Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.

Biological effects of a sulfated-polysaccharide isolated from the marine red algae Champia feldmannii. (1/7)

Sulfated-polysaccharides are exploited as antithrombotic and anticoagulant agents and suggested to be immunostimulants. The sulfated-polysaccharide isolated from the red-marine-algae Champia feldmannii (Cf-PLS) was purified by ion exchange chromatography and tested in experimental protocols of coagulation, inflammation (in Wistar rats) and nociception (in Swiss mice). Cf-PLS was tested i.v. for its anti-inflammatory activity in the paw-edema induced by classical inflammatory stimuli and s.c. for its pro-inflammatory activity in the paw-edema and peritonitis models. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the test of partial thromboplastin activation time (aPTT) and the antinociceptive effect in the writhing-test. Cf-PLS was not anti-inflammatory, but rather induced maximal edematogenic activity at 0.9 mg/kg (1.01+/-0.030 x 0.06+/-0.03 ml) compared to controls (0.06+/-0.03 ml), increased vascular-permeability (38.44+/-12.63 x 11.29+/-3.91 microg/g) and stimulated neutrophil migration (3.348+/-295 x 307+/-99 cells/microl) 1 h after injection. Cf-PLS was also antinociceptive (6.6+/-1.28 x 33+/-1.44 writhes) and extended human plasma coagulation time by 3 times. Our data suggest that this molecule may be an important immunostimulant.  (+info)

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is associated with acute inflammation after olfactory injury. (2/7)

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Macrophage infiltration predicts a poor prognosis for human ewing sarcoma. (3/7)

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Nox2 is required for macrophage chemotaxis towards CSF-1. (4/7)

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Heparanase induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes macrophage migration involving RAGE and PI3K/AKT pathway. (5/7)

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CD14 directs adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment: role in early abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. (6/7)

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In vivo fluorescence-mediated tomography imaging demonstrates atorvastatin-mediated reduction of lesion macrophages in ApoE-/- mice. (7/7)

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Approach and Results-We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT from donor mice fed a high-fat diet to the carotid arteries of recipient high-fat diet-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Two weeks after transplantation, wire injury was performed, and animals were euthanized 2 weeks later. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify adventitial macrophage infiltration and neovascularization and neointimal lesion composition and size. Transplanted PVAT accelerated neointimal hyperplasia, adventitial macrophage infiltration, and adventitial angiogenesis. The majority of neointimal cells in PVAT-transplanted animals expressed α-smooth muscle actin, consistent with smooth muscle phenotype. Deletion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in PVAT substantially attenuated the effects of fat transplantation on neointimal hyperplasia and adventitial angiogenesis, but not adventitial macrophage infiltration. Conditioned medium from perivascular adipocytes induced potent monocyte chemotaxis in ...
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Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
We proudly develop Life Science Research Products & Solutions including novel assays and reagents to advance cell and molecular biology.
Cell Migration Assays from Platypus Technologies utilize exclusion-zone technology to give you high-quality results in every experiment.
After my left shoulder collapsed from AVN secondary to lupus in 2002, I had it replaced. That hospitalization -- giggle::giggle -- did not go well and the prosthesis never did quite meet my Stringent Standards for Shoulder Membership. Fast forward to 2008 and the Search for the Guilty Pathogen Infecting My Shoulder Hardware... Over the next two years, that left prosthesis was removed, a spacer put in. That spacer was removed... but there was still infection, so a second spacer was put in that had a specially made antibiotic-laced cement ball. All surgeries were followed by at least 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic via PICC line. Unfortunately, the handcrafted spacer proved highly irritating to the joint, was removed, and I was gifted with a new prosthesis... because no one knew what else to do. I was to live with the pain until I couldnt, then wed see what limited options remained. I reached that point last Fall, underwent my fifth unsuccessful aspiration under fluoroscopy, and then cried ...
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
The developmental origin of the c-kit expressing progenitor cell pool in the adult heart has remained elusive. Recently, it has been discovered that the injured heart is enriched with c-kit(+) cells, which also express the hematopoietic marker CD45.In this study, we characterize the phenotype and transcriptome of the c-kit+/CD45+/CD11b+/Flk-1+/Sca-1±(B-type) cell population, originating from the left atrial appendage. These cells are defined as cardiac macrophage progenitors. We also demonstrate that the CD45+ progenitor cell population activates heart development, neural crest and pluripotency-associated pathways in vitro, in conjunction with CD45 down-regulation, and acquire a c-kit+/CD45-/CD11b-/Flk-1-/Sca-1+ (A-type) phenotype through cell fusion and asymmetric division. This putative spontaneous reprogramming evolves into a highly proliferative, partially myogenic phenotype (C-type).Our data suggests that A-type cells and cardiac macrophage precursor cells (B-type) have a common lineage ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Results within minutes | Automated quantitative image analysis for wound healing and cell migration assays | Objective and reproducible analysis
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. METHODS: TR146 cancer cells were seeded in Petri dishes with microfabricated wells for cell migration assays. Total 54 cell islands were used of various shape and size and experimental media type. Cell migration assays were analyzed in six group media: Dulbeccos modified medium (DMEM); DMEM with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 239) expressing hBD-3 via transfected cloned pcDNA3 as CM/hBD-3; CM/hBD-3+ VEGF; conditioned medium from non-transfected HEK 239 (not expressing hBD-3) as control (CM); and the last group was CM + VEGF ...
The discovery of anti-metastatic agents that inhibit cancer cell motility has been hindered by a dearth of high‐throughput screening (HTS) -compatible cell motility assays. The Oris™ Pro 384 well cell migration assay, developed by Platypus Technologies, is an innovative cell motility assay designed to enable HTS of potential anti-cancer compounds and wound healing agents on adherent tumor and endothelial cell lines. The assay utilizes a centrally located, non-toxic, biocompatible gel (BCG) to form a uniformly sized, cell-free detection zone into which cells migrate. The assay is logistically simple and does not require any mechanical processing steps, such as cell wounding or removal of physical barriers. The assay is fully compatible with laboratory automation, including robotic liquid handlers, plate washers, and high-content screening (HCS) readers.. A formal investigation of the accuracy, robustness, and HTS performance of the assay was conducted following guidelines in place at the ...
A tissue culture assay has been developed to detect C. difficile toxins in stool samples. A cell rounding assay (cytotoxicity ... Infiltration by neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells in response to TcdA damage increases the inflammatory response through ... Rac and Cdc42 are involved in filopodium formation crucial for movement and cell migration. Overall, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 all ... When used with an ELISA, the cytotoxicity assay is the "gold standard" when used on Vero cells for C. difficile diagnosis. ...
VEGF has two known roles in bone regeneration: promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and the activation of ... Thus, in vivo assays have been explored. One such assay is the "gold standard" assay, created by A.J. Friedenstein. His test ... Graney PL, Roohani-Esfahani SI, Zreiqat H, Spiller KL (July 2016). "In vitro response of macrophages to ceramic scaffolds used ... Such stem cells include bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs), muscle ...
The involvement of peptides in cell-cell interactions and in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurovegetative diseases are ... 1999). "Thimet oligopeptidase and the stability of MHC class I epitopes in macrophage cytosol". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ... Camargo AC, Shapanka R, Greene LJ (April 1973). "Preparation, assay, and partial characterization of a neutral endopeptidase ... has been involved in neuronal migration during the cortex formation in human embryo (lissencephaly) and neurite outgrowth in ...
More specifically, they are involved in several cellular functions, including proliferation and migration of neural stem cells ... contraction of smooth muscle cells, platelet aggregation, macrophage activation, and apoptosis. Moreover, these receptors have ... "Behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking purinergic P2X4 receptors in acute and chronic pain assays". Molecular Pain. 5: 1744-8069 ... Ulmann L, Hirbec H, Rassendren F (Jul 2010). "P2X4 receptors mediate PGE2 release by tissue-resident macrophages and initiate ...
Furthermore, the surface lipid is cytotoxic and can cause death to macrophage white blood cells. In a prospective study ... In fact, a Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay has been developed using a number of characteristic genes that can ... leading to one of the mechanisms of migration to the lymph nodes, where C.pseudoteburculosis causes chronic abscessation. ... the cell wall becomes damaged. This can cause death or loss of function of eukaryotic cells. This effect may help the invasion ...
... in cell adhesion and motility leads to impaired migration toward CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 in primary BCR/ABL-positive cells ... and mature macrophages. These changes can also drive the leukemic cells to a state of stress, which allows for increased ... T lymphocytes in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays", Journal of Immunological Methods, 259 (1-2): 95-110, doi:10.1016/S0022-1759(01) ... K562 cells were the first human immortalised myelogenous leukemia cell line to be established. K562 cells are of the ...
... macrophages, T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or ... in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... macrophages, dendritic cells, and Innate lymphoid cells as well as on epithelial cells and in brain, kidney, cardiovascular, ...
... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ... Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified simultaneously in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom. In 1969, ... and osteopetrosis Adipokines Apoptosis Cytokine redundancy Cytokine release syndrome Cytokine secretion assay ELISA assays ... Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially endo/epithelial cells and resident macrophages (many near the interface with the ...
Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Polverini, P (1997). Role of the macrophage in angiogenesis dependent diseases. EXS. Experientia Supplementum. 79. pp. 11-28. ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...
Companion studies using an in vitro scratch test assay indicated that 12-HHT stimulated human and mouse keratinocyte migration ... kidney renal cell carcinoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. ... the differentiated macrophage metabolized arachidonic acid to 12-HHT by a CYP2S1-dependent mechanism. Future studies, therefore ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...
Selectins are expressed shortly after cytokine activation of endothelial cells by tissue macrophages. Activated endothelial ... Lamberti G, Prabhakarpandian B, Garson C, Smith A, Pant K, Wang B, Kiani MF (August 2014). "Bioinspired microfluidic assay for ... paracellular migration or transcellular migration. ... "Microfluidic devices for modeling cell-cell and particle-cell ... For a catch-bond, the force on the cell pulls the adhesive tip of a fimbria to close tighter on its target cell. As the ...
A cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay is a cell culture-based empirical assay. When plated onto a confluent culture of ... Myeloid and lymphoid lineages both are involved in dendritic cell formation. Myeloid cells include monocytes, macrophages, ... mediate spontaneous migration of human CD34+ progenitors and acute myeloid leukaemia cells beneath marrow stromal cells ( ... Lymphoid cells include T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and innate lymphoid cells. The definition of hematopoietic stem ...
... was quickly shown by leukocyte migration assay to be a functional inhibitor of many chemokines in vitro with similar potency. ... The observation that the chemokine CCL2 is potentially responsible for the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic ... "The MHP36 line of murine neural stem cells expresses functional CXCR1 chemokine receptors that initiate chemotaxis in vitro". J ... Frow EK, Reckless J, Grainger DJ (2004). "Tools for anti-inflammatory drug design: In vitro models of leukocyte migration". Med ...
In a xenograft model the mice showed inhibited tumor cell migration and suppressed tumor growth in a dose dependent manner when ... "Methylsulfonylmethane modulates apoptosis of LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells by targeting p53, Bax, Bcl-2, ... Kababick JP (1999). Ocular and Dermal Irritation Assay for OptiMSM Brand of Methylsulfonylmethane. Grants Pass, Oregon: Flora ... This is supported by in vitro research showing MSM inhibits over-activation of white blood cells and has an anti-apoptotic ...
In vitro assays on apoptosis in MM cells have been shown, when treated with thalidomide and its analogs, to upregulate the ... bFGF and IL-6 appear to be required for endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. Thalidomide and its analogs are ... TNF-α is a cytokine produced by macrophages of the immune system, and also a mediator of inflammatory response. Thus the drug ... In contrast, in vitro assay demonstrated that TNF-α is actually enhanced in T-cell activation, where CD4+ and CD8+ T ...
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. Memory cell proliferation (activation) can also be assayed ... macrophage migration inhibitory factor receptor complex. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • plasma membrane. • integral component ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ...
Immunohistochemical staining of trophozoites (brown) using specific anti-Entamoeba histolytica macrophage migration inhibitory ... Entamoeba histolytica ingests the destroyed cells by phagocytosis and is often seen with red blood cells (a process known as ... An Ova & Parasite (O&P) test or an E. histolytica fecal antigen assay is the proper assay for intestinal infections. Since ... It then secretes the same substances it uses to digest bacteria, which include enzymes that destroy cell membranes and proteins ...
Hyper-responsive macrophage phenotype.[15]. Due to the increased responsiveness, the macrophages produce excessive levels of ... diastema formation with disto-labial migration of the incisors. *increased mobility of the affected teeth, sensitivity due to ... the gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid is mostly polymorph neutrophils but also includes B cells and plasma cells. ... "Use and interpretation of microbiological assays in periodontal diseases". Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 1 (1): 73-81. ...
... endothelial cells/macrophages). TF is expressed by cells which are normally not exposed to flowing blood such as sub- ... positive regulation of cell migration. • activation of blood coagulation via clotting cascade. • positive regulation of ... Historically, thromboplastin was a lab reagent, usually derived from placental sources, used to assay prothrombin times (PT ... endothelial cells (e.g. smooth muscle cells) and cells surrounding blood vessels (e.g. fibroblasts). This can change when the ...
Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ... positive regulation of epithelial cell migration. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • positive regulation of ... Those reports also contained the basic observation underlying the now widely employed interferon gamma release assay used to ... Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ cells (Th0 cells) to differentiate into Th1 cells[ ...
The ability to image single-cell migration in real time is expected to be important to several research areas such as ... "Exploring Primary Liver Macrophages for Studying Quantum Dot Interactions with Biological Systems". Advanced Materials. 22 (23 ... "Band 3 modifications in Plasmodium falciparum-infected AA and CC erythrocytes assayed by autocorrelation analysis using quantum ... Quantum dot in hybrid solar cells[edit]. Colloidal quantum dots are also used in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. These ...
Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... where ρ represents mass density, R represents a mass flux (from cell migration), and R0 represents a mass source (from cell ... which can be modelled in vitro using the collagen gel contraction assay or the dermal equivalent model.[27][54] ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ...
MMPs are also thought to play a major role in cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration (adhesion/dispersion), ... "Collagenolytic activity in amphibian tissues: a tissue culture assay". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 48 (6 ... Macrophage metalloelastase. HME, ME, MME, MMP-12. secreted. Substrates include elastin, fibronectin, Col IV ... They are known to be involved in the cleavage of cell surface receptors, the release of apoptotic ligands (such as the FAS ...
Organizers of cell structure and function. Cell Adhesion & Migration. 2011; 5: 1-10. 81. Stossel, TP. Introduction to medical ... Association of gelsolin with actin filaments and with cell membranes of macrophages and platelets. J Cell Biol. 1989; 108:467- ... Brain polymorphonuclear leukocyte quantitation by peroxidase assay. Infection and Immunity. 1974; 10:356-360. 27. Stossel TP, ... Dev Cell, 2003, 4: 444-445. 77. Stossel, TP, Fenteany G, Hartwig, JH. Cell surface actin remodeling at a glance. J Cell Sci, ...
... can alter gastric epithelial cell adhesion and lead to the dispersion and migration of mutated epithelial cells without the ... Urea breath test, fecal antigen assay, tissue biopsy[4]. Medication. Proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, ... As a result of the bacterial presence, neutrophils and macrophages set up residence in the tissue to fight the bacteria assault ... adherence to adjacent cells, intracellular signaling, cell polarity, and other cellular activities.[57] Once inside the cell, ...
Rapid assembly and disassembly of actin network enables cells to migrate (Cell migration). ... In somatic cell nuclei, however, actin filaments cannot be observed using this technique.[104] The DNase I inhibition assay, so ... "Nuclear translocation of beta-actin is involved in transcriptional regulation during macrophage differentiation of HL-60 cells" ... Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells through ...
Statins also inhibit PPARγ in human macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells; this action may ... 13-HODE (and 9-HODE) are moderately strong stimulators of the directed migration (i.e. chemotaxis) of cow and human neutrophils ... "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter™ Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Oxidized LDL Regulates Macrophage Gene Expression through Ligand Activation of PPARγ". Cell. 93 (2): 229-40. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
... macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5- ... monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovascular ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ...
... activated natural killer cells; and peritoneal macrophages.[1] Pathogen-induced necrosis programs in cells with immunological ... an investigation of the effects of secretions from Lucilia sericata larvae upon the migration of human dermal fibroblasts over ... The first of these two pathways initially involves oncosis, where swelling of the cells occur.[14] The cell then proceeds to ... Thus, untreated necrosis results in a build-up of decomposing dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death ...
... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ... Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified simultaneously in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom.[5][6] ... Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially endo/epithelial cells and resident macrophages (many near the interface with the ... Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production". Cell. Immunol. 12 (1): 150-9. doi:10.1016/ ...
... can infect a variety of immune cells such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and microglial cells. HIV-1 entry to macrophages ... Although IFA can be used to confirm infection in these ambiguous cases, this assay is not widely used. In general, a second ... But urban migration rose, increasing sexual contacts and leading to red-light districts.. ... HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and ...
Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells". Mol ... This ratio of large HDL to total HDL particles varies widely and is measured only by more sophisticated lipoprotein assays ... Several steps in the metabolism of HDL can participate in the transport of cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages of ... Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells ...
Guide for Determining DNA Single-Strand Damage in Eukaryotic Cells Using the Comet Assay E2187 - 20a Test Method for Measuring ... 20 Guide for NAPL Mobility and Migration in Sediment - Conceptual Models for Emplacement and Advection E3251 - 20 Test Method ... Test Method for Evaluation of the Effect of Nanoparticulate Materials on the Formation of Mouse Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonies ... Guide for Performance of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell/Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Gene Mutation Assay E1264 ...
Each assay was performed in triplicate. After 24 hours, cells and Matrigel in the upper chamber were removed, and cells on the ... Rac1 and Rac2 are not required for macrophage migration. Rac is considered to be essential for cell migration (Etienne- ... A) Cell migration was followed by time-lapse microscopy for 6.5 hours. Migration tracks of cells that moved more than 30 μm ... Rac1-deficient macrophages exhibit defects in cell spreading and membrane ruffling but not migration. J. Cell Sci. 117, 1259- ...
To confirm our in vivo observations, we tested whether hK5His could inhibit macrophage migration in vitro. A migration assay ... Migration assays. HUVEC (1 × 104) or human macrophages (5 × 104) were plated onto 0.15% gelatin/PBS-coated 8-μm pore chemotaxis ... Migration assays were done as previously described ( 26). HUVEC and macrophages were exposed to conditioned medium from control ... B, absolute number of infiltrated CD45+ hematopoietic cells, CD45+Mac3+Gr1+ monocytes/macrophages, CD45+Mac3+Gr1− macrophages ...
... and the cells that remained attached were considered macrophages (25). Cell migration and invasion assays were performed ... Cells and Cell Culture.. LLC cells have been described previously (46). Mouse peritoneal monocytes/macrophages were harvested ... cell migration, 3 h; E) or Matrigel (cell invasion, 48 h; F). After washing, macrophages were maintained in serum-free medium, ... macrophages), and CD8-a (CD8 T cells). Note that the cell exudate comprised primarily monocytes (CD11b+), but no CD8+ T cells ...
... and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). In … ... We have compared the capillary tube assay for migration inhibition studies with our modification of the agarose microdroplet ... Correlation between agarose microdroplet and capillary tube procedures as assays for migration inhibition of target cells J ... and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). In all circumstances both procedures gave quantitatively ...
... a range of areas in biology in which macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is studied. Topics covered in this book ... Assays for Inducing and Measuring Cell Death to Detect Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Release ... Comprehensive and practical, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource that will ... 5′ and 3′ RACE Method to Obtain Full-Length 5′ and 3′ Ends of Ciona robusta Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factors Mif1 and ...
B) Transwell migration assay; cells were counted in the top panel after 24 hours of migration. (C) Recolonization capabilities ... Functional assays. A wound-healing assay was performed by implanting cells with high density the day before the experiment, ... Transmigration assay was performed by counting the cells that remained in the upper chamber of a cell culture insert (Millicell ... Cells were incubated for 4 hours at 37°C, and supernatant cells were recovered. Cytokines were analyzed in human macrophage ...
Bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMM; ref. 30) were used for Transwell cell migration assay as described (20). ... 4B). S1P2−/− MLECs also showed augmented cell migration in in vitro wound healing assay in the presence of serum plus VEGF (Fig ... For wound healing assay to evaluate cell migration, MLECs were seeded onto 60-mm dishes and allowed to grow until confluency. ... C, in vitro wound healing assay of MLECs. S1P2−/− MLECs showed significantly stimulated cell migration in the presence of serum ...
It was shown to activate the GPR18 receptor, which was postulated to switch macrophages from cytotoxic to reparative. To study ... Given NAGly mediated actions we speculate that GPR18 and its ligand NAGly are modulators of glial and neuronal cells during ... The effect of NAGly was also tested in isolated microglia and astrocytes as these cells play a crucial role during neuronal ... alone reduced the phosphorylation of Akt but no changes in activation of the p44/42 and p38 MAPK and CREB pathways in BV2 cells ...
Macrophages not expressing adenosine A2A receptors induce migration of neutrophils when exposed to apoptotic cells in a sterile ... Phagocytosis assay. For phagocytosis assays, macrophages were stained overnight with10 μM 5-(and 6-)-(((4-chloromethyl)benzoyl) ... To determine cytokine production by macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, macrophages were exposed to apoptotic cells for one ... In macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells, stimulation of A2ARs suppresses the NO-dependent formation of neutrophil migration ...
Cell adhesion assay, transwell migration assay, and macrophage polarization assays were performed to study the effects of IH ... The results also revealed that IH enhanced the MCP-1-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis and promoted macrophage ... Intermittent Hypoxia Enhances THP-1 Monocyte Adhesion and Chemotaxis and Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization via RAGE. Jing ... IH and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression are known to activate monocyte/macrophage and ...
We show in this study that macrophage SR-A deficiency inhibits tumor cell migration in a coculture assay. We further ... A paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is required for tumor cell migration in mammary tumors. Cancer Res. 64: ... B) Invasion assay of macrophages with either ID8 or Panc02 cells in the presence of 100 μg/ml scr4F or 4F. Data in (A) and (B) ... SR-A is necessary and sufficient to promote invasion in a macrophage-tumor cell in vitro invasion assay. (A) Wt or SR-A−/− BMM ...
negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... negative regulation of cell migration ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ...
Using a wound-healing assay, MFG-E8 was shown to promote the migration of intestinal epithelial cells through a PKCε-dependent ... Here we show that MFG-E8 was expressed in intestinal lamina propria macrophages from mice. ... where reduction of Ret expression was induced after the period of enteric neural crest cell migration, indicating that ... was important for DQ2-restricted T cells, whereas deamidation at P1 and/or P9 was important for DQ8-restricted T cells. ...
Macrophage migration assay. Murine BMDMs were differentiated in vitro from bone marrow precursor cells. Briefly, bone marrow ... BMDM migration was evaluated using the QCM chemotaxis 5-μm 96-well cell migration assay (Millipore) according to the ... B) Macrophages as a percentage of all cells in lean ad libitum-fed Atgl+/+ and fasted Atgl-/- mice. n = 4-5 mice/group. ***P , ... FBC cells) and a second expresses only F4/80 and CD11b (FB cells) (46, 47). Data presented here suggest that primarily FB cells ...
Collect data without plate washing, cell scraping, and counting. *Chart cell migration or bioavailability in real time without ... RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools Oligos ... dendritic cells, and Macrophages ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture ... Migrated cells are no longer shielded from the light source and are easily detected with a fluorescence plate reader or ...
... extracellular matrix and neutrophil migration during the immune response. ... In cell culture assays peritoneal macrophages (from homozygotes) exhibit defective phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria. In ... Polymorphonuclear neutrophils from homozygotes exhibit poor chemotactic migration. ... cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into CD-1 blastocysts. The resulting chimeric animals were tested for germline ...
... in a transwell cell migration assay. However, mCXCL2(1-73) and mCXCL3(1-73) incubated with MMP-12 overnight lost all ... Role of resident peritoneal macrophages and mast cells in chemokine production and neutrophil migration in acute inflammation: ... Resident mast cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells have been proposed to produce the initial signals responsible for the ... Resident and infiltrating macrophages, via the precise activity of macrophage-specific MMP-12, but not the other macrophage ...
positive regulation of cell migration Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) ... C-C CKR1, a receptor for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/Rantes, is also a functional receptor for MCP3.". Ben-Baruch A ... regulation of cell shape Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine ... positive regulation of natural killer cell chemotaxis Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Monocyte chemotactic ...
... general Gel electrophoresis Analysis Phosphodiesterases Health aspects T cells Tumor necrosis factor Care and treatment ... Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced CC chemokine ligand 3 production in mouse macrophages.( ... sup][24],[36] Our chemotaxis assay revealed that in the presence of rolipram CCL3-induced T-cell migration was impaired, ... Cell line Raw 264.7, a murine macrophage cell line, was obtained from Bioresource Collection and Research Center (Taiwan). ...
Cell migration was evaluated in standard Boyden chambers (Neuroprobe, Cabin John, MD). Macrophages (1.2 × 106 cells) were added ... for their competence to inhibit the migration of oil-induced peritoneal macrophages in a Boyden chemotaxis chamber assay, as ... Macrophage migration in fibrin gel matrices: effects of clotting factor XIII, fibronectin, and glycosaminoglycan content on ... T cell lines. At 9 days after induction of active EAE, draining lymph node cells were cultured (12 × 106/ml) for 3 days in ...
... treatment increases cardiomyocyte and capillary numbers in the border zone and the presence of pro-wound healing macrophages in ... Macrophage migration assay. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 20% L929-conditioned ... Macrophage adhesion assay. Mononuclear cells were isolated by flushing the tibias and femurs of 6- to 12-week-old mice. Cells ... macrophages CD45+CD11b+Ly6G−F480+, T cells CD45+CD11b−Ly6G−CD3+B220− and B cells CD45+CD11b−Ly6G−CD3−B220+. Note for blood F480 ...
Cell Migration Assay. Cell migration was determined by using 24-well Transwell chambers with polycarbonate membranes (5.0-μm ... KRS Induces Migration of Macrophages. We then investigated the cell migration inducing activity of KRS by using the Transwell ... and cell migration (Fig. 5F ). Thus, ERK and p38 MAPK seem to mediate the KRS-dependent cytokine production and cell migration ... B) Dose-dependent cell migration by KRS. (C) The KRS-dependent induction of MMP-9 was determined by a zymographic assay. ...
... a chamber for chemotaxis and migration studies of nonadherent cells in 3-D gel matrices, has been released by !%ibidi G ... assayBiophotonicscellschemotaxiscollagendendritic cellsgel matriceibidiibidi GmbHin vivolymphocytesMacrophagesmigrating cells ... The μ-Slide Chemotaxis 3D, a chamber for chemotaxis and migration studies of nonadherent cells in 3-D gel matrices, has been ... dendritic cells and macro-phages in gel matrices, including collagen. Previously, comparable cell-based assays allowed analysis ...
Migration assay. Cells (2 × 105) were seeded into a Transwell chamber (8 μm; BD Falcon) in a 24-well plate and migration to ... MS-275 prevents DC migration toward CCL19/macrophage inflammatory protein-3β. A, adherent monocytes were incubated for 7 d in ... poly(I-C) (50 μg/mL) was added at day 6 and cells were harvested at day 7 and used in the migration assay. ... Mixed leukocyte reaction assay. Responding cells (105) from allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in 96- ...
Migration assays of differentiated THP-1 macrophages. To evaluate the migratory capacity of macrophages under different ... cell lines. After 48 hours in coculture, BBCs caused greater differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophages. BBC cell lines ... This generated 3 macrophage populations: PMA-differentiated macrophages, M1-polarized macrophages, and M2-polarized macrophages ... including B cells, T cells, eosinophils, and macrophages in malignant tissues (4-6). In particular, the presence of macrophages ...
F. De Marchis performed cell migration assays. S. François and G. Messina designed and carried out experiments on isolated ... Cells were cultured for 7 d in DMEM conditioned by L929 cells (enriched in CSF-1). Macrophages were polarized toward a ... Bone marrow-derived macrophage polarization. Macrophages were obtained from bone marrow precursor cells. In brief, bone marrow ... A functional screen to identify novel effectors of hematopoietic stem cell activity. Cell. 137:369-379. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
After co-incubation with SK-OV-3 or OAW-42 OvCA cells, monocyte migration was determined in transwell assays. For conversion ... Little, however, is known about the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells. Considering that tumor associated macrophages (TAM) ... we investigated the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells and explored a possible contribution of myeloid cells to adenosine ... Methods Monocytes were used as human blood-derived myeloid cells. ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Figure 7: Transwell assay of macrophage migration. Representative pictures are shown. (a, b) Macrophages that had migrated to ... Transwell Migration Assay. Cell migration was quantitated in duplicate by use of 24-well Transwell inserts with polycarbonate ... SP600125 inhibited the migration of macrophages. and versus control; and versus the group treated with 5 ng/mL nicotine. ...
A migration assay was performed.. RESULTS: TNF-alpha upregulated M-CSF and RANKL in HPDL cells. The effect on M-CSF expression ... Human periodontal ligament cells secrete macrophage colony-stimulating factor in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ... HPDL cells are capable of secreting M-CSF and expressing RANKL in response to TNF-alpha. The upregulation of M-CSF is possibly ... Cultured HPDL cells were treated with TNF-alpha in serum-free condition. The expression of M-CSF and RANKL was determined by ...
... half of B cells were L-selectin(high). In short-term in vivo lymphocyte migration assays, B cells migrated from the bloodstream ... and mural angiogenesis and the accumulation of macrophages, T cells, and B cells. Whereas mRNA levels for PHD1 and PHD2 were ... Although B cells are crucial antigen-presenting cells in the initiation of T cell autoimmunity to islet beta cell autoantigens ... of T cell migration from the bloodstream into inflamed islets, but had no effect on B cell migration into islets. These results ...
  • Unexpectedly, Rac1/2 -/- macrophages, which do not express Rac1, Rac2 or Rac3, migrate at a similar speed to wild-type macrophages on a variety of substrates and perform chemotaxis normally, although their morphology and mode of migration is altered. (biologists.org)
  • Together, these data show that Rac1 and Rac2 have distinct roles in regulating cell morphology, migration and invasion, but are not essential for macrophage migration or chemotaxis. (biologists.org)
  • Deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 alters cell morphology but surprisingly does not prevent the migration or chemotaxis of macrophages, although it alters their mode of migration, and loss of Rac1 reduces invasion. (biologists.org)
  • IH and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression are known to activate monocyte/macrophage and associated with atherosclerosis development, while their effects on monocyte adhesion, chemotaxis to the endothelium, and macrophage polarization remain unknown. (hindawi.com)
  • The results also revealed that IH enhanced the MCP-1-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis and promoted macrophage polarization toward a proinflammatory phenotype, which was mediated by RAGE activity. (hindawi.com)
  • These results demonstrated a potential role of monocyte adhesion, chemotaxis, and macrophage polarization in the development cardiovascular diseases induced by IH and identified that RAGE could be a promising therapeutic target to prevent atherosclerosis in patients with OSA. (hindawi.com)
  • The μ-Slide Chemotaxis 3D, a chamber for chemotaxis and migration studies of nonadherent cells in 3-D gel matrices, has been released by ibidi GmbH. (photonics.com)
  • In vitro transwell migration and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess myeloid cell chemotaxis and mRNA expression, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • Sunitinib therapy substantially mitigated both AAA formation and further progression of established AAAs, attenuated aneurysmal aortic MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression, inhibited inflammatory monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis to VEGF-A, and reduced MMP2, MMP9, and VEGF-A mRNA expression in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in vitro. (stanford.edu)
  • Additionally, sunitinib treatment reduced circulating monocytes in aneurysmal mice.CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-A and its receptors contribute to experimental AAA formation by suppressing mural angiogenesis, MMP and VEGF-A production, myeloid cell chemotaxis, and circulating monocytes. (stanford.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) secrete anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative factors that affect the chemotaxis of neutrophils and macrophages and suppress both T- and B-cell proliferation in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Chemotaxis assays were used to test functionality of the secreted protein. (nih.gov)
  • in vitro assays showed that this lectin also induced neutrophil chemotaxis, an effect inhibited by the incubation of lectin associated with alpha-D(+)-mannose, its specific binding sugar. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a chemotaxis assay of human dendritic cells in response to macrophage inflammatory protein 3beta (MIP-3beta)/CCL19, adenosine caused a delay in transmigration. (nih.gov)
  • Two forms of cell migration that can be studied using Boyden Chambers are chemotaxis and haptotaxis. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Chemotaxis describes cell migration in response to extracellular chemical signals. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Chemotaxis assays are ideal for assessing the effects of pharmacological compounds on the motility of tumor cells, for example, and for analyzing the migratory capacity of multiple cell lines in parallel. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The chemotaxis cell migration assay measures directional cell movement in response to chemical concentration gradients. (emdmillipore.com)
  • 23408426 ). Its binding with CCL2 on monocytes and macrophages mediates chemotaxis and migration induction through the activation of the PI3K cascade, the small G protein Rac and lamellipodium protrusion (Probable). (uniprot.org)
  • also termed monocyte chemotactic and activating factor, or CCL2), a well known member of the CC family of chemokines, is reported to be the key molecule in terms of chemotaxis and activation of macrophages ( 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In contrast, using both laser ablation and a novel wounding assay that allows localized treatment inhibitory drugs, we show that PI3K is essential for hemocyte chemotaxis toward wounds and that Pvf signals and PDGF/VEGF receptor expression are not required for this rapid chemotactic response. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Functionally, hK5His protein produced by retrovirally engineered human U87MG glioma cells suppresses in vitro migration of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considering that tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) constitute up to 20 % of OvCA tissue, we investigated the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells and explored a possible contribution of myeloid cells to adenosine generation in vitro and ex Background Ovarian cancer (OvCA) tissues show abundant expression of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 which generate immunomodulatory adenosine, thereby inhibiting cytotoxic lymphocytes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Considering that tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) constitute up to 20 % of OvCA tissue, we investigated the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells and explored a possible contribution of myeloid cells to adenosine generation in vitro and ex vivo. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • CD39 and CD73 expression were assessed by FACS analysis both on in vitro-induced TAM-like macrophages and on ascites-derived ex situ-TAMs. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Ex situ-TAMs and in vitro differentiated TAM-like cells, however, upregulated the expression of CD39 and CD73 compared to monocytes or M1 macrophages. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • TNF-α treatment of LECs and its specific blockade in vitro reproduced differential regulation of a gene set that led to enhanced LEC mobility and macrophage attachment, which was mediated by the LEC-derived chemokine CXCL10. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a 22 kDa glycoprotein, was first described as an in vitro inducer of differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells into distinct colonies, including granulocytes and macrophages. (dovepress.com)
  • 4 GM-CSF can also act on relatively early progenitor cells and interacts with erythropoietin to stimulate eosinophil and megakaryocyte colony formation in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • Human periodontal ligament cells secrete macrophage colony-stimulating factor in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • The low-dose paclitaxel, which induced apoptosis in ∼10% of tumor cells, was not toxic to bone marrow cells and dendritic cells and stimulated dendritic cell maturation and function in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although tumor cells inhibited dendritic cell differentiation in vitro , this immunosuppressive effect was abrogated by the pretreatment of tumor cells with low-dose paclitaxel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SMCs, isolated from MMP-9 −/− mouse arteries, showed an impairment of migration and replication in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • We obtained invasive breast ductal carcinoma cells of various subtypes by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from patients and found that, in an in vitro transendothelial migration assay, cells that migrated through a layer of human endothelial cells were enriched for the transcript encoding Mena(INV), an invasive isoform of Mena. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Human amniotic cells were isolated from human amniotic membrane and cultured in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Moreover, AEC supernatant inhibited macrophage migration in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • In vitro, down-regulated expression of DJ-1 in NPC cell lines by siRNA was observed to reduce cell migration and invasion potential, however, exogenous MIF promoted cells invasion. (medsci.org)
  • In this work, the in vitro co-culture of TAM-derived exosomes with endothelial cells suppressed the migration of the endothelial cells. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • In in vitro co-culture assays, F. nucleatum ssp. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We investigated the effect of Helianthus tuberosus agglutinin (HTA) on neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we investigated the role of CCR2 in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages into obese adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Further, using in vitro model, C2C12, a myoblast cell line, we demonstrated that satellite cells express CCR2 and CCRS receptors and these chemokine pathways are involved in satellite cell migration activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Of various nucleotides tested, ATP and UTP were the most efficient at recruiting monocytes in in vitro migration assays, and both nucleotides were detectable in the supernatants of cells within 2 hours of the induction of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Does not affect the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, but inhibits tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. (abcam.com)
  • Many fundamental insights into the processes of neuronal apoptosis, migration, and differentiation in the mammalian central nervous system have come from investigating granule neurons in vitro. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Blood samples (days 0 and 14) were comprehensively analysed for in vitro neutrophil chemokinetic capacity towards a chemotaxin (fMLP) using a novel neutrophil migration assay, in combination with live cell tracking, as well as immunostaining for neutrophil polarisation factors (ROCK, PI3K) at migration endpoint. (springermedizin.de)
  • This study aims to investigate macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-induced invasion of NPC cells in vitro and the effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and to study the mechanism of tumor cell invasion and metastasis in the early stage of NPC. (bvsalud.org)
  • MIF can induce potent invasion of NPC cell lines in vitro, and the infiltrating lymphocytes in NPC might be responsible for the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that Gremlin-1 inhibited MIF-dependent monocyte migration and adhesion to activated endothelial cells in flow chamber perfusion assay in vitro and to the injured carotid artery of WT and ApoE-/- mice in vivo as deciphered by intravital microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro , internalized peptide suppressed STAT activation and target gene expression induced by inflammatory and hyperglycemic conditions, reduced migration and proliferation in mesangial and tubuloepithelial cells, and altered the expression of cytokine-induced macrophage polarization markers. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we investigated the effect of a physiological concentration of 3 mM 3-OHB on metabolism, proliferation, and viability of breast cancer (BC) cells in vitro. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Thus, we have no evidence that 3-OHB generally influences the biology of breast cancer cells in vitro. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • These data suggest that plasminogen K5 acts as a novel two-pronged anticancer agent, mediating its inhibitory effect via its action on host-derived endothelial cells and tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in a potent, clinically relevant antitumor effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have compared the capillary tube assay for migration inhibition studies with our modification of the agarose microdroplet technique, using several sources of factors with inhibitory activity (lymphokines, bacterial factors) and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). (nih.gov)
  • This volume looks at--and discusses the techniques of--a range of areas in biology in which macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is studied. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and practical, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource that will help researchers gain a new understanding of MIF biology in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Jonathan Pachter, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer of Verastem Oncology, commented, "The presented research by Drs. Casulo and Weaver continues to provide important evidence that the dual PI3K-delta/PI3K-gamma inhibitory activity of duvelisib results in beneficial anti-tumor effects on both the cancer cells and their supportive tumor microenvironment (TME) which has the potential to enhance clinical efficacy and improve outcomes for patients battling CLL/SLL and FL. (biospace.com)
  • The AECs expressed message for TNFα, Fas ligand (FasL), TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), TGFβ, and macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF). (arvojournals.org)
  • Background and aim: Both macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and DJ-1 protein have been shown to relate with cell invasion and metastasis in tumors. (medsci.org)
  • This inhibitory effect is selective to endothelial cells as it does not affect the migration of smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. (abcam.com)
  • In this study, inhibitory antibodies were used to determine which integrins mediated HGF-induced SMC migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gremlin-1 inhibits macrophage migration inhibitory factor-dependent monocyte function and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Monocyte migration and their differentiation into macrophages critically regulate vascular inflammation and atherogenesis and are governed by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This study examined whether a cell-permeable peptide mimicking the kinase-inhibitory region of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) regulatory protein protects against nephropathy by suppressing STAT-mediated cell responses to diabetic conditions. (asnjournals.org)
  • At later stages of angiogenesis when endothelial cell proliferation ceases, SPARC may exert inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. (skinbiology.com)
  • It also serves as cell surface receptor for the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) which, when bound to the encoded protein, initiates survival pathways and cell proliferation. (cancerindex.org)
  • RT-PCR verified by Southern blotting and sequencing of PCR products of four different C-C chemokines, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), MIP-1β, and RANTES, were performed on brain samples from EAE rats to evaluate mRNA transcription at different stages of disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-9, monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, and regulated-on-activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) was significantly upregulated in aortic aneurysm lesions but inhibited by SP600125. (hindawi.com)
  • All of these activities demonstrate that human KRS may work as a previously uncharacterized signaling molecule, inducing immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • This study investigated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and polarization and gene expression in response to coculture with basal-like versus luminal breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After co-incubation with SK-OV-3 or OAW-42 OvCA cells, monocyte migration was determined in transwell assays. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Sequestration of VEGF-A by Ad-VEGFR-2 prevented AAA formation, with attenuation of medial elastolysis and smooth muscle depletion, mural angiogenesis and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. (stanford.edu)
  • It also stimulated the monocyte/macrophage activation and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1)/CCR2 (CC motif chemokine receptor-2) pathway may play a role in macrophage infiltration into obese adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report the induction and reduction of adenosine receptor A2a and A3 mRNAs, respectively, during maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • VEGFR1 engagement on monocyte/macrophage lineage cells enhances their migration, and release of growth factors and cytokines. (rndsystems.com)
  • Examined were CCR2-deficient mice to clarify the contribution of macrophages via monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 or CCL2)/CCR2 signaling to the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • Protein arrays of the supernatants revealed a strong secretion of cytokines and growth factors, such as monocyte chemoatractant protein-1 and GM-CSF from DKmix cells. (uzh.ch)
  • Therefore Gremlin-1 can modulate MIF dependent monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, THP-1 or peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) derived macrophages and cancer cells co-stimulation was performed to mimic the cancer cell and macrophages interaction in the tumor microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteolysis of the protein participates in the establishment of a mature macrophage phenotype. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These cells have a remarkable heterogeneity related to their origin, phenotype, tissue localization, and function. (bloodjournal.org)
  • While the phagocytosis of a variety of pathogenic targets, especially bacteria and virally-infected cells, normally triggers a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages (including the generation of reactive oxygen-derived intermediates, the release of proteolytic enzymes, and the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines), ingestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages usually induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stimulation with IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 drives macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. (jimmunol.org)
  • The macrophages present in neoplastic tissues (TAMs) mainly display an M2-like phenotype with expression of classes of innate pattern recognition receptors, such as mannose receptor and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Consistent with these changes in cellular phenotype, a distinct pattern of cytokine secretion was evident in macrophage-BBC cocultures, including upregulation of NAP-2, osteoprotegerin, MIG, MCP-1, MCP-3, and interleukin (IL)-1β. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently observed that BBC-stromal interactions may result in elevated expression of cytokines, including cytokines that affect macrophage phenotype ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To date, the signaling pathways that modify the cross-talk between basal-like cells and immune cells in the inflammatory microenvironment of BBCs remain uncertain, with gaps in understanding how BBCs alter the behavior and phenotype of macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In turn, expression of ZEB1 by TAMs induced Ccl2, Cd74, and a mesenchymal/stem‐like phenotype in cancer cells. (embopress.org)
  • Importantly, all other features of dendritic cells tested--phenotype, antigen uptake, cytokine production, T cell activation, and the T cell subset induction--remained unchanged. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo studies have shown grape seed-derived polyphenols (GSP) to benefit in recovery from muscle injury by modulation of neutrophil infiltration into damaged tissue, thereby reducing secondary damage, as well as by facilitating an early anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype shift. (springermedizin.de)
  • Macrophage phenotype marker expression was assessed using flow cytometry. (springermedizin.de)
  • Macrophage phenotype markers CD274 and MPO - indicators of a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype - seemed to be normalised relative to baseline expression levels after GSP treatment. (springermedizin.de)
  • Potential modulation of macrophage phenotype by GSP should be investigated further. (springermedizin.de)
  • Additional file 4: Representative flow cytometry scatter plots for the analysis of macrophage phenotype marker expression. (springermedizin.de)
  • The M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) inhibits the anti-tumor inflammation, increases angiogenesis and promotes tumor progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2 and Huh 7) and pancreatic cancer cells (SUIT2 and Panc-1) were co-cultured with monocytes cells (THP-1) or peripheral blood monocytes derived macrophages, then the phenotype changes of macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells were detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Macrophage Nrf2 activation by cancer cell-derived lactate skews macrophages polarization towards an M2-like phenotype and educated macrophages activate Nrf2 of the cancer cells to promote EMT of cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: 3-OHB significantly changed the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in BT20 cells resulting in a more oxidative energetic phenotype. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The protein is further cleaved into a 20-kDa fragment, which involves cathepsin B. NPM1 fragments contribute to the limited motility, migration, and phagocytosis capabilities of resting macrophages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells, stimulation of A2ARs suppresses the NO-dependent formation of neutrophil migration factors, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2, using the adenylate cyclase / protein kinase A pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • C-C CKR1, a receptor for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/Rantes, is also a functional receptor for MCP3. (uniprot.org)
  • who blocked EAE in mice by immunizing them with rabbit anti-mouse polyclonal Abs against macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) ( 33 ), and very recently by Gong et al. (jimmunol.org)
  • MMP-12-cleaved mCXCL2 (macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2]) and mCXCL3 (dendritic cell inflammatory protein-1 [DCIP-1]) lost chemotactic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β/chemokine, motif CC, ligand 19-induced migration, immunostimulatory capacity, and cytokine secretion by DCs are also profoundly impaired. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PGE 2 activates specific G-protein coupled EP receptors and it mediates pro- or anti-inflammatory actions depending on the cell-context. (frontiersin.org)
  • We previously described the selective impairment of P2Y nucleotide signaling by PGE 2 in macrophages and fibroblasts, an effect independent of prostaglandin receptors but that involved protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Breast cancer cells with increased abundance of Mena [an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive cell migration protein] are present with macrophages at sites of intravasation, called TMEM sites (for tumor microenvironment of metastasis), in patient tumor samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 76 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Antikörper von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Proteine (7) und Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Kits (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 88 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • animalis induced CCL20 protein expression in colorectal cancer cells and monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Supernatant from apoptotic cells administered to air pouches in mice deficient in P2Y 2 , a G protein-coupled receptor for ATP and UTP, recruited fewer macrophages than were recruited when comparable experiments were performed with wild-type (WT) mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Haptotaxis describes cell migration towards an immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM) protein gradient such as vitronectin, fibronectin, or collagen coated on the bottom of the Boyden Chamber insert. (emdmillipore.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a mesenchymal-derived protein that regulates the growth and motility of various cell types, is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques, colocalizing with SMCs, microvascular endothelial cells, and monocytes/macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ischemia-reperfusion induced the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein in injured kidneys, followed by CCR2-positive macrophages in interstitium in wild-type mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition, CCR2-deficient mice diminished KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78, and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 expression compared with wild-type mice accompanied with the reduction of interstitial granulocyte infiltration. (asnjournals.org)
  • In principle, protein-based biotherapeutics offers a way to control biochemical processes in living cells under non-steady state conditions and with fewer off-target effects than conventional small molecule therapeutics. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Protein transduction exploits the ability of some cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) sequences to enhance the uptake of proteins and other macromolecules by mammalian cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, solubilization domains (SDs) have been incorporated into the aMTD-fused SOCS3 recombinant proteins to enhance solubility with corresponding increases in protein yield and cell-/tissue-permeability. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Since SOCS3 is known to be an endogenous inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis, we reasoned that iCP-SOCS3 could be used as a protein-based intracellular replacement therapy for inhibiting angiogenesis in tumor cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the present invention with iCP-SOCS3, where SOCS3 is fused to an empirically determined combination of newly developed aMTD and customized SD, macromolecule intracellular transduction technology (MITT) enabled by the advanced MTDs may provide novel protein therapy against cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • MIP-3β stands for macrophage inflammatory protein 3β, also termed CCL19. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Mouse MIP-3β is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Osteopontin protein was expressed by peri-infarct microglia beginning at 24 hours and by microglia/macrophages at 48 hours in the infarct. (ahajournals.org)
  • Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to assay the protein and mRNA expressions of MMP2 and MMP9. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most cell types have a limited life span, which ends physiologically through the process of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Subsequently, Ag-specific autoimmune T cells either become anergic or undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis), leading to a remission in disease severity ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1 However, the underlying, multifactorial mechanisms that shape the extent and kinetics of PMN and macrophage recruitment, apoptosis, and clearance remain unclear. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, HDAC inhibitors induce promoter hyperacetylation and subsequent up-regulation of different members of the surface death receptor pathway, including Fas, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor DR5, and cooperatively enhance TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in leukemic cells ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results provide experimental evidence that GM-CSF inhibits growth and migration, as well as induction of apoptosis in EC cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members are important regulators of normal epithelial cell differentiation, cytostasis, and apoptosis but can also promote tumorigenesis ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Apoptosis was examined by caspase-3 and annexin V assays, and expression of cytokines was assessed by RT-PCR. (arvojournals.org)
  • Caspase-3 assays revealed that the supernatant induced apoptosis of T and B cells, but not of corneal epithelial cells and liver cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In contrast to lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils were resistant to apoptosis induced by AEC supernatant. (arvojournals.org)
  • The paucity of detectable apoptotic cells in tissues where many cells undergo apoptosis demonstrates the efficiency of cell-clearance mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • found that supernatant from thymocytes in which apoptosis was induced recruited more monocytes in a migration assay than did supernatant from live cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatment of cells with a caspase inhibitor before triggering apoptosis blocked the release of ATP and UTP into the culture medium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Activated caspase-3 and TUNEL assays of the 80 mu g exposure group at 7 days post-exposure demonstrated increased apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of ionizing radiation and Taurine treatment on GC-2 cells were evaluated by cell viability assay (CCK8), cell cycle and apoptosis. (bireme.br)
  • Hpa-KO macrophages express lower levels of cytokines (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • M1 macrophages classically are activated by IFN-γ, with or without microbial products, produce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, express high levels of MHC molecules, and are implicated in the killing of pathogens and tumor cells ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inflammatory cells infiltrating the aortic wall are thought to be important in the destructive connective tissue remodeling that occurs before and during aneurysmal degeneration, particularly through the production of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes capable of degrading elastin, collagen, and other structurally important matrix proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells may support osteoclastogenesis by expressing receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in response to periopathogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • The released form of FasL (sFasL) preferentially induces the migration of proangiogenic M2 macrophages into the laser lesions and increases proangiogenic cytokines promoting CNV. (arvojournals.org)
  • 23938203 ). Regulates the expression of T-cell inflammatory cytokines and T-cell differentiation, promoting the differentiation of T-cells into T-helper 17 cells (Th17) during inflammation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • cytokines are suitable for a wide variety of cell culture applications. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • AEC II also secrete a broad variety of factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, involved in activation and differentiation of immune cells and are able to present antigen to specific T cells. (asm.org)
  • We show in this study that macrophage SR-A deficiency inhibits tumor cell migration in a coculture assay. (jimmunol.org)
  • We demonstrate that PGE 2 inhibits intracellular calcium responses elicited by UTP in individual cells and that inhibiting this P2Y signaling impairs the astrocyte migration elicited by this nucleotide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibits artery neointimal formation and macrophage infiltration. (abcam.com)
  • Note that cytochalasin D inhibits cell migration towards chemoattractant FBS. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Here, we show that the kinase switch control inhibitor rebastinib inhibits Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed on endothelial cells and protumoral Tie2-expressing macrophages in mouse models of metastatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The slide enables motion tracking of lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macro-phages in gel matrices, including collagen. (photonics.com)
  • Our laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms that control the migration of lymphocytes into sites of autoimmune-mediated tissue damage, such as pancreatic islets in type 1 diabetes and salivary glands in Sjogren s syndrome. (stanford.edu)
  • MIP-3β is a chemoattractant for T and B lymphocytes and myeloid progenitor cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Mice treated with the SOCS1 peptidomimetic also exhibited reduced kidney leukocyte recruitment (T lymphocytes and classic M1 proinflammatory macrophages) and decreased expression levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic markers that were independent of glycemic and lipid changes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Inflammation is a normal indication of injury and activates macrophages, which recruit lymphocytes to the site of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 ) attraction of phagocytes via soluble `find me' signals, ( 2 ) recognition and phagocytosis via cell surface presenting `eat me' signals, and ( 3 ) suppression or initiation of inflammatory responses depending on additional innate immune stimuli. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In cell culture assays peritoneal macrophages (from homozygotes) exhibit defective phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria. (jax.org)
  • Elevation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in macrophages suppresses several inflammatory responses, including inflammatory mediator production and receptor-mediated phagocytosis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Skeletal muscle injuries are associated with local infiltration of large numbers of mononuclear cell, degeneration of the injured myofibers and removal of the cell debris by phagocytosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Both short and long MWCNTs projected beyond the cytoplasmic margins of some macrophages, indicating incomplete phagocytosis or cytoplasmic penetration after phagocytosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Macrophages are specialized cells that carry out numerous tasks in the immune system such as phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine production and migration. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These AEC-conditioned media were used in various setups to test for the effects on a number of macrophage functions: (i) migration, (ii) phagocytosis and intracellular control of bacterial growth, and (iii) phenotypic changes and morphology. (asm.org)
  • It was shown to activate the GPR18 receptor, which was postulated to switch macrophages from cytotoxic to reparative. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study, using wild type and adenosine A 2A receptor (A2AR) null mice, we investigated whether A2ARs, known to mediate anti-inflammatory signals in macrophages, participate in the apoptotic cell-mediated immunosuppression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells release adenosine in sufficient amount to trigger A2ARs, and simultaneously increase the expression of A2ARs, possibly via activation of activation of liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor δ. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, preincubation of macrophages with apoptotic cells strongly suppresses the inflammatory response induced via Toll-like receptor 4 by lipopolysaccharide, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria ( 4 - 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alternatively activated macrophages express the pattern recognition receptor scavenger receptor A (SR-A). We demonstrated previously that coculture of macrophages with tumor cells upregulates macrophage SR-A expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • We tentatively identified several potential ligands for the SR-A receptor in tumor cell-macrophage cocultures by mass spectrometry. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has recently been shown that the binding of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1) activates RET and is essential for the survival of enteric neurons. (jci.org)
  • Application of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) to cocultures attenuated BBC-induced macrophage migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using mouse macrophages and the human cancer cells from the FNAs, we identified paracrine and autocrine activation of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Objective- Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (ahajournals.org)
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is highly expressed on lung-derived T cells compared to blood T cells, especially in inflammatory diseases characterised by T-cell migration to the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Role of CC chemokine receptor 2 in bone marrow cells in the recruitment of macrophages into obese adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • therefore we tested a stable agonist, 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine, to explore the effect of adenosine receptor activation on dendritic cell function. (nih.gov)
  • We clearly show that adenosine receptor engagement affects the migratory activity of dendritic cells in three distinct settings. (nih.gov)
  • 4 Thus, cross talk between growth factor receptor and integrin signaling pathways can regulate the cellular machinery necessary for directed cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • MIP-3β is expressed in the thymus, lymph nodes, and in activated bone marrow stromal cells and signals through the CCR7 receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The carboxy C-terminal domain contains repeating units that are responsible for receptor binding on target cell surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor binding is the first step required for entry into the cell via endocytosis in an acidic endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is associated with infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) by macrophages, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Significant inhibition of tumor growth in mice treated with low-dose paclitaxel plus intratumoral dendritic cell vaccine, associated with increased tumor infiltration by CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and elevated tumor-specific IFN-γ production by draining lymph node cells, was revealed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In human ovarian carcinomas, TAM infiltration and CCR2 expression correlated with ZEB1 in tumor cells, where along with CCL2 and CD74 determined poorer prognosis. (embopress.org)
  • These results revealed that MCP-1 via CCR2 signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through infiltration and activation of macrophages, and it offers a therapeutic target for ischemia-reperfusion. (asnjournals.org)
  • However, precise roles of MCP-1 and CCR2 in interstitial infiltration and activation of macrophages in ischemia-reperfusion injury remain to be investigated. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP-1/CCR2 signaling is required for macrophage infiltration and activation in ischemia-reperfusion injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • Subcutaneous implantation of Matrigel-embedded hK5His-producing glioma cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice reveals that hK5His induces a marked reduction in blood vessel formation and significantly suppresses the recruitment of tumor-infiltrating CD45 + Mac3 + Gr1 − macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this issue of the JCI, Kosteli and colleagues demonstrate that weight loss is unexpectedly also associated with rapid, albeit transient, recruitment of macrophages to WAT and that this appears to be related to lipolysis. (jci.org)
  • Obesity elicits an immune response characterized by myeloid cell recruitment to key metabolic organs, including adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • Here we characterized the response of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to weight loss and fasting in mice and identified a role for lipolysis in ATM recruitment and accumulation. (jci.org)
  • Through the activity of macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), we found that macrophages dampen the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)-thus providing a new mechanism for the termination of PMN recruitment in acute inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Acute inflammation is the host response to tissue injury or infection that is characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators, culminating in the initial but transient recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) that is followed by a prolonged macrophage accumulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • rHCI treatment increases cardiomyocyte and capillary numbers in the border zone and the presence of pro-wound healing macrophages in the ischemic area, while reducing the overall recruitment of bone marrow monocytes. (nature.com)
  • Conclusion Adenosine generated by OvCA cells likely contributes to the recruitment of TAMs which further amplify adenosine-dependent immunosuppression via additional ectonucleotidase activity. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In addition, we provide evidence for paracrine cross-talk fostering macrophage recruitment to LECs as one pathophysiological process that might contribute to aberrant lymphangiogenesis and persistent inflammation in the skin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, these results suggest that the bronchial epithelium is an important source of constitutively expressed CXCL16, which may be involved in T-cell recruitment to the lung in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesize that early inflammatory mediators, such as chemokines, are released during the muscle disruption and degeneration and are involved in macrophage recruitment and satellite cell migration and activation. (cdc.gov)
  • Then co-culture, migration, and ELISA assays were applied to determine the role of miR-195-5p in macrophage recruitment and alternative polarization. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of the supernatant from the apoptotic cells with apyrase, which hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates, blocked the recruitment of macrophages to the air pouch. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that ATP and UTP are factors released by apoptotic thymocytes that trigger the recruitment of the macrophages needed to clear them from the tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mediates the recruitment of macrophages and monocytes to the injury site following brain injury (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • This was evident as pronounced neutrophil migration upon exposure of macrophages to apoptotic cells in an in vivo peritonitis model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In vivo , apoptotic cells are usually engulfed by neighboring cells or professional phagocytes, such as macrophages ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Previously, comparable cell-based assays allowed analysis of migrating cells only in 2-D. Now, the motility of nonadherent cells can be simulated, analyzed and quantified in an environment similar to in vivo over a 48-h period. (photonics.com)
  • The dermis revealed enhanced lymphatic vessel density, and transcriptional profiling of ex vivo isolated lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) identified 160 genes differentially expressed between type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic LECs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We evaluated the antitumor potential and changes in the intratumoral milieu of a combination of low-dose chemotherapy and dendritic cell vaccine in the Lewis lung carcinoma model in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on these data, we next tested whether pretreatment of tumor-bearing mice with low-dose paclitaxel in vivo would improve the antitumor potential of dendritic cell vaccine administered intratumorally. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown previously that distinct Mena isoforms are expressed in invasive and migratory tumor cells in vivo and that the invasion isoform (Mena INV ) potentiates carcinoma cell metastasis in murine models of breast cancer. (biologists.org)
  • however, few molecular markers exist that can predict the migratory potential of a tumor cell in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Labeling cells for in vivo tracking using (19)F MRI. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Noninvasive in vivo cell tracking is crucial to fully understand the function of mobile and/or transplanted cells, particularly immune cells and cellular therapeutics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This led to the discovery and verification of the paracrine interaction between tumor cells and macrophages in vivo, the role of macrophages in the migration of tumor cells during HGF-dependent tumor cell streaming to blood vessels and the mechanism of tumor cell dissemination from primary tumors via TMEM (Tumor MicroEnvironment of Metastasis) to distant metastatic sites. (biomedicalimaging.org)
  • Based on these results, cell collection techniques, including the in vivo invasion assay were developed for the collection of migrating and disseminating macrophages and tumor cells. (biomedicalimaging.org)
  • John Condeelis has devised optical microscopes for uncaging, biosensor detection and multiphoton imaging for these studies and has used novel caged-enzymes and biosensors to test, in vivo, the predictions of the invasion signatures regarding the mechanisms of tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. (biomedicalimaging.org)
  • An in vivo assay for chemoattractant activity. (skinbiology.com)
  • The mononuclear phagocytic system is composed of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells that form a network of phagocytic cells throughout most tissues and play a major role in development, inflammation, antipathogen defenses, and scavenging. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Altogether our data indicate that adenosine is one of the soluble mediators released by macrophages that mediate engulfment-dependent apoptotic cell suppression of inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Apoptotic cell clearance is believed to represent a critical process in tissue remodeling, maintenance of immune homeostasis, and resolution of inflammation ( 2 , 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At first, a very limited repertoire of T cells, which we named the primary influx, interacts with their target Ag at the site of inflammation, leading to the activation of the blood brain barrier to express various adhesion molecules and thus to increase its permeability to circulating leukocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several studies suggest that breast cancer initiation and progression is linked to inflammation (reviewed in ref. 3 ), and investigations have shown a significant increase in the presence of innate and adaptive immune cells, including B cells, T cells, eosinophils, and macrophages in malignant tissues ( 4-6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Currently, generalized insulin insensitivity is considered the central pathogenic event ( 2 ) that is frequently linked to a systemic metabolic syndrome, a state of chronic low-level inflammation involving macrophage activation in adipose tissue ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 19F magnetic resonance imaging of endogenous macrophages in inflammation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More than 75% of the mononuclear immune cells in the peritoneum near a tumor implant were TAMs, which mimic chronic inflammation [ 2 ] and associated with tumor progression. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • Persistent pulmonary inflammation, airway mucous metaplasia and migration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from the lung after subchronic exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • MWCNTs principally accumulated in macrophages and caused granulomatous inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings demonstrate that MWCNTs cause persistent pulmonary inflammation, can be translocated within the lung by alveolar macrophages, can migrate from the lung to the regional lymph node and can penetrate the cytoplasm of macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • The sole ligand of CXCR6, CXCL16, has previously been shown to be expressed by alveolar macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • The lower respiratory tract has two macrophage populations: alveolar macrophages (AM) in the alveoli and interstitial macrophages located in the insterstitium. (asm.org)
  • In response to LPS challenge, peritoneal macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (from homozygotes) exhibit a sub-normal production of proinflammatory cytokine (TNFalpha and IL6) production. (jax.org)
  • Further analysis on CCL3 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages revealed that the reduced CCL3 secretion was associated with a substantial decrease in CCL3 mRNA accumulation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Depletion of the resident-cell population by peritoneal lavage did not alter HTA-induced neutrophil migration (200 microg/mL per cavity). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The opposite strategy, increasing peritoneal macrophages by intraperitoneally injecting rats with thioglycollate, did not enhance the neutrophil migration produced by HTA (200 microg/mL per cavity). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, injection of supernatant from HTA-stimulated macrophage culture (300 microg/mL) into rat peritoneal cavities did not induce neutrophil migration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stimulation of rat peritoneal mast cell migration by tumor derived peptides. (skinbiology.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue and Ishikawa cells co-culture highlight the role of adiponectin in endometrial cancer pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the function of Rac1 and Rac2 in the same cell type, conditional knockouts of Rac1 have been generated in B cells, T cells, haematopoietic stem cells and neutrophils. (biologists.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear neutrophils from homozygotes exhibit poor chemotactic migration. (jax.org)
  • Our results show that the frequency of CFSE+ neutrophils, indicative of interaction, and CFSE intensity on a cell-per-cell basis were similar when comparing Col1.7G2 and Y strains. (bireme.br)
  • M-CSF-driven differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is one of the sources of tissue macrophages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 Circulating blood monocytes develop from bone marrow progenitor cells and enter tissues to further differentiate, mainly into resident tissue macrophages and dendritic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Efficient execution of apoptotic cell death followed by efficient clearance mediated by professional macrophages is a key mechanism in maintaining tissue homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • M2 macrophages moderate the inflammatory response, eliminate cell debris, and promote angiogenesis and tissue remodeling ( 3 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • SR-A is restricted to the myeloid lineage and is expressed on most mature tissue macrophages and on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and splenic dendritic cells but not on their immature precursor monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, macrophages ingest apoptotic PMNs from the inflamed site as a prelude to tissue resolution. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Injection of HMGB1 accelerates tissue repair by acting on resident muscle stem cells, hepatocytes, and infiltrating cells. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a new therapy is needed that can simultaneously prevent adverse remodeling and provide a suitable ECM environment to support cell and tissue repair, as well as functional restoration. (nature.com)
  • As monocytes migrate from peripheral blood into tissue, they differentiate and are referred to as resident macrophages and primarily conduct the homeostatic function of debris clearance ( 10, 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myeloid cells in solid tumor tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • We have reported that cultured human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) can be successfully transplanted onto a denuded rabbit cornea without any clinical complications or tissue rejection during 10 days of observation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • This interdisciplinary symposium will convene leading experts in adult stem cell research, tissue regeneration and bioengineering to discuss cutting edge research at the intersection of these disciplines, with the overall aim of translating current stem cell knowledge into clinical applications. (nyas.org)
  • Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features tissue culture methods for immune cells a. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Tissue culture methods for specific cell types allow researchers to break these systems down into component parts that can be readily manipulated and observed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Accutase® does not contain mammalian or bacterial derived products and is useful for the routine detachment of cells from standard tissue culture plasticware and adhesion coated plasticware, including Geltrex™, CELLStart™ and polymers. (thermofisher.com)
  • These recombinant SOCS3 proteins fused to aMTD/SD having much higher solubility/yield and cell-/tissue-permeability have been named as improved cell-permeable SOCS3 (iCP-SOCS3) proteins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that therapeutic application of progenitor cells is useful for tissue regeneration. (uzh.ch)
  • It is a replacement for Trypsin-EDTA solution and is useful for the detachment of cells from standard tissue culture plasticware and adhesion coated plasticware, and polymers. (biolegend.com)
  • 1 After focal ischemia, glial cells initiate a classic wound-healing response 2 with formation of a barrier between the injured and healthy tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gly-His-Lys supported chick neuron differentiation and viability in cell culture of various neurons - chick embryo PNS (ganglion trigeminale) and from CNS of embryonal rats (hippocampus) and dissociated cells from chick embryo cerebral tissue. (skinbiology.com)
  • CXCL13 induces the migration of naive B cells and a subset of memory T cells to lymphoid tissue. (rndsystems.com)
  • Conclusions: These findings suggest that PDE4B may regulate the production of diverse inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages, and an inhibitor with PDE4B selectivity should retain the anti-inflammatory effects of nonselective PDE4 inhibitors in endotoxin-induced inflammatory conditions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Conclusions: The data provided evidence that increased expression of MIF and DJ-1 induced cell invasion and metastasis of NPC, supporting the idea that MIF and DJ-1 may play important roles as regulators in the progression of NPC. (medsci.org)
  • Conclusions -Early microglial/macrophage expression of osteopontin mRNA defines the borders and final infarct area at 24 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions: We found that a physiological level of 3-OHB can change the energetic profile of some BC cell lines. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Neutrophil and macrophage chemotactic activity was tested in the presence of AEC supernatant, using 24-well migration assay chambers. (arvojournals.org)
  • Concentrated supernatants from a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) were chemotactic for CXCR6 expressing T cells from blood. (nih.gov)
  • Study of lymphoid an myeloid cell migration via chemotactic assays. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We demonstrate that the migratory patterns of hemocytes at the embryonic ventral midline are orchestrated by chemotactic signals from the PDGF/VEGF ligands Pvf2 and -3 and that these directed migrations occur independently of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Our results demonstrate that at least two separate mechanisms operate in D. melanogaster embryos to direct hemocyte migration and show that although PI3K is crucial for hemocytes to sense a chemotactic gradient from a wound, it is not required to sense the growth factor signals that coordinate their developmental migrations along the ventral midline during embryogenesis. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The main goal of this study was to provide the "proof-of-principle" that low-dose paclitaxel is able to change the tumor microenvironment and improve the outcome of intratumoral dendritic cell vaccine in a murine lung cancer model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of a number of molecules involved in dendritic cell migration (CCR5, MIP-3beta/CCL19, and MDR-1) was reduced. (nih.gov)
  • The fifth kringle domain (K5) of human plasminogen is distinct from angiostatin and has been shown, on its own, to act as a potent endothelial cell inhibitor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The effect of exosomes on the expression of endothelial cell miRNA was monitored by PCR. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • Finally, TAM-derived exosomes and EOC SKOV3-derived exosomes in combination stimulated HUVEC cells and overcame the inhibition of endothelial cell migration caused by TAM-derived exosomes. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • The endothelial cell migration assay provides a quick and efficient system to study a compound's ability to induce or inhibit endothelial cell migration. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The results demonstrated in this art support this following reasoning: Cancer treatment with iCP-SOCS3 results in reduced endothelial cell viability, loss of cell migration potential and suppressed vascular sprouting potentials. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here we used a genetic approach and examined the behavior and function of macrophages isolated from wild-type (WT) and heparanase-knockout (Hpa-KO) mice. (pnas.org)
  • Intriguingly, inoculation of control monocytes together with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells into Hpa-KO mice resulted in nearly complete inhibition of tumor growth. (pnas.org)
  • In striking contrast, inoculating LLC cells together with monocytes isolated from Hpa-KO mice did not affect tumor growth, indicating that heparanase is critically required for activation and function of macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • These mice exhibit corneal opacity, poor wound healing, are hyporesponsive to LPS-induced sepsis and may be useful in studies of corneal dystrophy, extracellular matrix and neutrophil migration during the immune response. (jax.org)
  • These mice recapitulated the genetic and phenotypic features of HSCR and developed colonic aganglionosis due to impaired migration and successive death of enteric neural crest-derived cells. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, PMNs and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased 72 hours after intranasal instillation of LPS in Mmp12 −/− mice compared with wild type. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether MMP-9 is critical for SMC migration and for the formation of a neointima by using mice in which the gene was deleted (MMP-9 −/− mice). (ahajournals.org)
  • A denuding injury to the arteries of wild-type mice promoted the migration of medial SMCs into the neointima at 6 days, and a large neointimal lesion was observed after 28 days. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we used MMP-9 null (MMP-9 −/− ) mice to determine what role MMP-9 plays in SMC migration and neointimal thickening. (ahajournals.org)
  • We and others 11-13 reported that T-cell and B-cell aggregates emerge in adventitia of aorta segments adjacent to atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE −/− ) mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pro-inflammatory macrophages increase in skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice and correlate with metabolic risk markers in humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Down-regulation of MCP-l and MIP-l J3 responses by application of CCR5 deficient mice and MCP-l neutralizing antibody, resulted in minimal effects in inflammatory cell influx but a significant delay in muscle function recovery. (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly, supernatant from apoptotic cells introduced into a subcutaneous air pouch in mice recruited more macrophages than did supernatant from live cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The number of interstitial infiltrated macrophages was markedly smaller in the CCR2-deficient mice after ischemia-reperfusion. (asnjournals.org)
  • CCR2-deficient mice decreased the number of interstitial inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive cells after ischemia-reperfusion. (asnjournals.org)
  • E mbryonic stem cells were first introduced into the scientific community in 1981 when they were isolated from mice, setting forth a cascade of paradigm shifting scientific events. (ddw-online.com)
  • GPR18 has been found in peripheral blood cells, lymphoid tissues, macrophages with different expression levels for cytotoxic and reparative cells [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These cells reside in body tissues, where they phagocytize and process pathogens, engulf dead cells, and produce a myriad of immune effector molecules. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Of note, lymphatic vessels function as collectors and export conduits of inflammatory cells, representing gatekeepers for macrophage and lymphocyte abundance in different tissues ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pluripotent cytokine that regulates cell fate and plasticity in normal tissues and tumors. (sciencemag.org)
  • In situ proximity ligation assays revealed that polyubiquitylation of p85α was evident in aggressive prostate cancer tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previously developed hydrophobic CPPs-named membrane translocating sequence (MTS), membrane translocating motif (MTM) and macromolecule transduction domain (MTD)-are able to deliver biologically active proteins into a variety of cells and tissues. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cell research has yielded the most promising results for craniofacial regeneration, as MSCs can be found in many types of postnatal tissues, including orofacial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alginate hydrogel, which contains nerve growth factor, has been used to deliver stem cells to tissues during regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid tumors are composed of neoplastic cells, nonmalignant resident stromal cells, and migratory hematopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is well established that stromal cells, including macrophages, within the microenvironment may contribute to tumor growth and spread ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The interactions of BBCs with stromal cells are important determinants of tumor biology, with inflammatory cells playing well-recognized roles in cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such imaging approaches yield direct information at single-cell resolution and permit quantification of cell motility, interactions between tumor and stromal cells, and direct observation of invasion, intravasation and extravasation. (biologists.org)
  • Cell Physiol Biochem;44(4):1629-1639, 2017. (bireme.br)
  • Here we provide evidence that heparanase is critically required for the activation and function of macrophages, an important constituent of the tumor microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • These results identify heparanase as a key mediator of macrophage activation and function in tumorigenesis and cross-talk with the tumor microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike the function of heparanase in cancer cells, very little attention has been given to heparanase contributed by cells composing the tumor microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • Complex interactions between the cell types in this microenvironment regulate tumor growth, progression, metastasis, and angiogenesis ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Our data indicate that low-dose chemotherapy before intratumoral delivery of dendritic cells might be associated with beneficial alterations of the intratumoral microenvironment and thus support antitumor immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, how EOC cells regulate the interaction between TAMs and endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • Thus, it seems that TAMs would not promote endothelial migration to participate in angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex environment containing tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), interstitial cells, and non-cellular components. (springer.com)
  • Mechanistically, we describe a linear cascade by which heparanase activates Erk, p38, and JNK signaling in macrophages, leading to increased c-Fos levels and induction of cytokine expression in a manner that apparently does not require heparanase enzymatic activity. (pnas.org)
  • Sialyl-Lewis x expression in the gastric epithelium is induced during persistent H. pylori infection, suggesting that H. pylori modulates host cell glycosylation patterns for enhanced adhesion. (jci.org)
  • Here, we evaluate changes in the glycosylation-related gene expression profile of a human gastric carcinoma cell line following H. pylori infection. (jci.org)
  • Further, β3GnT5 overexpression in human gastric carcinoma cell lines led to increased sialyl-Lewis x expression and H. pylori adhesion. (jci.org)
  • Death of enteric neurons was also induced in the colon, where reduction of Ret expression was induced after the period of enteric neural crest cell migration, indicating that diminished Ret expression directly affected the survival of colonic neurons. (jci.org)
  • SP600125 attenuated the upregulation of MCP-1 and RANTES expression and subsequent macrophage migration. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of chemokines in MOVAS cells induced by nicotine has an effect on RAW264.7 migration, which is likely to contribute to the development of nicotine-related AAA. (hindawi.com)
  • Monocytes (THP-1 cells) exposed to BBC cells in coculture had altered gene expression with upregulation of both M1 and M2 macrophage markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, EC cells stimulated with GM-CSF were more likely to have suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), accompanied by increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expression. (dovepress.com)
  • The expression of M-CSF and RANKL was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (nih.gov)
  • 1,7 ⇓ The fact that MMP-9 expression occurs before any detected SMC migration into the intima suggests that this MMP might be critical for SMC migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aged M2 macrophages had elevated Fas (CD95) expression and displayed increased migration in response to sFasL compared to M1 macrophages derived from young animals. (arvojournals.org)
  • 19)F MRI monitoring of gene expression in living cells through cell-surface β-lactamase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • High MIF expression in tumor cells (71.2%, 89/125 cases) were significantly associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and worse prognosis of NPC patients. (medsci.org)
  • Western blotting detected expression of the full-length (60-kDa) form of the chemokine in cell lysates, and the cleaved (35-kDa) form in culture supernatants. (nih.gov)
  • Using gene expression methodology (RNAase protection assay and real-time PCR) in a mouse model (freeze injury of Tibialis anterior muscle, TA)t we demonstrated an expression of MCP-l and MIP-l p in the first 24 hrs postinjury. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, taurine treatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in GC-2 cells exposed to ionizing radiation, two components in antioxidant pathway. (bireme.br)
  • Cultured cells can be used to study these functions and to perform assays for gene expression, gene function and interaction with microbes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sen CK, Bagchi D. Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. (springermedizin.de)
  • Correspondingly, the increased MMP9 mRNA expression level was significantly detectable in both cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also, Nrf2 activation of macrophages promoted VEGF expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the interplay between tumor cells and macrophages has been established, the understanding of EMT tumor cells modulating TAM polarization is limited. (springer.com)
  • N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) is an endocannabinoid involved in the regulation of different immune cells. (mdpi.com)
  • About effects of NAGly on CB 2 , which is expressed in the central nervous system and on the immune cells, little is known [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the response of immune cells to nonpathologic metabolic stimuli has been less well studied, and the factors that regulate the metabolic-dependent accumulation of immune cells are incompletely understood. (jci.org)
  • In this work, we identified human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) as a previously uncharacterized signaling molecule that activates immune cells and determined its signal mediators. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the fact that macrophage-BBC communication is bidirectional, important questions remain about how BBCs affect adjacent immune cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GHK attracted wound healing immune cells (mast cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes) at about 10exp (-10) M. (skinbiology.com)
  • We further demonstrate that coculture of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor cells induces secretion of factors that are recognized by SR-A on tumor-associated macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Among them, we found that lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) was secreted from intact human cells, and its secretion was induced by TNF-α. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, miR-195-5p/NOTCH2 suppressed GATA3-mediated IL-4 secretion in CRC cells and ultimately inhibited M2-like TAM polarization. (springer.com)
  • It is often assumed that because Rac1 induces formation of lamellipodia it will also play a role in cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • Helianthus tuberosus agglutinin directly induces neutrophil migration, which can be modulated/inhibited by resident mast cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The secreted KRS bound to macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to enhance the TNF-α production and their migration. (pnas.org)
  • Lumican regulates collagen fibril structure and is involved with the innate immune response, wound healing and neutrophil migration. (jax.org)
  • Lectin from H. tuberosus has a direct neutrophil chemotatic effect that is modulated by mast cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR + CXC and CC chemokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 is a constitutively expressed chemokine that plays an important role in B and T cell homing. (rndsystems.com)
  • The IL-8 concentration secreted by NPC cells was compared with the cells with different treatments using ELISA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell adhesion assay, transwell migration assay, and macrophage polarization assays were performed to study the effects of IH and RAGE. (hindawi.com)
  • Macrophage Polarization in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Killers or Builders? (semanticscholar.org)
  • miR-195-5p may play a vital role in regulating NOTCH2-mediated tumor cell EMT, thereby affecting IL-4-related M2-like TAM polarization in CRC. (springer.com)
  • It indicated that the Notch pathway plays pivotal roles in tumor EMT and macrophage alternative polarization in TME. (springer.com)
  • AECs secrete soluble factors that inhibit cells in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. (arvojournals.org)
  • Apoptotic cells are thought to release factors that signal their presence to scavenger cells such as macrophages, but the nature of these signals is unclear (see commentary by Gregory). (sciencemag.org)
  • Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels, results from migration of endothelial cells and is regulated by ECM components, angiogenic, and anti-angiogenic factors. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This process is regulated by multiple factors, including growth factors, and involves changes in the interaction of SMCs with the extracellular matrix and in intracellular signaling cascades that regulate cell movement. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration, regulated by proatherogenic factors located within the vessel wall, is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is the main cause of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the introduction of the maintenance factors renders the cell models genomically unstable. (ddw-online.com)
  • We found that AEC-secreted factors had a dual effect, on one hand controlling bacterial growth and on the other hand increasing macrophage activity. (asm.org)
  • Airway epithelial cells produce antibacterial factors, promote inflammatory responses, and regulate gas exchange in the body ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells promote tumor progression by mediating angiogenesis, tumor cell intravasation, and metastasis, which can offset the effects of chemotherapy, radiation, and antiangiogenic therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The process of regeneration is initiated by an inflammatory response to injury, followed by angiogenesis, leading to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given NAGly mediated actions we speculate that GPR18 and its ligand NAGly are modulators of glial and neuronal cells during neuronal damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Competing with the coculture-induced ligand in our invasion assay recapitulates SR-A deficiency and leads to similar inhibition of tumor cell invasion. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study identifies what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which H. pylori modulates the biosynthesis of the SabA ligand in gastric cells, thereby strengthening the epithelial attachment necessary to achieve successful colonization. (jci.org)
  • but also as a ligand of cell surface receptors after it is secreted into the extracellular millieu ( Spiegel and Milstien, 2003 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The association of MIF and DJ-1 with cell invasion and migration in NPC cell line were evaluated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, invasion assay and Western blotting. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we provide evidence that elevated Mena INV increases coordinated streaming motility, and enhances transendothelial migration and intravasation of tumor cells. (biologists.org)
  • Lys 63 -linked polyubiquitylation of p85α on Lys 513 and Lys 519 in the iSH2 (inter-Src homology 2) domain was required for TGF-β-induced activation of PI3K-AKT signaling and cell motility in prostate cancer cells and activated macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell motility of neural stem cells is reduced after SPIO-labeling, which is mitigated after exocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We showed here that IL-10 was constitutively expressed and secreted by the human normal colonic mucosa, including epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • The beneficial effect of amniotic membrane transplantation may be due to the immunosuppressive effects of amniotic epithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • It consists of a single layer of epithelial cells and an avascular stroma. (arvojournals.org)
  • It has been shown that the α5 chain of type IV collagen is present in the amniotic membrane, which suggests that amniotic membrane is a useful substrate for growing corneal epithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • To study the mechanism by which epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)-derived exosomes restore the migration of endothelial cells that is suppressed by TAM-derived exosomes. (europeanhealthjournal.com)
  • ZEB1 is best known for driving an epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells to promote tumor progression. (embopress.org)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as a major actor in cancer tumorigenicity and metastasis, was involved in the interaction between TAMs and tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • While multiple pore sizes are available, the 8 µm pore size of this assay's Boyden chambers is appropriate for migration studies of most cell types, but supports optimal migration for most epithelial and fibroblast cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This pore size supports optimal migration for most epithelial and fibroblast cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The alveolar compartment is lined with membranous pneumocytes, known as type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I), and granular pneumocytes, type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). (asm.org)
  • Cancer cells educated macrophages could activate Nrf2 of the cancer cells, in turn, to increase cancer cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through paracrine VEGF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rac2 -/- macrophages have reduced F-actin levels and lack podosomes, which are integrin-based adhesion sites, and their migration speed is similar to or slightly slower than wild-type macrophages, depending on the substrate. (biologists.org)
  • H. pylori adhesion to gastric cells is mediated by bacterial adhesins such as sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), which binds the carbohydrate structure sialyl-Lewis x. (jci.org)
  • Compounds capable of reducing the trafficking ability (adhesion and migration) of Treg, or their suppressive activity, or both, might therefore be promising candidates for therapy against both cancer and CNS insults. (jneurosci.org)
  • Defactinib is an oral small molecule inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and is currently being evaluated in combination with immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers including pancreatic, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma. (biospace.com)
  • Thus, ERK1/2 signaling may play an important role in HGF-mediated SMC migration by contributing to focal adhesion redistribution and FAK and Pyk2 activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric molecules responsible for cell adhesion to the ECM. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5-7 Cytoskeletal proteins, including paxillin and vinculin, and the signaling molecules focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) are recruited to focal adhesion complexes during cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Nonmigrating cells establish areas of focal contact throughout the cell to maintain stable adhesion to the ECM. (ahajournals.org)
  • When a migratory stimulus is introduced, there is turnover of focal contacts with disassembly of areas of cell-matrix interaction and reestablishment of focal adhesion complexes at the leading edge of cells to allow for cell movement and resistance to contractile forces during migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • FAK, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is recruited to focal adhesion complexes and is postulated to integrate growth factor and integrin signals involved in cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, our findings indicate that GM-CSF may regulate EMT through JAK2-PRMT5 signaling, and thereby exhibit its antitumor effects on EC cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Our results illustrate the importance of paracrine-mediated cell streaming and intravasation on tumor cell dissemination, and demonstrate that the relative abundance of Mena INV and Mena11a helps to regulate these key stages of metastatic progression in breast cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • 2 Supporting data that plasmin can regulate SMC migration are given in studies in which the deletion of genes encoding for urokinase plasminogen activator or plasminogen resulted in a smaller intimal lesion size in injured mouse arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • We demonstrate that promotion of these early stages of metastasis by Mena INV is dependent on a macrophage-tumor cell paracrine loop. (biologists.org)
  • The paracrine or autocrine nature of the signal depended on the breast cancer cell subtype. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Activation of sphingosine kinase by a variety of agonists increases intracellular S1P, which in turn can function intracellularly as a second messenger or be secreted out of the cell and act extracellularly by binding to and signaling through S1P receptors in autocrine and/or paracrine manners. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that immortalized haematopoietic progenitor cells significantly improve dermal wound healing by paracrine effects. (uzh.ch)
  • As they become apoptotic, cells undergo dramatic changes in the composition of their surface, which allows their recognition by phagocytes and subsequent removal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ATP and UTP released from apoptotic cells recruit the macrophages necessary for their clearance. (sciencemag.org)
  • RESULTS: Taurine significantly inhibited the decrease of cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation. (bireme.br)
  • 11 Monocytes can differentiate into macrophages whose role is to phagocytose and degrade microorganisms and foreign material and to present these antigens to initiate specific immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Stem cells remain a hot topic in academia and industry alike, and with the potential to cause a paradigm shift where many believe in their ability to differentiate into a variety of valuable cell types. (ddw-online.com)
  • The inner cells of the blastocyst are pluripotent and give rise to stem cells that can differentiate into any cell type in the body, thus, their potential in a variety of diseases. (ddw-online.com)
  • Macrophages are white blood cells differentiated from monocytes, arising from progenitor cells in the bone marrow ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The elevated CNV response observed with aging was dependent on bone marrow-derived cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM): Isolation and Applications f. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM): Isolation and Applications," from Bo Porse and colleagues at the University of Copenhagen ( http://www.bric.ku.dk/research/porse_group/ ), describes the derivation and growth of bone marrow-derived macrophages. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Such stem cells include bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs), muscle satellite cells (MuSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous (SHED teeth). (wikipedia.org)
  • The following section will outline the two most promising stem cell populations in craniofacial bone regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds are characterized by their porous three-dimensional synthetic scaffold structures that stimulate growth, migration, and differentiation in human cells leading to bone reparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophage phenotypes were investigated by intracellular staining for IL-10 and IL-12. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • TGF-β signaling stimulates various intracellular pathways that can promote migration in tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • 10,11 Both FAK and Pyk2 have been shown to be involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and intracellular signaling during cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophages can also promote the development of tumors ( 14 ), consistent with observations that wound-healing and macrophage responses are correlated with tumor progression ( 15-18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the specific step of metastatic progression affected by this isoform and the effects on metastasis of the Mena11a isoform, expressed in primary tumor cells, are largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Conservation of Mena upregulation in invasive tumor cells across species suggests that it plays a crucial role in metastatic progression. (biologists.org)
  • The anatomic location for the initiation of antigen-dependent B-cell responses is similarly puzzling, 8,9 and impacts of antigen-specific T and B cells on disease progression remain to be delineated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accumulation of tumor‐associated macrophages (TAMs) associates with malignant progression in cancer. (embopress.org)
  • Functional assays, including the EdU, clone formation, wound healing, and transwell assays, were used to determine the anticancer role of miR-195-5p in human CRC progression. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA decay, and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to determine the mechanism of miR-195-p CRC progression. (springer.com)
  • Background: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors negatively modulate many inflammatory responses, and some of these pharmacological effects are mediated by inhibition of PDE4B in inflammatory cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Inhibition of β 1 or β 3 integrin resulted in a significant decrease in migration. (ahajournals.org)