Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Laminin: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Receptors, Cytoadhesin: A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Hemidesmosomes: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.PhosphoproteinsMatrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Mice, Inbred BALB CTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
MBInfo: Paxillin Paxillin Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Paxillin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Rose DM, Han J, Ginsberg MH (Aug 2002). "Alpha4 integrins and the immune response". Immunological Reviews. 186: 118-24. doi: ... Paxillin is expressed at focal adhesions of non-striated cells and at costameres of striated muscle cells, and it functions to ... Lawrence RE, Salgia R (NaN). "MET molecular mechanisms and therapies in lung cancer". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 4 (1): 146-52 ...
"The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... 2003). "Endothelial induction of the T-cell chemokine CCL21 in T-cell autoimmune diseases". Blood. 101 (3): 801-6. doi:10.1182/ ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... 2003). "Naive T cell recruitment to nonlymphoid tissues: a role for endothelium-expressed CC chemokine ligand 21 in autoimmune ...
"The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... Activation of Dendritic cells in peripheral tissues induces CCR7 expression on the cell's surface, which recognize CCL19 and ... CCR7 has been shown to stimulate dendritic cell maturation. CCR7 is also involved in homing of T cells to various secondary ... "CD8 T Cells Enter the Splenic T Cell Zones Independently of CCR7, but the Subsequent Expansion and Trafficking Patterns of ...
"The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid ... It attracts certain cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells and antigen-engaged B cells, CCR7+ central-memory T- ... 2004). "CCL19 and CXCL12 trigger in vitro chemotaxis of human mantle cell lymphoma B cells". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (3): 964-71. ...
Davenport, R. J.; Munday, J. R. (2007). "Alpha4-integrin antagonism--an effective approach for the treatment of inflammatory ... thought to prevent overshooting immune reactions and subsequent tissue damage as seen during uncontrolled immune cell migration ... The mechanism of action of zaurategrast were believed to rely on preventing immune cells to migrate from blood vessels through ... Zaurategrast (CDP323) is a small-molecule prodrug antagonist of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) binding to α4- ...
... alpha4 / beta7), L-selectin, and VLA-4 (alpha4 / beta1) on myeloid cells to direct leukocytes into mucosal and inflamed tissues ... cell adhesion molecule 1 in the duodenum of patients with active celiac disease is associated with depletion of integrin ... It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is similar to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In terms of migration, MADCAM is ... 2008). "CCL25 and CCL28 promote alpha4 beta7-integrin-dependent adhesion of lymphocytes to MAdCAM-1 under shear flow". Am. J. ...
"The alpha4 laminin subunit regulates endothelial cell survival". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (1): 281-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells". Blood. 101 (3): 877-85. ... "Complex interactions between the laminin alpha 4 subunit and integrins regulate endothelial cell behavior in vitro and ... They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, ...
This leads to cell signalling through integrins and dystroglycan (and possibly other receptors) recruited to the adherent ... promotes adhesion of endothelial cells. Laminin alpha4 is distributed in a variety of tissues including peripheral nerves, ... Laminin G-containing proteins appear to have a wide variety of roles in cell adhesion, signalling, migration, assembly and ... They also bind to cell membranes through integrin receptors and other plasma membrane molecules, such as the dystroglycan ...
integrin alpha4-beta1 complex. • EMILIN complex. Biological process. • cell adhesion. • cell-matrix adhesion. • cell migration ... 2003). "beta 1 Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to EMILIN-1 is mediated by the gC1q domain". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (8): 6160-7. ... integrin binding involved in cell-matrix adhesion. Cellular component. • collagen trimer. • proteinaceous extracellular matrix ... 2000). "Elastic fiber proteins in the glomerular mesangium in vivo and in cell culture". Kidney Int. 58 (4): 1588-602. doi: ...
Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... Rose DM, Han J, Ginsberg MH (2003). "Alpha4 integrins and the immune response". Immunol. Rev. 186 (1): 118-24. doi:10.1034/j. ... ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Human ITGA4 genome location and ITGA4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Oostendorp RA, Dörmer P (1997). "VLA-4-mediated interactions between normal human hematopoietic progenitors and stromal cells ...
"Bone marrow stromal cells protect lymphoma B-cells from rituximab-induced apoptosis and targeting integrin α-4-β-1 (VLA-4) with ... The drug is believed to work by reducing the ability of inflammatory immune cells to attach to and pass through the cell layers ... Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against alpha-4 (α4) integrin, the first drug developed in the class of ... In animals used to model MS and test therapies, repeated administration of natalizumab reduced migration of leukocytes into the ...
... this integrin was much more common on CD8+ T cells activated in the Peyer's patches (PP T-cells) compared to other T cell ... It was first suggested by Griselli that there were different pathways of T cell migration. Initial theories that the T cells ... 2002). "Expression of lymphocyte homing receptors alpha4 beta7 and MAdCAM-1 in young and old rats". Experimental Gerontology. ... cell model of lymphocyte migration CCR9 receptors are presented on the T cells and are involved in forming a more stable ...
1999) Binding of paxillin to alpha4 integrins modifies integrin-dependent biological responses. Nature. 402:676-681, pmid: ... Actopaxin Is Involved in Cell Adhesion and Spreading of HeLa Cells. Cell adhesion and spreading are primarily mediated by ... is involved in paxillin recruitment to focal adhesions and cell migration. Mol. Biol. Cell. 11:1315-1327, pmid:10749932.. ... 1998) Activation of Rac and Cdc42 by integrins mediates cell spreading. Mol. Biol. Cell 9:1863-1871, pmid:9658176.. ...
MBInfo: Paxillin Paxillin Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Paxillin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Rose DM, Han J, Ginsberg MH (Aug 2002). "Alpha4 integrins and the immune response". Immunological Reviews. 186: 118-24. doi: ... Paxillin is expressed at focal adhesions of non-striated cells and at costameres of striated muscle cells, and it functions to ... Lawrence RE, Salgia R (NaN). "MET molecular mechanisms and therapies in lung cancer". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 4 (1): 146-52 ...
"The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... 2003). "Endothelial induction of the T-cell chemokine CCL21 in T-cell autoimmune diseases". Blood. 101 (3): 801-6. doi:10.1182/ ... 2000). "Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines ... 2003). "Naive T cell recruitment to nonlymphoid tissues: a role for endothelium-expressed CC chemokine ligand 21 in autoimmune ...
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the ... middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits. ... The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... Supplemental Data Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification. *Adam J Engler, Shamik Sen, H Lee Sweeney, Dennis ...
An integrin-alpha4-14-3-3zeta-paxillin ternary complex mediates localised Cdc42 activity and accelerates cell migration. ... Multi-layer phase analysis: quantifying the elastic properties of soft tissues and live cells with ultra-high-frequency ... The Rac activator STEF (Tiam2) regulates cell migration by microtubule-mediated focal adhesion disassembly. ... Actin-dependent lamellipodia formation and microtubule-dependent tail retraction control-directed cell migration. ...
L-selectin mediates lymphocyte migration to peripheral lymph nodes and leukocyte rolling on vascular endothelium during ... 9780218 - Endothelial selectins and alpha4 integrins regulate independent pathways of t lymphocyt.... 14676308 - Signal- ... Previous Document: GATA-3 promotes maturation, IFN-gamma production, and liver-specific homing of NK cells.. Next Document: ... Cell Movement / physiology*. Endopeptidases / metabolism*. Gene Targeting. L-Selectin / blood, genetics, metabolism*. ...
Drosophila WASH is required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion, cell motility and lysosomal neutralization. J Cell Sci 2017; ... Zebrafish germ cells: motility and guided migration. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2015;36: 80-85. Abstract Palm T, Bolognin S, Meiser J ... Therapeutic uses of anti-alpha4-integrin (anti-VLA-4) antibodies in multiple sclerosis. Int Immunol 2015;27: 47-53. Abstract ... Cell Stem Cell 2016;18: 341-353. Abstract Rau K, Rentmeister A. CRISPR/Cas9: A New Tool for RNA Imaging in Live Cells. ...
The differential amino acid requirement within osteopontin in alpha4 and alpha9 integrin-mediated cell binding and migration. ... Presentation] α9β1 integrin, as a critical regulator of lymphatic metastasis and growth of human breast cancer cells2011. *. ... ment within osteopontin in alpha4and alpha9 integrin-mediated cell binding and migration2009. *. Author(s). Ito K, Kon S, ... Alpha9 integrin is involved in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by regulating cell migration from ...
... assist in the process of cell division, and are essential for the movement of cells (cell migration). Midline-1 is responsible ... integrin alpha-4 (ITGA4), and serine/threonine-protein kinase 36 (STK36). The recycling of these three proteins so they can be ... This buildup impairs microtubule function, resulting in problems with cell division and migration. Researchers speculate that ... hollow fibers that make up the cells structural framework (the cytoskeleton). Microtubules help cells maintain their shape, ...
Integrin alpha4 mediates organ-specific migration of immune cells to the inflamed brain, thereby playing the critical role in ... Integrins are the foremost family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate immune cell trafficking in health and diseases. ... Anti-alpha4 integrin therapy aiming to block infiltration of autoreactive lymphocytes to the inflamed brain has been validated ... an overview of the molecular and structural bases of integrin activation as well as rationale for using anti-alpha4 integrin ...
Browse our Integrin beta 7 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... some hematopoietic progenitor cells migration. alphaE/ beta7 (CD103/ beta7, alphaIEL/ beta7) is expressed on intestinal ... In association with integrin alpha4 or alphaE chain, beta7 forms alpha4/ beta7 or alphaE/ beta7 heterodimer. alpha4/ beta7 ( ... Diseases related to Integrin beta 7. Discover more about diseases related to Integrin beta 7.. Tissue Adhesions. Cell Invasion ...
An alpha4 integrin-paxillin-Arf-GAP complex restricts Rac activation to the leading edge of migrating cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 7: ... Matrix-dependent Tiam1/Rac signaling in epithelial cells promotes either cell-cell adhesion or cell migration and is regulated ... Persistence of directional migration in epithelial and malignant cells. The mode of cell migration was found to depend on the ... Rac and migration in 3D matrix. Cells migrating in 3D cell-derived matrices have different types of cell adhesions, morphology ...
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) migration (induced by the chemokine CCL2) across an ivBBB was assessed in a subset of ... Natalizumab concentrations and alpha4-integrin saturation were assessed daily throughout PLEX and three times over the ... Induced transmigration (i.e., difference in transmigrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells across an in vitro blood-brain ... Although average alpha4-integrin saturation was not reduced after PLEX, it was reduced to less than 50% when natalizumab ...
Guanylate binding protein-1 inhibits spreading and migration of endothelial cells through induction of integrin alpha4 ... dendritic cells, and macrophages. GO biological processes of myeloid cell differentiation, endocytosis, cell motility, and cell ... Gene sets were obtained for B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, monocytes, immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), and myeloid ... 0.239). The enrichment of gene sets for the related cell types of myeloid, dendritic and macrophage cells, coupled with the ...
Finally we show that migration of CD8+ T lymphocytes across BBB is dependent on alpha-4 integrin. Also, the majority of CD8+ T ... the migration across the BBB of immune cells subsets from the blood is controlled by molecular mechanism specific for each cell ... macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that arise from migration of peripheral blood immune cells across the CNS microvascular ... The inhibition of migration of these cells to the CNS could be a beneficial therapy since it would allow immune surveillance of ...
... and alpha4 integrin-mediated signals on class IA PI-3kinase and the Rac pathway in regulating integrin-directed migration in ... B) White blood cell (WBC) and NE counts in mice bearing cells transplanted with KITD814V (n = 9) or KITD814V plus RacN17 (n = ... Cdc42 activity regulates hematopoietic stem cell aging and rejuvenation. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10(5):520-530.. View this article ... 32D murine cells were cultured in RPMI with 10% FBS and 2% penicillin-streptomycin. Kasumi-1, an AML cell line, was grown in ...
The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... Circulating B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells display impaired migration to lymph nodes and bone marrow. Cancer Res ... Ubiquitylation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 enables efficient receptor recycling and cell migration. J Cell Sci 2012;125:4463 ... C, migration of purified HC, M-CLL, or U-CLL B cells measured after 3-hour treatment with 100 ng/mL CXCL12/CCL21. The data, ...
The chemokine receptor CCR7 and alpha4 integrin are important for migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells into lymph ... CLL-cells induce IDOhi CD14+HLA-DRlo myeloid-derived suppressor cells that inhibit T-cell responses and promote TRegs. Blood. ... we tested the migration effect of T cells without CLL cells and found some migration induction of T cells only. This effect ... we investigated whether CLL cells could direct monocyte migration. Using trans-well migration assays, we found no migration of ...
Integrin alpha4 beta1-dependent cell migration requires both phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of the alpha4 cytoplasmic ... An alpha4 integrin-paxillin-Arf-GAP complex restricts Rac activation to the leading edge of migrating cells. Nat Cell Biol. ... alpha4 integrin is expressed in a subset of cranial neural crest cells and in epicardial progenitor cells during early mouse ... Primary Endothelial Cell Isolation and Cell Culture. Jurkat T leukemia cells and human microvascular endothelial cells were ...
An Integrin-alpha4-14-3-3zeta-paxillin Ternary Complex Mediates Localised Cdc42 Activity and Accelerates Cell Migration Journal ... Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells ... Nature Cell Biology. Nov, 2011 , Pubmed ID: 22048411 The activity state of integrins is crucial for cell adhesion, migration ... May, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19401330 Alpha4 integrins are used by leukocytes and neural crest derivatives for adhesion and migration ...
OPN/β1 integrin) (12, 66, 67). They may play a role either for the attachment of stem cells to the niche or for migration of ... evidence for cooperation between E-selectin ligands and alpha4 integrin. Blood. 102:2060-2067. View this article via: PubMed ... The role of integrins in mediating HSC migration and homing has been shown by blocking integrin function with anti-integrin ... Asymmetric division means that stem cells divide into 2 daughter cells; one daughter cell remains in the niche as a stem cell ...
An alpha4 integrin-paxillin-Arf-GAP complex restricts Rac activation to the leading edge of migrating cells. Nat. Cell Biol. ... Matrix-dependent Tiam1/Rac signaling in epithelial cells promotes either cell-cell adhesion or cell migration and is regulated ... Matrix-dependent Tiam1/Rac signaling in epithelial cells promotes either cell-cell adhesion or cell migration and is regulated ... An alpha4 integrin-paxillin-Arf-GAP complex restricts Rac activation to the leading edge of migrating cells. Nat. Cell Biol. ...
VCAM-1/alpha4 integrin and/or ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions were shown to be important for T-cell binding and transmigration ... Our findings indicate a distinct regulation of NK cells versus T cells in the CRC tumor microenvironment. NK-cell migration ... A) Cell densities of NKp46+ and CD56+ cells in normal tissues and (B) corresponding ratios of CD56+ to NKp46+ cells. (C) Cell ... but low NK-cell numbers (3/mm2) and P1080 with virtually no T cells (0.5/mm2) and low NK cells (6/mm2). T cells exceeded NK- ...
Cell surface receptor for collagen alpha 2(VI) which may confer cells ability to migrate on that substrate. Binds through its ... May stimulate alpha-4, beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading by recruiting and activating a signaling cascade through ... May regulate MPP16-dependent degradation and invasion of type I collagen participating in melanoma cells invasion properties. ... May promote retraction fiber formation and cell polarization through Rho GTPase activation. ...
Alpha 4 Integrin InhibitorsIntegrin inhibitors are emerging as options for moderate-to-severe IBD in patients who have had an ... Natalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG4-1C monoclonal antibody produced in murine myeloma cells. It binds to alpha-4 ... It blocks the interaction of α4β7 integrin with a gut-associated addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and inhibits the ... migration of memory T-lymphocytes across the endothelium into inflamed gastrointestinal parenchymal tissue. It is indicated for ...
  • Antibodies to CD44 and integrin alpha4, but not L-selectin, prevent central nervous system inflammation and experimental encephalomyelitis by blocking secondary leukocyte recruitment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By targeting these antigens the antibodies can destroy or alter the function of cells which express the target. (nps.org.au)
  • Peripheral bloodmononuclear cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies conjugated with fluorochromes to quantifyTregs and activated T cells by four colors flow cytometry. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Natalizumab concentrations and alpha4-integrin saturation were assessed daily throughout PLEX and three times over the subsequent 2 weeks, comparing results with the same patients the previous month. (nih.gov)
  • Although average alpha4-integrin saturation was not reduced after PLEX, it was reduced to less than 50% when natalizumab concentrations were below 1 mug/mL. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma exchange (PLEX) accelerated clearance of natalizumab, and at natalizumab concentrations below 1 mug/mL, desaturation of alpha4-integrin was observed. (nih.gov)
  • For α4-integrin saturation (B), PLEX patients were divided into two groups: those with sustained natalizumab concentration of less than 1 μg/mL after PLEX and those with natalizumab concentration of 1 μg/mL or greater after PLEX. (nih.gov)
  • The steady-state correlation between serum natalizumab concentration (log scale) and α4-integrin saturation in plasma exchange (PLEX) patients is shown. (nih.gov)
  • At serum natalizumab concentrations below 1.0 μg/mL, there is reliable α4-integrin desaturation. (nih.gov)
  • CD34+ cells in the blood and marrow of natalizumab-treated patients expressed less of the stem cell marker CD133, were enriched for erythroid progenitors (CFU-E) and expressed lower levels of adhesion molecules. (docplayer.net)
  • As such, natalizumab may act to suppress inflammatory activity present at the disease site, and inhibit further recruitment of immune cells into inflamed tissues. (intekom.com)
  • α4-integrin is required for white blood cells to move into organs, therefore, natalizumab prevents these immune cells from crossing blood vessel walls to reach affected organs thereby decreasing inflamation. (drugbank.ca)
  • To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human alpha-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. (faintpower.gq)
  • Mouse Genetics Core Unit A, led by Dr. Petrich, will provide expertise, genomic constructs, genotyping, well characterized murine embryonic stem cells, and blastocyst injections for the purpose of genetic manipulation of mice. (labome.org)
  • The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and pre-incubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. (scinapse.io)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids from the N terminal of Human Integrin beta 7 (UniProt ID: P26010). (abcam.com)
  • We have thus suggested that the migration across the BBB of immune cells subsets from the blood is controlled by molecular mechanism specific for each cell type. (umontreal.ca)
  • Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • disease onset indicates that either the deviation overrides the ability of the immune cells to counterbalance the rise of the risk factors, or that the immune system becomes exhausted and deteriorates concomitantly with the disease process. (virginia.edu)
  • Collectively referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME), cancers are complex tissues that are comprised of malignant cells and a multitude of stromal cells, such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and innate and adaptive immune cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been added to the list of immune cells that may contribute to the TME [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will focus primarily on current views of the role of ILC on the control or induction of tumor development and their crosstalk with other immune cells. (hindawi.com)
  • He describes how, in MS, immune cells are able to transverse the wall of blood vessels and infiltrate the brain and central nervous system resulting in damage to the myelin surrounding neurons. (ibiology.org)
  • Yednock and his colleagues hypothesized that by blocking the infiltration of immune cells into the brain, the progression of the disease might be slowed. (ibiology.org)
  • This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment into the diabetic kidney and the involvement of immigrated immune cells in the damage to renal tissues. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined the following fundamental question: Is there a basic, intrinsic cellular mechanism that regulates whether a cell will migrate relatively straight ahead or in randomly changing directions? (rupress.org)
  • Stem cells reside in a specialized niche that regulates their abundance and fate. (rupress.org)
  • The stem cell niche is a specialized microenvironment that houses and regulates the stem cell pool. (rupress.org)
  • The dynamic actin cytoskeleton spatially and temporally regulates protrusion, adhesions, contraction, and retraction from the cell front to the rear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Motile cells are characterized by a front-rear polarization of the microtubule framework, which regulates all essential processes leading to cell migration through its role in cell mechanics, intracellular trafficking, and signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most importantly, despite high local chemokine levels, NK cells were generally scarce within CRC tumor tissues, independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro transwell migration and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess myeloid cell chemotaxis and mRNA expression, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • For example, granulomatous responses are associated with high levels of OPN expression ( 16 , 17 , 20 ) and OPN can function as a Th1 cell cytokine, enhancing IL-12 while inhibiting expression of the Th2 cell cytokine IL-10 ( 17 , 19 , 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • It was originally assumed that MC were exerting their primary effects on EAE within the CNS through the local expression of cytokines, chemokines and proteases that promote immune cell influx and myelin damage. (wiley.com)
  • Many other cytokines ( IL-4 , IL-6 , IL-10 , IL-18 ), chemokines ( MCP-1 , PF4 ) or growth factors ( angiopoietin-2 , PDGF B/B) tested did not affect GBP-1 expression in these cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The expression of three RNAs (pNR-1, pNR-2, and pNR-25) was detected only in estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells. (faintpower.gq)
  • In addition, ectopic expression of the PBS mutant and/or the COOH terminus of actopaxin in HeLa cells resulted in substantial reduction in adhesion to collagen. (rupress.org)
  • Zhao, Sun, Li: Expression and clinical significance of STAT3, P-STAT3, and VEGF-C in small cell lung cancer. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Yue, Xu, Zhu, Zhang, Liu: Over-expression of nerve growth factor-β in human cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells promote tumor progression. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Reduced promoter methylation and increased expression of CSPG4 are associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Further immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that RacGAP1 is recruited to IQGAP1 and active β1 integrin, and that suppression of RacGAP1 expression triggered elevated Rac1 activity during spreading on fibronectin. (biologists.org)
  • We used primary cultures of human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) to demonstrate that CLEVER-1/stabilin-1 expression is enhanced by hepatocyte growth factor but not by classical proinflammatory cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • siRNA-mediated knockdown of either filamin-A or IQGAP1 induced high, dysregulated Rac1 activity during cell spreading on fibronectin. (biologists.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and have diverse biological functions including the ability to recognize and kill a variety of tumor cells ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro. (scinapse.io)
  • Researchers speculate that the altered midline-1 protein affects how the cells divide and migrate along the midline of the body during development, resulting in the features of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MID1 catalyzes the ubiquitination of protein phosphatase 2A and mutations within its Bbox1 domain disrupt polyubiquitination of alpha4 but not of PP2Ac. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A relative newcomer to the list, the LIM and SH3 protein 1 ( LASP1 ), was identified as a potential cytoskeletal PKA substrate in gastric fibroblasts and gastric parietal cells. (bio-rad.com)
  • Here, proteomic analysis of activated integrin-associated complexes suggests filamin-A and IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) as candidates that link β1 integrin to Rac1. (biologists.org)
  • Antigen-specific α 4 β 7 + CD4 + T cells are also found in genital mucosa ( 3 , 4 ), where CD4 + T cells are first infected ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Migration is also central to the regulation of disease pathogenesis by contributing to processes such as tumour invasion and leukocyte transmigration. (biologists.org)
  • Nous l'avons demontre a l'aide d'un marquage metabolique des cellules au [ 35 S]sulfate, par degradation enzymatique, par immunoprecipitation a l'aide d'un anticorps monoclonal, par microscopie en fluorescence et par cytometrie de flux. (scinapse.io)
  • PSGL-1 participates in E-selectin-mediated progenitor homing to bone marrow: evidence for cooperation between E-selectin ligands and alpha4 integrin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell fate specification - the selection of an individual cell fate from all the possibilities available to a multipotent progenitor - is likely to involve a series of steps, in which cells become progressively restricted to individual fates, a process that is likely to begin while still in the dorsal neural tube, but which then is usually completed during, or even after migration. (els.net)
  • Semi-solid media (methylcellulose-based MethoCult™ and collagen-based MegaCult™-C) allow the clonal progeny of a single progenitor cell to remain spatially isolated from other colonies within a culture, so they may be separately identified and counted. (stemcell.com)
  • When appropriate cytokines are present, committed progenitor cells of both erythroid and granulocyte/macrophage lineages (CFU-GM, CFU-G, CFU-M) as well as multi-potential progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM), can be assayed simultaneously in the same culture dish. (stemcell.com)
  • Tumor-infiltrating MC are derived both from sentinel and recruited progenitor cells. (springer.com)
  • However, the curative rate of this treatment, especially for cord blood (CB) HSCT, must be improved because of the low homing efficiency of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), delayed engraftment and the occurrence of graft versus host diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mäuse mit einem Genverlust von entweder beta7 oder beta1 Integrin nur im hämatopoietischen System, zeigten jedoch eine normale Blutzellentwicklung. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Dazu wurden Mäuse mit einer beta7 Nullmutation mit Mäusen verpaart, die eine konditionale Gendeletion für beta1 Integrin tragen. (uni-koeln.de)
  • In a subset of these patients, the most important 50 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in paired serum, primary CRC and adjacent mucosa samples and in CRC liver metastases and correlated with NK and T-cell infiltration, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, signs of inflammation accompanying brain pathology were believed to indicate immune cell infiltration from the circulation that should be mitigated. (virginia.edu)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Inflammation is a response of vascularized tissues to infection or injury and is affected by adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial cells of blood vessels and their infiltration into the surrounding tissues. (allindianpatents.com)