Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.

Biological effects of a sulfated-polysaccharide isolated from the marine red algae Champia feldmannii. (1/7)

Sulfated-polysaccharides are exploited as antithrombotic and anticoagulant agents and suggested to be immunostimulants. The sulfated-polysaccharide isolated from the red-marine-algae Champia feldmannii (Cf-PLS) was purified by ion exchange chromatography and tested in experimental protocols of coagulation, inflammation (in Wistar rats) and nociception (in Swiss mice). Cf-PLS was tested i.v. for its anti-inflammatory activity in the paw-edema induced by classical inflammatory stimuli and s.c. for its pro-inflammatory activity in the paw-edema and peritonitis models. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the test of partial thromboplastin activation time (aPTT) and the antinociceptive effect in the writhing-test. Cf-PLS was not anti-inflammatory, but rather induced maximal edematogenic activity at 0.9 mg/kg (1.01+/-0.030 x 0.06+/-0.03 ml) compared to controls (0.06+/-0.03 ml), increased vascular-permeability (38.44+/-12.63 x 11.29+/-3.91 microg/g) and stimulated neutrophil migration (3.348+/-295 x 307+/-99 cells/microl) 1 h after injection. Cf-PLS was also antinociceptive (6.6+/-1.28 x 33+/-1.44 writhes) and extended human plasma coagulation time by 3 times. Our data suggest that this molecule may be an important immunostimulant.  (+info)

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is associated with acute inflammation after olfactory injury. (2/7)


Macrophage infiltration predicts a poor prognosis for human ewing sarcoma. (3/7)


Nox2 is required for macrophage chemotaxis towards CSF-1. (4/7)


Heparanase induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes macrophage migration involving RAGE and PI3K/AKT pathway. (5/7)


CD14 directs adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment: role in early abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. (6/7)


In vivo fluorescence-mediated tomography imaging demonstrates atorvastatin-mediated reduction of lesion macrophages in ApoE-/- mice. (7/7)


1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.

The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.

The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:

1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.

To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:

1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.

Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.

The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.

In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.

"Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell ... Calponin 2-null macrophages migrated faster and exhibit enhanced phagocytosis. In global as well as myeloid cell-specific Cnn2 ... In a microfluidic flow-based thrombosis assay, the time to initiation of rapid platelet/thrombus accumulation was significantly ... lung alveolar cells, endothelial cells, myeloid white blood cells, platelet, B lymphocyte, and myoblasts. These cell types can ...
In other investigations, the team has identified novel lymphocyte, dendritic cell and macrophage chemoattractants and receptors ... "Chemoattractant induces LFA-1 associated PI 3K activity and cell migration that are dependent on Fyn signaling." FASEB J 2005; ... "Short-term homing assay reveals a critical role for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in the hepatic recruitment of ... Butcher and his research team study the trafficking of white blood cells (lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, etc.), ...
"Critical appraisal of the side population assay in stem cell and cancer stem cell research". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (2): 136-47. doi ... which delivers an inhibitory signal to immune cells including T cells, natural killer cells and macrophages. ALDH is a ... López-Lázaro M (2015-01-01). "The migration ability of stem cells can explain the existence of cancer of unknown primary site. ... This in vivo assay is called a limiting dilution assay. The tumor cell subsets that can initiate tumor development at low cell ...
PRR5L degradation promotes mTORC2-mediated PKC-δ phosphorylation and cell migration downstream of Gα (12). Nat. Cell Biol Li, P ... Cell, 91(4), 479-489. Fujita K and Srinivasula SM. (2011). TLR4-mediated autophagy in macrophages is a p62-dependent type of ... 2001). Isolation and Assay of Caspases. Ch. 1. Methods in Cell Biol. 66:1-27. Profile page at IISER Thiruvananthapuram Faculty ... "PRR5L degradation promotes mTORC2-mediated PKC-δ phosphorylation and cell migration downstream of Gα12". Nature Cell Biology. ...
... has been shown to be necessary for in vitro cell migration. Upon cleavage the N-terminus has been shown to associate with ... EMR2 is expressed by monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells and all types of granulocytes. In the case of EMR2 the N-terminal ... Inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation assays in overexpressing HEK293 cells have demonstrated coupling of EMR2 to Gα15. EGF- ... EMR2 is rarely expressed by tumor cell lines and tumors, but has been found on breast and colorectal adenocarcinoma. In breast ...
A tissue culture assay has been developed to detect C. difficile toxins in stool samples. A cell rounding assay (cytotoxicity ... Infiltration by neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells in response to TcdA damage increases the inflammatory response through ... Rac and Cdc42 are involved in filopodium formation crucial for movement and cell migration. Overall, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 all ... When used with an ELISA, the cytotoxicity assay is the "gold standard" when used on Vero cells for C. difficile diagnosis. ...
... is able to support cell adhesion, stimulate cell migration, promote growth factor-induced cell proliferation and ... αMβ2 in monocytes and macrophages, and αDβ2 in macrophage foam cells. Where examined, syndecan-4 has been identified as the ... first demonstrated in a corneal micropocket implant assay and subsequently confirmed in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. CYR61 ... including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence through interaction with cell ...
Adenosine receptor are also expressed on macrophage, DCs, MDSC and natural killer cell(NK). Thus, adenosine may inhibit the ... promoting both the migration and proliferation of tumor cells. Especially due to its beneficial effects in mouse tumor model, ... SMADs 2, 3, 4 and 5 and SP-1 are binding to the NT5E promoter in rats, as was proven in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. ... Specialized immune cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells also mediate their effects via ...
VEGF has two known roles in bone regeneration: promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and the activation of ... Thus, in vivo assays have been explored. One such assay is the "gold standard" assay, created by A.J. Friedenstein. His test ... Graney PL, Roohani-Esfahani SI, Zreiqat H, Spiller KL (July 2016). "In vitro response of macrophages to ceramic scaffolds used ... Such stem cells include bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs), muscle ...
"Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (Aug 1995). "Plasma assay of ... Gelatinase B, along with elastase, appears to be a regulatory factor in neutrophil migration across the basement membrane. ... Mainardi CL, Hasty KA (May 1990). "Secretion and glycosylation of rabbit macrophage type V collagenase". Matrix. 10 (2): 84-90 ...
... macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells and T cells. The F2RL1 gene contains two exons and is widely expressed in human ... Together with PAR1 its deregulation is also involved in processes of cancer cells migration and differentiation. Potent and ... evaluation of activity in multiple assay systems in vitro and in vivo". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... Jiang Y, Lim J, Wu KC, Xu W, Suen JY, Fairlie DP (November 2020). "PAR2 induces ovarian cancer cell motility by merging three ...
Schwann cell migration is regulated by integrins with ECM molecules such as fibronectin and laminin. In addition, neural cell ... PSA-expressing Schwann cells did obtain enhanced motility as demonstrated in a gap bridging assay and after grafting in ... Additionally, they release neurotrophic factors that enhance regrowth in conjunction with macrophages. There are some ... Schwann cells, astrocytes, and olfactory ensheathing cells. In addition to glial cells, stem cells also have potential benefit ...
... gradient Detected responses are the results of active migration of cells Despite the fact that an ideal chemotaxis assay is ... Rana AK, Li Y, Dang Q, Yang F (December 2018). "Monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: Circulating precursors of macrophages and ... Although migration of cells was detected from the early days of the development of microscopy by Leeuwenhoek, a Caltech lecture ... Chemotaxis refers to the directional migration of cells in response to chemical gradients; several variations of chemical- ...
Cell. 175 (2): 360-371.e13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.034. PMC 6176737. PMID 30290142. Pedersen AB, Babayan SA (March 2011). " ... Another source of criticism comes from the need for to develop assays that can be utilized across species and be accessible in ... Zoonosis Immunology Migration Ecology Cross-species transmission Emerging infectious disease Foodborne illness Antibody Antigen ... Cold stress has been shown to inhibit phagocytosis in macrophages in mice. Population genetic characteristics such as ...
... molecules causing their adhesive properties to be subdued allowing for the detailed control of cell migration and cell to cell ... "An assay for quantitative analysis of polysialic acid expression in cancer cells". Carbohydrate Polymers. 259: 117741. doi: ... polySia also limits inflammation in macrophages. polySia was found to have limited the expression of tumour necrosis factor ( ... This vast range causes differences in the polySia's ability to adhere different cells, assist in cellular migration, synapse ...
... the cell wall becomes damaged. This can cause death or loss of function of eukaryotic cells. This effect may help the invasion ... The increase in permeability may allow increased lymphatic drainage, leading to one of the mechanisms of migration to the lymph ... In fact, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay has been developed using a number of characteristic genes that can ... Furthermore, the surface lipid is cytotoxic and can cause death to macrophages. In a prospective study involving 12 Boer goats ...
The involvement of peptides in cell-cell interactions and in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurovegetative diseases are ... 1999). "Thimet oligopeptidase and the stability of MHC class I epitopes in macrophage cytosol". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ... Camargo AC, Shapanka R, Greene LJ (April 1973). "Preparation, assay, and partial characterization of a neutral endopeptidase ... has been involved in neuronal migration during the cortex formation in human embryo (lissencephaly) and neurite outgrowth in ...
... in cell adhesion and motility leads to impaired migration toward CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 in primary BCR/ABL-positive cells ... and mature macrophages. These changes can also drive the leukemic cells to a state of stress, which allows for increased ... T lymphocytes in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays". Journal of Immunological Methods. 259 (1-2): 95-110. doi:10.1016/S0022-1759(01) ... K562 cells were the first human immortalised myelogenous leukemia cell line to be established. K562 cells are of the ...
More specifically, they are involved in several cellular functions, including proliferation and migration of neural stem cells ... contraction of smooth muscle cells, platelet aggregation, macrophage activation, and apoptosis. Moreover, these receptors have ... "Behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking purinergic P2X4 receptors in acute and chronic pain assays". Molecular Pain. 5: 1744-8069 ... Ulmann L, Hirbec H, Rassendren F (Jul 2010). "P2X4 receptors mediate PGE2 release by tissue-resident macrophages and initiate ...
A Macrophage Infection Model to Predict Drug Efficacy Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Assay Drug Dev Technol 14, 345-54, ... Cells are curved rod-shaped and are often seen wrapped together, due to the presence of fatty acids in the cell wall that stick ... "Out-of-Africa migration and Neolithic coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with modern humans". Nature Genetics. 45 (10): ... Cell. 136 (1): 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.014. PMC 3134310. PMID 19135887. Cohen, Sara B.; Gern, Benjamin H.; Urdahl, ...
This is due to the migration of other leukocytes such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages to the initial ... The immune system does not recognize the affected cells as normal parts of the body, causing a T-cell-mediated immune response ... Radiometric assays include the radioallergosorbent test (RAST test) method, which uses IgE-binding (anti-IgE) antibodies ... In type IV hypersensitivity, there is activation of certain types of T cells (CD8+) that destroy target cells on contact, as ...
... macrophages, and dendritic cells. The inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation, aequorin, and 35S isotope binding assays in ... Silencing GPR97 in human LECs indicated that GPR97 modulates cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and migration through ... GPR97 is transcribed in immune cells. Gene-deficient mice revealed that Gpr97 is crucial for maintaining B-cell population via ... "The orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR97 regulates migration of lymphatic endothelial cells via the small GTPases ...
Wong MJ, Malapitan IA, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2003). "A cell-free binding assay maps the LSP1 cytoskeletal binding site to ... The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, ... adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ... S37 is expressed in embryonic mesenchymal cells". J. Cell Sci. 107 (12): 3591-600. doi:10.1242/jcs.107.12.3591. PMID 7706408. ...
EID: 2-s2.0-0022340824 Pick, Edgar (2020). "Cell-Free NADPH Oxidase Activation Assays: A Triumph of Reductionism". Neutrophil. ... Mitogen-induced release of skin reactive and macrophage migration inhibitory factors". Cellular Immunology. 1 (1): 92-109. doi: ... "Unsaturated fatty acids stimulate NADPH-dependent superoxide production by cell-free system derived from macrophages". Cellular ... In 1967 he joined the laboratory of John L.Turk, the world leader of cell-mediated immunity studies. He received a Ph.D. from ...
Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... Cells on the wound margins proliferate on the second and third day post-wounding in order to provide more cells for migration. ... which can be modelled in vitro using the collagen gel contraction assay or the dermal equivalent model. Contraction commences ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ...
Companion studies using an in vitro scratch test assay indicated that 12-HHT stimulated human and mouse keratinocyte migration ... kidney renal cell carcinoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. ... the differentiated macrophage metabolized arachidonic acid to 12-HHT by a CYP2S1-dependent mechanism. Future studies, therefore ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...
... macrophages, T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or ... in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... macrophages, dendritic cells, and Innate lymphoid cells as well as on epithelial cells and in brain, kidney, cardiovascular, ...
CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, monocytes, macrophages, or dendritic cells. Nitric oxide ... and glomerular cells can be damaged further by the adhesion molecules during the migration of neutrophils. The injury done to ... Hampton MB, Vissers MC, Winterbourn CC; Vissers; Winterbourn (February 1994). "A single assay for measuring the rates of ... Mature dendritic cells activate T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells. The activated helper T cells interact with macrophages ...
"FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (5): 249-56. doi:10.1038/ ... Li BQ, Wang MH, Kung HF, Ronsin C, Breathnach R, Leonard EJ, Kamata T (November 1995). "Macrophage-stimulating protein ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5- ... migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): 1019-31. doi:10.1083/jcb.144.5.1019. PMC ...
B cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages) when activated. This occurs when a naïve T helper cell recognizes antigen and needs ... TFH cells upregulate CXCR5, IL-6R, and ICOS during their migration to the germinal center. After interacting with a B cell ... Tracking BLC6 in B cells using immunohistochemical staining or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be used to ... Without the expression of BCL6, naïve CD4+ T helper cells will not turn into TFH cells. When a naïve CD4+ T cell binds to MHC ...
In a xenograft model the mice showed inhibited tumor cell migration and suppressed tumor growth in a dose dependent manner when ... "Methylsulfonylmethane modulates apoptosis of LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells by targeting p53, Bax, Bcl-2, ... Kababick JP (1999). Ocular and Dermal Irritation Assay for OptiMSM Brand of Methylsulfonylmethane. Grants Pass, Oregon: Flora ... This is supported by in vitro research showing MSM inhibits over-activation of white blood cells and has an anti-apoptotic ...
... using PEG-diacrylate hydrogels to recreate vascular environments with the encapsulation of endothelial cells and macrophages. ... PEG is commonly used as a crowding agent in in vitro assays to mimic highly crowded cellular conditions. PEG is commonly used ... Sheftel VO (2000). Indirect Food Additives and Polymers: Migration and Toxicology. CRC. pp. 1114-1116. Nalam PC, Clasohm JN, ... PEG is used to fuse two different types of cells, most often B-cells and myelomas in order to create hybridomas. César Milstein ...
A cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay is a cell culture-based empirical assay. When plated onto a confluent culture of ... Myeloid and lymphoid lineages both are involved in dendritic cell formation. Myeloid cells include monocytes, macrophages, ... mediate spontaneous migration of human CD34+ progenitors and acute myeloid leukaemia cells beneath marrow stromal cells ( ... Lymphoid cells include T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and innate lymphoid cells. The definition of hematopoietic stem ...
Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells". Mol ... This ratio of large HDL to total HDL particles varies widely and is measured only by more sophisticated lipoprotein assays ... Several steps in the metabolism of HDL can participate in the transport of cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages of ... Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles, which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells. ...
Interferons can directly activate immune cells including macrophages and natural killer cells. INF-1 and interferon gamma (IFN- ... This assay evaluates the final dilution that may cause a viral infection in 50% of inoculated eggs. This EID50 assay is used to ... type I IFNs promote SeV clearance and speed up the migration and maturation of dendritic cells. However, soon after viral ... Not all cancer cells have cell entry receptors for the virus and not all cancer cells express virus processing serine proteases ...
Within days, the measles virus spreads through local tissue and is picked up by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, and ... Migration and Disease. Digital History. "Fiji School of Medicine". Archived from the original on 10 April 2015.{{cite web}}: ... nasal or urine specimen by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. This method is particularly useful ... which is found on immune cells like B or T cells, and antigen-presenting cells, or nectin-4, a cellular adhesion molecule. Once ...
Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... Polverini, P (1997). "Role of the macrophage in angiogenesis-dependent diseases". Role of the macrophage in angiogenesis ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...
Antisense knockdown of perlecan in fibrosarcoma cell lines led to increased growth and migration both in vitro and in vivo. ... A similar result was produced in the corneal micropocket assay, where FGF-2 is implanted into the cornea of mice and in normal ... Liuzzo JP, Petanceska SS, Moscatelli D, Devi LA (May 1999). "Inflammatory mediators regulate cathepsin S in macrophages and ... RT101 cells with perlecan knocked down by antisense did not show tumor formation in this system, however cells expressing the ...
Salmonella enterica-infected macrophages but not exosomes from uninfected cells stimulate naive macrophages and dendritic cells ... "Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes Induce Proliferation and Migration of Normal and Chronic Wound Fibroblasts, and Enhance ... Well-known examples of assays to detect proteins in total populations of exosomes are mass spectrometry and Western blot. ... By transferring molecules from one cell to another, exosomes from certain cells of the immune system, such as dendritic cells ...
Statins also inhibit PPARγ in human macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells; this action may ... to cause cell injury. 13-HODE (and 9-HODE) are moderately strong stimulators of the directed migration (i.e. chemotaxis) of cow ... "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... this may cause macrophages to increase their uptake of these lipids, transition to lipid-laden foam cells, and thereby increase ...
Hyper-responsive macrophage phenotype. Due to the increased responsiveness, the macrophages produce excessive levels of ... The plasma cells produce specific antibodies in response to the periodontal pathogens, which diffuse into the gingival ... Genco RJ, Zambon JJ, Christersson LA (November 1986). "Use and interpretation of microbiological assays in periodontal diseases ... diastema formation with disto-labial migration of the incisors increased mobility of the affected teeth, sensitivity due to ...
Immunohistochemical staining of trophozoites (brown) using specific anti-Entamoeba histolytica macrophage migration inhibitory ... An Ova & Parasite (O&P) test or an E. histolytica fecal antigen assay is the proper assay for intestinal infections. Since ... Entamoeba histolytica ingests the destroyed cells by phagocytosis and is often seen with red blood cells (a process known as ... An increased white blood cell count may be present in severe cases. The most accurate test is finding specific antibodies in ...
... was quickly shown by leukocyte migration assay to be a functional inhibitor of many chemokines in vitro with similar potency. ... The observation that the chemokine CCL2 is potentially responsible for the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic ... "The MHP36 line of murine neural stem cells expresses functional CXCR1 chemokine receptors that initiate chemotaxis in vitro". J ... Frow EK, Reckless J, Grainger DJ (2004). "Tools for anti-inflammatory drug design: In vitro models of leukocyte migration". Med ...
Innate lymphoid cells, and/or macrophages, as well as suppress proliferation and production of IgM and IgG antibodies by B ... LXA4 relaxes the smooth muscle contraction caused by the cysteinyl leukotrienes in the hamster cheek pouch assay and a ... 14-eicosatetraenoic acid is a potent stimulator of human eosinophil migration". J. Immunol. 154 (8): 4123-32. PMID 7706749. ... either by direct effecting these cells or by stimulating NK cells to do so; d) cause various cell types to reduce production of ...
It's produced by a variety of immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, or Th17 population. Moreover ... CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors. CXCR2 receptor for ... for its location in the nitrocellulose colony hybridization assay. This designation is sometimes erroneously believed to be an ... "Interaction between Tumor-Associated Dendritic Cells and Colon Cancer Cells Contributes to Tumor Progression via CXCL1". ...
"The Role of Kv1.2 Channel in Electrotaxis Cell Migration". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 231 (6): 1375-84. doi:10.1002/jcp. ... Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L (2016). "Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization". Scientific Reports. 6 ... application of electric fields is gaining ground in the field with the possibility to allow high-throughput screening assays of ... In non-excitable cells, the resting potential across the plasma membrane (Vmem) of individual cells propagate across distances ...
Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage; Cell Movement/immunology*; Cells, Cultured; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Immunity, Innate ... Macrophages/immunology*; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Monocyte-Macrophage Precursor Cells/immunology*; Signal Transduction/ ... The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA ... Abstract: Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic ...
Here, single-cell RNA sequencing was used to profile the transcriptional landsc … ... Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are correlated with the progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa). The mechanistic ... H) Migration assay. Pten−/−; Smad4−/− tumor cells were indirectly co-cultured in transwell chambers with primary macrophages ... Mechanistically, cancer cell-derived IL-1β enhances Marco expression on macrophages, and reciprocally, cancer cell migration is ...
Cell Migration Assays [E05.242.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.242.335.500] * Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage [ ... Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage Preferred Concept UI. M0504929. Scope Note. Assays that measure the rate of migration of ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.500.335.500] ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.812.125] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.812.125.500] ...
Then a cell migration assay was performed using a Boyden chamber. The migration rate of ST6GALNAC1-overexpressing HT-29 and ... Bead-based multiplex assay panel.. The supernatants of HT29 and SW480 cells, M1 and M2 macrophages, and the conditioned medium ... 3B). This assay confirmed that M2 macrophage exposure specifically induced higher expression MUC1-sTn in HT-29 cells compared ... Migration and invasion assay. Migration studies were conducted using 24-well Transwells, 8-μm pore size (Costar Transwell; ...
... assay insert was used for chemotaxis/cell migration.. *Immune cells were added into Transwell™ assay inserts and allowed those ... Cell culture and cell differentiation *All cells were obtained from ATCC.. *Enhanced differentiated THP-1 macrophages were ... Alveolar macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type in the lung, and these cells serve as one of the first immune ... Chemotaxis_of_Immune_cells_in_response_to_conditioned_media_from_MDI-GSH_conjugate_exposed_macrophages.csv ...
involved_in negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more ...
... released during the muscle disruption and degeneration and are involved in macrophage recruitment and satellite cell migration ... Using gene expression methodology (RNAase protection assay and real-time PCR) in a mouse model (freeze injury of Tibialis ... In parallel with these events, quiescent muscle precursor cells (satellite cells), are activated. The activated satellite cells ... that satellite cells express CCR2 and CCRS receptors and these chemokine pathways are involved in satellite cell migration ...
Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage Entry term(s). Macrophage Migration Test Macrophage Migration Tests Test, Macrophage ... Macrophage Migration Inhibition Test. Macrophage Migration Test. Macrophage Migration Tests. Test, Macrophage Migration. Tests ... Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage - Preferred Concept UI. M0504929. Scope note. Assays that measure the rate of migration of ... Cell Migration Inhibition (1988-2007). Public MeSH Note:. 2008; for MACROPHAGE MIGRATION TEST see CELL MIGRATION INHIBITION ...
Cell Migration Assays [E05.242.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.242.335.500] * Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage [ ... Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage Preferred Concept UI. M0504929. Scope Note. Assays that measure the rate of migration of ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.500.335.500] ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.812.125] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.812.125.500] ...
... and the migration ability of cells was investigated by Transwell assays. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ... D) Detection of macrophage migration by Transwell assay. *miR-25 mimic vs. miR-NC, P,0.05; **si-HMGB1 vs. si-NC, P,0.05; ***miR ... Detection of macrophage migration ability by Transwell assay. Collagen IV added to the upper chamber of Transwell inserts with ... 4C), and the migration ability of macrophages was also significantly attenuated (Fig. 4D) in cells transfected with si-HMGB1 or ...
In vitro demonstration of cell-mediated immunity against human renal carcinoma assessed by the leukocyte migration assay. ... Macrophage electrophoretic migration (MEM) test for lymphocyte sensitization: some practical experiences in macrophage ... Indirect macrophage migration inhibition response to 3-M KCl extract of gastric carcinoma.. Akiyoshi T; Koba F; Kawaguchi M; ... The macrophage electrophoretic migration test in cancer.. Goldstone AH; Kerr L; Irvine WJ. Clin Exp Immunol; 1973 Jul; 14(3): ...
Migration and invasion abilities of LUAD cells were determined by wound healing, transwell migration and invasion assays. Cell ... macrophages, and breast cancer cells and how they facilitate tumor progression. The effects on cancer cells were examined using ... Transwell and scratch assays were used to evaluate the cell migration and invasion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR ... Proliferation potential of LUAD cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8, EdU incorporation and Colony formation assay. ...
... invasive growth and cell migration. May modulate the activity of RAC1 and CDC42. Down-regulates macrophage migration in wound- ... healing assays (in vitro) (By similarity). Members of the B class of plexins, such as PLXNB2 are transmembrane receptors that ... Regulates the migration of cerebellar granule cells in the developing brain. Plays a role in RHOA activation and subsequent ... Required for normal differentiation and migration of neuronal cells during brain corticogenesis and for normal embryonic brain ...
Tumor cell culture and conditioned media from cell culture were used to perform macrophage (RAW264.7) cell migration assays, ... including the 129:Stat1 -/--derived SSM2 cells as well as control Met1 and NDL tumor cells and EpH4 normal cells. ... carcinoma is accompanied by a marked local stromal and immune cell response composed predominantly of T cells and macrophages. ... The result appears to be recruitment of the immune reaction to the periphery of the tumor, with exclusion of immune cell ...
The 5 µm pore size is ideal for monocytes / macrophages.. CytoSelect 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (3 µm, Fluorometric Format), ... Description: The Radius Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the ... Description: The Radius Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the ... Migration Assay Bioteck. Migration Assay Bioteck. Lab Reagents Assay Biotech Omnikine Laboratories manufactures the migration ...
The 5 µm pore size is ideal for monocytes / macrophages.. CytoSelect 24-well Cell Migration Assay (5 ?m), Fluorometric. ... CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ... CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ... CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ...
Macrophage migration assay. Conditioned medium from primary β1rtTA and β1f/f AECs was placed in the bottom chamber of a 5-μm ... Macrophage migration toward media from β1rtTA type 2 AECs was greatly enhanced compared with media from control cells, and this ... Efferocytosis assay. Macrophages collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (5 × 104 cells/well) were plated for 4 hours in serum-free ... To functionally phenotype these cells in β1rtTA mice, we collected media from cultured monocytes/macrophages and assayed for ...
In vitro cellular assays were carried out in a panel of gallbladder cancer cell lines using MIF inhibitors, ISO-1 and 4-IPP or ... Among these, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be highly overexpressed in two of the invasive cell ... Among these, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be highly overexpressed in two of the invasive cell ... Among these, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be highly overexpressed in two of the invasive cell ...
Obesity causes adipocyte hypertrophy, which leads to cell death. Consequently, macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrate into the ... migration, and adhesion in human cancer cells.. ترجمة. يمكن للمستخدمين المسجلين فقط ترجمة المقالات. الدخول التسجيل فى الموقع ... inhibitory assay. ... Cyanidin and delphinidin significantly inhibited cell growth at ... Effects of black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed coats and its anthocyanidins on colonic inflammation and cell ...
... macrophage migration, carbon clearance in vivo) or tumor cells (growth rate, metastasis) can be detected in animals. ... Older studies often cited concentrations using a nonspecific assay which were roughly twice those of specific assays. Assay ... Tubular cells with vacuolization and Degenerative tubular cells, plasma cells, and granularization. lymphocyturia , 20% of ... The T-helper cell is the main target, although the T-suppressor cell may also be suppressed. Cyclosporine also inhibits ...
Gastrointestinal cell migration was enhanced in response to anthocyanin glucosides with the maximum effect observed for ... and other polyphenols on epithelial gut homeostasis in human colon epithelial CCD-18 cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. ... Enhanced staining for ZO-1 protein in the junctional complexes was observed in CCD-18 cells treated with malvidin and butyrate ... Nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression profiles in the LPS-stimulated macrophages were mostly affected by ...
Inhibitor of macrophage migration produced by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. PMID- 5436231 TI - Polymorphonuclear exudate cells ... 3. Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease: properties and quantitative assay in macrophages from tuberculous and control inbred ... PMID- 5436505 TI - Studies of the macrophage-inhibition test. II. Evaluation of capillary macrophage migration for the ... Cell growth continiues until all cells become nonseparating cell doublets in a V configuration. Mutants have been isolated ...
E5.242.335.500 Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage E1.450.495.125.750 E1.370.225.500.335.750 E1.370.225.812.125.750 E5.200. ... E5.242.307 Cell Migration Assays E1.450.495.125 E1.370.225.500.335 E1.370.225.812.125 E5.200.812.125 E5.242.335 Cell Migration ... G1.311.330 Giant Cells A11.502 A11.500 Giant Cells, Foreign-Body A11.502.376 A11.500.376 Giant Cells, Langhans A11.502.380 ... G4.366.500 Tumor Stem Cell Assay E1.370.225.500.383.910 E1.370.225.500.388.930 E5.242.383.910 E5.242.388.930 Twins G8.686. ...
It enhances the binding of high density lipoprotein to macrophages and thus helps in the delivery of lipids to sites of injury ... migration, proliferation, and aggregation were discovered. These findings emphasize the importance of SAA in various ... Also adhesion motifs were identified and new functions affecting cell adhesion, ... Also adhesion motifs were identified and new functions affecting cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and aggregation were ...
Cell-cell adhesion assay. A549 cells were pretreated with casticin and incubated with IL-1β for 24 h. Then, they were treated ... induces migration and cytokine synthesis, and prolongs survival of human airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol ... Airways affected by airborne microbes, smoke, or air pollution activate lung epithelial cells and macrophages to secrete a ... Cell viability assay. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay, as previously described [60]. In brief, A549 and H460 ...
Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and ... Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine ... L-759,656 and L-759,633 have off-target effects of functional consequence in primary cells and we believe that our findings ... As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2(-/-) macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, ...
... plasma and aortic homogenates from 35K gene transfer mice promoted significantly less CC-CK-induced cell migration than did PBS ... 35K gene transfer strikingly reduced the macrophage content in aortic root lesions by 85% (P,0.01) and reduced lipid deposition ... in descending aortas by more than half (P,0.05). By an in vitro chemotaxis assay, ... adenovirus encoding the broad-spectrum CC-CK inhibitor 35K can reduce atherosclerosis by inhibiting CC-CK-induced macrophage ...
We used a single cell assay to demonstrate that macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor ... the migration and activation of mature osteoclasts, and programmed cell death. Regulatory mechanisms involve soluble mediators ... cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The latter involve integrins - heterodimeric receptors that link the cytoskeleton to ... Role of αvβ3 integrin in osteoclast migration and formation of the sealing zone. J Cell Sci. 1999, 112: 3985-3993. ...
Using in vitroAG assays, neutralization of IL-6 significantly reduced neovessel formation. Addition of the HCMV secretome to ... AG requires multiple synchronous processes that include EC proliferation, migration, and vessel stabilization. Virus-free ... Several cytokines were significantly induced in the HCMV secretomes including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage ... Endothelial cells (ECs) are an integral part of AG and are sites of HCMV persistence. AG requires multiple synchronous ...
  • The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. (nih.gov)
  • Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII-infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line-1 (THP-1) monocytes with IL-6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Further, using in vitro model, C2C12, a myoblast cell line, we demonstrated that satellite cells express CCR2 and CCRS receptors and these chemokine pathways are involved in satellite cell migration activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Macrophages were cultured in vitro and divided into 5 groups following treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 48. In vitro demonstration of cell-mediated immunity against human renal carcinoma assessed by the leukocyte migration assay. (nih.gov)
  • Down-regulates macrophage migration in wound-healing assays (in vitro) (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • In vitro cellular assays were carried out in a panel of gallbladder cancer cell lines using MIF inhibitors, ISO-1 and 4-IPP or its specific siRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • By an in vitro chemotaxis assay, plasma and aortic homogenates from 35K gene transfer mice promoted significantly less CC-CK-induced cell migration than did PBS or AdGFP controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In order to examine the effects of signaling between tumor cells and macrophages in intravasation, we utilize an in vitro transendothelial migration (iTEM) assay. (yu.edu)
  • 1.63 m in diameter) were used as the date, single cells have been imaged in vitro in culture superparamagnetic label. (nih.gov)
  • This method was recently extended to that these particles are efficiently endocytosed by a wide visualizing single cells and single particles in in vitro variety of cell types, with labeling capacity as high as embryo samples by MRI (7). (nih.gov)
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a multipotent protein that exhibits both cytokine and chemotactic properties, is expressed by many cell types, including hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was analysed in gallbladder adenocarcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • Among these, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be highly overexpressed in two of the invasive cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • S protein exposure combined to hypoxia enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in immune cell activation and trafficking, namely macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). (bvsalud.org)
  • Dendritic cell differentiation was prepared using undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes cultured in serum-free RPMI-1640 culture medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml rhGM-CSF, 10 ng/ml rhTNF-α, and 200 ng/ml ionomycin for 3 days. (cdc.gov)
  • The 5 µm pore size is ideal for monocytes / macrophages. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Upon encountering outside stimuli, alveolar macrophages react by phagocytosis as well as producing and secreting different mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and others, into the alveoli microenvironment to orchestrate the initiation of inflammatory/immune responses. (cdc.gov)
  • Dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, including elevated production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune mediators, has been shown to play an important role in asthma pathogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • However, both the levels of these asthma-associated, macrophage-secreted inflammatory/immune mediators in MDI-OA patients' airways and how expression of these mediators change in response to MDI exposure in alveolar macrophages are largely undetermined. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene expression profiling of myeloid cells in inflamed and malignant colon tissues showed increased expression levels of inflammatory macrophage-associated cytokines compared with normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory chemokine that is associated with the migration of macrophages and MSCs during inflammation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Acute CCL2 stimulation potentially facilitates osteogenesis during the acute inflammatory phase of bone healing by directing local macrophage migration, fostering macrophage -MSC crosstalk, and subsequently, by activating or licensing of MSCs by macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines . (bvsalud.org)
  • We hypothesize that early inflammatory mediators, such as chemokines, are released during the muscle disruption and degeneration and are involved in macrophage recruitment and satellite cell migration and activation. (cdc.gov)
  • Down-regulation of MCP-l and MIP-l J3 responses by application of CCR5 deficient mice and MCP-l neutralizing antibody, resulted in minimal effects in inflammatory cell influx but a significant delay in muscle function recovery. (cdc.gov)
  • High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can promote the migration of macrophages and the release of inflammatory cytokines, functions associated with the occurrence of sepsis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The role of microRNA (miR)‑25 in the targeted regulation of HMGB1 expression and the release of macrophage inflammatory cytokines remains uncharacterized. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The present study also investigated whether miR‑25 serves a role in targeting the regulation of HMGB1 expression and macrophage inflammatory factor release. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HMGB1 serves a key role in the occurrence and progression of sepsis, and its production is induced by secretions of immune cells, including mononuclear cells, dendritic cells, macrophages stimulated by endotoxins, and inflammatory cytokines ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A previous study demonstrated that HMGB1 could promote the migration of macrophages and the release of various inflammatory cytokines, causing aggregation of a variety of immune cells and inducing the inflammatory responses of sepsis ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • miRs are highly conserved, endogenous, non-coding small RNAs, which can regulate the expression of target genes by complete or incomplete complementary pairing with the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the mRNA, serving an important role in immune cell activation, inflammatory cytokine release and the immune response ( 6 , 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Consequently, macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrate into the adipose tissue and elevate pro-inflammatory cytokine production through TLR activation. (herbal-organic.com)
  • were investigated for anti-inflammatory effects, using COX-2 producing PGE(2) inhibitory assay. (herbal-organic.com)
  • leaf extract possesses anti-oxidant properties, decreases inflammatory mediator production in murine macrophages, and inhibits growth, migration, and adhesion in human cancer cells. (herbal-organic.com)
  • The compound casticin, isolated from Vitex rotundifolia , exerts anti-inflammatory effects and causes apoptosis of cancer cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory effects of casticin and modulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • A549 cells were treated with various concentrations of casticin (5-20 μM), and an inflammatory response was triggered with interleukin (IL)-1β cytokines. (oncotarget.com)
  • Co-culture of NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K inhibitors with casticin also led to more significantly suppressed ICAM-1 expression in inflammatory A549 cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • These results provide evidence that casticin has an anti-inflammatory effect by blocking proinflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and ICAM-1 expression via suppression of the PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways in IL-1β-stimulated inflammatory pulmonary epithelial cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • With a bacterial or viral infection, activation of macrophages and T cells of airways occurs, and more interleukin (IL)-1β can be detected in inflammatory diseases of the airways [ 5 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Our histopathological diagnoses were based on inflammatory cell infiltrate patterns and the presence of granulomas and amastigotes. (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed the involvement of macrophage-associated cytokines in the induction of aberrant MUC1 glycoforms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several cytokines were significantly induced in the HCMV secretomes including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-8/CXCL8. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 42. Indirect macrophage migration inhibition response to 3-M KCl extract of gastric carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • 55. [Macrophage electrophoretic mobility inhibition test (MET) in immunological diagnosis of malignant lymphomas in Papio baboons]. (nih.gov)
  • In conditioned media experiments, cells derived from 129:Stat1 -/- tumors secrete both chemoattractant and chemoinhibitory factors, with greater attraction in the extracellular vesicular fraction and inhibition in the soluble fraction. (escholarship.org)
  • Experimental evidence suggests that the effectiveness of cyclosporine is due to specific and reversible inhibition of immunocompetent lymphocytes in the G 0 - or G 1 -phase of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Silencing/inhibition of MIF using siRNA and/or MIF antagonists resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability, colony forming ability and invasive property of the gallbladder cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 2. Parameters of T cell mediated immunity to commensal micro-organisms in patients with chronic purulent rhinosinusitis: a comparison between delayed type hypersensitivity skin test, lymphocyte transformation test and macrophage migration inhibition factor assay. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, neither pharmacological inhibition nor genetic ablation of CB2 had any effect on CB2 agonist-induced macrophage chemotaxis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tumor cell culture and conditioned media from cell culture were used to perform macrophage (RAW264.7) cell migration assays, including the 129:Stat1 -/- -derived SSM2 cells as well as control Met1 and NDL tumor cells and EpH4 normal cells. (escholarship.org)
  • No functional effects on phagocytic (changes in enzyme secretions not altered, chemotactic migration of granulocytes, macrophage migration, carbon clearance in vivo ) or tumor cells (growth rate, metastasis) can be detected in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Our studies are specifically interested in examining the signaling occurring between tumor cells and macrophages. (yu.edu)
  • Previous studies have established the presence of paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and macrophages, where colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) produced by the tumor cells stimulates the production of epidermal growth factor (EGF) by macrophages, leading to chemotactic invasion of the tumor cells. (yu.edu)
  • In addition to this paracrine loop signaling between tumor cells and macrophages, it has been seen that macrophage expression of ErbB3, a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, may play a role in facilitating tumor cell invasion. (yu.edu)
  • This assay uses transwells coated with matrigel and endothelial cells in order to mimic the entry of tumor cells into blood vessels. (yu.edu)
  • Additionally, reduction of expression of the ErbB3 receptor ligand Neuregulin1 in tumor cells using shRNA yields a similar result. (yu.edu)
  • Overall our studies look to further examine the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages, and these observations indicate that ErbB3, NRG1, and JAG1 could all serve as novel targets in metastasis and the tumor microenvironment. (yu.edu)
  • The key scientific breakthrough was the discovery of a pathway by which solid tumor cells acquire the ability to metastasize or leave the primary tumor to infiltrate other parts of the body. (medgadget.com)
  • If you did not treat it, the tumor would grow and expand in the breast but in only about one-third of patients would the tumor cells spread through the blood stream to other parts of the body. (medgadget.com)
  • Taken together our results conclusively demonstrate that CB2 is not a chemoattractant receptor for murine macrophages. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ethanol feeding for 4 days increased apoptosis of hepatic macrophages and activated complement in both wildtype and MIF-/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation.CD14(-/-) mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. (nih.gov)
  • MSCs and macrophages were isolated from 10 to 12 week-old BALB/c male mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Broad-spectrum CC-chemokine blockade by gene transfer inhibits macrophage recruitment and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that a single intravenous injection of a recombinant adenovirus encoding the broad-spectrum CC-CK inhibitor 35K can reduce atherosclerosis by inhibiting CC-CK-induced macrophage recruitment in atherosclerotic ApoE KO mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These breast cancer cells expressing NRG1 shRNA also show a significant reduction in intravasation when injected orthotopically in mice. (yu.edu)
  • For IHC assays, we used the EnVision FLEX HRP Magenta, High pH (Dako Omnis) kit (Agilent Technologies, https://www.agilent.com ) with murine hyperimmune serum from mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis . (cdc.gov)
  • Some specific applications in- Primary mouse hepatocytes were labeled with both su- clude stem cell tracking to damaged myocardium (1), early perparamagnetic and fluorescent agents, and transplanted detection of tissue rejection (2), early detection of cancer into the spleens of recipient mice. (nih.gov)
  • CD14 directs adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment: role in early abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. (nih.gov)
  • Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. (nih.gov)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are not only involved in osteogenesis but also help direct the recruitment of macrophages during bone regeneration via MSC- macrophage crosstalk. (bvsalud.org)
  • The result appears to be recruitment of the immune reaction to the periphery of the tumor, with exclusion of immune cell infiltration into the tumor. (escholarship.org)
  • The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and GPR55 could not mediate JWH133 or HU308-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement or JWH133-induced β-arrestin recruitment in cells transfected with either receptor, demonstrating that neither are the unidentified GPCR. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Osteoclastic resorption is regulated by a number of processes, including the proliferation, differentiation and recruitment of osteoclast precursors, the migration and activation of mature osteoclasts, and programmed cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type in the lung, and these cells serve as one of the first immune responders against inhaled pathogens, particles, stimuli, and chemical allergens such as dNCOs. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of those depositing in the gas-exchange region will be phagocytized by alveolar macrophages and cleared to and through the mucociliary escalator within a few weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Other particles may be engulfed by epithelial cells, primarily in the vicinity of the bronchial-alveolar duct junctions, and retained for much longer periods, with gradual removal to lymph nodes. (cdc.gov)
  • However, acute (1 day) but not sustained (7 days) stimulation with CCL2 increased the alizarin red-positive area when MSCs were co-cultured with macrophages (p (bvsalud.org)
  • We demonstrated that acute CCL2 stimulation promoted subsequent osteogenesis in co-culture of MSCs and macrophages . (bvsalud.org)
  • 50. Renal cell carcinoma: tumor membrane lymphocyte stimulation assay. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of macrophages with NRG1 leads to increased expression of Jagged1 (JAG1), a ligand of the Notch receptor. (yu.edu)
  • Enhanced differentiated THP-1 macrophages were prepared using media containing 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to induce differentiation for 3 days and then enhanced by refeeding fresh media after removing PMA containing media for additional 3 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Neutrophil differentiation was prepared using HL-60 cells cultured in complete RPMI-1640 media containing 1.5% DMSO for 7 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Eosinophil differentiation was prepared using HL-60_C15 cells cultured in complete RPMI-1640 media containing 0.5 mM butyric acid for 7 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Osteogenic differentiation assays were performed using MSCs with or without macrophages in co-culture . (bvsalud.org)
  • Required for normal differentiation and migration of neuronal cells during brain corticogenesis and for normal embryonic brain development. (nih.gov)
  • It is central to a variety of different pathologic and physiologic processes across many disciplines of biology including wound healing, cancer, inflammation, cell growth and differentiation [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and release including interleukin-2 or T-cell growth factor (TCGF). (nih.gov)
  • With the advent of high-throughput and high content imaging systems, there has been a movement towards the use of physiologically relevant cell-based assays earlier in the testing paradigm. (mdpi.com)
  • Description: Chemotaxis describes the movement of cells toward or away from a chemical stimulus in their environment. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Cell chemotaxis plays a pivotal role in the progression of cancer and other diseases. (bioinfolab.org)
  • 6. Coexistence of a chemotactic factor and a retroviral P15E-related chemotaxis inhibitor in human tumor cell culture supernatants. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Production of a retroviral P15E-related chemotaxis inhibitor by IL-1-treated endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine whether CB2 modulates primary murine macrophage chemotaxis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2(-/-) macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, using both laser ablation and a novel wounding assay that allows localized treatment with inhibitory drugs, we show that PI3K is essential for hemocyte chemotaxis toward wounds and that Pvf signals and PDGF/VEGF receptor expression are not required for this rapid chemotactic response. (bris.ac.uk)
  • 57. Cellular and humoral immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma after vaccination with antigen pulsed dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • In these cells, IL-6 prevented apoptosis by blocking caspase-3 and -7 activation through the induction of survivin. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Evidence that Knock Down of GSK-3b in Haploid Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells Augments IFN-g Induced Apoptosis and Necrosis. (ohio.edu)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • In this study, we show that the function of KLF5 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration of liver cancer cells depends on the status of the cellular tumor antigen p53 (p53). (datacite.org)
  • Efforts are therefore needed to identify novel cellular therapies consisting of expanded populations of regenerative cells that have the ability to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in advanced disease states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An incompletely understood interaction exists between the critical cellular elements-endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, platelets, and leucocytes-of the atherosclerotic lesion. (medscape.com)
  • The 8 µm pore size is suitable for most cell types including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and cancer cell lines. (bioinfolab.org)
  • are a rich source of dietary fiber and (poly)phenols with gastrointestinal and immune health-promoting properties, however, their mechanisms of action on the intestinal epithelial cells and transient tissue macrophages remain to be elucidated. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the individual effects of anthocyanins, short-chain fatty acids (metabolites derived from fiber), and a series of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid metabolites common to anthocyanins and other polyphenols on epithelial gut homeostasis in human colon epithelial CCD-18 cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • Both recombinant CCL2 (p macrophage migration. (bvsalud.org)
  • Explore our solutions for multiple applications - vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant proteins, cell or gene therapy. (vwr.com)
  • Assay Biotech Omnikine Laboratories manufactures the migration assay bioteck reagents distributed by Genprice. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the ldh cytoselecttm cell biolabs milano italia reagents distributed by Genprice. (bionotatki.com)
  • abstract = "Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes are highly motile macrophage-like cells that undergo a stereotypic pattern of migration to populate the whole embryo by late embryogenesis. (bris.ac.uk)
  • CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. (nih.gov)
  • 43. Macrophage electrophoretic migration (MEM) test for lymphocyte sensitization: some practical experiences in macrophage selection. (nih.gov)
  • Knockout of JAG1 in macrophages leads to a significant decrease in macrophage induced transendothelial migration. (yu.edu)
  • Skeletal muscle injuries are associated with local infiltration of large numbers of mononuclear cell, degeneration of the injured myofibers and removal of the cell debris by phagocytosis. (cdc.gov)
  • CCL2 promotes osteogenesis by facilitating macrophage migration during acute inflammation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic manipulation did not affect cell proliferation . (bvsalud.org)
  • MIF has been reported to play a central role in tumor cell proliferation and invasion in several cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • AG requires multiple synchronous processes that include EC proliferation, migration, and vessel stabilization. (elsevierpure.com)
  • HUVECs stimulated by ixmyelocel-T exhibited enhanced migration, proliferation, and branch formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of miR‑25 and HMGB1 in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was compared. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, the percentage of regenerative cells in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) is small, and large amounts of BMMNCs are required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, the percentage of regenerative cells in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) is small, and a large amount of BMMNCs is required in order to induce restorative angiogenesis [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression levels of miR‑25, HMGB1, phosphorylated (p‑)p65, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and HMGB‑1 were compared, and the migration ability of cells was investigated by Transwell assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To further determine the effects on endothelial cells, ixmyelocel-T was co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in non-contacting Transwell® inserts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Members of the B class of plexins, such as PLXNB2 are transmembrane receptors that participate in axon guidance and cell migration in response to semaphorins (Perrot et al. (nih.gov)
  • This article will review the effective use of several principle formats for studying cell motility: scratch assays, transmembrane assays, microfluidic devices and cell exclusion zone assays. (mdpi.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells via the binding of viral Spike (S) protein to transmembrane receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (bvsalud.org)
  • The combination of CCL2, MSCs, and macrophages could be a potential strategy for local cell therapy in compromised bone healing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ixmyelocel-T contains expanded populations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and M2-like macrophages, as well as many of the CD45+ cells found in the bone marrow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we investigate tumor progression in the 129:Stat1 -/- host compared with wild-type 129/SvEv, and we describe the immune cell reaction to the tumors. (escholarship.org)
  • Progression to invasive carcinoma is accompanied by a marked local stromal and immune cell response composed predominantly of T cells and macrophages. (escholarship.org)
  • Activation of CB2 has been demonstrated to induce directed immune cell migration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 53. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) are an integral part of AG and are sites of HCMV persistence. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Simple Modifications to Methimazole that Enhance its Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-Induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Human Endothelial Cells. (ohio.edu)
  • This work demonstrates that ixmyelocel-T interacts with endothelial cells in a paracrine manner, resulting in angiogenesis and endothelial protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the clinical setting, the levels of many immune mediators produced by macrophages have been found elevated in the asthmatic airway. (cdc.gov)
  • however, whether this mechanism participates in regulation of other asthma-associated mediators secreted by macrophages/BALCs after MDI exposure is currently unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • The first aim of this study was to identify candidate asthma-associated, macrophage-secreted mediators that can be regulated after MDI exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Regulatory mechanisms involve soluble mediators, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TaqMan gene expression assays were obtained from ThermoFisher Scientific. (cdc.gov)
  • Using gene expression methodology (RNAase protection assay and real-time PCR) in a mouse model (freeze injury of Tibialis anterior muscle, TA)t we demonstrated an expression of MCP-l and MIP-l p in the first 24 hrs postinjury. (cdc.gov)
  • It also reduced MUC5AC, proinflammatory cytokine, and chemokine gene expression and inhibited ICAM-1 expression for monocyte adhesion in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • In parallel with these events, quiescent muscle precursor cells (satellite cells), are activated. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmid DNAs were transfected into THP-1 macrophages using Mirus TransIT-2020 transfection reagent according to manufacturer's instructions. (cdc.gov)
  • miR-inhibitors were transfected into THP-1 macrophages using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX transfection reagent according to manufacturer's instructions. (cdc.gov)
  • Following transfection with miR‑25 mimics and/or short interfering RNA‑HMGB1, the expression of HMGB1 in macrophages decreased significantly, the expression of p‑p65, HMGB‑1, TNF‑α and IL‑6 in the culture solution were also decreased, and the migration ability of macrophages was attenuated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Using in vitroAG assays, neutralization of IL-6 significantly reduced neovessel formation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Furthermore, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) is the main regulator of KLF5 in EMT in liver cancer cells in the context of p53 loss. (datacite.org)
  • In this study we used a well developed model for liver determine whether the observed contrast could have been due cell transplantation to demonstrate that single-cell detec- to dead cells or free particles, and the results confirmed that tion in vivo can be achieved with MRI. (nih.gov)
  • Noninvasive imaging of single cells in intact, live organ- sue damage is present in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Cells can then migrate isms would have an enormous impact in all fields in- out of the spleen to the liver, where they engraft. (nih.gov)
  • The results mentation of MRI and augmenting the relaxivities and deliv- indicate that single cells can be detected in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated the use of CCL2 as a therapeutic target for local cell therapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, ixmyelocel-T therapy may provide a new aspect of therapeutic angiogenesis in this patient population where expanded populations of regenerative cells might be required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 10. In vivo effects of thymostimulin treatment on monocyte polarization, dendritic cell clustering and serum p15E-like trans-membrane factors in operable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. (nih.gov)
  • to macrophages (2), and some initial reports have described labeled hepatocyte phantoms in combination with histological in vivo labeling of peripheral T cells (16) and neural stem evaluation confirmed the presence of dispersed single hepato- cells (17). (nih.gov)
  • The 12 µm pore size is suitable for astrocytes and other large or slow-moving cells. (bioinfolab.org)
  • CCRl and CCR5, were colocalized, through immunostaining analysis, with mac-3, a marker of activated macrophages and myogenin, a transcription factor involved in satellite cell activation. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the ability of CB2 to act as a chemoattractant receptor in macrophages remains largely unexplored. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Migration Assay Bioteck reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Anti centriole and centrosome antibody IgG in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (bionotatki.com)
  • VWR provides the cell culture community with access to the most reliable supply of exceptional quality Fetal Bovine Serum: VWR Life Science Seradigm. (vwr.com)
  • The present study suggests that miR‑25 attenuated the induction of HMGB1 by LPS, decreased the activity of nuclear factor‑κB and the transcriptional activation of TNF‑α and IL‑6, and suppressed the migration of macrophages. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We used a single cell assay to demonstrate that macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor beta are chemotaxins for mammalian osteoclasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • whereas it did not inhibit migration induced by transforming growth factor beta [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that at least two separate mechanisms operate in D. melanogaster embryos to direct hemocyte migration and show that although PI3K is crucial for hemocytes to sense a chemotactic gradient from a wound, it is not required to sense the growth factor signals that coordinate their developmental migrations along the ventral midline during embryogenesis. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) can both promote and suppress cell migration, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. (datacite.org)
  • We show that using an ErbB3 blocking antibody results in a significant reduction of macrophage-induced transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells. (yu.edu)
  • Cell surface receptor for SEMA4C, SEMA4D and SEMA4G that plays an important role in cell-cell signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of the Notch receptor pathway has been shown to be involved in tumor cell invasion. (yu.edu)
  • 49. Technical aspects of the macrophage electrophoretic mobility test in transplantation immunity. (nih.gov)
  • to tissue, following cell labeling and transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Defects in monocyte polarization and dendritic cell clustering in patients with Graves' disease. (nih.gov)
  • Numerous assays are being developed to measure blood concentrations of cyclosporine. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of concentrations in published literature to patient concentrations using current assays must be done with detailed knowledge of the assay methods employed. (nih.gov)