more to metastasis than others. To study this, we generated 3D collagen matrices of varying densities and monitored single cancer cell migration in these matrices with time-lapse microscopy. We observed a collagen density threshold at 2.5mg/ml, above which 86% of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transition from single mesenchymal migration to collective cell migration, with a 50% increase in persistence after cell division. After seven days, these ...
The migration of T lymphocytes is a vital component of the immune system, with roles in immunosurveillance and inflammation. The role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase within T lymphocyte migration is unclear, with some evidence that it may be a disposable signal. Here, using Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the T cell line CEM cells, the role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream kinases was investigated. CCL22 mediated CEM cell migration and CXCL12 mediated peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration were shown to be independent of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase using several different broad-spectrum Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. However, these cells were Akt-dependent, as demonstrated by incubation with the Akt inhibitor Akti-1/2. Differences in the effect of the inhibitors on Akt activity were discovered, indicating that either Akt can be activated in the absence of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, or differences exist regarding the relative ...
Ilina, Elena I.; Armento, Angela; Sanchez, Leticia Garea; Reichlmeir, Marina; Braun, Yannick; Penski, Cornelia; Capper, David; Sahm, Felix; Jennewein, Lukas; Harter, Patrick N.; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Schulte, Dorothea; Le Guerroue, Francois; Behrends, Christian; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W.; Naumann, Ulrike; Mittelbronn, Michel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Peroxide Triggers a Dual Signaling Axis To Selectively Suppress Activated Human T Lymphocyte Migration.. AU - Ball, Jennifer. AU - Vlisidou, Isabella. AU - Blunt, Matthew. AU - Wood, William. AU - Ward, Stephen. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - H2O2 is an early danger cue required for innate immune cell recruitment to wounds. To date, little is known about whether H2O2 is required for the migration of human adaptive immune cells to sites of inflammation. However, oxidative stress is known to impair T cell activity, induce actin stiffness, and inhibit cell polarization. In this study, we show that low oxidative concentrations of H2O2 also impede chemokinesis and chemotaxis of previously activated human T cells to CXCL11, but not CXCL10 or CXCL12. We show that this deficiency in migration is due to a reduction in inflammatory chemokine receptor CXCR3 surface expression and cellular activation of lipid phosphatase SHIP-1. We demonstrate that H2O2 acts through an Src ...
Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell moving paths, which may be easily
The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation ...
Collective cell migration is fundamental throughout development, during wound healing and in many diseases. Although much effort has focused on cell-cell junctions, a role for physical confinement in collective cell migration remains unclear. Here, we used adhesive microstripes of varying widths to mimic the spatial confinement experienced by follower cells within epithelial tissues. Our results reveal that the substrate area confinement is sufficient to modulate the three-dimensional cellular morphology without the need for intercellular adhesive cues. Our findings show a direct correlation between the migration velocity of confined cells and their cell-substrate adhesive area. Closer examination revealed that adhesive area confinement reduces lamellipodial protrusive forces, decreases the number of focal complexes at the leading edge and prevents the maturation of focal adhesions at the trailing edge, together leading to less effective forward propelling forces. The release of follower confinement
© 2014 UICC. The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-Associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
How do cells move in a certain direction in the body-go to a wound site and repair it, for example, or hunt down infectious bacteria and kill it?
Cell migration is a highly integrated, multi-step process that plays an important role in the progression of various diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and arthritis. There are various types and definitions of cell migration. Cell invasion is related to, and encompasses, cell migration, except that cells do more than migrate. Invasive cells move through the extracellular matrix into neighboring tissues in a process that involves ECM degradation and proteolysis. We offer cell migration assays in two formats: Boyden Chamber Assays consist of a cell culture insert nested in the well of cell culture plate. Cells are seeded into the insert and migrate through the pores of the membrane at the bottom of the insert. Gap Closure Assays create a defined area across which cells migrate. Cell migration can be monitored in real time by microscopy. These assays include our new proprietary Radius™ technology which uses a biocompatible hydrogel to create a circular area across which cells can
Cell migration is important in many developmental processes, including neural crest cell migration, gastrulation, and organogenesis. Proper regulation of cell migration is also necessary in adult organisms for immune responses including wound healing. Here, I use the established system of Drosophila border cell migration during oogenesis to provide valuable insight into understanding how collective cell migration is regulated. I have taken a genetic approach to studying cell migration by identifying mutants affecting genes that are important for border cell migration to occur, and a cell biological approach to characterizing the affected cellular behaviors and phenotypes. Through this work, I have mapped novel mutations to genes with previously uncharacterized roles in border cell migration. This analysis has enabled me to describe how Rickets, a G-protein-coupled receptor with a previously unknown role in border cell migration, can coordinate polarity, adhesion, and intercellular communication ...
Cell migration is known to be related to not only physiological phenomena such as embryonic development, immune reaction, and wound healing, but also pathological phenomena such as asthma, vascular disease, and cancer metastasis. However, because genetic mutations of each cancer cell causing high migration ability depend on cell types, it still remains unclear that which pathways are the unity of cancer cell migration signaling irrespective of cancer cell types, and which pathways are the diversity depend on cell types. The aim of this study is to reveal the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration based on chemical genomic approach.. To understand the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration, the effects of 38 small compounds, whose target protein are already identified, on cell migration ability of 10 types of cancer cells were assessed quantitatively by wound healing assay. Two-way hierarchical clustering was done on migration ability ...
There are numerous biological examples where genes associated with migratory ability of cells also confer the cells with an increased fitness actually though these genes may not really have any known effect about the cell mitosis rates. motility guidelines. We make use of this romantic relationship to make up for motility-induced adjustments in cell size in the CPM therefore that in the fixed CPM, cell size is definitely self-employed of the cell motility. We discover that subject matter to similar amounts of compression, groupings of motile cells develop quicker than groupings of much less motile cells, in qualitative contract with natural findings and our earlier research. Raising compression is likely to decrease development prices. Get in touch with inhibition penalizes clumped cells by halting their development and provides motile cells an actually higher benefit. Finally, our model predicts cell size distributions that are constant with those noticed in groupings of neuroblastoma cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulatory T Cell Transmigration and Intravascular Migration Undergo Mechanistically Distinct Regulation at Different Phases of the Inflammatory Response. AU - Snelgrove, Sarah L.. AU - Abeynaike, Latasha D.. AU - Thevalingam, Sukarnan. AU - Deane, James A.. AU - Hickey, Michael J.. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in limiting inflammatory responses in the periphery. During these responses, Treg abundance in affected organs increases and interfering with their recruitment results in exacerbation of inflammation. However, the mechanisms whereby Tregs enter the skin remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to use intravital microscopy to investigate adhesion and transmigration of Tregs in the dermal microvasculature in a two-challenge model of contact sensitivity. Using intravital confocal microscopy of Foxp3-GFP mice, we visualized endogenous Tregs and assessed their interactions in the dermal microvasculature. Four ...
Leukocyte migration is the hallmark of inflammation in vivo, and αMβ2 and Fg have been shown to contribute to leukocyte migration in multiple systems (23)(24). This study has used αMβ2 transfectants and selected mutants to dissect the molecular requirements for αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and its derivatives. The major conclusions of our study are the following. (a) Fg supports a chemotactic cell migration mediated by αMβ2. This response is dependent on Fg concentration and occurs at low (1-50 μg/ml) Fg levels. (b) The αM I domain is necessary but not sufficient to support cell migration to Fg. In contrast to cell adhesion to Fg, efficient migration requires the β2 subunit. (c) The P1 and P2 peptides, as well as the D100 fragment, support cell migration. Thus, the same Fg derivatives that mediate αMβ2-dependent cell adhesion also support cell migration. (d) The P2 peptide stimulates αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and the P1 peptide, in a manner similar to other αMβ2 ...
Would you like to study Behaviour & Social Culture or Business and Economics? All information about Introduction to Migration Studies in Maastricht: admission requirements, deadlines and grants.
We have previously shown that BMP4 reduces proliferation and increases migration of breast cancer cells in vitro [10]. As these results were derived from cells grown in 2D monolayer culture, we set out to analyze the effect of BMP4 in a more physiological setting by employing 3D culture systems. We approached this issue by using both a biological gel (Matrigel, the standard 3D culture environment) and a synthetic material with RGD peptides and MMP-degradable peptide links (PEG gel).. The two materials studied provided dissimilar 3D environments as first evidenced by differences in the morphology of the normal and cancer cell clusters. The MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells had a polarized acini structure in Matrigel, as previously shown [17], while in PEG gel the cells formed irregular non-polarized structures. Similarly, the morphology of the different cancer cells varied between the two 3D models, with the structures formed in Matrigel again corresponding to those previously reported ...
Effect of TGFβ1 on the phenotype, migratory ability, and survival of CD16− monocytes. PBMCs were depleted of CD16+ cells using miniMACS magnetic selection. T
Course IA (p85/p110) phosphoinositide three-kinases play A serious function in regulating cell advancement, survival, and motility. Activating mutations during the p110alpha isoform of the class IA catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) are generally found in human cancers. These mutations lead to elevated proliferation and transformation in cultured cells, but their effects on cell motility and tumor metastasis have not been evaluated. We utilized lentiviral-mediated gene transfer and knockdown to create secure MDA-MB-231 cells wherein the endogenous human p110alpha is replaced with both wild-variety bovine p110alpha or the two most frequent activating p110alpha mutants, the helical area mutant E545K along with the kinase area mutant H1047R. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was hyperactivated in cells expressing physiologic levels of helical or kinase domain mutants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Group choreography. T2 - Mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells. AU - Montell, Denise J.. AU - Yoon, Wan Hee. AU - Starz-Gaiano, Michelle. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.. AB - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to ...
Background: Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. Results: This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell ...
All-and genes, ATRA activates a RAR-dependent epithelial differentiation program. pro-migratory determinant to an anti-migratory mediator. Inhibition of the Level1 path not really just takes on a part in the anti-migratory actions of ATRA; it is usually relevant also for the … Continue reading →. ...
Vol 10: Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AbstractMalignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy characterized by invasive growth and rapid recurrence. The identification and inhibition of molecular components leading to this migratory and invasive phenotype are thus essential. Accordingly, a genome-wide expression array a
Examples of collective cell migration. First column: schematic representation of different migratory types. The regions where cells are interacting are depicted
miR-21 is a key molecule in a wide range of cancers, and identifying its functional role in BC has direct clinical implications. We show here that knockdown of miR-21 suppresses cell growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, and suppresses MCF-7 xenograft growth. This result is consistent with the findings of Si et al. [9]. Interestingly, our study suggests that LNA-antimiR-21 also suppresses the growth and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 in vitro, in contrast to a recent report that found no effect of LNA-antimiR-21 on the growth of MDA-MB-231 in vitro or in vivo, although anti-miR-21-treated tumors were slightly smaller than control tumors [10]. One possibility could be differences in transfection efficiency, or miRNA ASO potency. Our results suggest that, as an oncomir, miR-21 also affects cell migration.. MCF-7 cells are hormone-sensitive and difficult to culture in vivo. Therefore, we used 17-estradiol to facilitate MCF-7 cells growth in nude mice, which is a common technique. Recently, ...
Cell migration is a basic developmental function that serves to build tissues, organs, and whole animals. Defects in cell migration are associated with birth defects and cancer, in particular the metastasis of tumors. Over the past forty years researchers have used the fruit fly to understand the genetic basis of development, including cell migration, but many of the tools and approaches used are beyond the skills and understanding of an undergraduate and advanced high school lab. We have developed a practical lab that allows students to use fly oogenesis to understand how genes regulate cell migration. Students learn to sort males from females, recognize fly genetic markers to identify wild type and mutant animals, hand-dissect ovaries, perform histochemical staining to reveal gene expression in this tissue, and visualize normal and aberrant cell migration using light microscopy to distinguish the effect of a key mutation in a gene required for cell migration. From this approach, students learn ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death. T2 - Cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA. AU - Jeon, Hyejin. AU - Zheng, Long Tai. AU - Lee, Shinrye. AU - Lee, Won Ha. AU - Park, Nammi. AU - Park, Jae-Yong. AU - Heo, Won Do. AU - Lee, Myung Shik. AU - Suk, Kyoungho. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Small G protein superfamily consists of more than 150 members, and is classified into six families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, Ran, and RGK families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions such as cell proliferation/differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. The small G proteins have also been shown to regulate cell death/survival and cell shape. In this study, we compared the role of representative members of the six families of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death/survival, two cellular phenotypes that are associated with ...
Tumor cell migration is a key step in the formation of cancer metastasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed serinethreonine kinase, has been intensely studied for over a decade as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recent data have shown that mTOR also plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Here, we briefly review recent advances regarding mTOR signaling in tumor cell motility. We also discuss recent findings about the mechanism by which rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo.. ...
Gersende Alphonse is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Isolation and Characterization of a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Subpopulation Having Stem Cell Characteristics, Evaluation of the Cell Invasion and Migration Process: A Comparison of the Video Microscope-based Scratch Wound Assay and the Boyden Chamber Assay
Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, such as Brownian motion, intermittent and persistent random-walks, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns. Recent extensions of this model describe the oscillatory motion ...
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If you have a question about this talk, please contact Emma Copley.. Host: Dr Bidesh Mahata ([email protected]). Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Immunology in Pathology series.. ...
Directional cell locomotion is critical in many physiological processes, including morphogenesis, the immune response, and wound healing. It is well known that in these processes cell movements can be guided by gradients of various chemical signals. In this study, we demonstrate that cell movement can also be guided by purely physical interactions at the cell-substrate interface. We cultured National Institutes of Health 3T3 fibroblasts on flexible polyacrylamide sheets coated with type I collagen. A transition in rigidity was introduced in the central region of the sheet by a discontinuity in the concentration of the bis-acrylamide cross-linker. Cells approaching the transition region from the soft side could easily migrate across the boundary, with a concurrent increase in spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, cells migrating from the stiff side turned around or retracted as they reached the boundary. We call this apparent preference for a stiff substrate durotaxis. In addition to
Cell migration and invasion are central to achieving functions such as wound repair and immune response. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells migrate is important in determining the role of inflammatory cells in disease processes. Cell invasion is similar to cell migration; however, it requires a cell to migrate through an extracellular matrix (ECM) or basement membrane extract (BME) barrier by first enzymatically degrading the barrier in order to become established in a new location.. In vitro cell migration, chemotaxis, and invasion assays can provide invaluable insights into the progression of inflammation by identifying factors that regulate directional migration of leukocytes. With cell culture solutions from Corning, you can perform relatively simple, consistent in vitro assays to study the bodys wound healing and immune responses.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of cysteine-rich protein 61 in the epidermal growth factor-induced migration of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. AU - Chin, Li Han. AU - Hsu, Sung Po. AU - Zhong, Wen-Bin. AU - Liang, Yu Chih. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is among the most aggressive types of malignant cancer. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ATC, and patients with thyroid carcinoma typically exhibit increased cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61). In this study, we found that EGF treatment induced cell migration, stress fiber formation, Cyr61 mRNA and protein expressions, and Cyr61 protein secretion in ATC cells. The recombinant Cyr61 protein significantly induced cell migration; however, inhibition of Cyr61 activity by a Cyr61-specific antibody abrogated EGF-induced cell migration. EGF treatment also affected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker protein expression, as evidenced by an increase in vimentin and ...
T-LIF - T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors. Looking for abbreviations of T-LIF? It is T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors. T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors listed as T-LIF
Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in
Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised hope for an improved treatment by targeting therapy-refractory cancer stem cells. However, an unambiguous role of salinomycin against cancer cell migration and metastasis formation remains elusive. Findings: We report that salinomycin effectively inhibits cancer cell migration in a variety of cancer types as determined by Boyden chamber assays. Additionally, cells were treated with doxorubicin at a concentration causing a comparable low cytotoxicity, emphasizing the anti-migratory potential of salinomycin. Moreover, single-cell tracking by time-lapse microscopy demonstrated a remarkable effect of salinomycin on breast cancer cell motility. Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. Conclusions: Our findings clearly show that salinomycin can strongly inhibit cancer cell migration independent of the ...
The secreted semaphorin Sema3E controls cell migration and invasiveness in cancer cells. conversely RNAi-based knock-down or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by gamma-secretase inhibitors mogroside IIIe downregulated PlexinD1 amounts. Notably both Notch1 and Notch3 appearance favorably correlates with PlexinD1 amounts in prostate cancers as well such as additional tumor types. In prostate malignancy cells Sema3E-PlexinD1 axis was previously reported to regulate migration; however implicated mechanisms were not elucidated. Here we display that in these cells PlexinD1 activity induces the manifestation of the transcription element Slug downregulates E-cadherin levels and enhances cell migration. Moreover our mechanistic data determine PlexinD1 mogroside IIIe like a pivotal mediator of this signaling axis downstream of Notch in prostate malignancy cells. In fact on one hand PlexinD1 is required to mediate cell migration and E-cadherin rules elicited by Notch. On the other hand PlexinD1 ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
Morphogenetic movements such as cell migration are crucial for the development of multicellular organisms. Cells that are born at distinct locations in the developing animal often undergo precise, spatiotemporally regulated migration to distant sites where they eventually build specialized tissues and organs. How input from multiple signaling pathways is coordinated to ensure proper cell movement remains one of the main challenges in the field of cell migration and developmental biology.. The migration of border cells (BCs) in the Drosophila egg chamber provides a unique system with which to genetically dissect the mechanisms regulating invasive cell migration in vivo (Montell, 2003; Rorth, 2002). During oogenesis, a group of approximately eight cells, called BCs, is specified at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicular epithelium (Montell et al., 1992). At stage 9 of oogenesis, BCs change their shape, exit the epithelium and become migratory (Fig. 1A). BCs comprise two inner cells, called ...
TDE0214-mediated regulation of motility.PilZ domain proteins have been studied in several motile bacteria, and they are often implicated in regulation of cell motility (12, 13, 26-28). In these bacteria, mutations in the genes encoding those c-di-GMP effectors have different effects on cell motility. For instance, disruptions of B. burgdorferi plzA and V. cholerae plzB impair the cell motility (27, 28). In contrast, mutations of E. coli ycgR and Caulobacter crescentus dgrA or dgrB have no impact on the wild-type cell motility (12, 13, 70). Instead, mutations in these three genes can relieve the inhibition of motility that is caused by either deletions of PDE proteins or overexpression of DGC proteins, highlighting that these PilZ domain proteins affect cell motility only at conditions where the level of c-di-GMP is elevated (12, 13, 26). In this report, we found that inactivation of TDE0214 impaired the cell motility (Fig. 4; see also Movies S1 and S2 in the supplemental material), which is ...
Quantifying the ability of a compound to modulate cell migration rate is a crucial part of many studies including those on chemotaxis, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Existing migration assays all have their strengths and weaknesses. The scratch assay is the most widely used because it seems appealingly simple and inexpensive. However, the scratch assay has some important limitations, as the tool introducing the wound might injure/stress the boundary cells and/or harm underlying matrix coatings, which in both cases will affect cell migration. This described method is a Cell Exclusion Zone Assay, in which cell-free areas are created by growing cells around removable silicone stoppers. Upon appropriate staining with fluorescent dyes and microscopically visualizing the monolayers, the migration rate is then quantified by counting the cells (nuclei) intruding the void area left by the silicone insert. In the current study human small intestine epithelial cells were seeded on a physiological ...
Many human cancers express elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Available clinical data establish the protective effect of COX-2 inhibition on human cancer progression. According to the study by Medical College of Georgia, showed that the COX-2 product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) acts on cognate receptor EP4 to promote the migration of A549 lung cancer cells. Treatment with PGE(2) enhances tyrosine kinase c-Src activation, and blockade of c-Src activity represses the PGE(2)-mediated lung cancer cell migration. PGE(2) affects target cells by activating four receptors named EP1 to EP4. Use of EP subtype-selective ligand agonists suggested that EP4 mediates prostaglandin-induced A549 lung cancer cellmigration, and this conclusion was confirmed using a short hairpin RNA approach to specifically knock down EP4 expression(7 ...
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
MDGA proteins have been studied in humans (De Juan et al., 2002; Díaz-López et al., 2005), rats (Litwack et al., 2004), mice (Takeuchi et al., 2007), chickens (Fujimura et al., 2006) and medaka (Sano et al., 2009). Here we identified and cloned three MDGA orthologs in zebrafish, MDGA1, MDGA2A and MDGA2B. We found MDGA2A to be expressed in a subset of motoneurons, especially in the ones of the cranial, trigeminal and facial nerves. Morpholino mediated knockdown of MDGA2A led to aberrant cell migration of trigeminal neurons and to defasciculation and increased branch formation of the trigeminal as well as facial nerve. These results demonstrate that MDGA2A interactions are necessary for proper migration, axon outgrowth and bundling in cranial motoneurons.. In agreement with our current findings, MDGAs in other species have already been implicated in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In rats, MDGA positive cells were found in the pontine migratory stream, suggesting that these ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of pancreatic cancer cell migration with multiple parameters in vitro by using an optical real-time cell mobility assay device. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To study the physiological role of L-selectin shedding in lymphocyte biology, we have mutagenized the cleavage site of mouse L-selectin and directed the expression of mutant or WT L-selectin to T lymphocytes by transgenesis. L-Selectin transgenic mice were bred with L-selectin KO mice to generate lines in which either WT or nonshedding L-selectin was only expressed on T lymphocytes, and lines expressing physiological levels of L-selectin at the cell surface were selected for lymphocyte migration studies. We deleted the Ly22 epitope recognized by mAb T28 to distinguish transgenic from endogenous L-selectin during backcrossing to L-selectin KO mice. The anti-Ly22 antibody T28 inhibits L-selectin-dependent binding to PLNs in the frozen section assay (31). However, we could detect no differences in the function of transgenic Ly22− (WT) and endogenous Ly22+ (C57BL/6) L-selectin either in rolling assays or in short-term trafficking to PLNs. We have compared the migration pathways of T cells ...
The migration of multiple cells as a cooperativeunit known as collective cell migration is a common phenomenon in development, cancer and healing
Skin cell migration is essential for skin wound healing. Steps for cell migration are often disrupted in non‐healing wounds, causing patient morbidity and even fatality. Currently‐available treatments are unsatisfactory. To identify novel wound‐healing targets, we took two approaches. First, we studied the migratory gene profiles in human keratinocytes (HKs). Second, we investigated secreted molecules from TGFalpha‐stimulated human keratinoytes, which contained a strong motogenic, but not mitogenic, activity. In the first study, the main challenge is to separate genes that are often simultaneously induced by pleiotropic signals of a given growth factor, including migration, proliferation and metabolism. Therefore, we designed the following steps. First, we took advantage of a unique response of HKs to TGF‐beta, which inhibits proliferation but not migration of the cells, to suppress selectively the proliferation signal‐responding genes. Second, we independently stimulated HKs with ...
Although an increased expression level of XIAP is associated with cancer cell metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To verify the specific structural basis of XIAP for regulation of cancer cell migration, we introduced different XIAP domains into XIAP−/− HCT116 cells, and found that reconstitutive expression of full length HA-XIAP and HA-XIAP ΔBIR, both of which have intact RING domain, restored β-Actin expression, actin polymerization and cancer cell motility. Whereas introduction of HA-XIAP ΔRING or H467A mutant, which abolished its E3 ligase function, did not show obvious restoration, demonstrating that E3 ligase activity of XIAP RING domain played a crucial role of XIAP in regulation of cancer cell motility. Moreover, RING domain rather than BIR domain was required for interaction with RhoGDI independent on its E3 ligase activity. To sum up, our present studies found that role of XIAP in regulating cellular motility was uncoupled from its caspase
TY - JOUR. T1 - NHE3 phosphorylation via PKCη marks the polarity and orientation of directionally migrating cells. AU - Ozkucur, Nurdan. AU - Song, Bing. AU - Bola, Sharanya. AU - Zhang, Lei. AU - Reid, Brian. AU - Fu, Guo. AU - Funk, Richard H W. AU - Zhao, Min. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Endogenous electric fields (EF) may provide an overriding cue for directional cell migration during wound closure. Perceiving a constant direction requires active sodium-hydrogen exchanger (pNHE3) at the leading edge of HEK 293 cells but its activation mechanism is not yet fully understood. Because protein kinase C (PKC) is required in electrotaxis, we asked whether NHE3 is activated by PKC during wound healing. Using pharmacological (pseudosubstrate and edelfosine) inhibition, we showed that inhibition of PKCη isoform impairs directional cell migration in HEK 293 cells in the presence of a persistent directional cue (0.25-0.3 V/mm of EF for 2 h). Further, we found that pNHE3 forms complexes with ...
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds and ubiquitinates the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Nutlin-3a (Nutlin) is a preclinical drug that binds MDM2 and prevents the interaction between MDM2 and p53, leading to p53 stabilization and activation of p53 signaling events. Previous studies have reported that Nutlin promotes growth arrest and/or apoptosis in cancer cells that express wild-type p53. In the current study, Nutlin treatment caused a cytoskeletal rearrangement in p53 wild-type human cancer cells from multiple etiologies. Specifically, Nutlin decreased actin stress fibers and reduced the size and number of focal adhesions in treated cells. This process was dependent on p53 expression but was independent of p21 expression and growth arrest. Consistent with this, Nutlin-treated cells failed to form filamentous actin-based motility structures (lamellipodia) and displayed significantly decreased directional persistence in response to migratory cues. ...
eicosapentaenoic acid as fish oil) effects the level of burnout from the n-3 fatty acids can decrease NK cell (natural killer cell) activity in healthy subjects, a modulator of the less inflamitory that has little or no effect on cell motility. Including large blocks of micro- and minisatellites Alu-repeats closing the gaps in chromosome 19, (during the final stage of the Human Genome Project) YAC yeast artificial chromosome, is for activating the cytotoxicity of natural killers NK. The inflammatory (20:3 ω-6) the presence in steps (dietary oils 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6,20:3n-6, 18:2n-6,20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3and 20:5n-3, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 showed a histopathological lesion indicative of lipoid liver degeneration till…) of a food supply move forward for a certain distance a random walk and the amount needed to code for amino acids is taking a step in the right direction also known as social gliding motility or a worse random walk sensing. Via isolated normal sweat ducts, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC; ...
Durotaxis is a form of cell migration in which cells are guided by rigidity gradients, which arise from differential structural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Most normal cells migrate up rigidity gradients (in the direction of greater stiffness). The process of durotaxis requires a cell to actively sense the environment, process the mechanical stimulus, and execute a response. Originally, this was believed to be an emergent metazoan property, as the phenomenon requires a complex sensory loop that is dependent on the communication of many different cells. However, as the wealth of relevant scientific literature grew in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, it became apparent that single cells possess the ability to do the same. The first observations of durotaxis in isolated cells were that mechanical stimuli could cause the initiation and elongation of axons in the sensory and brain neurons of chicks and induce motility in previously stationary fish epidermal keratocytes. ECM ...
A new study published in Nature Communications could help biologists understand how various types of migratory cells, such as immune cells, find their way through tissues in the human body. The research, by scientists at McGill University in Montreal and the Radboud University Medical Center in the Netherlands, focuses on a complex of proteins, known as podosomes, found in the membrane of migratory cells and in certain invasive cancer cells. In essence, podosomes mechanically push on the cell membrane, enabling the cell to probe its surroundings and select its migration path through the tissue matrix. Previous studies of cells in tissue culture have shown that individual podosomes occur in a network or cluster where their components assemble and disassemble rapidly in migrating cells. Visually, the networks look like city hubs (podosomes) connected by road-like spokes, composed of actin cytoskeleton filaments. Biologists have been trying to understand the complex dynamics and function of these networks
During activation in response to injury and inflammation, microglial cells can actively migrate into the damaged region of the brain. To fulfill this function, microglia bear receptors for motility factors such as IL-10, epidermal growth factor, complement 5A, and hyaluronan (Turley et al., 1994; Nolte et al., 1996, 1997; Huettner et al., 1997). C13NJ microglial cells represent an interesting model to study cell migration because wound healing is rapidly achieved when chemoattractant factors that are present in 10% serum are added. However, to avoid the possible contribution of cell proliferation to the migration, we performed the assay in the absence of serum. Under these conditions, NT (10 nm) induces a marked activation of cell migration with an effect representing ∼35% of that measured in the presence of serum. An identical result was obtained by using the modified Boyden chamber. Although the NT effect on cell migration defined using the chemotaxis assay was totally blocked by both PI ...
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
Cell migration or movement is a highly dynamic cellular process, requiring precise regulation that is essential for a variety of biological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of tiny non-coding RNA molecules that function as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play important roles in cell migration and directly contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signalling that controls cell migration by targeting a large number of protein-coding genes. Accordingly, the dysregulation of these miRNAs has been linked to several migration-related diseases. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent advances concerning the roles and validated targets of miRNAs in the control of cell movement.
The purpose of this study was to investigate invasion and metastasis related genes in gastric cancer. The transwell migration assay was used to select a highly invasive sub-line from minimally invasive parent gastric cancer cells, and gene expression was compared using a microarray. MMP28 upregulation was confirmed using qRT-PCR. MMP28 immunohistochemistry was performed in normal and gastric cancer specimens. Invasiveness and tumor formation of stable cells overexpressing MMP28 were tested in vitro and in vivo. MMP28 was overexpressed in the highly invasive sub-cell line. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP28 expression was markedly increased in gastric carcinoma relative to normal epithelia, and was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer overall survival. Ectopic expression of MMP28 indicated MMP28 promoted tumor cell invasion in vitro and increased gastric carcinoma metastasis in vivo. This study indicates MMP28 is frequently overexpressed during
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Actin-based cell migration is a key process for morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion [1]. Cell migration has been extensively studied on two-dimensional (2D) substrates. It typically involves a combination of front protrusion, rear contraction and graded adhesion [1]. At the leading edge, actin polymerization forms flat and wide protruding lamellipodia [2]. At the rear, myosin-induced contraction and disassembly of the actin networks generate contraction and forward translocation of the cell body [2]. Dynamic adhesions [3,4] are formed in the lamellipodia region, mature and disassemble as they move towards the centre of the cell [5]. The migration speed of cells is determined by a delicate balance among actin polymerization, myosin-powered retrograde actin flow, and an effective adhesion drag [6].. In a more physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) environment, however, cell migration is far less understood due to both the technical challenges and the complexity of migratory ...
The ordered, directional migration of T-lymphocytes is a key process during immune surveillance, and immune response. T-cell migration is a complex, highly coordinated process. This requires cell adhesion to the high endothelial venules or to the extracellular matrix by a series of surface receptor/ligand interactions involving adhesion molecules of the integrin family including lymphocyte function associated molecule-1 (LFA-1), phosphorylation- dependent signalling cascades and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Mechanisms that regulate T-cell migration are of considerable relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of various diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and the inflammatory arthropathies ...
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
It has been reported that HAX1 is a multi-functional protein which protects cells from apoptosis, modulates autophagy, regulates membrane protein trafficking and promotes cell migration. Many studies have shown it has many different intra-cellular binding partners (including integrin β6 subunit) and exists in multiple cellular locations, including the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. This behaviour seemed unlikely for a single protein. My lab discovered that there are at least eight different HAX1 isoforms in humans and this might explain why multiple roles and sub-cellular locations are described for HAX1. In this study, I sought not only to confirm the role of HAX1 in cell behaviour, but also to examine specifically the role of HAX1 isoforms in different biological functions. I screened a panel of cancer cell lines for αvβ6-dependent migration, including breast (MCF10.CA1a), pancreatic (CFPac1 and Panc04.03), and αvβ1-dependent migration in cervical cancer (HeLa); siRNA designed to ...
Our central finding is that a relatively small change in total Rac1 activity can serve as a switch that regulates the overall intrinsic pattern of cell migration of a cell. By using at least three different approaches (mutagenesis, RNA interference, and manipulation of the extracellular environment between 2D and 3D), we demonstrate that moderate levels of active Rac support random motility by selectively promoting peripheral lamellae that permit cell turning, but reductions of active Rac by ≥30% instead support directionally persistent migration using axial lamellae.. This role of Rac in regulating the capacity for random versus directionally persistent motility was found for a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells, suggesting that it is a common phenomenon. Moderate changes in Rac activity did not necessarily affect the velocity of cell migration, and in a 3D environment, suppression of Rac activity occurred together with increased velocity, indicating the ...
Cell motility is essential for many morphogenetic and regenerative processes, also contributing to the development of numerous diseases, including cancer. For 2D, cell movement starts with protrusion of the cell membrane followed by the formation of new adhesions at the cell front that link the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, generation of traction forces that move the cell forwards and disassembly of adhesions at the cell rear. Although valuable knowledge has been accumulated through analysis of various 2D models, some of these insights are not directly applicable to migration in 3D. In any case, all these processes are regulated by environmental signals from the surrounding microenvironment that allow cells to guide and regulate their directional movement. Unraveling the intrinsic mechanisms that cells use to define their migration is crucial for advancing in the development of new technologies in regenerative medicine and treatment of cancer. Due to the complexity of all these ...
The migration of effector or memory T cells to the graft is a critical event in the rejection of transplanted organs. The prevailing view is that the key steps involved in T cell migration - integrin-mediated firm adhesion followed by transendothelial migration - are dependent on the activation of Gαi-coupled chemokine receptors on T cells. In contrast to this view, we demonstrated in vivo that cognate antigen was necessary for the firm adhesion and transendothelial migration of CD8+ effector T cells specific to graft antigens and that both steps occurred independent of Gαi signaling. Presentation of cognate antigen by either graft endothelial cells or bone marrow-derived APCs that extend into the capillary lumen was sufficient for T cell migration. The adhesion and transmigration of antigen-nonspecific (bystander) effector T cells, on the other hand, remained dependent on Gαi, but required the presence of antigen-specific effector T cells. These findings underscore the primary role of ...
Previously, we found that β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal I), an enzyme that adds sialic acids to N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, is up-regulated by ionizing radiation (IR) and cleaved to a form possessing catalytic activity comparable to that of the Golgi-localized enzyme. Moreover, this soluble form is secreted into the culture media. Induction of ST6Gal I significantly increased the migration of colon cancer cells via sialylation of integrin β1. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms underlying ST6Gal I cleavage, solubilization and release from cells, and addressed its functions, focusing primarily on cancer cell migration. We performed immunoblotting and lectin affinity assay to analyze the expression of ST6 Gal I and level of sialylated integrin β1. After ionizing radiation, migration of cells was measured by in vitro migration assay. α2, 6 sialylation level of cell surface was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell
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Perineural invasion (PNI) is an ominous form of cancer progression along nerves associated with poor clinical outcome. Glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) interacts with cancer cell RET receptors to enable PNI, but downstream events remain undefined. We demonstrate that GDNF leads to early activation of the GTPase Cdc42 in pancreatic cancer cells, but only delayed activation of RhoA and does not affect Rac1. Depletion of Cdc42 impairs pancreatic cancer cell chemotaxis towards GDNF and nerves. An siRNA library of guanine nucleotide exchange factors was screened to identify activators of Cdc42. ARHGEF7 (β-Pix) was required for Cdc42 activation and chemotaxis towards nerves, and also co-localizes with RET under GDNF stimulation. Cdc42 enables PNI in an in vitro dorsal root ganglia (DRG) co-culture model, and controls the directionality of migration but does not affect cell speed or cell viability. In contrast, Rac1 was necessary for cell speed but not directionality, while the RhoA was not ...
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1976.tb01352.x. Sleigh MA (1985). "Origin and evolution of flagellar movement". Cell Motil. 5: 137-138 ... akrokont: cells with flagella inserted apically subakrokont: cells with flagella inserted subapically pleurokont: cells with ... An example of a eukaryotic flagellate cell is the mammalian sperm cell, which uses its flagellum to propel itself through the ... The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the interior of the flagellum is accessible to the cell's ...
"June 19, World Sickle Cell Day". Mainframe. Dazzling Mirage Movement. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. ... Sickle-cell anaemia Odejimi, Segun (18 January 2016). "IN FULL: TNS Exclusive Report On Nigerian Cinema In 2015". TNS. Archived ... It tells the story of a young sickle-cell patient and the various social and emotional challenges she is faced with. Kemi 'Lala ... The first official poster, together with a third trailer was released on 18 June 2014, ahead of the 2014 World Sickle-cell ...
"GEO elections monitoring cell: Sanaullah Zehri". GEO News, elections cell. Retrieved 10 October 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged ... His father, Sardar Doda Khan Zehri, was a tribal leader and an activist in the Pakistan Movement who played a crucial role in ... parameter (link) Malik Siraj Akbar (2011). The Redefined Dimensions of Baloch Nationalist Movement. Xlibris Corporation. p. 181 ...
Regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, division and movement. Translocation of proteins through membranes. ... GEF activity is stimulated by cell surface receptors in response to signals outside the cell (for heterotrimeric G proteins, ... regulatory GEFs for many other small GTPases are activated in response to intrinsic cell signals, not cell surface (external) ... In unstimulated cells, heterotrimeric G proteins are assembled as the GDP bound, inactive trimer (Gα-GDP-Gβγ complex). Upon ...
I: Flood movement in long rivers. II: A theory of traffic flow on long crowded roads". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 229A ( ... Daganzo introduced a cell-transmission model (CTM) that is consistent with the LWR model. A traffic flow instability that ... This simple model is the output of the result of both Gordon Newell's description of the merging process and the Daganzo's cell ... Res., 4, 42-51 (1956) Daganzo, Carlos F. (1994). "The cell transmission model: A dynamic representation of highway traffic ...
Sedmak T, Wolfrum U (April 2010). "Intraflagellar transport molecules in ciliary and nonciliary cells of the retina". J. Cell ... Orozco, JT; Wedaman KP; Signor D; Brown H; Rose L; Scholey JM (1999). "Movement of motor and cargo along cilia". Nature. 398 ( ... are located in the basal body and cilia of the cell. Using the round worm C. elegans as a model system, biologists found that ... A theory that photoreceptor cells are nourished by the IFT of retinal cilia now offers a potential explanation for the retinal ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
... functions include cytokinesis, amoeboid movement, cell motility, changes in cell shape, endocytosis and ... Four remarkable examples include red blood cells, human embryonic kidney cells, neurons, and sperm cells. In red blood cells, a ... This rapid turnover is important for the cell's movement. End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of ... Microfilaments have a tough, flexible framework which helps the cell in movement. Actin and microfilament-mediated processes ...
Waigmann, E.; Zambryski, P. (2000). "Trisome plasmodesmata: A model system for cell-to-cell movement". In Callow, J. A.; ... Janet Quentin Plowe was a biologist credited for helping to discover the cell membrane. In 1931 she demonstrated that the cell ... Plowe, a student of William Seifriz, was among the pioneers of micro-injection into plant cells. She discovered the elasticity ... Plowe, Janet Quentin (1922). The reduction divisions in the pollen mother-cell of a hybrid cotton (M.A.). Stanford University. ...
Shrivastava, Abhishek (2016). "The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface ... McBride, Mark J. (2001-10-01). "Bacterial Gliding Motility: Multiple Mechanisms for Cell Movement over Surfaces". Annual Review ... McBride, M. . (2001). "Bacterial gliding motility: multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces". Annual Review of ... "Acetate acts as a protonophore and differentially affects bead movement and cell migration of the gliding bacterium Cytophaga ...
"Charter-School Movement Grows-for Real-Estate Investors". The Wall Street Journal. Watson, Brian (January 2017). The 7 Rings. ... In April 2020, the FBI raided Watson's house, serving him a search warrant, and confiscated his cell phone and computer. ... "FBI seizes computer, cell phone from home of Denver businessman". The Denver Post. 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-07-22. https:// ...
LO, C (1 July 2000). "Cell Movement Is Guided by the Rigidity of the Substrate". Biophysical Journal. 79 (1): 144-152. doi: ... LO, C (1 July 2000). "Cell Movement Is Guided by the Rigidity of the Substrate". Biophysical Journal. 79 (1): 144-152. doi: ... Lo, C (1 July 2000). "Cell Movement Is Guided by the Rigidity of the Substrate". Biophysical Journal. 79 (1): 144-152. doi: ... Mechanotaxis refers to the directed movement of cell motility via mechanical cues (e.g., fluidic shear stress, substrate ...
The movement lost steam in 1921 after Bedward and hundreds of his followers marched into Kingston, where he failed to deliver ... In 1930, Bedward died in his cell of natural causes. Many of his followers became Garveyites and Rastafarians, bringing with ... Ethiopian movement Rastafari Leonard Howell Marcus Garvey Bedward's Tomb. A. A. BROOKS. (1917). History of Bedwardism -OR- The ... Even so, because the movement likened the ruling classes to the Pharisees, it met with disapproval and even suppression by them ...
The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Giardia lamblia protozoa, leishmania protozoa, protozoan trichomonas ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus ... Symptoms are localised lesions where cell death has occurred. The virus spreads via arthropod vectors carrying infected sap. ...
... e do not have cell walls, which allows for free movement. Amoebae move and feed by using pseudopods, which are bulges of ... Amoeboid cells do not have a mouth or cytostome, and there is no fixed place on the cell at which phagocytosis normally occurs ... Some multicellular organisms have amoeboid cells only in certain phases of life, or use amoeboid movements for specialized ... The amoeboid cells of the former combine to form a giant multinucleate organism, while the cells of the latter live separately ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus ...
The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are parental and ...
Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male". Sperm cells that give rise to female (XX) offspring after fertilization ... They swim faster and their tail movements become more forceful and erratic. A recent discovery links hyperactivation to a ... Mammalian sperm cells become even more active when they approach an egg cell in a process called sperm activation. Sperm ... Sperm cells were first observed in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's laboratory in 1677. Play media The human sperm cell is the ...
The second movement is a fantastic scherzo which also begins with the cell-grupetto as well as a reminiscence of the Dies Irae ... movements 1, 2 and 4 only), triangle (movements 2 and 4 only), snare drum, tambourine, tam-tam (movement 4 only) and strings. A ... The cell-grupetto again gives the final movement a faltering violence. The brass instruments and a march rhythm start a theme ... The movement's main theme is a short melody, that we hear alternatively under its original form and its inversion, but the ...
The virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and smut serve as the natural host. The ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by virus remains intracellular. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus ... virus is transmitted during cell division, sporogenesis, and cell fusion. The genus Totivirus contains the member species: ...
Analyzing the eye movement and fixation data showed no significant difference in time spent looking at the players (black or ... In both cases, the risk of a collision was three to six times higher compared to a sober driver not using a cell phone. ... Participants' eye movement and fixations were recorded during the video, and afterward the participants answered a series of ... A study published in 1997, based on accident data in Toronto, found the risk involved in driving while using a cell phone to be ...
Depending on the movement, the hair cell can either hyperpolarize or depolarize. When the movement is towards the tallest ... The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, ... bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most ... There are two types of hair cells: inner and outer. The inner hair cells are the sensory receptors . Problems with sensory ...
Larger molecules and blood cells require adequate space between cells or holes in the lining. The high resistivity of a ... Diffusion is the movement of molecules due to a concentration gradient. The molecules move in a random walk pattern in order to ... through gaps between the cells or directly through the cells. Molecules diffuse through the capillary walls due to ... the gaps between the endothelial cells). In fenestrated and sinusoidal capillaries there is more space between the cells, ...
He shared his cell with Ernesto Rossi, Massimo Mila and Riccardo Bauer. Foa was released in August 1943. He joined the ... In 1933, he joined Giustizia e Libertà, an anti-fascist political movement. He was arrested by the OVRA in May 1935 and was ... a spontaneous civil movement that developed in 2002-2003 in several Italian towns. Defined as "the critical voice of the ... a study of English working class movements at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the late 1980s, Foa played an active ...
... along other cells or biopolymers Muscles give the ability for voluntary movement, and involuntary movement as in muscle spasms ... known as the cell plate. Here, the vesicles coalesce forming the new plasma membranes and cell walls between the two cells ( ... filopodia, enabling movement of the axonal growth cone Many cells are not motile, for example Klebsiella pneumoniae and ... cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts become distributed evenly between the cells. In animal cells, division is ...
"Precise control of movement kinematics by optogenetic inhibition of Purkinje cell activity". Journal of Neuroscience. 34 (6): ... stellate cells and basket cells. Both stellate and basket cells form GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. The top, ... stellate cells and basket cells. Both stellate and basket cells form GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. Purkinje ... The large, spherical cell bodies of Purkinje cells are packed into a narrow layer (one cell thick) of the cerebellar cortex, ...
How is it that their movements are co-ordinated? Sonneborn surgically removed a small section of cell wall and replaced it ... These minuscule hair-like projections enable the cell to 'swim'. They move together and paddle the cell through the water in ... Obviously, most cells had a distribution such that the organelles were in both halves but in cases where the new mutant arose ... The paramecium is a single-cell organism, so has nothing remotely resembling a brain. Yet its cilia move together like dancers ...
The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plant serve as the natural host. The virus is ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus ...
... giant cells, Kupffer cells, and osteoclasts. This allows it to be used to distinguish diseases of otherwise similar appearance ... "Osteoclast differentiation and recruitment during early stages of experimental tooth movement in rats". European Journal of ... However, in some cell types it is detectable only when up-regulated, such as activated but not quiescent microglia, and can ... O'Reilly D, Greaves DR (September 2007). "Cell-type-specific expression of the human CD68 gene is associated with changes in ...
Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... Less subject to surface artifacts, such as eye and facial movements. *Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable ...
A compensatory mechanism involves the movement of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranial vault towards the spinal cord.[21] The ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... This allows movement of the separate bones in relation to one another; the infant skull is still malleable.[3] The fibrous ... A two-dimensional sagittal image is used to pre-operatively determine the extent of movement, which can vary between seven and ...
... perforating the middle lamella but damage to either the plasmalemma or cell walls was not observed.[29] The disease is often ... was introduced in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on 26 October banning the importation and movement of ash ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... Mok rallied troops loyal to him at Anlogn Veng, informing them that Pol Pot had betrayed their movement and then headed to Kbal ... In declining health, Pol Pot stepped back from many of his roles in the movement. In 1998 the Khmer Rouge commander Ta Mok ... Conditions at the Viet Cong camp were basic and food scarce.[121] As Sihanouk's government cracked down on the movement in ...
It is active and regulates (adjusts) what comes in and what goes out of the cell. The movement of substances across the ... In all cells, the cell membrane separates the cytoplasm inside the cell from its surroundings. Animal cells are contained in ... The cell membrane is a thin flexible layer around the cells of all living things. It is sometimes called the plasma membrane or ... They let some chemicals into the cell and let other chemicals leave the cell. It is estimated that up to a third of the human ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... sometimes have trouble locating the main beats and expressing them in movement. Hearing African music on recordings alone ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
The nerve cells responsible for reflexes are not always in the brain, but often in the spinal cord. This way, reflexes are ... A reflex or reflex action is an automatic and fast movement in response to a stimulus.[1] ... Nerve cells in the brain still get feedback that the reflex action occurred. And, of course, reflex actions involving sight and ...
... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and ... accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. In humans, prolonged periods of ... critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. In addition to the ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Leaf movement like this may also increase turbulence of the air close to the surface of the leaf, which thins the boundary ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ...
... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... "Monitoring Symptoms and Controlling Movement to Stop Spread of Ebola". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 27 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means that many chloroplast proteins that were supposed to be ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
The ecovillage movement emerged in part due to this concern.. Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century. This section mainly ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. MIT Press. pp. 1-18. ISBN 978-0262015790.. ... Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. MIT Press. pp. 229-48. ISBN 978-0262015790. ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement". J. Neurophysiol. 94 (2): 1443-58. doi:10.1152/jn.00684.2004. PMID 15829594. ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
In his speech he used words such as "cell" and "metabolism" in relation to urban design. The Metabolist movement grew out of ... Findling, John E.; Pelle, Kimberly D. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 172.. ... Tange was also an influential patron of the Metabolist movement. He said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning ... would facilitate the movement of up to 2.5 million people along the axis, which would be divided into vertebrae-like cyclical ...
The movement is facilitated by modern global information science, which allows as much of the available evidence as possible to ... discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major ... Evidence-based medicine is a contemporary movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice (ways of doing things ... The Cochrane Collaboration leads this movement. A 2001 review of 160 Cochrane systematic reviews revealed that, according to ...
Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... Only those parts that stick out and are used for movement are tapered as far as can tell. Narayanese (talk) 08:38, 13 February ... In a colony, a term quite loosely defined, the cells are stuck together due to the extracellular polysacharides, whereas in ... the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ...
"The Resurrection of Cell and Frieza" / "The Villains Of Hell!! The Revival of Cell and Frieza". Transcription: "Jigoku no ... he can perfectly sense the one-star dragon's movements. The dragon can't even land a punch. Goku fires a Kamehameha wave at the ... Cell and Frieza show up, and now that he's trapped in hell, he has no choice but to fight them. ... He says that there is a single cell on the chest of the robot, and that hitting it with simultaneous blasts from the inside and ...
The diary was historically very influential, particularly to the modern Christian missionary movement.[4][5] ... Friedrich Miescher Swiss biochemist, noted for discovery of nucleic acids in cell nucleus (1844-1895) ...
... but Christ and the Virgin Mary appear to him in his cell.[48][54] He tells them he is imprisoned "for loving you"[48] and they ... due to the prominent role women played in the early Christian movement,[22] rather than Greco-Roman paganism or the ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... MIH and androgens cooperate to allow for movement of testes into the scrotum. ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Cerebellum: Tumors in this area may cause poor balance, muscle movement, and posture.[citation needed] ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ...
The term bowel movement(s) (with each movement a defecation event) is also common in health care. ... A combination of bile and bilirubin, which comes from dead red blood cells, gives feces the typical brown color.[1][2] ... and the body starts expelling bilirubin from dead red blood cells, its matter acquires the familiar brown color.[2] ... and the dead epithelial cells from the lining of the gut.[1] ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... the anti-nuclear movement was labeling nuclear power plants as dangerous and getting them closed, people had in mind the ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... Flipper movement is continuous. Whales swim by moving their tail fin and lower body up and down, propelling themselves through ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... 11 May 2006). "Satellite-monitored movements of humpback whales in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean". Marine Ecology Progress ...
"sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Some forms of albinism are also known to have symptoms that manifest themselves through rapid-eye movement, light sensitivity, ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb movements.[90] This is because they use their abdominal muscles to ... indicating that there may be mechanical interference between the limb movements and the breathing apparatus. Box turtles have ...
Compared to closed cell, Polyurethane foam insulation (R=5.5 to 6.5 per inch), cellulose has a lower R-value per inch, but is ... This reduces noise in 2 ways, it reduces the lateral movement of sheetrock and attenuates the passage of sound along cavities. ... The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule, for a living cell, and glucose, which is sugar. Building insulation is ... For example, recent studies have shown that air movement is the primary method by which excessive moisture can accumulate in ...
S. frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein ... Some scientists speculate that this fast migration is aided by the movement of air in weather fronts.[15] ... "The Plant Cell Online. 12 (7): 1031-1040. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.7.1031. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 149047. PMID 10899972.. ...
Cell * sw:Cell. Central processing unit * sw:Central processing unit. Cereal * sw:Cereal. Chanakya * sw:Chanakya. Charlemagne ... International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement * sw:International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. International System ...
Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs. ...
Scientists at The University of Manchester have identified the method by which cells control the recycling of molecules, a ... By studying the movement of fibroblast cells using sophisticated imaging techniques, Dr Morgan and the team identified the role ... The next step will be to investigate how Syndecan-4 can be manipulated to control cell movement with a view to developing novel ... Once they have been used by the cell, integrins are moved from the surface to a store inside the cell. When the time is right ...
Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse ... A microcarrier-based spheroid 3D invasion assay to monitor dynamic cell movement in extracellular matrix. Publication. ... Background: Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in ... It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different ...
If for any reason you are not completely happy with your purchase, dont worry! You have 60 days to let us know for a full refund ...
Timelapse video showing breast cancer cells in the lab responding and changing shape when they encounter other cells (right), ... Timelapse video showing breast cancer cells in the lab responding and changing shape when they encounter other cells (right), ... Cancer cells remove blindfold to spread. University of Reading. Journal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Keywords. * ...
H. Gruler, Cell Movement Analysis in a Necrotactic Assay, Blood Cells 10: 107 (1984).Google Scholar ... Directed Movement Applied Electric Field Neural Crest Cell Polar Field Neurospora Crassa These keywords were added by machine ... H. Gruler, Cell Movement and Symmetry of the Cellular Environment, Z. Naturforsch. 43c: 754 (1988).Google Scholar ... Gruler H. (1991) Cell Movement and Automatic Control. In: Peliti L. (eds) Biologically Inspired Physics. NATO ASI Series ( ...
The Information Science Branch explored and developed ways to track species locations using a standard cellular phone network. This technology provides more tracking data at a faster rate and lower cost than traditional satellite tracking systems. The initial implementation of this approach currently provides support for the California Condor recovery program and is being extended to include other critical species. These wildlife tracking datasets are crucial for understanding species ranges, seasonal migration patterns, habitat use, effects of habitat disturbance, and individual behavior patterns.. ...
Chemotactic cell movement during Dictyostelium development and gastrulation.. Dormann D1, Weijer CJ. ... Many developmental processes involve chemotactic cell movement up or down dynamic chemical gradients. Studies of the molecular ... when propagating waves of cAMP coordinate the chemotactic movement of tens of thousands of cells, resulting in multicellular ... Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK.. ...
Cell Biol. 9, 276-286 (2007). [PubMed]. M. Bailly, Moving away from death: When caspase-11 meets cofilin. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, ... Thus, caspase 11 now appears to influence multiple inflammatory cell processes: cytokine secretion, apoptosis, and cell ... Caspases are well known for their roles in programmed cell death and for their roles in maturation of inflammatory cytokines. ... now show that caspase 11 also has a role in regulating actin dynamics that contributes to cell migration. Leukocytes deficient ...
... of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass track. The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma ... Cellular racetrack accurately clocks brain cancer cell movement. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Journal. Cell Reports. Funder. NIH/ ... of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass "track." The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma ... They tested PDGF to see if it would prime the glioblastoma cells for movement rather than growth by growing the glioblastoma ...
PIP3, PIP2, and cell movement--similar messages, different meanings?. Insall RH1, Weiner OD. ... B) Spatial distribution of PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4,5)P3, and actin polymerization in cells before stimulation and during chemotaxis, ... Actin filaments which extend toward the cell body are capped by various F-actin capping proteins. Immediately below the ... This ensures that newly nucleated filaments are always oriented toward the membrane and away from the cell body. ...
Yi WulightLight controls cell movementliving cellsMax PlanckNational Institute of HealthNews & ... A photoactivatable protein enables control of cell movement in living cells. Activation of Rac in the red circle led to ... we can now use light to control where and how cells move. This is quite valuable in studies where cell movement is the focus of ... Light Controls Cell Movement Aug 2009 CHAPEL HILL, NC, Aug., 19, 2009 - One of the biggest challenges in ...
Yi WulightLight controls cell movementliving cellsMax PlanckNational Institutes of HealthNews & ... A photoactivatable protein enables control of cell movement in living cells. Activation of Rac in the red circle led to ... we can now use light to control where and how cells move. This is quite valuable in studies where cell movement is the focus of ... "Because we first tested this new technology on a protein that initiates cell movement, ...
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new way in which nerve cells can control movement. In a study ... Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new way in which nerve cells can control movement. In a study ... This is where the neurons transfer signal substances that can be taken up by the muscle cells to make them contract. ... The researchers believe that this is to control movements better.. Related Stories. *Blood-clotting factor may cause ...
Cell-to-Cell Movement of GFP-Tagged BYV.. As illustrated in Fig. 1A, the GFP ORF was engineered downstream of the subgenomic ... Cell-to-cell movement of the GFP-expressing BYV (BYV-GFP) and its mutant variant lacking most of the HSP70h ORF (BYV-GFP-ΔXho) ... HSP70 homolog functions in cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus. Valery V. Peremyslov, Yuka Hagiwara, and Valerian V. Dolja ... One is the CI protein from potyviruses that is involved in RNA replication and in cell-to-cell movement (38, 42). Another is a ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The findings deepen the understanding of how cells initiate movement, and have implications for conditions dependent on cell ... A new multi-disciplinary study at Penn illuminates a crucial step in the process of cell movement. The protein they examined, ... Exo70, induces a reshaping of the cells plasma membrane, a necessary step in how a cell migrates from one location to another ... underscoring the importance of the molecule in helping cells make directed movements. ...
You will have all the basic imformation about the movement of fluid in cells. There will be a lot of information about ... Fluid Movement in Cells. You will have all the basic imformation about the movement of fluid in cells. There will be a lot of ...
J Cell Sci 2017 130: 3809-3817; doi: 10.1242/jcs.206532. Interkinetic nuclear migration and basal tethering facilitates post- ... TFCP2L1 represses multiple lineage commitment of mouse embryonic stem cells through MTA1 and LEF1. Kuisheng Liu, Yan Zhang, ... Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and ...
These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. Adrian Drazic, Henriette Aksnes and Michaël Marie from ... Putting a break on cell movement. These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. Adrian Drazic, Henriette ... For cell biologists, actin is important to study because it forms fibres that give the cells shape and the structure that ... The NAA80-lacking cells were always faster. The absence of this enzyme that modifies actin caused cells to move faster than ...
Cells that form facial features need surrounding embryonic tissues to stiffen so they can move and develop, according to new ... the tissue holding the NC cells stiffens and becomes denser with cells which triggers the cells orchestrated movement. ... "Weve known that cell movement is essential for many processes in the body including the formation of embryos and cancer spread ... that the mechanical properties of the environment surrounding embryonic cells has been shown to be crucial in cell movement and ...
Put an end to tedious and time-wasting manual cell counting. The cost of consumables for automated cell counters is a common ... No more excuses for counting cells manually. Now that there is a cell counter with a reusable slide, it is surprisingly ... We have started a movement to show lab managers everywhere that with affordable options available, "too expensive" is no longer ... With a reusable slide, almost any lab can now afford to put an end to manual cell counting. ...
Development of Spinal Connections that Control Movement. Samuel L. Pfaff, PhD. Investigator, HHMI Professor, Gene Expression ... Cell Biology Seminar. April 2, 2019 , 10:30 am-12:00 pm iCAL ...
"Cell Movement" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cell Movement" was a major or minor topic of these ... The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM ... "Cell Movement" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cell Movement" by people in Profiles. ...
What begins as a disordered, chaotic motion changes into an orderly movement. As this happens the cells also change from a ... Finding sheds new light into mysterious process of cell movement during development. 15.08.2002 ... By labeling the nerve cells with fluorescent protein, the biologists determined that the trilobite cells moved much slower and ... the researchers report the discovery that a single protein facilitates the movements of cells within the developing embryo of ...
... like simple body movements, the beating of the heart or movement of the wind, into electricity, using zinc oxide (ZnO) ... A microbial fuel cell (MFC) that operates on plant waste has been developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... "Quite simply, this technology can be used to generate energy under any circumstances as long as there is movement," said Wang. ... The process of generating energy from movement made the researchers to conclude that it was most effective to develop a method ...
A protein that determines how well cells can move and spread could provide a new target for drug designers who want to prevent ... Home » Study: Cancer Cell Proteins Join Forces to Achieve Movement. Looking to read the full article? Subscribe to BioWorld ... Study: Cancer Cell Proteins Join Forces to Achieve Movement. October 24, 2012 ... LONDON - A protein that determines how well cells can move and spread could provide a new target for drug designers who want to ...
Purdue-based startup measures movement in cells to improve cancer drug development. ... There are differences in how cells respond to drugs in a three-dimensional environment, which means the results that occur in ... "Our technology can measure a cancer tumors response to cancer therapy, such as metabolism and cell division. This can tell how ... "It breaks down the changes into different frequencies, and we can tell how a cells membranes, mitochondria, nucleus and even ...
... in cells of length 3.5 μm (average of all cells), 2.4 μm (SW cells), 2.7 μm (ST cells), and 3.9 μm (PD cells). We divided the ... After the ST cell develops into a PD cell, PleC localizes to the new flagellar pole. The PD cell divides to yield a SW cell and ... Each Caulobacter cell division produces a pair of distinct daughter cells (Fig. 1): a motile swarmer (SW) cell with a single ... ST cells are unpinched and lack polarly localized PleC-EYFP. PD cells are longer than SW cells, are curved, possess a pinched ...
Coupling to actin flow supports directional transport of virus particles during entry and cell-cell transmission, and local ... and how they spread from cell to cell and cause systemic infections, is incompletely understood. Recent advances from single ... discuss how viruses take advantage of cellular mechanisms that normally drive the movements of proteins and lipids on the cell ... virus tracking experiments have revealed conserved patterns of virus movements on the plasma membrane, including diffusive ...
From birth until death, our cells migrate: nerve cells make their vital connections, embryonic cells move to the proper places ... the molecular machinery needed for cell movement begins accumulating at the leading edge, or front of a cell in response to a ... New understanding of cell movement may yield ways to brake cancer s spread. 01.08.2005 ... Cell growth and cell differentiation as well as the release and efficacy of hormones such as insulin depend on the presence of ...
... we find that cell movement alone increases the rate of tumour growth and expansion, but that increasing the tumour cell ... The model is the extension of previous work and includes novel features such as cell movement and contact inhibition. We ... However, when an increased carrying capacity is combined with significant tumour cell movement, the tumour grows and spreads ... Since, in the model, hypoxic/quiescent cells produce VEGF which stimulates vascular adaptation, such fluctuations can ...
  • During this process, the basic but decisive step is migration of tumor cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) either towards lymph and blood vessels, or to a secondary site after survival in circulation [ 1 ]. (
  • To disseminate in tissue, cells require adhesion, proteolysis of ECM components and migration, which also occurs in normal physiological processes like embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing [ 2 ]. (
  • Unlike 2D migration, a 3D matrix provides both a substructure and obstacles to all surfaces of cells during movement through the surroundings, which simulates cell movement through tissues. (
  • Importantly, 3D models provide more information on the process of cell migration and invasion, including cell morphological alterations, cell-cell interaction, cell-matrix interaction, and matrix remodeling. (
  • This approach allows cells migrating in any direction and many migratory parameters can be detected, including cell trajectories, migration distance, and velocity. (
  • Basically it includes seeding cells on a layer of ECM gel pre-coated on top of a porous membrane, and assessing cell invasion by measuring the number of cells passing through the ECM gel. (
  • abstract = "Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. (
  • The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. (
  • At certain times and places they need to bind strongly, whereas at other points they need to bind more weakly, and only when these processes are regulated appropriately can a cell migrate properly. (
  • It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. (
  • Cells approaching the transition region from the soft side could easily migrate across the boundary, with a concurrent increase in spreading area and traction forces. (
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology , 13 (10), 631-645. (
  • By regulating where and when the different integrins are delivered to the cell surface, syndecan-4 precisely regulates cell movement and exploration. (
  • It will also be important to test whether this mechanism is involved in tumour progression and metastasis as disruptions in cell movement are often seen in cancer, as well as in vascular disorders and chronic inflammatory disease. (
  • We conclude that changes in tissue rigidity and strain could play an important controlling role in a number of normal and pathological processes involving cell locomotion. (
  • To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. (
  • It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. (
  • The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. (
  • Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell moving paths, which may be easily overlooked by researchers and may generate false invasion results. (
  • Conclusions: In all, the microcarrier-based spheroids 3D model allows exploration of adherent cell invasion in a fast and highly reproducible way, and provides informative results on dynamic cell behavior in vitro. (
  • Despite the advantages, this assay counts vertically invading cell numbers at the endpoint but neglects the whole invasion process. (
  • Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. (
  • To examine cell invasive potential, a variety of in vitro assays are developed in a 3D format. (
  • They found that it decodes the vast array of signals outside the cell and functions as a molecular switch to dictate whether the strong or weak binding integrins are recycled. (
  • Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications. (
  • Cell aggregates, such as multicellular spheroids, can be embedded in a 3D matrix and cells moving away from spheroids into the matrix are monitored by microscopy. (
  • Dr Morgan explains: "When we changed the way Syndecan-4 senses the environment outside the cell, we were able to alter the way that it transmits signals into the cell and control integrin recycling. (
  • MiR-145 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells by targeting Oct4. (
  • Downregulation of transcription factor Oct4 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhancement of Ca2+ influx in breast cancer cells. (
  • To investigate the involvement of centrioles in cytokinesis, we monitored the movements of centrioles in three mammalian epithelial cell lines, HeLa, MCF 10A, and the p53-deficient mouse mammary tumor cell line KP-7.7, by time-lapse imaging. (
  • Apical surfaces of epithelial cells are characterized by the presence of abundant F-actin-based microvilli. (
  • Harry Mellor (University of Bristol, UK) presented data on a new Rho-family GTPase, Rif (Rho in filopodia), which is found mainly in tissues containing epithelial cells. (
  • Cadherin-based AJs provide the initial means of cell-cell contact and have key roles during the development and maintenance of epithelial polarity ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Since cervicovaginal fluid is acidic and HIV-1 in cervicovaginal fluid is likely coated with antibodies, they explored the effect of low pH and HIV-1-specific antibodies on transcytosis, the movement of HIV-1 across tight-junctioned epithelial cells. (
  • Finally, staining of human tissue revealed abundant FcRn expression on columnar epithelial cells of penile urethra and endocervix. (
  • A fluorescence-based assay indicated that wild-type serovar Typhimurium transferred from infected to uninfected epithelial cells while strains deficient in SPI-2 T3SS secretion or PipB2 did not. (
  • The work we describe here shows that AhR, a molecule which is very important for the function of immune and epithelial cells in the gut, is also used by intestinal nerve cells to sense the presence of microbes and regulate peristalsis, and in doing so, promote healthy digestion,' explained co-lead study author Vassilis Pachnis, a group leader in the Development and Homeostasis of the Nervous System Laboratory at the Crick. (
  • To study the natural movement of corneal epithelial cells in the normal adult mouse with histology and in vivo microscopy. (
  • For histology, epithelial GFP was imaged in a wholemounted cornea en face, and also in frozen cross-sections, under a fluorescence microscope. (
  • Epithelial fluorescence was digitally recorded two to three times a week, and a rate of cell movement was determined from the time-lapse sequences. (
  • Epithelial cells at the basal or suprabasal layers move centripetally in these mice at an average rate of 26 μm/d. (
  • Cell migration is one of the most fundamental aspects of epithelial homeostasis, and there has been a steady increase in our knowledge in this area. (
  • A strong body of evidence now suggests that corneal epithelial cells arise from the stem cells at the limbus. (
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 Once inside the cornea, epithelial cells are thought to move slowly toward the center, as delineated by the X, Y, Z hypothesis of Thoft and Friend. (
  • 12 who showed, using specular confocal microscopy, that some basal epithelial cells migrate centripetally, 23, 29, and 32 μm over a 24-hour period in three measurements in one eye. (
  • However, it remains to be determined whether these short, limited observations can be expanded to show long-term movement of epithelial cells. (
  • Buck 14 was the first to demonstrate the centripetal movement of epithelial cells in the normal cornea. (
  • He labeled epithelial cells of the mouse cornea with India ink and determined the rate of movement to be approximately 17 μm/d. (
  • Thus, it is unclear whether this short-term, short-distance observation can be extrapolated to the general movement of epithelial cells. (
  • The follicular epithelial cells that form the egg chamber's outer layer collectively migrate along the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the organ. (
  • Horne-Badovinac joined the faculty at UChicago just over 10 years ago to continue her scholarship on how the coordinated movement of epithelial cells shape organs. (
  • Epithelial cells cover every surface of the body, from the skin to individual organs. (
  • Horne-Badovinac performs experiments on fruit fly epithelial cells because the model is inexpensive, efficient and translates well to humans. (
  • The egg chamber is an organ-like structure in the ovary with an inner core of nurse cells and one oocyte, all of which are surrounded by a layer of epithelial cells called follicle cells. (
  • In a study published February 28th in the journal Current Biology , she, along with Claire Stedden, PhD, who earned her doctorate from UChicago, and other colleagues describe how two key proteins - Sema-5C and Plexin A - help regulate the epithelial follicular cells' movement. (
  • Actin filaments which extend toward the cell body are capped by various F-actin capping proteins. (
  • Exo70 proteins that were mutated so they couldn't form oligomers were unable to effectively migrate, the researchers discovered, underscoring the importance of the molecule in helping cells make directed movements. (
  • The inner membranes of bacterial cells contain proteins required for a wide variety of functions, including energy generation, solute transport, signaling, proteolysis, polar morphogenesis, chemotaxis, and cell division ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. (
  • Working with developing Xenopus mesoderm, Shindo and Wallingford (p. 649 ) found that planar cell polarity proteins and septins interface with the actomyosin machinery to control collective cell movement. (
  • We report here that planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins control convergent extension by exploiting an evolutionarily ancient function of the septin cytoskeleton. (
  • By directing septin-mediated compartmentalization of cortical actomyosin, PCP proteins coordinate the specific shortening of mesenchymal cell-cell contacts, which in turn powers cell interdigitation. (
  • Researchers have identified two key proteins that are needed to get cells moving and have uncovered a new pathway that treatments could block to immobilize mutant cells and keep cancer from spreading, said Richard Cerione, Goldwin Smith Professor of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology at Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine. (
  • We've known for years that Hsp70 acts as a chaperone to other proteins, ensuring that they assume the right structure and behave properly when a cell is under stress," said Cerione. (
  • When cells become stressed, Hsp70 influences the behavior of their "client" proteins, ensuring they keep the right shape. (
  • We have developed a transfection method that enables us to transfect randomly distributed epiblast cells in the Stage XI-XIII chick blastoderms with GFP fusion proteins. (
  • They can also combine iSCAT with live cell fluorescence microscopy, which allows them to follow single proteins while also visualizing cell parts that might be influencing the way the proteins move, like the cell's scaffolding. (
  • The team also studied what happened when PAK4 was removed from the cells, using an RNA silencing technology that can prevent production of specific proteins. (
  • The 2012 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors three scientists for their discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable cell movements. (
  • they had proposed that these proteins power intracellular movements, yet little was understood about the processes. (
  • The physical relationship between these two proteins may impact Ncad adhesion, as loss of either Pcdh19 or Ncad eliminates calcium-dependent cell aggregation in vitro, despite the fact that Pcdh19 does not exhibit intrinsic adhesive activity on its own. (
  • Transport of viruses from cell to cell in plants typically involves one or more viral proteins that supply dedicated movement functions. (
  • Furthermore, there are some large organic anions (negative in charge), related to proteins, which exist in higher concentration inside the cell. (
  • Intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium) occupies a Salmonella -containing vacuole (SCV) where bacterial effector proteins are secreted into the host cell using type III secretion systems (T3SS). (
  • Serovar Typhimurium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can actively invade nonphagocytic cells through the delivery of bacterial proteins, termed effectors, into the host cell cytosol using the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) ( 19 ). (
  • In many eucaryotic cells, the midzone of the mitotic spindle forms a distinct structure containing a specific set of proteins. (
  • Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have developed an experimental laboratory test that accurately clocks the "speed" of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass "track. (
  • The researchers designed the cell racetracks, which they described earlier in a 2012 PLOS Biology study , by engineering a glass slide with tiny plastic, parallel ridges going down its length. (
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new way in which nerve cells can control movement. (
  • The researchers believe that this is to control movements better. (
  • These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. (
  • The researchers say it is likely that a similar mechanism is used by other cells involved in spreading cancer and wound healing. (
  • In order to determine whether the neurons failure to migrate was due to factors within the cell or the extracellular environment, the researchers transplanted trilobite neurons in the brains of normal embryos and normal neurons in trilobite brains. (
  • With further study, the researchers determined that the neurons method of movement was similar to that of an amoeba: they extend their bodies in the direction they want to move and retract them from the opposite side. (
  • The researchers have described how it's possible to harvest energy from the environment by converting low-frequency vibrations, like simple body movements, the beating of the heart or movement of the wind, into electricity, using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires that conduct the electricity. (
  • The process of generating energy from movement made the researchers to conclude that it was most effective to develop a method that worked at low frequencies and was based on flexible materials. (
  • Now, using embryonic cells called ' neural crest cells ' (which are similar to cancer cells in term of their invasive behaviour) and placode cells which are the precursors for cranial nerves (the equivalent to healthy cells) researchers at UCL have started to unravel this process. (
  • By better understanding how Hsp70 influences tTG, the researchers believe they can develop ways to modulate that interaction to immobilize cancer cells and keep them from becoming invasive. (
  • By the mid 1900s, researchers had observed chromosome separation during cell division and discovered that material travels long distances within nerve cells, but existing methods could not untangle these processes. (
  • Freshly invigorated, the researchers returned to the effort of building an actin scaffold on glass - much as nature did in the Nitella cells - on which they could assemble the minimal components for movement. (
  • During one late night in the lab, the researchers also noticed that, when in clumps, the cells seemed to all contract at the same time. (
  • The researchers solved this mystery by applying insights from separate research being conducted by Deepak Krishnamurthy, another graduate student in the Prakash lab, on how an individual cell can sense the movement of water around it. (
  • Stem cells were encapsulated in a hydrogel, and then the researchers measured the changing interactions between cells as they moved through the gel. (
  • First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. (
  • A study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine has for the first time demonstrated a way to visualize and monitor the behavior of immune cells used to treat cancer patients. (
  • The new technique allows researchers to see where immunotherapy cells go as they hunt down tumors in the human body. (
  • The ability to see whether T cells are attacking tumors is useful both for clinicians trying to learn if a treatment is working in an individual cancer patient and also for researchers trying to understand why immunotherapy doesn't always work. (
  • The researchers first engineered T cells to better recognize the patient's cancer cells. (
  • PET scans showing the T cells' locations tell researchers how many T cells have reached a tumor -- whether it's 6 million cells or 50 million -- and whether the cells are alive. (
  • One thing the new technique cannot do is tell researchers whether the T cells are actually attached to tumor cells. (
  • University of Michigan researchers observed the movement in bioengineered 3D scaffolds that model stromal tissue - the connective tissue that surrounds organs. (
  • The researchers say this method of cell movement, observed for the first time, could be involved in the spread of cancer. (
  • The researchers study cells in a 3D fibrous environment, which is closer to the real thing. (
  • The researchers used a technique called X-ray crystallography to create these images, which help explain how alpha-actinin recruits vinculin to help it brace the cell's skeleton during the physically stressful process of cell movement. (
  • The discovery is important because without vinculin to reinforce its skeleton, the cell would move rapidly and randomly, making purposeful motion impossible, the researchers said. (
  • Therefore, discovering how cells direct their movements could help researchers better understand how embryos develop and how some cancers spread. (
  • Researchers have now learned that the gut microbiome assists gut neurons that control muscle movement in the colon. (
  • The researchers found that the presence of certain bacteria activates a gene called Ahr in intestinal nerve cells, which occurs during healthy peristalsis. (
  • Researchers have developed a way to selectively target certain cancer cells with CRISPR. (
  • Cancer researchers have long been searching for a way to target cancer cells while ignoring healthy cells. (
  • By analyzing immune cells of children who came to the emergency department with flu symptoms, researchers found that the suite of genes these early-response cells expressed was shaped by factors such as age and previous exposures to viruses. (
  • Asymptotic behavior of a singular transport equation modelling cell division. (
  • Furthermore, we analyze the model to obtain the behavior of two cell populations as time is closed to initial state and far into the future. (
  • In the recent years, most of the researches on cell movement focused on the interaction of multiple cell populations, precise cell behavior, and the development of the mathematics modelling. (
  • These data illuminate the interface between developmental signaling systems and the fundamental machinery of cell behavior and should provide insights into the etiology of human birth defects, such as spina bifida and congenital kidney cysts. (
  • The chasing behavior depends on the production of small chemical molecules by the placode cells that attracts neural crest cells toward them. (
  • This thesis deals with different aspects of cell movement, focusing on two topics: Actin-dependent single cell movement and the collective moving behavior of myxobacteria. (
  • While this work focuses on the remodeling of synthetic scaffolds by human mesenchymal stem cells, the methods under development are expected to broaden our understanding of the interactions of cells and materials as well as testing how best to engineer cellular behavior for tissue regeneration applications and 3D cell culture protocols. (
  • Repetition of the scan provides a timeline of T cell behavior. (
  • The church’s history shows an oscillating behavior between movements and institutionality. (
  • We recorded cell behavior by time-lapse cinemicroscopy and collected cell motion and cell shape data by computer-aided planimetry. (
  • This work identified several components of Dictyostelium cell behavior which contribute to cell aggregation in this organism. (
  • In addition, the presence of Exo70 in cells led to the creation of protrusions on the membranes. (
  • It breaks down the changes into different frequencies, and we can tell how a cell's membranes, mitochondria, nucleus and even cell division respond to drugs. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell membranes" applicable to this article? (
  • A ll cells in the human body are characterized by having a net electrical charge across its membranes. (
  • Movement in and out of cells Helen Moth The cell membranes main function is to serve as a boundary between the cell and it's environment. (
  • Transport across cell membranes - Active Transport Requires. (
  • Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. (
  • Movement of ions across cell membranes causes these events. (
  • Membranes in the plant cell (Ph.D.). University of Pennsylvania. (
  • They modified the stiffness of the embryo tissues using actin and myosin - the same molecules used for muscle contraction - and found the hardness at which NC cells migrate. (
  • Biologists at Vanderbilt and the University of Missouri have uncovered what could be a major clue into the mysterious molecular processes that direct cells to the correct locations within a developing embryo. (
  • The collective movements of convergent extension drive both global reorganization of the early embryo and local remodeling during organogenesis. (
  • Cells in the posterior two thirds of the embryo move in two striking counter-rotating flows that meet at the site of streak formation at the posterior end of the embryo. (
  • Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P21/Waf inhibits cell division and severely limits embryo growth, but does not inhibit streak formation or associated flows. (
  • Amotl2 is essential for cell movements in zebrafish embryo and regulates c-Src translocation. (
  • Recent cell lineage and knockout experiments have raised the possibility that pre-gastrulation movements of cells from the extra-embryonic visceral endoderm are important to determine where the future anterior and posterior of the embryo will develop. (
  • Developing Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds and embryos represent a complex set of cell layers and tissues that mediate the transport and partitioning of carbohydrates, amino acids, hormones, and signaling molecules from the terminal end of the funicular phloem to and between these seed tissues and eventually to the growing embryo. (
  • This article provides a detailed analysis of the symplastic domains and the cell-to-cell connectivity from the end of the funiculus to the embryo, and within the embryo during its maturation. (
  • Recent experiments show that chemotaxis, especially in response to members of the FGF, PDGF and VEGF families of growth factors, plays a key role in the guidance of mesoderm cells during gastrulation in chick, mouse and frog embryos. (
  • Cell motions continue to be disordered and do not develop the same sense of direction and purpose in the mutant as they do in normal embryos. (
  • But Chandrasekhar and his Missouri team discovered that this movement does not take place in trilobite embryos. (
  • The sculpting of embryos during development involves coordinated movement of cells in large groups. (
  • Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which actomyosin drives collective cell movement in vertebrate embryos. (
  • Most adult cells stay stationary, but the ability for some to move helps embryos develop, wounds heal and immune responses mobilize. (
  • Knockdown of amotl2 expression delays epiboly and impairs convergence and extension movement, and amotl2-deficient cells in mosaic embryos fail to migrate properly. (
  • These data provide the first evidence that amotl2 is essential for cell movements in vertebrate embryos. (
  • To gain insight into cell behaviour during the implantation period, which cannot be reproduced in vitro, the general approach proposed here consists of labelling cells before implantation, at the blastocyst stage, and monitoring their distribution after implantation, in cultures of embryos between days 5.5 and 6.5. (
  • Embryos that are morphant for pcdh19 exhibit severely disrupted brain morphology, which is caused at least in part by a defect in cell movements in the anterior neural plate. (
  • In this study, we show that Pcdh19 and Ncad act in concert to coordinate cell movements during neurulation of the anterior neural plate in zebrafish embryos. (
  • Dr Boire talks to ecancer at the Cancer Research UK Brain Tumour Conference 2018 in London about potential routes for cancer cell, and also immune cell, entry into the leptomeningeal space. (
  • Our results suggest that Pcdh19 and Ncad function together to regulate cell adhesion and to mediate morphogenetic movements during brain development. (
  • Aggregation patterns in Dictyostelium involve morphogenetic movements of up to 10$\sp{6}$ amebae. (
  • Interestingly, visualization of dInR -depleted BC clusters, using time-lapse imaging, revealed a delay in detachment of BC clusters from the surrounding anterior follicle cells and altered protrusion dynamics. (
  • Quantitative analysis of in vivo two-photon time-lapse image sequences reveals that loss of either pcdh19 or ncad impairs cell movements during neurulation, disrupting both the directedness of cell movements and the coherence of movements among neighboring cells. (
  • Analysis of time-lapse images demonstrated that R. rickettsii organisms move through the cell cytoplasm at an average rate of 4.8 ± 0.6 μm/min (mean ± standard deviation). (
  • Clusters of several high-GFP cells were tracked in living mice for up to 7 weeks, and an analysis of time-lapse sequences revealed that they moved centripetally at an average rate of 26 μm/d. (
  • These process become even more important during the multicellular stages of development, when propagating waves of cAMP coordinate the chemotactic movement of tens of thousands of cells, resulting in multicellular morphogenesis. (
  • What has been most surprising is the observation that E-Cad is a key component in cell movement, when its role was previously assumed to be that of keeping cells static," explains Jordi Casanova , head of the Development and Morphogenesis in Drosophila Lab at IRB Barcelona and CSIC research professor. (
  • Chemotactic cell movement during Dictyostelium development and gastrulation. (
  • During an early stage of development called gastrulation, the cells begin converging from all sides of the spherical egg to the embryonic axis where the body begins to form. (
  • A mechanism is revealed for orchestrated cell movement during gastrulation in Xenopus . (
  • Gastrulation in amniotes begins with extensive re-arrangements of cells in the epiblast resulting in the formation of the primitive streak. (
  • During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension (C and E) of the primary anteroposterior (AP) embryonic axis is driven by polarized mediolateral (ML) cell intercalations and is influenced by AP axial patterning. (
  • Expression of a dominant negative FGFR1c receptor construct as well as the soluble extracellular domain of the FGFR1c receptor both effectively block the cell movements associated with streak formation and mesoderm differentiation, showing the importance of FGF signalling in these processes. (
  • Although both molecules are required for calcium-dependent adhesion in a zebrafish cell line, the extracellular domain of Pcdh19 does not exhibit adhesive activity, suggesting that the involvement of Pcdh19 in cell adhesion is indirect. (
  • In their physiologic environment, cells are in contact with surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and with neighboring cells. (
  • Zebrafish amotl2 is expressed maternally and in restricted cell types zygotically. (
  • We find that the neuroectoderm of Nodal-deficient zebrafish gastrulae exhibits reduced C and E cell behaviors, which require Nodal signaling in both cell- and non-autonomous fashions. (
  • The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma patients, has the potential, they say, to predict how quickly and aggressively a given cancer might lethally spread. (
  • According to the National Institutes of Health's Cancer Genome Atlas , glioblastoma -- an aggressive cancer of the glial cells of the brain -- accounts for about 15 percent of all adult brain tumors in the U.S., and even with surgery and other treatment, only 3 to 5 percent of people with the tumor survive five years. (
  • The ridges were designed to simulate the ridged surface of the brain, where migrating cancer cells move along the grooves of the white matter and blood vessels, following them like roadways, Quinones-Hinojosa says. (
  • To study the effect of NAA80 on the cellular actin structures, the team used gene scissors, CRISPR/Cas9, and cut NAA80 out of the genes of the cancer cell line HAP1. (
  • Frogs were chosen as a model organism as their neural crest (NC) cells behave in a similar way to those of humans and their movement is often used to study the spread of cancer. (
  • Novel Honokiol-eluting PLGA-based scaffold effectively restricts the growth of renal cancer cells. (
  • Our technology can measure a cancer tumor's response to cancer therapy, such as metabolism and cell division. (
  • From birth until death, our cells migrate: nerve cells make their vital connections, embryonic cells move to the proper places to form organs, immune cells zero in to destroy pathogenic organisms, and cancer cells metastasize, spreading deadly disease through the body. (
  • An integrated cellular and sub-cellular model of cancer chemotherapy and therapies that target cell survival. (
  • Scientists know that cancer cells recruit healthy cells and use them to travel long distances , but how this process takes place and how it could be controlled to design new therapies against cancer remains unknown. (
  • The authors of the study are confident that the process whereby cancer cells attached to healthy cells in order to migrate around the body is comparable. (
  • Healthy cells of the body try to escape from tumor cells, but are followed by malignant cells because the healthy cells produce an attractant for the cancer cells. (
  • The findings suggest an alternative way in which cancer treatments might work in the future if therapies can be targeted at the process of interaction between malignant and healthy cells to stop cancer cells from spreading and causing secondary tumours. (
  • Most cancer deaths are not due to the formation of the primary tumor, instead people die from secondary tumors originating from the first malignant cells, which are able to travel and colonize vital organs of the body such as the lungs or the brain. (
  • An invasive cancer cell moves with its leading edge. (
  • tTG is turning up in many aspects of human cancer research and seems to be contributing to the process that turns cells cancerous," said Cerione. (
  • Using inhibitors that block the function of chaperones, Cerione and his team paralyzed Hsp70s and stopped breast cancer cells in culture from gathering tTG into a leading edge, effectively immobilizing them. (
  • If we can better understand how Hsp70 influences tTG, we can figure out ways to modulate that interaction to immobilize cancer cells and keep them from becoming invasive," said Cerione. (
  • PI3K is responsible for regulating the growth and survival of cancer cells and several inhibitors targeting it have already been developed. (
  • Cancer cells are on the move in the bloodstream in the very early stage of pancreatic cancer. (
  • In many cancers, the greatest threat to the patient comes not from the original tumor but from the cancer cells that migrate and form new tumors throughout the body. (
  • We can now watch anywhere in your body where those T cells may be," said Gambhir, who holds the Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professorship in Cancer Research. (
  • The work was done in patients with a type of deadly brain cancer called glioblastoma, but the groundbreaking technique could be used to track immune cells targeting any kind of cancer, Gambhir said. (
  • In one form of standard immunotherapy, a medical team harvests T cells from a cancer patient's blood and genetically engineers them to do a better job of hunting down and killing the patient's cancer cells. (
  • Right now, the only way to find out if the T cells are attacking the cancer is to wait to see if the tumors shrink, but that can take months. (
  • Ten years ago, Gambhir and his lab began looking for ways to find out what the immune cells do once they are released back into the patient's bloodstream to hunt down cancer cells. (
  • Educated natural killer (NK) cells have inhibitory receptors specific for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and kill cancer cells more efficiently than do NK cells that do not have such receptors (hyporesponsive NK cells). (
  • NK cells are increasingly used in cancer therapy trials. (
  • Cancer cells that remain within the parenchyma, where most originate, can typically be dealt with effectively by surgical removal. (
  • She also studied the gene expression of the cancer cells which managed to grow in this nutrient sparse environment, and what unique features result from those genes. (
  • So I discussed potential routes for cancer cell entry into the leptomeningeal space as well as immune cell entry into this space. (
  • So through iterative in vivo selection of some mouse models I was able to create some subpopulations of cancer cells that grow within the leptomeningeal space. (
  • Looking at gene expression profiling I was able to find that the cancer cells that have the capacity to live within this environment secrete a factor called complement C3. (
  • Doing some mechanistic work in both in vitro and in vivo and from human samples we were able to find that the cancer cells secreting C3 that a split product from this C3a leads to activation of the C3a receptor on the choroid plexus and that this leads to opening of the blood CSF barrier and entry of some plasma contents into the CSF. (
  • This alters the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid such that it's able to sustain cancer cell growth. (
  • In this way the cancer cell broaches the blood-CSF barrier and creates a leaky, almost pseudo-oedematous situation for itself in that this is really one of the ways in which cancer is able to circumvent the natural anatomic barriers. (
  • Studies of the molecular mechanisms of chemotactic movement of Dictyostelium amoebae up cAMP gradients highlight the importance of PIP3 signaling in the control of cAMP-dependent actin polymerization, which drives the protrusion of lamellipodia and filopodia at the leading edge of the cell, but also emphasize the need for myosin thick filament assembly and motor activation for the contraction of the back of the cell. (
  • Lastly, based on genetic interactions between dInR , the polarity determinant, dPAR-1 and a regulatory subunit of Drosophila Myosin , ( Spaghetti squash ) we propose that Insulin signalling likely influences dPAR-1 activity to engineer border cell detachment and subsequent movement via Drosophila Myosin. (
  • Likewise inhibition of myosin II which as been shown to drive cell-cell intercalation during Drosophila germ band extension, has no effect on streak formation, but also effectively blocks elongation after regression has started. (
  • They slit the cells, splayed them open to expose the actin fibers, and added myosin-coated fluorescent beads. (
  • Spudich and Sheetz had, for the first time, created an in vitro assay for myosin movement. (
  • This innovation was momentous, but the Nitella cell innards were ill defined, and the work did not directly prove that myosin was moving on actin. (
  • They used the system to show that purified actin, purified myosin, and ATP could support myosin movement at rates consistent with the speed of muscle contraction. (
  • However, many tumors can adapt their mode of movement in response to external stimuli, and several lines of evidence support the idea of cross-talk between integrin-mediated cell-ECM interactions and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions that may be key to the plasticity observed in tumor cells ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • The faster and more dynamic movement of NKp46 in educated NK cells may facilitate a swifter response to interactions with target cells. (
  • Our in vitro study aims to fill this gap by focusing on the biological and molecular properties of neural stem cells (NSCs). (
  • Thus we currently lack a detailed in vitro study of the influence of muscle reduced activity on neural stem cells (NSCs) characteristics. (
  • Here, we assessed the potential therapeutic effect of HDAC6 inhibitors on peripheral neuropathy with HSPB1 mutation using in vitro model of motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of CMT2F and dHMN2B patients. (
  • The observations on stmF mutants implicate cGMP in the regulation of chemoattractant-induced cell elongation and orientation. (
  • They tested PDGF to see if it would prime the glioblastoma cells for movement rather than growth by growing the glioblastoma cells from two different tumors on the racetracks with 20 nanograms per milliliter of PDGF. (
  • Some cells from one of the tumors -- belonging to the fastest 25 percent of cells from that tumor -- responded to the PDGF treatment by moving about two times faster than controls made up of untreated glioblastoma cells. (
  • Conversely, the slowest 25 percent of the cells in the tumors moved at the same slower pace as the control tumor cells, meaning that PDGF strongly affected the faster cells. (
  • To see if their speed test had the potential to predict which brain tumors were the most aggressive, the scientists grew cells from 14 patient glioblastomas in PDGF, then placed them on the racetracks. (
  • Human tumors display a surprising paucity of mutations when compared with an equivalent mass of normal cells. (
  • Remarkably, even within large tumors, the majority of mutations, especially driver mutations, are contained within most neoplastic cells, and genetic heterogeneity is limited. (
  • show in primary tumors that short-range dispersal combined with a minimal selective growth advantage allows malignant cells within an established tumor to overtake other populations, leading to a marked decrease in the genetic diversity. (
  • The new T cell imaging technology can also reveal, indirectly, where other unsuspected tumors are. (
  • A similar series of events takes place in secondary immune responses except with faster kinetics and substantially greater accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow ( 6 )( 8 ). (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are essential for the control of infections and for tumor immunosurveillance ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Then I discussed some novel findings, both from myself and others, that might explain how immune cells might exit the space and how we might actually therapeutically intervene in this area. (
  • By regulating where and when the different integrins are delivered to the cell surface, syndecan-4 precisely regulates cell movement and exploration. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Scientists at The University of Manchester have identified the method by which cells control the recycling of molecules, a process that is essential for them to move. (
  • These molecules are able to grab hold of the fibres surrounding the cell, like hands, allowing the cell to drag its self along. (
  • By manipulating the molecules in this way we found that we could either force the cells to move in a fast forward motion or stop altogether. (
  • It is the first time that the mechanical properties of the environment surrounding embryonic cells has been shown to be crucial in cell movement and development, rather than genes or molecules. (
  • By tracking the positions of these molecules for several seconds, we determined a diffusion coefficient ( D ) of 12 ± 2 × 10 -3 μm 2 /s for the mobile copies of PleC not bound at the cell pole. (
  • By using conventional fluorescence microscopy, molecules of PleC were found to be localized to the flagellar pole of SW and predivisional (PD) cells ( 20 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • PIP3 is a lipid that accumulates on the leading edge of a cell about to move, usually in response to a number of outside cellular attractants like chemokines, growth factors and other molecules. (
  • Along with it, DOCK180 brings a host of additional molecules to the leading edge, triggering a series of internal events that begin moving the cell forward. (
  • Cells also use this mechanism to determine where to transport enzymes and other biological molecules. (
  • These impaired vinculin molecules were used by the Waterman group to show that interaction between actin and vinculin is required for proper development of cellular components and coupling of adhesions to actin, which are critical for the process of controlled cell movement. (
  • Conversely, Ly49A molecules were overall more constrained and diffused more slowly on educated cells. (
  • however, individual NKp46 molecules resided in these domains for shorter periods and diffused faster on the surface of educated, compared to hyporesponsive, NK cells. (
  • Alpha-actinin molecules bound to the skeleton also bind to the end of integrin that is inside the cell. (
  • In the cell, that sort of stress could destroy the link between alpha-actinin and actin molecules and destabilize the cell's skeleton. (
  • It's this ability of vinculin to reinforce the connections between alpha-actinin molecules and the actin rods of the skeleton that keeps the skeleton stiff enough to withstand the stress of cell movement," Bois said. (
  • When you enter information in a cell, and then press the Enter key, Excel normally moves to the cell below the one in which you entered the information. (
  • That, at least, is more or less how N. gonorrhoeae moves on the surface of a host cell. (
  • The scientists suggest that the enzyme is then stuck to an inhibitor that halts any degrading actions of the enzyme as the cell moves to a Point B. At that Point B, the enzyme or enzymes then digest the material surrounding the cell. (
  • The cell then moves on to the next location. (
  • Thanks to E-Cad, this group of diverse cells moves in a coordinated manner to its destination. (
  • When the cell moves, stress on the "foot" part of the integrin outside the cell is transmitted into the cell to the other end of integrin. (
  • In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), Suc is loaded into the companion cells (CCs) of fully developed source leaves and moves symplastically into the enucleate sieve elements (SEs). (
  • Now this is from memory so I wouldn't trust it completely, the electron moves along the ETC and this movement moves protons out into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria (or chloroplast stroma), which generates a concentration gradient. (
  • Under stable conditions (eletrochemical equilibrium), the Cl- and Na+ ions exist in a higher concentration outside the cell than inside. (
  • Reminiscences of work with Alex Hope: the movement of water and ions in giant algal cells, 1963-1967. (
  • Then, they applied this to their model so that the rate of replication was proportional to the number of surrounding sites not containing malignant cells. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of innate lymphoid cells that target virally infected and malignant cells. (
  • The dissociated early embryonic cells of the fresh water fish, Oryzias latipes, protrude hyaline lobopodia, which tend to rotate around the cell circumference in a propagating wave. (
  • For cell biologists, actin is important to study because it forms fibres that give the cells shape and the structure that allows them to move. (
  • Henriette Aksnes, who has written her PhD-thesis on other NAT-enzymes, was amazed when she started to look at the NAA80-lacking cells under a microscope: "These cells actually move faster than the other ones. (
  • The absence of this enzyme that modifies actin caused cells to move faster than normal cells. (
  • However, there are several types of integrin on the cell surface and they all have different properties which affect how quickly the cell can move. (
  • In order for a cell to move efficiently, it needs to precisely control which integrins are able to bind to the fibres. (
  • A great deal is known about the movement of the projections that neurons send out to connect with other neurons, but very little is known about how neurons move from one place to another," says Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, the associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt who led the study with Anand Chandrasekhar, assistant professor of biological sciences at the University of Missouri, Columbia. (
  • Previous studies by us and others have identified how a migrating cell gets its wheels and, mechanistically, is able to move. (
  • A mechanism that cells use to group together and move around the body - called 'chase and run' - has been described for the first time by scientists at UCL. (
  • A focus of differentiating B cell blasts soon appears and the cells move over the next day or two out of the lymphoid T zones. (
  • In the spleen, the cells move through marginal zone "bridging channels" and many of the cells lodge in foci near vessels or collagenous fibers in the red pulp ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 ). (
  • Scientists had thought that as cells move through a material, they degrade it at the same time. (
  • I was definitely shocked seeing a cell move so fast," Wang said. (
  • UR-hel, a chimeric virus obtained by replacement of the RNA helicase domain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-U1 replicase with that from the TMV-R strain, could replicate similarly to TMV-U1 in protoplasts but could not move from cell to cell (K. Hirashima and Y. Watanabe, J. Virol. (
  • Here, we found that a recombinant, UR-hel/V, in which the nonconserved region was derived from TMV-R in addition to the RNA helicase domain of replicase, could move from cell to cell. (
  • UR-hel could replicate to a level similar to that of TMV-U1 in protoplasts but could not move from cell to cell ( 11 ). (
  • Specifically, she looks at how these cells in the female's egg chamber move together to alter the developing chamber's form from a globe shape to more of a football shape. (
  • Their findings have been published in the journal Developmental Cell ( 'Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling' ). (
  • Developmental cell programs are co-opted in inflammatory skin disease. (
  • When migrating cells go astray they can cause developmental disorders, ranging from cardiovascular disease to mental retardation. (
  • article{osti_1346443, title = {Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli}, author = {Männik, Jaana and Bailey, Matthew W. and O'Neill, Jordan C. and Männik, Jaan and Burkholder, ed. (
  • On the other hand, presynaptic activation of LC cells induces an increase in the mRNA of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in NE cells. (
  • By studying the movement of fibroblast cells using sophisticated imaging techniques, Dr Morgan and the team identified the role of Syndecan-4. (
  • Human fibroblast cells (pink) in the process of slingshotting themselves forward in a 3D scaffold designed to mimic the conditions of the body (blue). (
  • The authors propose that caspase 11 may serve early in the inflammatory response by aiding the delivery of cytokine-producing cells to the site of infection and then by terminating cytokine production through stimulation of apoptosis. (
  • This tagged virus was competent in cell-to-cell movement, producing multicellular infection foci similar to those formed by the wild-type BYV. (
  • Here, we show that this characteristic SCV positioning is not maintained by all SCVs during infection of HeLa cells. (
  • Our results reveal a novel SCV phenotype implicated in the cell-to-cell spread of serovar Typhimurium during infection. (
  • Scientists at Georgia have now come up with a new technology, called "nanogenerator", that converts mechanical energy from body movements or even the flow of blood in the body into electric energy. (
  • Scientists studying these migrations didn t know how cells determined where to go. (
  • Since 1774, when microscopist Bonaventura Corti discovered "torrents" of fluid inside plant cells, scientists have known that even tiny units of life bustle with motile activity. (
  • Surprisingly, the scientists observed that the cells paused before moving. (
  • Scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) now reveal a new function for E-Cad, one that contrasts with its accepted role in impeding cell movement. (
  • Nodal signaling is essential for patterning of the AP axis while planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling polarizes cells with respect to this axis, but how these two signaling systems interact during C and E is unclear. (
  • We present a detailed simulation study of the effects of these additions on the invasive behaviour of tumour cells and the tumour's response to chemotherapy. (
  • Modelling collective cell behaviour. (
  • The long-distance movement defect was specifically complemented by HC-Pro supplied in trans by a transgenic host. (
  • To address whether the defect in cell-to-cell movement of UR-hel is caused by its replicase alone and whether only the RNA helicase domain is involved in the cell-to-cell movement, we analyzed various chimeric viruses constructed from TMV-U1 and TMV-R and movement-competent revertants isolated from UR-hel. (
  • Cognate combination of the RNA helicase domain and MP could not rescue the defect in cell-to-cell movement of UR-hel. (
  • 13 presented the first experimental evidence of centripetal movement of cells after lamellar keratoplasty in the rabbit, although their experiments did not address cell movement in the normal cornea directly. (