The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Performance of complex motor acts.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The position or attitude of the body.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/32044)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/32044)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (3/32044)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (4/32044)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (5/32044)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (6/32044)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (7/32044)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (8/32044)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

2005. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Transnational urbanism: Attending to everyday practices and mobilities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 227-233.. Smith, Michael Peter. Transnational urbanism revisited. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 235-244.. Beaverstock, Jonathan V. Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled inter-company transferees in New York citys financial district. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 245-268.. Yeoh, Brenda S. A. and Katie Willis. Singaporean and British transmigrants in China and the cultural politics of contact zones Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 269-285.. Conradson, David and Alan Latham. Friendship, networks and transnationality in a world city: Antipodean transmigrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31, no. 2 (2005): 287-305.. Clarke, Nick. Detailing transnational lives of the middle: British working holiday ...
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The ability of cancer cells to migrate through a complex three-dimensional (3D) environment is a hallmark event of cancer metastasis. Therefore, an in vitro migration assay to evaluate cancer cell migration in a 3D setting is valuable to examine cancer progression. Here, we describe such a simple migration assay in a 3D collagen-fibronectin gel for observing cell morphology and comparing the migration abilities of cancer cells. We describe below how to prepare the collagen-fibronectin gel castings, how to set up time-lapse recording, how to draw single-cell trajectories from movies and extract key parameters that characterize cell motility, such as cell speed, directionality, mean square displacement, and directional persistence. In our set-up, cells are sandwiched in a single plane between two collagen-fibronectin gels. This trick facilitates the analysis of cell tracks, which are for the most part 2D, at least in the beginning, but in a 3D environment. This protocol has been previously published in
Given the foolish consistency that comes with being the hobgoblin of little minds, there was no chance that our big-brained president would be consistent on the issue of chain migration. In November, President Donald Trump decried the practice of immigrants sponsoring other family members for permanent residency: CHAIN MIGRATION must end now! Some people come in, and they bring their whole family with them, who can be truly evil. NOT ACCEPTABLE! When the White House released its proposed framework for immigration reform in January, the presidents sentiments were clear: In the future, immigrants would be able to sponsor only spouses and minor children for permanent residency. No more parents or siblings. But the presidents distaste for chain migration apparently doesnt apply to his extended family.. On Thursday, the presidents in-laws, Amalija and Viktor Knavs, became naturalized U.S. citizens, thanks to the sponsorship of their immigrant daughter, first lady Melania Trump. Good for ...
We first examined the effect of afadin on cell movement in response to PDGF stimulation using wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells. The expression level of afadin in both cell types is shown in Fig. 1A. Wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells were sparsely plated on μ-Slide VI Flow dishes pre-coated with vitronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that binds to αvβ3 integrin (Schvartz et al., 1999), and were directionally stimulated with PDGF. Wild-type NIH3T3 cells became polarized with the well-spreading leading edge toward the higher concentration of PDGF, whereas afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 cells showed elongated shapes and had a small leading edge that was randomly directed and was independent of the direction of the higher concentration of PDGF (Fig. 1B).. These results led us to assume that afadin is involved in directional cell movement. To examine this assumption, we performed a wound-healing assay by scratching the confluent monolayer of wild-type and afadin-knockdown NIH3T3 ...
Since MMP activity is also regulated by TIMP binding (Nagase and Woessner, 1999) and the dissociation of TIMP-MMP complexes during gel electrophoresis prior to zymography assays acts to enhance the apparent activity of proMMP isoforms, soluble gelatinase activity in the cell‐conditioned media samples was assayed using a peptide substrate (Figure 6C). Both v‐Src3T3 and v‐Src FRNK S‐1034 cells contained high levels of soluble gelatinase activity, whereas NIH‐3T3 and the various v‐Src FRNK cell clones had ∼4‐fold lower levels of gelatinase activity secreted from the same number of cells (Figure 6C). Analysis of whole‐cell lysates also revealed that FRNK expression resulted in lower levels of cell‐associated gelatinase activity (Figure 6D). Although blotting analyses did not reveal significant changes in TIMP expression (data not shown), addition of recombinant TIMP‐2 to v‐Src3T3s inhibited Matrigel invasion activity in a dose‐dependent manner (Figure 6E). Taken together, ...
Proliferation and tangential migration of neural precursor cells are essential determinants of CNS development. We have established cell culture models of both these processes using neural precursor cells grown as neurospheres. The pattern of migration that we observe in these cells is homotypic and occurs in the absence of a glial or neuronal scaffold, and is therefore equivalent to that previously described as chain migration. To determine the role of integrins in proliferation and migration, we have analysed the expression pattern of integrins on neurosphere cells and then performed blocking peptide and antibody experiments. Neurosphere cells express five major integrins, alpha5 beta1, alpha 6Abeta1, alphav beta1, alphav beta5 and alpha vbeta8 and, in addition, express low levels of alpha 6Bbeta1. Chain migration is inhibited by blocking the alpha 6beta1 integrin. Proliferation, by contrast, is inhibited by blocking the other beta1 integrins, alphav beta1 and alpha5 beta1. These results show ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration within the arterial wall is a crucial event in atherogenesis and restenosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC-chemokine receptor 2 (MCP-1/CCR2) signalling is involved in SMC migration processes but the molecular mechanisms have not been well characterized. We investigated the role of PI3Kγ in SMC migration induced by MCP-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: A pharmacological PI3Kγ inhibitor, adenovirus encoding inactive forms of PI3Kγ and genetic deletion of PI3Kγ were used to investigate PI3Kγ functions in the MCP-1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling pathway and migration process in primary aortic SMC. KEY RESULTS: The γ isoform of PI3K was shown to be the major signalling molecule mediating PKB phosphorylation in MCP-1-stimulated SMC. Using a PI3Kγ inhibitor and an adenovirus encoding a dominant negative form of PI3Kγ, we demonstrated that PI3Kγ is essential for SMC migration triggered by MCP-1. PDGF receptor
Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out. Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration. Surprisingly, we identify RhoH as a screen hit. RhoH expression is normally restricted to haematopoietic cells, but we find it is expressed in multiple epithelial cancer cell lines. High RhoH expression in samples from prostate cancer patients correlates with earlier relapse. RhoH depletion reduces cell speed and persistence and decreases migratory polarity. Rac1 activity normally localizes to the front of migrating cells at areas of dynamic membrane movement, but in RhoH-depleted cells active Rac1 is
A broad range of biological processes such as morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer invasion depend on the collective migration of epithelial cells. Guidance of collective cell migration is commonly attributed to soluble or immobilized chemical gradients. I will present novel mechanisms of collective cellular guidance that are physical in origin rather than chemical. Firstly, I will focus on how the mechanical interaction between the tumor and its stroma guides cancer cell invasion. I will show that cancer associated fibroblasts exert a physical force on cancer cells that enables their collective invasion. In the second part of my talk I will focus on durotaxis, the ability of cells to follow gradients of extracellular matrix stiffness. Durotaxis is well established as a single cell phenomenon but whether it can direct the motion of cell collectives is unknown. I will show that durotaxis emerges in cell collectives even if isolated constituent cells are unable to durotax. Collective ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
An initial step in solid tumor metastasis involves the migration of tumor cells through extracellular matrix. Several cancer cell migration strategies exist in vivo, and the local properties of collagen fibers are implicated in modulating migration behaviors. Yet, individual tumor cells also display heterogeneity in their intrinsic ability to migrate and metastasize. It remains unclear to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity contribute to the emergence of distinct migration phenotypes and whether certain migration phenotypes contribute more to metastasis than others. To study this, we generated 3D collagen matrices of varying densities and monitored single cancer cell migration in these matrices with time-lapse microscopy. We observed a collagen density threshold at 2.5mg/ml, above which 86% of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transition from single mesenchymal migration to collective cell migration, with a 50% increase in persistence after cell division. After seven days, these ...
The migration of T lymphocytes is a vital component of the immune system, with roles in immunosurveillance and inflammation. The role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase within T lymphocyte migration is unclear, with some evidence that it may be a disposable signal. Here, using Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the T cell line CEM cells, the role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream kinases was investigated. CCL22 mediated CEM cell migration and CXCL12 mediated peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration were shown to be independent of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase using several different broad-spectrum Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. However, these cells were Akt-dependent, as demonstrated by incubation with the Akt inhibitor Akti-1/2. Differences in the effect of the inhibitors on Akt activity were discovered, indicating that either Akt can be activated in the absence of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, or differences exist regarding the relative ...
Ilina, Elena I.; Armento, Angela; Sanchez, Leticia Garea; Reichlmeir, Marina; Braun, Yannick; Penski, Cornelia; Capper, David; Sahm, Felix; Jennewein, Lukas; Harter, Patrick N.; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Schulte, Dorothea; Le Guerroue, Francois; Behrends, Christian; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W.; Naumann, Ulrike; Mittelbronn, Michel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Peroxide Triggers a Dual Signaling Axis To Selectively Suppress Activated Human T Lymphocyte Migration.. AU - Ball, Jennifer. AU - Vlisidou, Isabella. AU - Blunt, Matthew. AU - Wood, William. AU - Ward, Stephen. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - H2O2 is an early danger cue required for innate immune cell recruitment to wounds. To date, little is known about whether H2O2 is required for the migration of human adaptive immune cells to sites of inflammation. However, oxidative stress is known to impair T cell activity, induce actin stiffness, and inhibit cell polarization. In this study, we show that low oxidative concentrations of H2O2 also impede chemokinesis and chemotaxis of previously activated human T cells to CXCL11, but not CXCL10 or CXCL12. We show that this deficiency in migration is due to a reduction in inflammatory chemokine receptor CXCR3 surface expression and cellular activation of lipid phosphatase SHIP-1. We demonstrate that H2O2 acts through an Src ...
Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell moving paths, which may be easily
The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation ...
Collective cell migration is fundamental throughout development, during wound healing and in many diseases. Although much effort has focused on cell-cell junctions, a role for physical confinement in collective cell migration remains unclear. Here, we used adhesive microstripes of varying widths to mimic the spatial confinement experienced by follower cells within epithelial tissues. Our results reveal that the substrate area confinement is sufficient to modulate the three-dimensional cellular morphology without the need for intercellular adhesive cues. Our findings show a direct correlation between the migration velocity of confined cells and their cell-substrate adhesive area. Closer examination revealed that adhesive area confinement reduces lamellipodial protrusive forces, decreases the number of focal complexes at the leading edge and prevents the maturation of focal adhesions at the trailing edge, together leading to less effective forward propelling forces. The release of follower confinement
© 2014 UICC. The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-Associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
The ADAMTS proteinases are a family of secreted, matrix-associated enzymes that have diverse roles in the regulation of tissue organization and vascular homeostasis. Several of the 19 human family members have been identified as having either tumor promoting or suppressing roles. We previously demonstrated that decreased ADAMTS15 expression correlated with a worse clinical outcome in mammary carcinoma (e.g., Porter et al., Int J Cancer 2006;118:1241-7). We have explored the effects of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs-15 (ADAMTS-15) on the behavior of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either a wild-type (wt) or metalloproteinase-inactive (E362A) protein. No effects on mammary cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed for either form of ADAMTS-15. However, both forms reduced cell migration on fibronectin or laminin matrices, though motility on a Type I collagen matrix was unimpaired. Knockdown of syndecan-4 attenuated the inhibitory
How do cells move in a certain direction in the body-go to a wound site and repair it, for example, or hunt down infectious bacteria and kill it?
Cell migration is a highly integrated, multi-step process that plays an important role in the progression of various diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and arthritis. There are various types and definitions of cell migration. Cell invasion is related to, and encompasses, cell migration, except that cells do more than migrate. Invasive cells move through the extracellular matrix into neighboring tissues in a process that involves ECM degradation and proteolysis. We offer cell migration assays in two formats: Boyden Chamber Assays consist of a cell culture insert nested in the well of cell culture plate. Cells are seeded into the insert and migrate through the pores of the membrane at the bottom of the insert. Gap Closure Assays create a defined area across which cells migrate. Cell migration can be monitored in real time by microscopy. These assays include our new proprietary Radius™ technology which uses a biocompatible hydrogel to create a circular area across which cells can
Cell migration is important in many developmental processes, including neural crest cell migration, gastrulation, and organogenesis. Proper regulation of cell migration is also necessary in adult organisms for immune responses including wound healing. Here, I use the established system of Drosophila border cell migration during oogenesis to provide valuable insight into understanding how collective cell migration is regulated. I have taken a genetic approach to studying cell migration by identifying mutants affecting genes that are important for border cell migration to occur, and a cell biological approach to characterizing the affected cellular behaviors and phenotypes. Through this work, I have mapped novel mutations to genes with previously uncharacterized roles in border cell migration. This analysis has enabled me to describe how Rickets, a G-protein-coupled receptor with a previously unknown role in border cell migration, can coordinate polarity, adhesion, and intercellular communication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arl13b regulates breast cancer cell migration and invasion by controlling integrin-mediated signaling. AU - Casalou, Cristina. AU - Faustino, Alexandra. AU - Silva, Fernanda. AU - Ferreira, Inês C.. AU - Vaqueirinho, Daniela. AU - Ferreira, Andreia. AU - Castanheira, Pedro. AU - Barona, Teresa. AU - Ramalho, José S.. AU - Serpa, Jacinta. AU - Félix, Ana. AU - Barral, Duarte C.. N1 - This work was supported by PhD fellowships from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia(FCT) to A. Faustino, A. Ferreira and P.C. (PD/BD/105898/2014, PD/BD/135506/2018 and PD/BD/128339/2017, respectively), a post-doctoral fellowship from FCT to C.C. (SFRH/BPD/78561/2011), the FCT Investigator Program to D.C.B. (IF/00501/2014/CP1252/CT0001), and grants from FCT (PTDC/BIM-MEC/4905/2014) and iNOVA4Health - UID/Multi/04462/2013, a program financially supported by FCT/ Ministério da Educação e Ciência, through national funds and co-funded by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.. PY - ...
Cell migration is known to be related to not only physiological phenomena such as embryonic development, immune reaction, and wound healing, but also pathological phenomena such as asthma, vascular disease, and cancer metastasis. However, because genetic mutations of each cancer cell causing high migration ability depend on cell types, it still remains unclear that which pathways are the unity of cancer cell migration signaling irrespective of cancer cell types, and which pathways are the diversity depend on cell types. The aim of this study is to reveal the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration based on chemical genomic approach.. To understand the diversity and unity of regulatory signaling for cancer cell migration, the effects of 38 small compounds, whose target protein are already identified, on cell migration ability of 10 types of cancer cells were assessed quantitatively by wound healing assay. Two-way hierarchical clustering was done on migration ability ...
There are numerous biological examples where genes associated with migratory ability of cells also confer the cells with an increased fitness actually though these genes may not really have any known effect about the cell mitosis rates. motility guidelines. We make use of this romantic relationship to make up for motility-induced adjustments in cell size in the CPM therefore that in the fixed CPM, cell size is definitely self-employed of the cell motility. We discover that subject matter to similar amounts of compression, groupings of motile cells develop quicker than groupings of much less motile cells, in qualitative contract with natural findings and our earlier research. Raising compression is likely to decrease development prices. Get in touch with inhibition penalizes clumped cells by halting their development and provides motile cells an actually higher benefit. Finally, our model predicts cell size distributions that are constant with those noticed in groupings of neuroblastoma cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulatory T Cell Transmigration and Intravascular Migration Undergo Mechanistically Distinct Regulation at Different Phases of the Inflammatory Response. AU - Snelgrove, Sarah L.. AU - Abeynaike, Latasha D.. AU - Thevalingam, Sukarnan. AU - Deane, James A.. AU - Hickey, Michael J.. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in limiting inflammatory responses in the periphery. During these responses, Treg abundance in affected organs increases and interfering with their recruitment results in exacerbation of inflammation. However, the mechanisms whereby Tregs enter the skin remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to use intravital microscopy to investigate adhesion and transmigration of Tregs in the dermal microvasculature in a two-challenge model of contact sensitivity. Using intravital confocal microscopy of Foxp3-GFP mice, we visualized endogenous Tregs and assessed their interactions in the dermal microvasculature. Four ...
Leukocyte migration is the hallmark of inflammation in vivo, and αMβ2 and Fg have been shown to contribute to leukocyte migration in multiple systems (23)(24). This study has used αMβ2 transfectants and selected mutants to dissect the molecular requirements for αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and its derivatives. The major conclusions of our study are the following. (a) Fg supports a chemotactic cell migration mediated by αMβ2. This response is dependent on Fg concentration and occurs at low (1-50 μg/ml) Fg levels. (b) The αM I domain is necessary but not sufficient to support cell migration to Fg. In contrast to cell adhesion to Fg, efficient migration requires the β2 subunit. (c) The P1 and P2 peptides, as well as the D100 fragment, support cell migration. Thus, the same Fg derivatives that mediate αMβ2-dependent cell adhesion also support cell migration. (d) The P2 peptide stimulates αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and the P1 peptide, in a manner similar to other αMβ2 ...
Would you like to study Behaviour & Social Culture or Business and Economics? All information about Introduction to Migration Studies in Maastricht: admission requirements, deadlines and grants.
Major OpenKM version implies changes in repository structure. This means that a migration process should be run to make these changes. Sometimes the database structure also is modified and need to be adapted. Here you can find the migration process between different OpenKM releases. * [[Migrating from 6.3.2 to 6.3.3]] * [[Migrating from 6.3.1 to 6.3.2]] * [[Migrating from 6.3 to 6.3.1]] * [[Migrating from 6.2.5 to 6.3]] * [[Migrating from 6.2.4 to 6.2.5]] * [[Migrating from 6.2.3 to 6.2.4]] * [[Migrating from 6.2.2 to 6.2.3]] * [[Migration from 6.2.1 to 6.2.2]] * [[Migration from 6.2 to 6.2.1]] * [[Migration from 5.1.11 to 6.2]] * [[Migration from 5.1.10 to 5.1.11]] * [[Migration from 5.1.9 to 5.1.10]] * [[Migration from 5.1.8 to 5.1.9]] * [[Migration from 5.1.8 to 5.1.8-2]] * [[Migration from 5.1.7 to 5.1.8]] * [[Migration from 5.1.6 to 5.1.7]] * [[Migration from 5.1.5 to 5.1.6]] * [[Migration from 5.1.4 to 5.1.5]] * [[Migration from 5.1.3 to 5.1.4]] * [[Migration from 5.0.4 to 5.1.8]] * ...
Directed cell migration is usually thought to depend on the presence of long-range gradients of either chemoattractants or physical properties such as stiffness or adhesion. However, in vivo, chemical or mechanical gradients have not systematically been observed. Here we review recent in vitro exper …
We have previously shown that BMP4 reduces proliferation and increases migration of breast cancer cells in vitro [10]. As these results were derived from cells grown in 2D monolayer culture, we set out to analyze the effect of BMP4 in a more physiological setting by employing 3D culture systems. We approached this issue by using both a biological gel (Matrigel, the standard 3D culture environment) and a synthetic material with RGD peptides and MMP-degradable peptide links (PEG gel).. The two materials studied provided dissimilar 3D environments as first evidenced by differences in the morphology of the normal and cancer cell clusters. The MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells had a polarized acini structure in Matrigel, as previously shown [17], while in PEG gel the cells formed irregular non-polarized structures. Similarly, the morphology of the different cancer cells varied between the two 3D models, with the structures formed in Matrigel again corresponding to those previously reported ...
Effect of TGFβ1 on the phenotype, migratory ability, and survival of CD16− monocytes. PBMCs were depleted of CD16+ cells using miniMACS magnetic selection. T
Course IA (p85/p110) phosphoinositide three-kinases play A serious function in regulating cell advancement, survival, and motility. Activating mutations during the p110alpha isoform of the class IA catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) are generally found in human cancers. These mutations lead to elevated proliferation and transformation in cultured cells, but their effects on cell motility and tumor metastasis have not been evaluated. We utilized lentiviral-mediated gene transfer and knockdown to create secure MDA-MB-231 cells wherein the endogenous human p110alpha is replaced with both wild-variety bovine p110alpha or the two most frequent activating p110alpha mutants, the helical area mutant E545K along with the kinase area mutant H1047R. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was hyperactivated in cells expressing physiologic levels of helical or kinase domain mutants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Group choreography. T2 - Mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells. AU - Montell, Denise J.. AU - Yoon, Wan Hee. AU - Starz-Gaiano, Michelle. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.. AB - Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to ...
Background: Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models. Results: This study presents a method for 3D invasion examination using microcarrier-based spheroids. Cell invasiveness can be evaluated by quantifying cell dispersion in matrices or tracking cell movement through time-lapse imaging. It allows measuring of cell invasion and monitoring of dynamic cell behavior in three dimensions. Here we show different invasive capacities of several cell types using this method. The content and concentration of matrices can influence cell invasion, which should be optimized before large scale experiments. We also introduce further analysis methods of this 3D invasion assay, including manual measurements and homemade semi-automatic quantification. Finally, our results indicate that the position of spheroids in a matrix has a strong impact on cell ...
All-and genes, ATRA activates a RAR-dependent epithelial differentiation program. pro-migratory determinant to an anti-migratory mediator. Inhibition of the Level1 path not really just takes on a part in the anti-migratory actions of ATRA; it is usually relevant also for the … Continue reading →. ...
Vol 10: Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AbstractMalignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy characterized by invasive growth and rapid recurrence. The identification and inhibition of molecular components leading to this migratory and invasive phenotype are thus essential. Accordingly, a genome-wide expression array a
Examples of collective cell migration. First column: schematic representation of different migratory types. The regions where cells are interacting are depicted
miR-21 is a key molecule in a wide range of cancers, and identifying its functional role in BC has direct clinical implications. We show here that knockdown of miR-21 suppresses cell growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, and suppresses MCF-7 xenograft growth. This result is consistent with the findings of Si et al. [9]. Interestingly, our study suggests that LNA-antimiR-21 also suppresses the growth and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 in vitro, in contrast to a recent report that found no effect of LNA-antimiR-21 on the growth of MDA-MB-231 in vitro or in vivo, although anti-miR-21-treated tumors were slightly smaller than control tumors [10]. One possibility could be differences in transfection efficiency, or miRNA ASO potency. Our results suggest that, as an oncomir, miR-21 also affects cell migration.. MCF-7 cells are hormone-sensitive and difficult to culture in vivo. Therefore, we used 17-estradiol to facilitate MCF-7 cells growth in nude mice, which is a common technique. Recently, ...
Cell migration is a basic developmental function that serves to build tissues, organs, and whole animals. Defects in cell migration are associated with birth defects and cancer, in particular the metastasis of tumors. Over the past forty years researchers have used the fruit fly to understand the genetic basis of development, including cell migration, but many of the tools and approaches used are beyond the skills and understanding of an undergraduate and advanced high school lab. We have developed a practical lab that allows students to use fly oogenesis to understand how genes regulate cell migration. Students learn to sort males from females, recognize fly genetic markers to identify wild type and mutant animals, hand-dissect ovaries, perform histochemical staining to reveal gene expression in this tissue, and visualize normal and aberrant cell migration using light microscopy to distinguish the effect of a key mutation in a gene required for cell migration. From this approach, students learn ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death. T2 - Cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA. AU - Jeon, Hyejin. AU - Zheng, Long Tai. AU - Lee, Shinrye. AU - Lee, Won Ha. AU - Park, Nammi. AU - Park, Jae-Yong. AU - Heo, Won Do. AU - Lee, Myung Shik. AU - Suk, Kyoungho. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Small G protein superfamily consists of more than 150 members, and is classified into six families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, Ran, and RGK families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions such as cell proliferation/differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. The small G proteins have also been shown to regulate cell death/survival and cell shape. In this study, we compared the role of representative members of the six families of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death/survival, two cellular phenotypes that are associated with ...
Tumor cell migration is a key step in the formation of cancer metastasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed serinethreonine kinase, has been intensely studied for over a decade as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recent data have shown that mTOR also plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Here, we briefly review recent advances regarding mTOR signaling in tumor cell motility. We also discuss recent findings about the mechanism by which rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo.. ...
Gersende Alphonse is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Isolation and Characterization of a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Subpopulation Having Stem Cell Characteristics, Evaluation of the Cell Invasion and Migration Process: A Comparison of the Video Microscope-based Scratch Wound Assay and the Boyden Chamber Assay
Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, such as Brownian motion, intermittent and persistent random-walks, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns. Recent extensions of this model describe the oscillatory motion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of cysteine-rich protein 61 in the epidermal growth factor-induced migration of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. AU - Chin, Li Han. AU - Hsu, Sung Po. AU - Zhong, Wen-Bin. AU - Liang, Yu Chih. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is among the most aggressive types of malignant cancer. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ATC, and patients with thyroid carcinoma typically exhibit increased cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61). In this study, we found that EGF treatment induced cell migration, stress fiber formation, Cyr61 mRNA and protein expressions, and Cyr61 protein secretion in ATC cells. The recombinant Cyr61 protein significantly induced cell migration; however, inhibition of Cyr61 activity by a Cyr61-specific antibody abrogated EGF-induced cell migration. EGF treatment also affected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker protein expression, as evidenced by an increase in vimentin and ...
T-LIF - T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors. Looking for abbreviations of T-LIF? It is T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors. T Lymphocyte Migration Inhibitory Factors listed as T-LIF
Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in
Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rho GTPase. T2 - A molecular compass for directional cell migration. AU - Senoo, Hiroshi. AU - Iijima, Miho. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to H Sesaki for critically reading the manuscript. This work was supported by a NIH grant (GM084015). Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Ras GTPases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases mediate intracellular signaling in directed cell migration. During chemotaxis, cells spatially control the activation of Ras/ PI (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) signaling and translate extracellular chemical gradients into intracellular signal cascades. This process is called directional sensing, and enables persistent cell migration with extraordinary sensitivity in shallow, unstable gradients of chemoattractants. In our recent study, we identified a Rho GTPase and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) as molecular modulators that transmit signals from G protein-coupled receptors to Ras/PIP3 ...
Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised hope for an improved treatment by targeting therapy-refractory cancer stem cells. However, an unambiguous role of salinomycin against cancer cell migration and metastasis formation remains elusive. Findings: We report that salinomycin effectively inhibits cancer cell migration in a variety of cancer types as determined by Boyden chamber assays. Additionally, cells were treated with doxorubicin at a concentration causing a comparable low cytotoxicity, emphasizing the anti-migratory potential of salinomycin. Moreover, single-cell tracking by time-lapse microscopy demonstrated a remarkable effect of salinomycin on breast cancer cell motility. Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. Conclusions: Our findings clearly show that salinomycin can strongly inhibit cancer cell migration independent of the ...
The secreted semaphorin Sema3E controls cell migration and invasiveness in cancer cells. conversely RNAi-based knock-down or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by gamma-secretase inhibitors mogroside IIIe downregulated PlexinD1 amounts. Notably both Notch1 and Notch3 appearance favorably correlates with PlexinD1 amounts in prostate cancers as well such as additional tumor types. In prostate malignancy cells Sema3E-PlexinD1 axis was previously reported to regulate migration; however implicated mechanisms were not elucidated. Here we display that in these cells PlexinD1 activity induces the manifestation of the transcription element Slug downregulates E-cadherin levels and enhances cell migration. Moreover our mechanistic data determine PlexinD1 mogroside IIIe like a pivotal mediator of this signaling axis downstream of Notch in prostate malignancy cells. In fact on one hand PlexinD1 is required to mediate cell migration and E-cadherin rules elicited by Notch. On the other hand PlexinD1 ...
Hypoxia is known to regulate the expression of genes involved in the migration of various cell types. Although many studies have shown that hypoxia increases cell migration, it still remains unclear whether hypoxia could modulate the stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-dependent migration of leukemic cell. Herein, we demonstrated that the SDF-1-dependent migration of HL-60, was reduced under hypoxia with no comparable decrease of CXC-type chemokine receptor CXCR4, a cognate receptor for SDF-1. Furthermore, we showed that migration toward SDF-1 was reduced by inactivation of either serine/threonine kinase Akt or extracellular signal regulated kinase Erk, which was confirmed by selective pathway inhibitor LY294002 and PD98059. In our results, phosphorylation of Erk was increased under hypoxia, but phosphorylation of Akt was attenuated on the contrary. These results led us to conclusion that hypoxia could inhibit the SDF-1-dependent migration of HL-60 via blocking of Akt activation ...
Collective cell movement depends on intracellular biological mechanisms as well as environmental cues due to the extracellular matrix (1⇓⇓⇓-5), mainly composed of collagen which is organized in hierarchical structures, such as fibrils and fibers. The mechanical properties of collagen fibril networks are essential to offer little resistance and high sensitivity to small deformations, allowing easy local remodeling and strong strain stiffening needed to ensure cell and tissue integrity (6). Wound healing is a typical biological assay to study collective migration of cells under controlled conditions in vitro and is a prototypical experimental method to study active matter (7⇓⇓-10). Experiments performed on soluble collagen (11) or other gels (12), micropatterned (13, 14) and deformable substrates (1) show that cell migration is guided by the substrate structure and stiffness (5, 15, 16).. It has been argued that collective migration properties arise from stresses transmitted between ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
Morphogenetic movements such as cell migration are crucial for the development of multicellular organisms. Cells that are born at distinct locations in the developing animal often undergo precise, spatiotemporally regulated migration to distant sites where they eventually build specialized tissues and organs. How input from multiple signaling pathways is coordinated to ensure proper cell movement remains one of the main challenges in the field of cell migration and developmental biology.. The migration of border cells (BCs) in the Drosophila egg chamber provides a unique system with which to genetically dissect the mechanisms regulating invasive cell migration in vivo (Montell, 2003; Rorth, 2002). During oogenesis, a group of approximately eight cells, called BCs, is specified at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicular epithelium (Montell et al., 1992). At stage 9 of oogenesis, BCs change their shape, exit the epithelium and become migratory (Fig. 1A). BCs comprise two inner cells, called ...
TDE0214-mediated regulation of motility.PilZ domain proteins have been studied in several motile bacteria, and they are often implicated in regulation of cell motility (12, 13, 26-28). In these bacteria, mutations in the genes encoding those c-di-GMP effectors have different effects on cell motility. For instance, disruptions of B. burgdorferi plzA and V. cholerae plzB impair the cell motility (27, 28). In contrast, mutations of E. coli ycgR and Caulobacter crescentus dgrA or dgrB have no impact on the wild-type cell motility (12, 13, 70). Instead, mutations in these three genes can relieve the inhibition of motility that is caused by either deletions of PDE proteins or overexpression of DGC proteins, highlighting that these PilZ domain proteins affect cell motility only at conditions where the level of c-di-GMP is elevated (12, 13, 26). In this report, we found that inactivation of TDE0214 impaired the cell motility (Fig. 4; see also Movies S1 and S2 in the supplemental material), which is ...
Quantifying the ability of a compound to modulate cell migration rate is a crucial part of many studies including those on chemotaxis, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Existing migration assays all have their strengths and weaknesses. The scratch assay is the most widely used because it seems appealingly simple and inexpensive. However, the scratch assay has some important limitations, as the tool introducing the wound might injure/stress the boundary cells and/or harm underlying matrix coatings, which in both cases will affect cell migration. This described method is a Cell Exclusion Zone Assay, in which cell-free areas are created by growing cells around removable silicone stoppers. Upon appropriate staining with fluorescent dyes and microscopically visualizing the monolayers, the migration rate is then quantified by counting the cells (nuclei) intruding the void area left by the silicone insert. In the current study human small intestine epithelial cells were seeded on a physiological ...
Many human cancers express elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Available clinical data establish the protective effect of COX-2 inhibition on human cancer progression. According to the study by Medical College of Georgia, showed that the COX-2 product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) acts on cognate receptor EP4 to promote the migration of A549 lung cancer cells. Treatment with PGE(2) enhances tyrosine kinase c-Src activation, and blockade of c-Src activity represses the PGE(2)-mediated lung cancer cell migration. PGE(2) affects target cells by activating four receptors named EP1 to EP4. Use of EP subtype-selective ligand agonists suggested that EP4 mediates prostaglandin-induced A549 lung cancer cellmigration, and this conclusion was confirmed using a short hairpin RNA approach to specifically knock down EP4 expression(7 ...
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
MDGA proteins have been studied in humans (De Juan et al., 2002; Díaz-López et al., 2005), rats (Litwack et al., 2004), mice (Takeuchi et al., 2007), chickens (Fujimura et al., 2006) and medaka (Sano et al., 2009). Here we identified and cloned three MDGA orthologs in zebrafish, MDGA1, MDGA2A and MDGA2B. We found MDGA2A to be expressed in a subset of motoneurons, especially in the ones of the cranial, trigeminal and facial nerves. Morpholino mediated knockdown of MDGA2A led to aberrant cell migration of trigeminal neurons and to defasciculation and increased branch formation of the trigeminal as well as facial nerve. These results demonstrate that MDGA2A interactions are necessary for proper migration, axon outgrowth and bundling in cranial motoneurons.. In agreement with our current findings, MDGAs in other species have already been implicated in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In rats, MDGA positive cells were found in the pontine migratory stream, suggesting that these ...
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Materials supp_28_14_1924__index. highly associated with enhanced speed and persistence Bmp6 of directional movement. Strikingly, WRAMP structures form transiently, with cells displaying directional persistence during periods when they are present and cells changing directions randomly when they are absent. Cells appear to pause locomotion when WRAMP structures disassemble and then migrate in new directions after reassembly at a different location, which forms the new rear. We conclude that WRAMP structures represent a rear-directed cellular mechanism to control directional migration and that their ability to form dynamically within cells may ML-323 control changes in direction during extended migration. INTRODUCTION ML-323 Cell movement requires the spatial control of signal transduction, including cell polarity mechanisms that move proteins to specific intracellular locations (Huttenlocher, 2005 ; McCaffrey and Macara, 2012 ). During cell locomotion, cells ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of pancreatic cancer cell migration with multiple parameters in vitro by using an optical real-time cell mobility assay device. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dive into the research topics of Glycidamide promotes the growth and migratory ability of prostate cancer cells by changing the protein expression of cell cycle regulators and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)- associated proteins with prognostic relevance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To study the physiological role of L-selectin shedding in lymphocyte biology, we have mutagenized the cleavage site of mouse L-selectin and directed the expression of mutant or WT L-selectin to T lymphocytes by transgenesis. L-Selectin transgenic mice were bred with L-selectin KO mice to generate lines in which either WT or nonshedding L-selectin was only expressed on T lymphocytes, and lines expressing physiological levels of L-selectin at the cell surface were selected for lymphocyte migration studies. We deleted the Ly22 epitope recognized by mAb T28 to distinguish transgenic from endogenous L-selectin during backcrossing to L-selectin KO mice. The anti-Ly22 antibody T28 inhibits L-selectin-dependent binding to PLNs in the frozen section assay (31). However, we could detect no differences in the function of transgenic Ly22− (WT) and endogenous Ly22+ (C57BL/6) L-selectin either in rolling assays or in short-term trafficking to PLNs. We have compared the migration pathways of T cells ...
The migration of multiple cells as a cooperativeunit known as collective cell migration is a common phenomenon in development, cancer and healing
Skin cell migration is essential for skin wound healing. Steps for cell migration are often disrupted in non‐healing wounds, causing patient morbidity and even fatality. Currently‐available treatments are unsatisfactory. To identify novel wound‐healing targets, we took two approaches. First, we studied the migratory gene profiles in human keratinocytes (HKs). Second, we investigated secreted molecules from TGFalpha‐stimulated human keratinoytes, which contained a strong motogenic, but not mitogenic, activity. In the first study, the main challenge is to separate genes that are often simultaneously induced by pleiotropic signals of a given growth factor, including migration, proliferation and metabolism. Therefore, we designed the following steps. First, we took advantage of a unique response of HKs to TGF‐beta, which inhibits proliferation but not migration of the cells, to suppress selectively the proliferation signal‐responding genes. Second, we independently stimulated HKs with ...
Although an increased expression level of XIAP is associated with cancer cell metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To verify the specific structural basis of XIAP for regulation of cancer cell migration, we introduced different XIAP domains into XIAP−/− HCT116 cells, and found that reconstitutive expression of full length HA-XIAP and HA-XIAP ΔBIR, both of which have intact RING domain, restored β-Actin expression, actin polymerization and cancer cell motility. Whereas introduction of HA-XIAP ΔRING or H467A mutant, which abolished its E3 ligase function, did not show obvious restoration, demonstrating that E3 ligase activity of XIAP RING domain played a crucial role of XIAP in regulation of cancer cell motility. Moreover, RING domain rather than BIR domain was required for interaction with RhoGDI independent on its E3 ligase activity. To sum up, our present studies found that role of XIAP in regulating cellular motility was uncoupled from its caspase
TY - JOUR. T1 - NHE3 phosphorylation via PKCη marks the polarity and orientation of directionally migrating cells. AU - Ozkucur, Nurdan. AU - Song, Bing. AU - Bola, Sharanya. AU - Zhang, Lei. AU - Reid, Brian. AU - Fu, Guo. AU - Funk, Richard H W. AU - Zhao, Min. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Endogenous electric fields (EF) may provide an overriding cue for directional cell migration during wound closure. Perceiving a constant direction requires active sodium-hydrogen exchanger (pNHE3) at the leading edge of HEK 293 cells but its activation mechanism is not yet fully understood. Because protein kinase C (PKC) is required in electrotaxis, we asked whether NHE3 is activated by PKC during wound healing. Using pharmacological (pseudosubstrate and edelfosine) inhibition, we showed that inhibition of PKCη isoform impairs directional cell migration in HEK 293 cells in the presence of a persistent directional cue (0.25-0.3 V/mm of EF for 2 h). Further, we found that pNHE3 forms complexes with ...
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds and ubiquitinates the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Nutlin-3a (Nutlin) is a preclinical drug that binds MDM2 and prevents the interaction between MDM2 and p53, leading to p53 stabilization and activation of p53 signaling events. Previous studies have reported that Nutlin promotes growth arrest and/or apoptosis in cancer cells that express wild-type p53. In the current study, Nutlin treatment caused a cytoskeletal rearrangement in p53 wild-type human cancer cells from multiple etiologies. Specifically, Nutlin decreased actin stress fibers and reduced the size and number of focal adhesions in treated cells. This process was dependent on p53 expression but was independent of p21 expression and growth arrest. Consistent with this, Nutlin-treated cells failed to form filamentous actin-based motility structures (lamellipodia) and displayed significantly decreased directional persistence in response to migratory cues. ...
eicosapentaenoic acid as fish oil) effects the level of burnout from the n-3 fatty acids can decrease NK cell (natural killer cell) activity in healthy subjects, a modulator of the less inflamitory that has little or no effect on cell motility. Including large blocks of micro- and minisatellites Alu-repeats closing the gaps in chromosome 19, (during the final stage of the Human Genome Project) YAC yeast artificial chromosome, is for activating the cytotoxicity of natural killers NK. The inflammatory (20:3 ω-6) the presence in steps (dietary oils 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6,20:3n-6, 18:2n-6,20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3and 20:5n-3, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 showed a histopathological lesion indicative of lipoid liver degeneration till…) of a food supply move forward for a certain distance a random walk and the amount needed to code for amino acids is taking a step in the right direction also known as social gliding motility or a worse random walk sensing. Via isolated normal sweat ducts, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC; ...
Durotaxis is a form of cell migration in which cells are guided by rigidity gradients, which arise from differential structural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Most normal cells migrate up rigidity gradients (in the direction of greater stiffness). The process of durotaxis requires a cell to actively sense the environment, process the mechanical stimulus, and execute a response. Originally, this was believed to be an emergent metazoan property, as the phenomenon requires a complex sensory loop that is dependent on the communication of many different cells. However, as the wealth of relevant scientific literature grew in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, it became apparent that single cells possess the ability to do the same. The first observations of durotaxis in isolated cells were that mechanical stimuli could cause the initiation and elongation of axons in the sensory and brain neurons of chicks and induce motility in previously stationary fish epidermal keratocytes. ECM ...
A new study published in Nature Communications could help biologists understand how various types of migratory cells, such as immune cells, find their way through tissues in the human body. The research, by scientists at McGill University in Montreal and the Radboud University Medical Center in the Netherlands, focuses on a complex of proteins, known as podosomes, found in the membrane of migratory cells and in certain invasive cancer cells. In essence, podosomes mechanically push on the cell membrane, enabling the cell to probe its surroundings and select its migration path through the tissue matrix. Previous studies of cells in tissue culture have shown that individual podosomes occur in a network or cluster where their components assemble and disassemble rapidly in migrating cells. Visually, the networks look like city hubs (podosomes) connected by road-like spokes, composed of actin cytoskeleton filaments. Biologists have been trying to understand the complex dynamics and function of these networks
During activation in response to injury and inflammation, microglial cells can actively migrate into the damaged region of the brain. To fulfill this function, microglia bear receptors for motility factors such as IL-10, epidermal growth factor, complement 5A, and hyaluronan (Turley et al., 1994; Nolte et al., 1996, 1997; Huettner et al., 1997). C13NJ microglial cells represent an interesting model to study cell migration because wound healing is rapidly achieved when chemoattractant factors that are present in 10% serum are added. However, to avoid the possible contribution of cell proliferation to the migration, we performed the assay in the absence of serum. Under these conditions, NT (10 nm) induces a marked activation of cell migration with an effect representing ∼35% of that measured in the presence of serum. An identical result was obtained by using the modified Boyden chamber. Although the NT effect on cell migration defined using the chemotaxis assay was totally blocked by both PI ...
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
Cell migration or movement is a highly dynamic cellular process, requiring precise regulation that is essential for a variety of biological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of tiny non-coding RNA molecules that function as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play important roles in cell migration and directly contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signalling that controls cell migration by targeting a large number of protein-coding genes. Accordingly, the dysregulation of these miRNAs has been linked to several migration-related diseases. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent advances concerning the roles and validated targets of miRNAs in the control of cell movement.
The purpose of this study was to investigate invasion and metastasis related genes in gastric cancer. The transwell migration assay was used to select a highly invasive sub-line from minimally invasive parent gastric cancer cells, and gene expression was compared using a microarray. MMP28 upregulation was confirmed using qRT-PCR. MMP28 immunohistochemistry was performed in normal and gastric cancer specimens. Invasiveness and tumor formation of stable cells overexpressing MMP28 were tested in vitro and in vivo. MMP28 was overexpressed in the highly invasive sub-cell line. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP28 expression was markedly increased in gastric carcinoma relative to normal epithelia, and was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer overall survival. Ectopic expression of MMP28 indicated MMP28 promoted tumor cell invasion in vitro and increased gastric carcinoma metastasis in vivo. This study indicates MMP28 is frequently overexpressed during
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Actin-based cell migration is a key process for morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion [1]. Cell migration has been extensively studied on two-dimensional (2D) substrates. It typically involves a combination of front protrusion, rear contraction and graded adhesion [1]. At the leading edge, actin polymerization forms flat and wide protruding lamellipodia [2]. At the rear, myosin-induced contraction and disassembly of the actin networks generate contraction and forward translocation of the cell body [2]. Dynamic adhesions [3,4] are formed in the lamellipodia region, mature and disassemble as they move towards the centre of the cell [5]. The migration speed of cells is determined by a delicate balance among actin polymerization, myosin-powered retrograde actin flow, and an effective adhesion drag [6].. In a more physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) environment, however, cell migration is far less understood due to both the technical challenges and the complexity of migratory ...
The ordered, directional migration of T-lymphocytes is a key process during immune surveillance, and immune response. T-cell migration is a complex, highly coordinated process. This requires cell adhesion to the high endothelial venules or to the extracellular matrix by a series of surface receptor/ligand interactions involving adhesion molecules of the integrin family including lymphocyte function associated molecule-1 (LFA-1), phosphorylation- dependent signalling cascades and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Mechanisms that regulate T-cell migration are of considerable relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of various diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and the inflammatory arthropathies ...
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
Time lapse confocal imaging has been an essential method to investigate the 3D dynamic behaviors of cells in tissue cultures. For long-term live cell imaging, it is critical to reduce phototoxic damage to the cells caused by repeated laser scanning. Yokogawa CSU (confocal scanner unit) is a confocal unit using a microlens-enhanced dual Nipkow disk confocal optical system, which has been shown to be less harmful to living cells compared to conventional single beam scanning devices. The CQ1 is an all-in-one confocal quantitative imaging cytometer based on the CSU. Here we report the 3D time lapse live cell imaging in a multilayered cell sheet using CQ1.
Figure 6. Dynamic effects of LINC01140 and miR-140-5p on bladder cancer cell aggressiveness and macrophage M2 polarization T24 cells were cotransfected with si-LINC01140 and anti-miR-140-5p and examined for (A) the cell viability by MTT assay; (B) protein levels of FGF9, ki-67, MMP-2, and MMP-9 by immunoblotting; (C) migration capacity by wound healing assay; and (D) invasive capacity by Transwell assay. (E, F) T24 cells were cotransfected with si-LINC01140 and anti-miR-140-5p and the culture medium (shown in the figures as conditioned medium (CM) si-NC + anti-NC, si-LINC01140 + anti-NC, si-NC + anti-miR-140-5p, and si-LINC01140 + anti-miR-140-5p) was collected for macrophage incubation. M0 macrophages were cultured in the above-described four kinds of CMs and polarized to M1 or M2, respectively, and examined for (E) the protein levels of CD206 and CD16 by immunoblotting. (F) The concentrations of IL-10, Arg1, iNOS, and TNF-α in the macrophage culture medium was determined by ELISA. *P,0.05, ...
The study of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a key focus in cancer research due to its role in controlling the translation of tumour-associated proteins, that drive an aggressive migratory phenotype. eIF4E is a limiting component of the eIF4F complex which is a critical determinant for the translation of mRNAs. Mitogenactivated protein kinase interacting protein kinases (MNK1/2) phosphorylate eIF4E on Ser209, promoting the expression of oncogenic proteins, whereas mTORC1 phosphorylates and de-activates the eIF4E inhibitor, 4E-BP1, to release translational repression. Here we show that inhibiting these pathways simultaneously effectively slows the rate of cell migration in breast cancer cells. However, a molecular hybridisation approach using novel, cleavable dual MNK1/2 and PI3K/mTOR inhibiting hybrid agents was less effective at slowing cell migration.. ...
Cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell migration are directed through the highly regulated control of transcriptional cofactors. During cell migration, serum response factor (SRF) is a central transcription factor that interacts with MAL to induce gene expression in response to actin assemb
It has been reported that HAX1 is a multi-functional protein which protects cells from apoptosis, modulates autophagy, regulates membrane protein trafficking and promotes cell migration. Many studies have shown it has many different intra-cellular binding partners (including integrin β6 subunit) and exists in multiple cellular locations, including the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. This behaviour seemed unlikely for a single protein. My lab discovered that there are at least eight different HAX1 isoforms in humans and this might explain why multiple roles and sub-cellular locations are described for HAX1. In this study, I sought not only to confirm the role of HAX1 in cell behaviour, but also to examine specifically the role of HAX1 isoforms in different biological functions. I screened a panel of cancer cell lines for αvβ6-dependent migration, including breast (MCF10.CA1a), pancreatic (CFPac1 and Panc04.03), and αvβ1-dependent migration in cervical cancer (HeLa); siRNA designed to ...
The turgor pressure of guard cells is controlled by movements of large quantities of ions and sugars into and out of the guard ... Each guard cell has a relatively thick cuticle on the pore-side and a thin one opposite it. As water enters the cell, the thin ... Guard cells are specialized plant cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas ... Guard cells also provide an excellent model for basic studies on how a cell integrates numerous kinds of input signals to ...
Cell shape, also called cell morphology, has been hypothesized to form from the arrangement and movement of the cytoskeleton. ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that ... Cell nucleus: A cell's information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It ...
Modified donor T cells were engineered to attack the leukemia cells, to be resistant to Alemtuzumab, and to evade detection by ... Im W, Moon J, Kim M (September 2016). "Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 for Gene Editing in Hereditary Movement Disorders". Journal ... For example, when one is planning to use the cell's NHEJ to create a mutation, the cell's HDR systems will also be at work ... yeast or mammal cells have been developed to identify the combinations that offer the best specificity and the best cell ...
Huntington Study Group". Movement Disorders. 11 (2): 136-142. March 1996. doi:10.1002/mds.870110204. ISSN 0885-3185. PMID ... The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group". Cell. 72 (6): 971-983. 1993-03-26. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90585-e. ... induced cell death in mouse primary HD neurons and human HD iPSCs. It restores the impaired synaptic plasticity in HD neurons, ... Cell Death & Disease. 10 (3): 210. doi:10.1038/s41419-019-1451-2. ISSN 2041-4889. PMC 6397200. PMID 30824685. Geva, Michal; ...
Shrivastava, Abhishek (2016). "The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface ... McBride, Mark J. (2001-10-01). "Bacterial gliding motility: Multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces". Annual Review ... McBride, M. (2001). "Bacterial gliding motility: Multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces". Annual Review of ... "Acetate acts as a protonophore and differentially affects bead movement and cell migration of the gliding bacterium Cytophaga ...
In FRDA, cells produce less frataxin. Degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord causes the ataxia; particularly affected ... The sensory neurons essential for directing muscle movement of the arms and legs through connections with the cerebellum are ... The spinal cord becomes thinner and nerve cells lose some myelin sheath. The diameter of the spinal cord is smaller than that ... Nrf2 is decreased in FRDA cells. PTC-743 (formerly EPI-743) is being developed by PTC Therapeutics. PTC-743 is a para- ...
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1976.tb01352.x. Sleigh MA (1985). "Origin and evolution of flagellar movement". Cell Motil. 5: 137-138 ... akrokont: cells with flagella inserted apically subakrokont: cells with flagella inserted subapically pleurokont: cells with ... The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the interior of the flagellum is accessible to the cell's ... Both flagella and archaella consist of filaments extending outside the cell, and rotate to propel the cell. Archaeal flagella ...
... (cell extravasation) is the movement of cells out of the circulatory system into the surrounding tissue. This ... Cells that are normally found in circulation (i.e. blood cells) either extravasate through diapedesis (white blood cells), or ... The endothelial cells extend protrusions and actively remodel themselves around the exiting cells The exiting cell will then be ... The endothelial cells recognize the cell through membrane-specific recognition. Recognition of cell is important and is thought ...
Seema Singh (April 2008). "India Takes an Open Source Approach to Drug Discovery". Cell. 133 (2): 201-203. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... "Join the movement - Open Source Drug Discovery". Retrieved 2015-04-30. ... WP5 - Micro array gene expression for human cells and tissues with the best inhibitors. This involves identification of ... compounds with higher binding affinity for the target without altering expression profile of host cell. WP6 - Medicinal ...
Lifegroups follow a cell ministry model. The churches within the Antioch Movement recognize marriage as only between the ... The movement is primarily focused on church planting and is non-denominational. The movement became well-known after two of its ... Notable in the movement's history is the arrest and imprisonment of Heather Mercer and Dayna Curry by the Taliban on August 3, ... The movement's first discipleship school was held at Highland Baptist Church in Waco, Texas, led by Jimmy and Laura Seibert in ...
"Team/Movement «". 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "Andy Kessler". Juice Magazine. Retrieved ... FEET] VENICE SKATEBOARD PARK". Cell-Less Productions. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "The Living Legacy: George Powell inspired by ... Retrieved October 29, 2009. "Wounded Knee Skateboards". Wounded Knee Skateboards. Retrieved 2015-11- ...
Anatomically, the movements are mediated by pulvini. Pulvinus cells are located at the base or apex of the petiole and the flux ... The leaf movement factor of Chamaecrista mimosoides (formerly Cassia mimosoides) was found to not bind to the motor cell of ... Non-pulvinar mediated movement is also possible and happens through differential cell division and growth on either side of the ... The leaf movement factor of Albizia julibrissin similarly didn't bind to the motor cell of Chamaecrista mimosoides, but did ...
... is the movement of the cell nucleus in plants by the cytoskeleton. An important aspect of plant behavior ... The integration of the stimuli in plant cells is not fully understood, but the movement of the cell nucleus provides one ... In potato cells, oomycete contact results in rapid movement of the nucleus to the site of contact, which initiates rapid ... Nuclear movement also occurs in response to mechanical stimulation. The nuclei of cultured ovule parenchyma tobacco cells were ...
January-February 2009; 2(1): 50-55 Koller D (1990). "Light-driven leaf movements". Plant, Cell & Environment. 13 (7): 615-632. ... Developmental movements are slow and irreversible. Chloroplast movement is one of the plant adaptations to the changing light ... A study suggested that chloroplast movement shared the same photoreceptor with leaf movement as they showed similar action ... Active movements are reversible. Some plants use blue-light absorbing pigments as a sensor and pulvinar motor tissue to drive ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... Movement Disorders. 21 (9): 1510-1513. doi:10.1002/mds.21011. PMID 16817193. S2CID 38374943. Weiden MD, Hoshino S, Levy DN, Li ... ADAR is able to modify and regulate the output of gene product, as inosine is interpreted by the cell to be guanosine. ADAR can ... ADAR1 is an interferon ( IFN )-inducible protein (one released by a cell in response to a pathogen or virus), able to assist in ...
Cell Stem Cell. 18 (1): 134-43. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.10.002. PMC 4707991. PMID 26549107. Papapetropoulos S, Singer C (April ... MG can be transferred from the mother to the fetus by the movement of AChR antibodies through the placenta. Signs of this ... During development, muscle cells produce acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and express them in the central regions in a process ... 50-60% of the patients that are diagnosed with LEMS also have present an associated tumor, which is typically small-cell lung ...
Mesenchyme cell contraction; Epithelial reorganisation; Movement of the developing tongue. Fusion between the two palatal ... The direct cause of this movement is unknown, but a number of possibilities have been identified as follows: Muscular ... Epithelial cell migration. Pharyngeal arch - Embryonic precursor structures in vertebrates Sadler, T.W (2004). Langman's ...
The machinery of cell crawling. Sci Am. 1994; 271: 54-63. 69. Stossel, TP. The machinery of cell movements. The 1993 E. Donnall ... Dev Cell, 2003, 4: 444-445. 77. Stossel, TP, Fenteany G, Hartwig, JH. Cell surface actin remodeling at a glance. J Cell Sci, ... Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis. J Cell Biol. 1976; 68:602-619. 32. Boxer LA, Stossel TP. Interactions of actin, ... Actin gelation and the structure and movement of cortical cytoplasm. Cell Surface Reviews. In: Cytoskeletal Elements and Plasma ...
Bhowmick DK (March 1967). "Electron microscopy of Trichamoeba villosa and amoeboid movement". Exp. Cell Res. 45 (3): 570-89. ...
As cell movement is very slow, a few µm/minute, time-lapse microscopy videos are recorded of the migrating cells to speed up ... Cells achieve active movement by very different mechanisms. Many less complex prokaryotic organisms (and sperm cells) use ... These observations provide strong support for models of cell movement which depend on a rearward cell surface membrane flow ( ... Cell Migration Gateway The Cell Migration Gateway is a comprehensive and regularly updated resource on cell migration The ...
Liscum, Emmanuel (January 2014). "Phototropism: Growing towards an Understanding of Plant Movement". Plant Cell. 1 (1): 38-55. ... into the cell. This ion influx triggers a passive flow of water into the cell down its osmotic gradient, effectively increasing ... Mechanosensory proteins in cell lipid bilayers, known as MS ion channels, are activated once they are physically deformed in ... Previous experimentation shows that plants respond to light by bending and growing towards it through differential cell growth ...
Photosensitive ganglion cells Other ganglion cells projecting to the superior colliculus for eye movements (saccades) P-type ... Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ... bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating ... These cells are known as midget retinal ganglion cells, based on the small sizes of their dendritic trees and cell bodies. ...
Jankovic, Joseph; Tolosa, Eduardo (2015). "49". Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters ... It includes two populations of cells; glomus (type I) cells and sustentacular (type II) cells. Glomus cells are derived from ... body retinal pigment epithelium embryonic stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells mesenchymal stem cells The first cell-based ... Thus, cell transplantation has focused on various dopamine producing cells throughout the body. fetal ventral mesencephalic ...
Bistratified cell Melanopsin Midget cell Parasol cell Photoreceptor Keeler, Clyde E. (1927). "Iris movements in blind mice". ... DA cells) via reciprocal synapses, with ipRGCs sending excitatory signals to the DA cells, and the DA cells sending inhibitory ... Unlike the visual opsins in rod cells and cone cells, which rely on the standard visual cycles for recharging all-trans-retinal ... An ipRGC therefore does not rely on Müller cells and/or retinal pigment epithelium cells for this conversion. The two isoforms ...
... cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics. A biomaterial is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts ... ISBN 978-1-78262-847-7. Alexander R. McNeill (2005). "Mechanics of animal movement". Current Biology. 15 (16): R616-R619. doi: ... 2014). Cell Surface Engineering. Smart Materials Series. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. doi:10.1039/9781782628477. ... "Doctors grow organs from patients' own cells". CNN. April 3, 2006. Trial begins for first artificial liver device using human ...
Cell. 166 (3): 691-702. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.06.020. PMC 4967479. PMID 27426948. Zinoni, F; Birkmann, A; Stadtman, T; Böck, ... Loss Mutation Associated with Complex Early Onset Movement Disorder without Epilepsy". Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. 9 ... In 2010 when Craig Venter unveiled the first fully functioning, reproducing cell controlled by synthetic DNA he described how ... Molecular Cell. 13 (2): 157-68. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00031-0. PMID 14759362. Schueren F, Lingner T, George R, Hofhuis J, ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 14 (7): 1275-84. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402145. PMID 17464328. Heinitz S, Klein C, Djarmati A (Nov ... Movement Disorders. 26 (13): 2441-2. doi:10.1002/mds.23889. PMID 21953724. S2CID 45301679. Walder K, Kerr-Bayles L, Civitarese ... thus promoting retinal ganglion cell death and neurodegeneration. PARL has been shown to interact with: PINK1, OPA1, and HAX1. ...
... elections cell. Retrieved 10 October 2014. Malik Siraj Akbar (2011). The Redefined Dimensions of Baloch Nationalist Movement. ... His father, Sardar Doda Khan Zehri, was a tribal leader and an activist in the Pakistan Movement who played a crucial role in ... "GEO elections monitoring cell: Sanaullah Zehri". GEO News, ...
Deboer, T (2007). "Technologies of sleep research". Cell Mol Life Sci. 64 (10): 1227-1235. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-6533-0. PMC ... These eye movements follow the ponto-geniculo-occipital waves originating in the brain stem. The eye movements themselves may ... Most of the eye movements in "rapid eye movement" sleep are in fact less rapid than those normally exhibited by waking humans. ... Furthermore, eye movements play a role in certain psychotherapies such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR ...
... the sperm cells are amoeboid and crawl, rather than swim, towards the egg cell. Non-motile sperm cells called spermatia lack ... "Flagellar movement of human spermatozoa". Gamete Research. 13 (3): 185-197. doi:10.1002/mrd.1120130302. Fishman, Emily L; Jo, ... Sperm cells are carried out of the male body in a fluid known as semen. Human sperm cells can survive within the female ... The sperm cells are the only flagellated cells in the life cycle of these plants. In many ferns and lycophytes, cycads and ...
Hearing Voices Movement Psychiatric survivors movement Biopsychiatry controversy Trauma model of mental disorders Social model ... He spent a year in the public mental health system, including restraints, solitary confinement in a padded cell, and more than ... he is involved in the recovery approach in mental health and is an organizer within the psychiatric survivors movement. Hall ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
Waigmann, E.; Zambryski, P. (2000). "Trisome plasmodesmata: A model system for cell-to-cell movement". In Callow, J. A.; ... Janet Quentin Plowe was a biologist credited for helping to discover the cell membrane. In 1931 she demonstrated that the cell ... Plowe, a student of William Seifriz, was among the pioneers of micro-injection into plant cells. She discovered the elasticity ... Plowe, Janet Quentin (1922). The reduction divisions in the pollen mother-cell of a hybrid cotton (M.A.). Stanford University. ...
... the geographical reference is the location and/or the coverage area of the network cell (initially the ID of the cell). For ... The benefit of using this kind of data was that it enabled further describing the space-time movements of the society, meaning ... The accuracy of passive mobile positioning is limited to the coverage area of network cells, which can range from a few hundred ... Moreover, the accuracy of passive mobile positioning is limited to the coverage area of network cells, which can range from a ...
Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... There are two possibilities as far as the loop movement is concerned: It could move in a rigid manner or it could come from a ... First of all, there seems to be a correlation between the loop movement and the substrate catalysis positioning. In the ... Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity expressed in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and ...
Exposure to loud noises damages the hair cells in the inner ear that are essential for sending neural impulses to the brain in ... avoiding overheating other parts of the body or trapping exhaust heat from strenuous movement. There are two main types of ... Loss of these hair cells leads to hearing loss that may cause speech and sounds to be muffled or distorted. Tinnitus is often ...
Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... such as eye and facial movements Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable size of sensor and signal generation ...
Other cell phone video footage shot by Ryan Bundy, another passenger, also showed Finicum taunting officers and daring them to ... Doucette's claims to be a judge are consistent with legal frauds often practiced by the sovereign citizen movement and other ... "Ryan Bundy's cell phone video of moments before and after Finicum shooting released". Portland, Oregon: KATU. April 5, 2016. ... Shawna Cox, a passenger in Finicum's truck, recorded cell phone video of Finicum shouting to police that he intended to ignore ...
Cell phones are also very common among all three groups today. Text messaging has made cell phones particularly useful for ... The Anabaptist movement, from which the Hutterites emerged, started in groups that formed after the early Reformation in ... but the movement was squashed. Although little hard evidence exists of a direct connection between Gaismair's uprising and ... degree of religious tolerance in Moravia because in the 15th century there had been several proto-Protestant movements and ...
The device is connected to the home Wi-Fi network, and notifications of a button-press or detected movement are pushed to a ... These do not consume standby power, but require the user to change the batteries, which are usually large primary cells located ...
In June 2003, Carlos published a collection of writings from his jail cell. The book, whose title translates as Revolutionary ... Ilyich attended a high school in Liceo Fermin Toro of Caracas and joined the youth movement of the Venezuelan Communist Party ... a supporter of the imprisoned Red Army Faction and a member of the Revolutionary Cells, and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, from ... Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez had a sporadic correspondence with Carlos from the latter's prison cell in France. Chávez sent ...
With the absence of rhyme and of the movement goes the absence of wit. And without the wit he is without the Johnsonian weight ... let me rather seek the convent's cell; There where my thoughts, at intervals of pray'r, Descend to range these mansions of ...
Bilirubin is an orange yellow bile pigment that is produced as a byproduct of hemoglobin as red blood cells break down ( ... As bilirubin levels return to normal and phototherapy is no longer needed, the frequency of bowel movements and the color of ... since they are replacing and breaking down more red blood cells at a higher rate) and babies who have a blood group that is not ... hemolysis). Bilirubin is then metabolized in the liver, recycled, and excreted in the bowel movements. When a baby has jaundice ...
Stem Cell-based Biomedical Microrobot: Mesenchymal stem cell delivery scaffold with magnetic actuating system for articular ... Using bacteria with the abilities such as active movement, fluorescence expression, recombination and replication) Telesurgical ... With size of 200~300 um, it is the world's first stem cell based microrobot. It was developed in 2017 and transferred and ...
This new movement featured a more "progressive" sound, typified by the music of Jennings and Nelson but also inspired by ... locking the door on its own jail cell. We looked like tramps..."Don't fuck with me," was what we were tryin' to say...We loved ... Released to capitalize on the new outlaw country movement, Wanted! The Outlaws earned its place in music history by becoming ... In the wake of Red Headed Stranger and the general media attention the outlaw country movement was generating, producer Jerry ...
Following the arrest of her husband and several other members of their resistance cell, Rosa Stallbaumer was then also taken ... Rosa Stallbaumer and her husband became active with the Austrian Resistance movement, hiding Jewish people who had become ...
When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva ... In the twentieth century, the New Culture Movement portrayed the examination system as a cause for China's weakness in such ... The facilities provided for the examinee consisted of an isolated room or cell with a makeshift bed, desk, and bench. Each ... examinee was assigned to a cell according to their number. Paper was provided by the examiners and stamped with an official ...
The intelligent design movement associated with the Discovery Institute, attempts to "defeat [the] materialist world view" ... accused the administration in July 2007 of political interference and muzzling him on key issues like embryonic stem cell ...
Where the diver requires mobility and a large range of movement, scuba is usually the choice if safety and legal constraints ... and the large amounts of breathing gas necessary for these dive profiles and ready availability of oxygen sensing cells ... allowing them greater freedom of movement than with an air line or diver's umbilical and longer underwater endurance than ...
Sickle cell anemia may cause brain ischemia associated with the irregularly shaped blood cells. Sickle shaped blood cells clot ... The main symptoms of brain ischemia involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. The causes of brain ischemia ... Individuals with sickle cell anemia, compressed blood vessels, ventricular tachycardia, plaque buildup in the arteries, blood ... Focal brain ischemia reduces blood flow to a specific brain region, increasing the risk of cell death to that particular area. ...
Yefim Golïshev (1897-1970), painter and composer associated with the Dada movement in Berlin. Nikolai Grinko (1920-1989) a ... underground cells. The Kherson district leadership of the OUN was headed by Bogdan Bandera (brother of OUN leader Stepan ... a Ukrainian feminist activist and leader women's movement FEMEN Sergei Stanishev (born 1966), a Bulgarian politician, 49th ...
Items like cell phones, a cup of coffee, and chewing gum are not recommended to bring to an interview, as it can lead to the ... hand movement, posture, etc.). Oftentimes physical attractiveness is included as part of nonverbal behavior as well. There is ... hand movement, body orientation Personal/contextual factors: Interview training: Coaching, mock interviews with feedback ... and exhibit more self-assured body movements. Importantly, while narcissistic individuals may rate their own job performance ...
For example, an event hub can be used to track data from cell phones such as coordinating with a GPS in real time. Queues, ... integration service that allows creation of data-driven workflows in the cloud for orchestrating and automating data movement ...
"Reform Movement Mourns Victims of Charleston AME Tragedy". June 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. ... At the jail, his cell-block neighbor was Michael Slager, the former North Charleston police officer charged with murder after ... The Black Lives Matter movement has protested against the shooting. Questions were raised about the security of black churches ... the civil rights movement, and Black Lives Matter. It is the oldest African Methodist Episcopal Church in the South, often ...
Meanwhile, a network of cells and committees known as the Viet Cong Infrastructure provided support and extended control into ... In the lowlands the vegetation provided little obstacle to either mounted or dismounted movement, although a number of ... 326 Movement was heard around the perimeter over the first few nights as they attempted to locate the Australian defences under ... while Route 15 ran north-west linking Vũng Tàu to Saigon and was the main supply route for the movement of stores landed at the ...
... a procedure to calculate the effective action of a quantum field theory Bacterial flagellar motor of a cell flagellum Bond ... fluctuation model, a model for simulating polymer systems Bahrain Freedom Movement, a group opposing the Bahraini government ...
He left a letter addressed to the warden in his cell, thanking him for his hospitality. On 19 November 1989 in Kraków, while ... making him a more wanted person than the members of the Solidarity movement. The increased intensity of the search was ...
Journal of Cell Biology 93:63-75 Unwin P N T, Zampighi G (1980), "Structure of the junction between communicating cells" Nature ... "Gating movement of acetylcholine receptor caught by plunge-freezing" Journal of Molecular Biology 422:617-634 O'Brien J, Unwin ... He is currently also Emeritus Professor of Cell Biology at the Scripps Research Institute. Nigel Unwin was born in New Zealand ... He was Professor of Cell Biology at Stanford University from 1980 to 1987. In 1988 he returned to the MRC Laboratory of ...
Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may delay the progression of neurological deficits in patients with MSA-cerebellar type. Ronald ... The most common first sign of MSA is the appearance of an "akinetic-rigid syndrome" (i.e. slowness of initiation of movement ... Multiple system atrophy can be explained as cell loss and gliosis or a proliferation of astrocytes in damaged areas of the ... Hass EW, Sorrentino ZA, Xia Y, Lloyd GM, Trojanowski JQ, Prokop S, Giasson BI (August 2021). "Disease-, region- and cell type ...
8 December A U.S. airstrike in Kirkuk, Iraq, kills Islamic State cell facilitator Abu Anas. The U.S. Department of Defense will ... killing five people riding in it that Israel claims were members of an Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine rocket-launch crew. ... cell phones, and archaeological and historic items without suffering any casualties, after which the aircraft successfully ...
These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. Adrian Drazic, Henriette Aksnes and Michaël Marie from ... Putting a break on cell movement. These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. Adrian Drazic, Henriette ... For cell biologists, actin is important to study because it forms fibres that give the cells shape and the structure that ... The NAA80-lacking cells were always faster. The absence of this enzyme that modifies actin caused cells to move faster than ...
One of the main reasons why cancer is so deadly is because cancer cells are able to escape the tumours where they originate ... The researchers in the cell migration lab are studying how cancer cells interact with endothelial cells, which are the cells ... The movements of the cells vary based on the type of cancer as well as on the environment the cells are in. These factors also ... In the Cell Migration Lab, Guillaume Jacquemet and his team study the cells movements with the help of microscopes and image ...
The ability to see whether T cells are attacking tumors is useful both for clinicians trying to learn if a treatment is working ... The imaging technique also reveals whether the immune cells, called T cells, have found a tumor; how many T cells have arrived ... PET scans showing the T cells locations tell researchers how many T cells have reached a tumor - whether its 6 million cells ... Visualizing the Movement of Immunotherapy Cells as They Hunt Down Tumors Personalised Printable Document (PDF). Please complete ...
... blood-forming stem cells, a finding that could have major implications for the future of bone marrow and blood cell ... Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center have identified a gene that is responsible for the division and movement of marrow- ... published in the April issue of Cell Stem Cell, is the first to identify EGR-1 as a regulator of hematopoietic stem cell ... Study identifies gene involved in blood stem cell replication, movement. Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center have ...
Since plant epidermal cells are quiescent whilst mammalian cells are proliferating, the replication-associated protein RepAbMV ... were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells. Wild-type MPAbMV and the distinct ... For intra- and intercellular transport, two proteins are required: a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) and a movement protein (MP ... However, MP expression in plant cells did not affect the microtubules network. ...
Capillarity and active cell movement at mesendoderm translocation in the Xenopus gastrula. Nagel, Martina; Barua, Debanjan; ...
New CRISPR-based tool inserts large DNA sequences at desired sites in cells Known as PASTE, the technique holds potential for ... The movies resolve not only the motions of cells but also individual motions of the 50 to 100 microscopic sensory hairs that ... At this point, his focus shifted to physiological modeling to the hydrodynamics of sensory cells in the inner ear. He analyzed ... The interesting motions of sensory cells in the inner ear are at audio frequencies and are faster than the fastest commercial ...
Patterns of cell movement within the Dictyostelium slug revealed by cell type-specific, surface labeling of living cells. Cell ... 4) Effect of tip removal on cell movement in slugs.. Initially waves are present and cells exhibit periodic cell movement. ... For cell tracking experiments, 0.5% GFP-labelled AX2 cells were mixed with NP377 cells. NP377 cells were also stained with Cell ... followed by cell 5 and finally cell 1. From the cross-correlation analysis of the velocities for cell 6 and cell 5 and cell 6 ...
INGENIOUS "SOLAR CELL" REGISTERS MOVEMENT OF LIGHT. The Author describes a method for precise measurement of deflections in ... and a camera placed in front of the diodes records 2-dimensional movement of the emitted light. The camera is fitted with ...
... - clockparts ... Quartz Movements * Mounting Cup for C-Cell High Torque Movement ... Mounting Cup for C-Cell High Torque Movement 2 piece mounting cup so that you can surface mount our High Torque Movement - C- ... Mounting Cup for C-Cell High Torque Movement - 3-1/2 SKU: B168 ...
The house church movement and the cell church movement would agree on this point. Both movements critique the impersonal nature ... 10 thoughts on "Theological Similarities between the Cell Church and House Church Movements" * Al Shaw says: ... Both the cell church and house church movements, in my opinion, need each other to prophetically speak to each other’s ... Theological Similarities between the Cell Church and House Church Movements. Posted on October 13, 2009. March 3, 2018. by ...
A myosin motor dictates the localization and movement of an organelle that expels excess water from Dictyostelium, report Jung ... Cells rescued with a version of MyoJ lacking motor activity could capture CV membranes at the cell periphery, but their ... Instead, the membranes clumped together in the center of the cell; video microscopy revealed that CVs traveled out to the cell ... Ben Short; Myosin drives bladder movements. J Cell Biol 24 August 2009; 186 (4): 448. doi: ...
Growing plant cells synthesize a strong yet extensible cell wall composed of long, thin cellulose microfibrils that are ... Visualizing cellulose microfibril movements during stress-induced and endoglucanase-induced extensions of plant primary cell ...
Analysis of cell development with Simi. With Simi BioCell, users are able to follow and analyze the development of an embryo. ... The capture of cell development relies upon microscopic video recordings. With appropriate recordings, even the most profound ... The possibilities range from the observation of single cells to the study of the collective cellular developments of a fully ...
The movement of GPIHBP1 across capillary endothelial cells was efficient in the absence of caveolin-1, and there was no defect ... The movement of GPIHBP1 and LPL across cultured endothelial cells was bidirectional. Also, GPIHBP1 moved bidirectionally across ... We asked whether the transport of GPIHBP1 and LPL across endothelial cells was uni- or bidirectional. We also asked whether ... Our studies show that GPIHBP1 and LPL move bidirectionally across endothelial cells in vesicles and that transport is efficient ...
... of increase in intracellular calcium concentration of embryonic cells and acceleration of morphogenetic cell movements during ... changes: morphological changes during gastrulation (cell migration, cell morphology, light microscopy). Investigated system: * ... 11 to 28 amphibian embryos per group were investigated in the development range from 2-cell-stage (or later) to the tail bud ... effects on embryo/fetus: embryo development (rate of development, light microscopy), calcium concentration in embryonic cells ...
... showing an unknown mode of collective cell movement with dynamic cell-mixing. Mosaic analysis, which enabled us to monitor ... showing an unknown mode of collective cell movement with dynamic cell-mixing. Mosaic analysis, which enabled us to monitor ... showing an unknown mode of collective cell movement with dynamic cell-mixing. Mosaic analysis, which enabled us to monitor ... showing an unknown mode of collective cell movement with dynamic cell-mixing. Mosaic analysis, which enabled us to monitor ...
... working to check general download biomechanics sounds ... Enter , There describes a download biomechanics of active movement and breathing this Ectoparasite at the obstruc-. buy more ...
... pluripotent stem cellsphysiologydrug effectscell differentiationcell lineembryonic stem cellspathologyculturedcellsfemalecell ... chemistrymesenchymal stem cellscell movementfibroblastsimmunologytumorbiomarkerspharmacologytherapytransplantationanimalcell ... braindeficiencyendothelial cellsmicroscopymutationneural stem cellspluripotent stem cellsregenerationadultalzheimer diseasecell ... Exosomes Secreted from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerate Skin Cell Proliferation.. ...
Becoming Christs Cell for Migrants. Nestor Abdon. * Multiplying Disciples in the Graveyard of Missions. Victor John & Dave ... The Lausanne Movement The Lausanne Movement connects influencers and ideas for global mission, with a vision of the gospel for ... The Rising Missions Movement in China (the Worlds New Number 1 Economy) and How to Support It. David Ro ... What Can Christians Learn from a Global Islamic Movement?. Peter G. Riddell ...
This review focuses on existing insights into the trafficking of stem cells in the context of cardiac regenerative therapy, ... with particular focus on the wide variety of potential sources of cells, critical factors that may regulate their migration, ... and how extrapolating from embryonic stem/progenitor cell behavior during cardiogenesis may reveal pathways implicit in the ... Stem or progenitor cell-based strategies to combat ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction, whether autologous ...
Trinkauss research proposal on Invasive Movements of Fundulus Deep Cells during Gastrulation, MBL 1986.. ... A detailed description of Trinkauss proposed research, "Invasive Movements of Fundulus Deep Cells during Gastrulation," with ... Text: "Trinkauss research proposal on Invasive Movements of Fundulus Deep Cells during Gastrulation, MBL 1986.", https://hdl. ...
alignment asthma awareness bodypositive breathing core diaphragm embodiedperformance feet head jaw meditation movement ...
You can perform a download Biomechanics of Active Movement and Division of Cells idea and redeem your others. weak Songs will ... Those on the download Biomechanics of Active Movement and Division of Cells send him as the page who turned up structureMake, ... suggests a Chinese download Biomechanics of Active Movement and Division of Cells on 0,000 events and the canoe of s samples ... 2007) restrained 19 people of NIL for Fhb1 ensured from an odd download Biomechanics of Active Movement and Division of Cells ...
Are you part of a city gospel movement to transform your city? Or do you dream of seeing this move of God in your city? Join ... Tell us a little more! Wed love to hear who or what got you thinking about city gospel movements, what you are currently doing ... Sign up for our newsletter so we can send you occasional* inspiration, wisdom on evangelism, city movements, and memes just to ... Have access to the latest information and best practices from city gospel movements around the world. ...
Read about UCLA and London researchers identifying mechanisms that regulate the transformation of precursor cells into movement ... It also may contribute to the production of stem cell-derived movement nerve cells in the laboratory. Scientists may be able to ... These Hes genes curb nerve cell differentiation.. The researchers confirmed Olig2s role in promoting movement nerve cell ... UCLA Study Reveals Regulatory Mechanisms Behind Movement Nerve Cell Formation. by Alice Melão , February 6, 2018. ...
You need to extract the first. const input_data_dir = joinpath(base_dir,. cell_shape_final/). const ... Integrated Analysis of Cell Shape and Movement in Moving Frame. Environment Setting. ... Reoriented the cell shape to the Moving Frame basis. reoriented_shape = [. mesh_reorientation(shapes[i]. ,. T[i,. :]. ,. N[i,. ... Calculating the cell trajectory. coordinate = Matrix{Float64}. (undef,. n_points,. 3). time = collect(1.0:n_points). shapes = ...
The Awards program honors those whove shown their recognition, promotion and commitment towards the self-care healthcare and those who are consciously taking responsibility for their state of health. "As more and more people begin to take better care of themselves by becoming more knowledgeable about their health and the wellness healthcare services offered, disease care will cease to exist. The self-care revolution is happening now, and more and more people are becoming aware of the damages of pharmaceutical drugs and the systemic challenges Big Pharma presents to allopathic physicians to make a false diagnosis to earn more money," says founder Karen Khadijah Davis-Foulks. "You may wait in a doctors office for two hours and the physician will have less than 15 minutes to spend with you for an accurate assessment of your health ...
movements that teach generalised biomechanical principles pertinent to all levels of experience. And these "stem cell movements ... The "stem cell" nature of the step-through. So what is the "stem cell" purpose of the step-through oi zuki? In my view it is ... "stem cell movement" (see my previous articles on this topic).. The shuffle oi zuki as an alternative to the step-through oi ... Rather, for the reasons referred to in my first article on "stem cell movements" I believe that kata like heian shodan were ...
Microtubule bundles can either push or restrict chromosome movement during anaphase in different cellular contexts, but how ... High-resolution imaging reveals how the spindle midzone impacts chromosome movement J Cell Biol. 2019 Aug 5;218(8):2529-2544. ... and chromosome movement in dividing human cells. Within bundles, filament overlap length marked by the cross-linking protein ... Chromosome segregation distance and rate are increased in two human cell lines when microtubule bundle assembly is prevented ...
  • Donor-specific phenotypic variation in hiPSC cardiomyocyte-derived exosomes impacts endothelial cell function. (
  • Research using physiological degrees of PAI-1 uncovered it stimulates endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation through its anti-protease activity and its own capability to bind to vitronectin leading to EC to migrate in the vitronectin-rich perivascular space towards fibronectin-rich tumor stroma [6, 7]. (
  • The paper, published in the April issue of Cell Stem Cell , is the first to identify EGR-1 as a regulator of hematopoietic stem cell migration and proliferation. (
  • Olfactomedin-4 improves cutaneous wound healing by promoting skin cell proliferation and migration through POU5F1/OCT4 and ESR1 signalling cascades. (
  • Exosomes Secreted from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerate Skin Cell Proliferation. (
  • Our results showed that both D-SWCNT and D-MWCNT-treated cells exhibited typical malignant transformation properties, such as increased proliferation, migration, invasion, anchorage-independent cell growth and angiogenesis compared to controls. (
  • Both D-SWCNT and D-MWCNT cells expressed significant changes in genes associated with cell death, movement, proliferation and cancer. (
  • We live and we develop throughout those dynamics, in which interact in a permanent way organization processes, promoting life, and disorganization ones, which lead to death, for example in cell proliferation and apoptosis, in neoplastic processes of indifference, in the complexity of the psychic functions and the dissolution of thought and desire, among many others. (
  • Induction of increase in intracellular calcium concentration of embryonic cells and acceleration of morphogenetic cell movements during amphibian gastrulation by a 50-Hz magnetic field med. (
  • The data indicate that electromagnetic field specifically increased the intracellular calcium concentration of gastrula cells , thereby, accelerating the rate of cell development during gastrulation . (
  • Trinkaus's research proposal on Invasive Movements of Fundulus Deep Cells during Gastrulation, MBL 1986. (
  • A detailed description of Trinkaus's proposed research, "Invasive Movements of Fundulus Deep Cells during Gastrulation," with an abstract, MBL 1986. (
  • Yolk syncytial layer cell nuclei exhibit convergence and extension behaviors during late gastrulation. (
  • Timelapse of yolk syncytial layer (YSL) nuclear movements during gastrulation from a dorsal-anterior view shows epiboly, early animal pole directed movements of I-YSL nuclei, and convergence and exten. (
  • Dorsal cell movements during zebrafish gastrulation includes a combination of epiboly, involution, and convergence and extension along the embryonic axis. (
  • Subchronic exposure of carbon nanotubes to human small airway epithelial cells induces neoplastic transformation and toxicogenomic responses. (
  • In this study, we developed a chronic exposure model using human lung epithelial cells to address this knowledge gap. (
  • We conducted subchronic exposures of dispersed single-walled CNT (D-SWCNT), multi-walled CNT (D-MWCNT) and crocidolite asbestos (ASB) to human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) in culture. (
  • These results indicate that long-term low-dose exposure of human lung epithelial cells to D-SWCNT and D-MWCNT induced neoplastic transformation of the cells which suggests potential carcinogenicity of the nanoparticles. (
  • Mucosal epithelial cells along with DCs produce CCL25, the ligand for CCR9 to mobilize mature pDCs to induce tolerance. (
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  • UCLA researchers have identified the regulatory network that controls the transformation of neuronal progenitor cells into movement nerve cells in chicken and mouse embryos. (
  • The study adds insight into the development and functioning of spinal movement nerve cells. (
  • It also may contribute to the production of stem cell-derived movement nerve cells in the laboratory. (
  • This is also true for the formation of the spinal cord and its different types of nerve cells, because all derive from precursor stem cells called neural progenitors. (
  • Taking advantage of advanced molecular techniques, researchers at UCLA and the Francis Crick Institute in London evaluated the development regulatory network in about 200 single neural progenitor cells that were on their way to becoming movement nerve cells. (
  • The team first learned that Olig2 is present only in neural progenitors that will develop into mature movement nerve cells. (
  • When the team genetically prevented the production of Olig2, neural progenitor cells were unable to give rise to movement nerve cells. (
  • Huntington's disease , an inherited disease that causes nerve cells in certain parts of the brain to waste away. (
  • This includes the nerve cells that help to control voluntary movement. (
  • A traumatic brain injury in one area of the brain changes the connections between nerve cells across the entire brain, scientists note. (
  • As the calcium crystals blunder their way through one of the three inner ear canals, they activate very thin nerve cells (known as hair cells) connected to the brain and the eyes. (
  • ALS-short for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-is a rare but serious disease that attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Actin is the most abundant protein in our cells. (
  • Changing the biochemical properties of the protein means also changing the function of actin, the shape of actin fibres in the cells, and their ability to move. (
  • In the same way, the researchers could tell when T cells were near their prey - a tumor - because they could see the protein products of the reporter genes clustering there. (
  • For intra- and intercellular transport, two proteins are required: a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) and a movement protein (MP). (
  • New characteristics of ectopically produced Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) MP (MPAbMV), either authentically expressed or fused to a yellow fluorescent protein or epitope tags, respectively, were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells. (
  • Wild-type MPAbMV and the distinct MPAbMV: reporter protein fusions appeared as curled threads throughout mammalian cells. (
  • Since plant epidermal cells are quiescent whilst mammalian cells are proliferating, the replication-associated protein RepAbMV protein was then co-expressed with MPAbMV to induce cell progression into S-phase, thereby inducing distinct microtubule bundling without MP recruitment to the newly formed threads. (
  • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is secreted into the interstitial spaces by adipocytes and myocytes but then must be transported to the capillary lumen by GPIHBP1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells. (
  • In addition, the team learned that the protein that the Olig2 gene generates promotes movement nerve cell development by suppressing the activity of other genes. (
  • 4) exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. (
  • The researchers conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis. (
  • Researchers have developed a fiber-optic, two-photon optogenetic simulator which can be used to stimulate a light sensitive protein introduced into neurons and living cells in the brain. (
  • Give energy: Carbohydrate, fat, and protein enable the body to create heat, movement, and other forms of energy. (
  • Unlike most amino acids, taurine doesn't create protein in cells but it does play many other important roles. (
  • This colored scanning electron micrograph shows a T cell (red) attached to a cancer cell. (
  • The Movement Disorder Society (MDS), the largest international organization representing movement disorders specialists, has changed its name to the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. (
  • This new name recognizes the growing importance of Parkinson's disease care and research within the field of Movement Disorders and the activities of the Society," Matthew Stern, MD, president of the Society, said in a statement. (
  • In conjunction with continuing efforts to increase awareness of the Society and Movement Disorders as a neurological subspecialty among the public and other related societies, MDS members voted to change the organization's name at the last general meeting in Sydney, Australia, on June 18th, 2013," the Society said in a statement. (
  • Though the name has changed, the MDS mission and goals will remain the same, and the Society will continue to work together to disseminate knowledge and promote research in order to favorably affect the care of patients with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders," the statement adds. (
  • There are many different movement disorders. (
  • Yousif N , Bain PG , Nandi D , Borisyuk R . A Population Model of Deep Brain Stimulation in Movement Disorders From Circuits to Cells. (
  • The development of novel cell tracking methodologies for cell localization represent part of the Strategic Plan for Cell-based Therapies for Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders developed by the Working Group on Cell-based Therapies in May 2002. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess optimal dosing frequency, effectiveness and safety of adipose-derived autologous mesenchymal stem cells delivered into the spinal fluid of patients with MSA. (
  • Recent insights into pathophysiologic mechanisms suggest a crucial role of deprivation of neurotrophic factors which have been shown to be secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (
  • Experimental Tooth Movement Into New Bone Area Regenerated by Use of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine experimental tooth movement into regenerated bone in alveolar cleft with mesenchymal stem cells and a granulated carbonated hydroxyapatite scaffold. (
  • The mesenchymal stem cells derived from the iliac bone marrow were cultured and transplanted with carbonated hydroxyapatite into the bone defect area. (
  • White s bone marrow, which contains mesenchymal stem cells, was collected, then purified and multiplied. (
  • To study the effect of NAA80 on the cellular actin structures, the team used gene scissors, CRISPR/Cas9, and cut NAA80 out of the genes of the cancer cell line HAP1. (
  • By figuring out in future studies which genes this transcription factor is regulating we can find new ways, by targeting those genes, to enhance stem cell mobilization in people whose stem cells don't mobilize well," she said. (
  • These Hes genes curb nerve cell differentiation. (
  • Genes involucrados en la amelogénesis imperfecta. (
  • involucrados en la AI no sindrómica, las proteínas codificas por estos genes y sus funciones, de acuerdo amelogénesis a la evidencia científica actual. (
  • Las futuras investigaciones abordadas desde la visión translacional ayudarán estética dental, a identificar nuevas mutaciones o nuevos genes, lo cual contribuirá a la evolución en la manera de clasificar, genes. (
  • These researchers have made a sensational finding in cell biology. (
  • The transcription factor EGR-1 is important in both of these processes," said Wagers, Principal Investigator in the Joslin Section on Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, principal faculty member at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and Assistant Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. (
  • Researchers reported their discoveries in an article titled " Olig2 and Hes regulatory dynamics during motor neuron differentiation revealed by single cell transcriptomics " in the journal PLOS Biology . (
  • 1 Laboratory of Chemistry and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY. (
  • 8 Department of Physics and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. (
  • 9 Laboratory of Chemistry and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY [email protected] (
  • Students can go through AP State Board 9th Class Biology Notes Chapter 4 Movement of Materials Across the Cell Membrane to understand and remember the concept easily. (
  • MSc in Cell Biology, Physiology and Pathology. (
  • Specific proteins can also be removed from the cells to see how they are involved in the migration. (
  • You can play the system by targeting specific proteins or use small molecule inhibitors to see how, for instance, drugs that are already used to treat specific patients could affect those processes and movements directly. (
  • Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. (
  • Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and RNA. (
  • Most bacteria are, however, surrounded by a rigid cell wall made out of peptidoglycan , a polymer composed of linked carbohydrates and small proteins. (
  • For instance, although archaea also have a cell wall, it's not made out of peptidoglycan-although it does contain carbohydrates and proteins. (
  • This disease is caused by mutations in the SLC39A14 gene responsible for instructions for proteins that transport manganese across cell membranes. (
  • Place cells, located in a region of the brain called the hippocampus, work together to form an innate "GPS system" for a variety of land animals, including humans. (
  • One possible mechanism for controlling these movements is chemotaxis of individual cells up gradients of signalling molecules secreted by these organising centres. (
  • Chemotaxis towards an organiser region is an essential part of the mechanism by which individual cells of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate to form a fruiting body when they encounter a shortage of food ( Loomis, 1982 ). (
  • This phenomenon seems to be related to impaired functional appendages and as a whole led to the defective cell motility and hence reduced chemotaxis in PMNL from CML patients. (
  • She saw this in cell-motility assays, a method that measures how quickly cells move in a culture dish. (
  • This means that that the acetylation of actin acts like a break - slowing down cell motility", summarizes Aksnes. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Impaired cell motility in chronic myeloid leukemic granulocytes related to altered cytoskeletal pattern. (
  • Together with this, our study suggests that the long-distance descending commissural V0v neurons form an evolutionarily conserved pathway in the spinal locomotor circuits that coordinates the movements of the diagonal body/limb muscles. (
  • How does disease affect the functions of brain cells such as the communication between neurons or the structural integrity of the neurons? (
  • When the researchers compared the bats' flight paths with their neural readings, they found that the activities of the bats' "place cells" -- special type of neurons responsible for encoding an animal's spatial position -- were often more closely correlated with where the bats would be in the near future, rather than where they were in the moment. (
  • The embryonic stem cells that form facial features, called neural crest cells, use an unexpected mechanism of moving from the back of the head to the front to populate the face, finds a new study. (
  • In turn, neurophysiologist Nikolai Bernstein proposed a hierarchical organization of neural structures underlying movement, where each layer performs a specific function, increasing in abstraction as one ascends the hierarchy (see Profeta and Turvey, 2018 ). (
  • Exosomes derived from induced vascular progenitor cells promote angiogenesis in vitro and in an in vivo rat hindlimb ischemia model. (
  • The described cell model system could potentially be used as an in vitro predictive screening test for potential carcinogenicity of other nanomaterials. (
  • Phenotypic anchoring of toxicogenomic response to neoplastic cell transformation following in vitro subchronic nanomaterial exposure can potentially serve to identify novel mechanisms of action and facilitate human cancer risk assessment. (
  • In a previous study, the University of Minnesota-led team found that cells have the ability to sense the stiffness of their environment-;which ranges from stiff (bone tissue) to soft (fatty tissue) to medium stiffness (muscle tissue)-;and their ability to move is dependent upon that environment. (
  • Their research showed that the cells can have a 'sweet spot' of stiffness, that isn't too hard or too soft, in which they have better traction and can move faster. (
  • In this study, the researchers found that not only does the stiffness of the environment impact the speed at which cells move, but it also affects the direction in which they move. (
  • Many of the characteristics of ISCs such as cell shrinkage, membrane stiffness, and reduced osmotic fragility and deformability have all been found to be related to their high calcium level [13,14]. (
  • Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center have identified a gene that is responsible for the division and movement of marrow-derived, blood-forming stem cells, a finding that could have major implications for the future of bone marrow and blood cell transplantation. (
  • Every year, some 45,000 patients undergo bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, and immunodeficiency. (
  • The success of bone marrow and blood cell transplants depends on the ability of intravenously infused hematopoietic stem cells, which normally reside predominantly in the bone marrow, to accurately and efficiently migrate from the blood to the marrow of the transplant recipient and, once there, to repopulate their pool of mature blood cells. (
  • The knowledge that EGR-1 suppression increases blood-forming stem cell production in the marrow and movement into the bloodstream suggests "a unique opportunity to target this pathway" to manipulate stem cell activity in the context of clinical bone marrow transplantation, the paper says. (
  • Bone marrow transplant patients are also vulnerable to infections in the period post-transplant when they may have insufficient numbers of blood cells. (
  • MOZOBIL works by triggering the rapid movement of stem cells out of bone marrow and into circulating blood. (
  • For a number of reasons, people receiving treatment for the movement disorder Parkinson's disease have increased risks for the onset of sex addiction, a form of behavioral addiction centered on recurring, dysfunctional participation in sexual fantasy, thought or behavior. (
  • Parkinson's disease occurs when areas of the brain responsible for controlling muscle movement progressively lose their ability to produce a key chemical called dopamine, which is required to maintain basic muscle function. (
  • However, MP expression in plant cells did not affect the microtubules network. (
  • video microscopy revealed that CVs traveled out to the cell cortex along microtubules but couldn't stay there in the absence of MyoJ. (
  • It has been shown that these regions can exert a long-range effect on the movement behaviour of cells, but relatively little is known about the signals that guide the movement of the cells and the actual mechanism of directed cell movement ( Joubin and Stern, 2001 ). (
  • During embryonic development, tissue formation and organization rely on tightly regulated networks that control patterns of genetic expression, tissue growth, and cell differentiation. (
  • The tissue after tooth movement was evaluated by histological observation . (
  • The importance of tracking cells throughout the circulatory system, including those of hematopoietic origin, derives from the impact of mobile cells on tissue injury and repair, and the remote targeting of pathological processes such as inflammatory involvement of the heart, lung and blood vessels. (
  • We're basically decoding how cancer cells invade tissue,' Odde said. (
  • Cell Tissue Res. (
  • The researchers in the cell migration lab are studying how cancer cells interact with endothelial cells, which are the cells that create your blood vessels. (
  • A way to visualize and monitor the behavior of immune cells used to treat cancer patients has been demonstrated by Stanford researchers. (
  • The new technique allows researchers to see where immunotherapy cells go as they hunt down tumors in the human body. (
  • The ability to see whether T cells are attacking tumors is useful both for clinicians trying to learn if a treatment is working in an individual cancer patient and also for researchers trying to understand why immunotherapy doesn't always work. (
  • The researchers first engineered T cells to better recognize the patient's cancer cells. (
  • PET scans showing the T cells' locations tell researchers how many T cells have reached a tumor - whether it's 6 million cells or 50 million - and whether the cells are alive. (
  • The researchers confirmed Olig2's role in promoting movement nerve cell formation by studying chicken and mice embryos. (
  • In this study, researchers from the NIH examine the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. (
  • Researchers induced arm movements in macaque monkeys by using optogenetics to target the motor cortex. (
  • Researchers have developed a novel technique that allows them to insert a gene into Perkinje cells in the adult brain. (
  • An international team of researchers led by University of Minnesota Twin Cities engineers have found that cancer cells can gravitate toward certain mechanical 'sweet spot' environments, providing new insights into how cancer invades the body. (
  • For many years, scientists have thought that cells would always gravitate toward a stiffer environment, but the University of Minnesota researchers observed for the first time that cells can actually move toward a 'sweet spot' that's more in the middle. (
  • The next step for the researchers is to use this information to build a simulator that shows how cancer cells move through an entire tumor, which will help them better predict cells' movements based on their environments. (
  • Minimally, a recep- tor includes a peripheral axon terminal of one pri- mary afferent neuron, whose cell body is sited proximally in the dorsal root ganglion. (
  • Did the T cells not reach the tumor? (
  • Or did the T cells get to the tumor but fail in their attack? (
  • The improved CAR T cells proliferated and differentiated into memory cells in the patients, thus producing a potent and long-lasting anti-tumor effect without causing toxicities," Chen said. (
  • Right here we tested the experience of TM5275 and TM5441 against a big variety of individual tumor cell lines as well as the pre-clinical efficiency of TM5441 in HT1080 and HCT116 tumor-bearing mice. (
  • Our data show the apoptotic aftereffect of these inhibitors against many tumor cell lines but indicate their present limited activity when utilized alone tests. (
  • In one form of standard immunotherapy, a medical team harvests T cells from a cancer patient's blood and genetically engineers them to do a better job of hunting down and killing the patient's cancer cells. (
  • CAR T-cell therapy involves harvesting immune cells called T cells from a patient's blood and then modifying them in the lab to produce special structures called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on their surface. (
  • found that a myosin called MyoJ localizes to CV membranes, and cells lacking the motor no longer accumulated CVs at their edges. (
  • Cells rescued with a version of MyoJ lacking motor activity could capture CV membranes at the cell periphery, but their bladders were unable to spread out into tubules after discharging water at the cell surface. (
  • We propose that microtubule overlap length reduction, typically linked to pushing forces generated within filament bundles, is needed to properly restrict spindle elongation and position chromosomes within daughter cells. (
  • Light micrograph of onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells stained with acetocarmine to show nuclei and chromosomes. (
  • Scientists may be able to use the cells to treat several diseases, including ALS and spinal muscular atrophy. (
  • This factor gives us a handle on the discovery of new pathways that regulate the movement of stem cells. (
  • This review focuses on existing insights into the trafficking of stem cells in the context of cardiac regenerative therapy, with particular focus on the wide variety of potential sources of cells, critical factors that may regulate their migration, and how extrapolating from embryonic stem/progenitor cell behavior during cardiogenesis may reveal pathways implicit in the adult heart postinjury. (
  • Another discovery was that Olig2 can trigger several signaling pathways that determine the cells' final fate. (
  • Mosaic analysis, which enabled us to monitor the behavior of individual cells in a multicellular structure, confirmed the 'cell-mixing' phenomenon of ECs that occurs at the whole-cell level. (
  • One of the main reasons why cancer is so deadly is because cancer cells are able to escape the tumours where they originate from and move throughout the body. (
  • There is a lot of interest in finding out how cancer cells can move from tumours into the rest of the body. (
  • They are interested in finding out how the cancer cells move, and how they can make them stop. (
  • However, since cancer cells can move, they escape the site of origin and begin to grow everywhere in the body. (
  • The movements of the cells vary based on the type of cancer as well as on the environment the cells are in. (
  • The movement of the cancer cells also differ depending on where in the body they are. (
  • Breast cancer cells will migrate in a specific way if they are close to the point of origin, the tumour, but as the cells get into the blood vessels and the circulatory system they will move in completely different ways, Jacquemet says. (
  • Once these molecules are located, you can observe how they affect the migration patterns of cancer cells. (
  • One of the ways cancer cells can metastasize in the body is by going into the blood vessels. (
  • Once inside, the cancer cells can go very far, very quickly throughout the body as they are being pushed through the circulatory system. (
  • We want to know how the cancer cells can, once they are in the circulatory system, attach to the side of, and then cross the boundary into the blood vessel and create a metastatic lesion. (
  • One of our main projects is trying to figure out how pancreatic cancer cells attach to endothelial cells, and how you can interfere with pancreatic metastasis. (
  • We also have a breast cancer project where we are trying to understand how breast cancer cells communicate with each other. (
  • Cells within the tumour are never alone, they are always in contact with other cancer cells. (
  • We are trying to understand how some protrusions, small parts of the cancer cells that communicate, stay in contact with each other, how this behaviour is regulated, Jacquemet says. (
  • Right now, the only way to find out if the T cells are attacking the cancer is to wait to see if the tumors shrink, but that can take months. (
  • A new target receptor identified for cancer immunotherapy which is expressed in a large number of cancer types but not in normal cells. (
  • We can now watch anywhere in your body where those T cells may be," said Gambhir, who holds the Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professorship in Cancer Research. (
  • The work was done in patients with a type of deadly brain cancer called glioblastoma, but the groundbreaking technique could be used to track immune cells targeting any kind of cancer, Gambhir said. (
  • Ten years ago, Gambhir and his lab began looking for ways to find out what the immune cells do once they are released back into the patient's bloodstream to hunt down cancer cells. (
  • They performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. (
  • CAR T-cell therapy involves harvesting T-cells from a patient, reengineering them in the lab to target a particular kind of cancer, then reinfusing them into the patient. (
  • An advance in the groundbreaking cancer treatment known as CAR T-cell therapy appears to eliminate its severe side effects, making the treatment safer and potentially available in outpatient settings, a new USC study shows. (
  • We've made a new CAR molecule that's just as efficient at killing cancer cells, but it works more slowly and with less toxicity. (
  • The altered T cells are reinfused into the patient, where the cells' new receptors enable them to recognize and latch onto cancer cells, killing them. (
  • As a result, the CAR T cells kill cancer cells but produce fewer cytokines and proliferate more slowly, giving the patient's body more time to clear cytokines in the blood. (
  • The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood of a patient, as found in most forms of epithelial cancer 1 - 5 , has been identified as a reliable indicator of the prognosis of various cancer types. (
  • MOZOBIL is a stem cell mobilizer used in stem cell transplants, a procedure used to restore the immune system of cancer patients whose previous treatments have destroyed their immune cells. (
  • in ovarian cancers cells shows that these inhibitors could also come with an anti-cancer activity [19]. (
  • During the study, Odde and his team looked at both brain cancer and breast cancer cells. (
  • The research team also found that some cells, like the breast cancer cells they studied, have a feedback mechanism that causes them to grip more strongly onto stiffer environments, which explains why many previous studies showed cells moving to the stiffer side. (
  • SAEC were exposed to 0.02 µg/cm2 of the particles for 25 weeks and evaluated for cancer cell phenotypes. (
  • Next, mRNA samples from the exposed cells were subjected to whole genome microarray and rtPCR analyses for toxicogenomic evaluation. (
  • After 4 to 6 weeks, doctors gave [the patient] an infusion of these stem cells, which are thought to decrease the damaging immune activity. (
  • Phenotype of dendritic cells (DCs) may determine the type of immune reaction generated in response to allergen. (
  • The development of multicellular organisms is highly dependent on differential cell movement. (
  • If the demand for cells is high, a shift to the left in the differential count may occur. (
  • We can target specific molecules and make them fluorescent or target just one and observe that molecule and the migration of the cell, Jacquemet explains. (
  • Osmosis: The movement of water molecules towards concentrated solutions. (
  • Start and control processes: Iron, for example, is used in red blood cells to help transport oxygen around the body. (
  • There is increasing evidence that, in addition to their presence, the propensity of circulating tumour cells to form multi-cellular clusters bears significant information about both cellular resistance to chemotherapy and overall prognosis. (
  • Movement cytometry Cells had been plated in triplicate in 6-well plates at a denseness of 120,000 cells per well and treated with 50 M TM5275 or TM5441 the very next day for eight hours (BromodeoxyUridine (BrdU) incorporation) or 24 and 48 hours (mitochondrial depolarization). (
  • The cells had been analyzed by movement cytometry inside a BD LSR II program (BD) with DiVA software program (edition 6.0, BD). (
  • Dystonia , in which involuntary contractions of your muscles cause twisting and repetitive movements. (
  • In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, mainly the systems that control muscles are impaired, which affects movement, breathing and swallowing. (
  • A mechanism to speed the recovery of normal levels of circulating blood cells, based on manipulations of EGR-1, would be beneficial in this manner as well, the paper points out. (
  • The mechanism by which GPIHBP1 and LPL move across endothelial cells remains unclear. (
  • However, if you turn that mechanism off genetically, the cells will then gravitate more toward the middle. (
  • Furthermore, an in vivo EC-tracking analysis revealed evidence of cell-mixing and overtaking at the tip in developing murine retinal vessels. (
  • The second goal is to develop new methods for cell tracking to monitor the movement and location of specific cell populations in vivo for application in cell-based therapeutics. (
  • Thus in vivo trials in patients with sickle-cell disease are suggested. (
  • However, details of the individual and collective behaviors of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during angiogenic morphogenesis remain largely unknown. (
  • Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that these molecule-mediated tip cell behaviors and directed EC migration contributed to effective branch elongation. (
  • After relieving itself, the bladder rapidly contracts before sending out new CV tubules around the actin-rich cell cortex to begin the cycle again. (
  • In parametrical analysis, VEGF enhanced tip cell behavior and directed EC migration at the stalk during branch elongation. (
  • The need for the development of improved methods for molecular and cellular imaging and for cell tracking was identified at several NIH-sponsored workshops and meetings. (
  • This study provides an unprecedented detailed view of how embryos produce the different cell types found in the mature spinal cord," Bennett Novitch, a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA , said in a news release . (
  • Now, Associate Professor Dennis M. Freeman and colleagues in the Research Laboratory of Electronics' Auditory Physiology Research group have devised methods to "see" the motions of inner ear cells that barely blur high-resolution images from an optical microscope. (
  • We also asked whether GPIHBP1 and LPL are transported across cells in vesicles and whether this transport process requires caveolin-1. (
  • Our studies show that GPIHBP1 and LPL move bidirectionally across endothelial cells in vesicles and that transport is efficient even when caveolin-1 is absent. (
  • Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures. (
  • Exosomes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Endothelia Cells Promotes Postnatal Angiogenesis in Mice Bearing Ischemic Limbs. (
  • The discovery of place cells in rodents was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and many of the foundational experiments were conducted in the 1970s and '80s. (
  • check the tag ADOLESCENCE HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition in Adolescence FX - Adolescent Nutrition Physiology MH - Peritoneal Stomata UI - D054048 MN - A01.047.025.600.700 MN - A10.810 MS - Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. (
  • During aggregation, the cells start to differentiate into prestalk and prespore cells, the precursors for the stalk and spore cells of the fruiting body. (
  • Microtubule bundles can either push or restrict chromosome movement during anaphase in different cellular contexts, but how these activities are achieved remains poorly understood. (
  • Here, we use high-resolution live-cell imaging to analyze individual microtubule bundles, growing filaments, and chromosome movement in dividing human cells. (
  • Chromosome segregation distance and rate are increased in two human cell lines when microtubule bundle assembly is prevented via PRC1 knockdown. (
  • DNA start text, D, N, A, end text is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid , and it typically consists of a single large loop called a circular chromosome. (
  • Blood cell transplantation may also one day help people with diabetes better tolerate islet cell transplants without the need for prolonged use of powerful immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • AnorMED has announced it has completed enrollment for one of two pivotal Phase III trials being conducted with MOZOBIL for stem cell transplants. (
  • For plant organs that lack pulvini, heliotropism can occur through irreversible cell expansion producing particular growth patterns. (
  • Among sickle cells, irreversible sickle cells (ISCs), which maintain abnormally deformed shape even after prolonged oxygenation, have a three to seven times higher calcium level compared to normal red blood cells (RBCs) [1,2] and twice that of reversible sickle cells [3,4]. (
  • The prestalk cells in the mound sort out to form a distinct nipple-shaped structure called the tip, which controls further morphogenesis. (
  • Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the individual and collective EC movements driving angiogenic morphogenesis. (
  • The methodology used for this analysis might serve to bridge the gap in our understanding between individual cell behavior and branching morphogenesis. (
  • SIV-infected monkeys treated with anti-PD-1 antibody after antiretroviral therapy showed more rapid viral suppression and more active antiviral T cells. (
  • 2000. A metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis( p hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, reduces testosterone biosynthesis in rat leydig cells through suppression of steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid levels of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (
  • DNA is the genetic material of the cell. (
  • Some bacteria also have specialized structures found on the cell surface, which may help them move, stick to surfaces, or even exchange genetic material with other bacteria. (