Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A proteinase inhibitor found in various BODILY SECRETIONS that coat mucosal surfaces such as SEMINAL PLASMA; CERVICAL MUCUS; and bronchial secretions. It plays a role in protecting epithelial tissues from LEUKOCYTE-derived serine proteases such as NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)

Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and matrix metalloproteinases causes blood-brain barrier injury: Novel mechanism for neurodegeneration associated with alcohol abuse. (1/45)

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) regulates the passage of molecules and leukocytes in and out of the brain. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alteration of basement membrane (BM) associated with BBB injury was documented in stroke patients. While chronic alcoholism is a risk factor for developing stroke, underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH)-induced protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling resulted a loss of BBB integrity via MMPs activation and degradation of BM component, collagen IV. Treatment of BMVEC with EtOH or acetaldehyde (AA) for 2-48 h increased MMP-1, -2 and -9 activities or decreased the levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2) in a PTK-dependent manner without affecting protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. Enhanced PTK activity after EtOH exposure correlated with increased phosphorylated proteins of selective receptor and nonreceptor PTKs. Up-regulation of MMPs activities and protein contents paralleled a decrease in collagen IV content, and inhibitors of EtOH metabolism, MMP-2 and -9, or PTK reversed all these effects. Using human BMVEC assembled into BBB models, we found that EtOH/AA diminished barrier tightness, augmented permeability, and monocyte migration across the BBB via activation of PTKs and MMPs. These findings suggest that alcohol associated BBB injury could be mediated by MMPs via BM protein degradation and could serve as a comorbidity factor for neurological disorders like stroke or neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our preliminary experiments indicated that human astrocytes secreted high levels of MMP-1 and -9 following exposure to EtOH, suggesting the role of BM protein degradation and BBB compromise as a result of glial activation by ethanol. These results provide better understanding of multifaceted effects of alcohol on the brain and could help develop new therapeutic interventions.  (+info)

Neutrophil interactions with keratocytes during corneal epithelial wound healing: a role for CD18 integrins. (2/45)

PURPOSE: To determine the role of keratocytes and leukocyte beta(2) (CD18) integrins in neutrophil (PMN) migration through the corneal stroma after epithelial scrape injury. METHODS: Using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, corneas were excised at 6 hours (wild-type) or 24 hours (CD18(-/-)) after central corneal epithelial abrasion, time points determined previously to have similar levels of emigrated PMNs. Corneas were prepared for ultrastructural morphometric analysis of PMNs, keratocyte networks, and collagen. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy revealed intact keratocyte networks within the paralimbus that were morphometrically similar, regardless of epithelial injury or mouse genotype. Secondary to epithelial abrasion, extravasated PMNs within the paralimbus developed close contacts with keratocytes and collagen. In wild-type mice, 40% of the PMN surface was in contact with the keratocyte surface, and this value decreased to 10% in CD18(-/-) mice. PMN contact with collagen was similar in wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, with approximately 50% of the PMN surface contacting the collagen fibrils. Since corneal edema resulting from scrape injury was similar, regardless of genotype and did not involve structural changes in collagen fibrils, these data favor a direct role for CD18 in mediating PMN contact with keratocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that in response to epithelial scrape injury, PMN migration in the corneal stroma involves close contact between keratocytes and collagen. Although PMN-keratocyte contacts require CD18 integrins, contact with collagen is CD18 independent. Fundamentally, PMN migration along keratocyte networks constitutes the beginning of a new experimental concept for understanding leukocyte migration within the wounded cornea.  (+info)

STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier. (3/45)

The relationship among neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and progressive HIV-1 infection as they affect the onset and development of neuroAIDS is incompletely understood. One possible link is signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways. These respond to proinflammatory and regulatory factors and could affect neuroinflammatory responses induced from infected cells and disease-affected brain tissue. Our previous works demonstrated that HIV-1 activates pro-inflammatory and interferon-alpha-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and that these genes are linked to the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. We now demonstrate that HIV-1 activates STAT1, induces IL-6 expression, and diminishes expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2 in HBMECs. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, blocked HIV-1-induced IL-6, diminished HIV-1-induced claudin-5 and ZO-1 down-regulation, and blocked HIV-1- and IL-6-induced monocyte migration across a BBB model. Enhanced expression and activation of STAT1 and decreased claudin-5 were observed in microvessels from autopsied brains of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an integral role in HIV-1-induced BBB damage and is relevant to viral neuropathogenesis. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes.  (+info)

Immunomodulation by alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor: lack of chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor from yeast on human peripheral blood granulocytes. (4/45)

INTRODUCTION: Recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor, clinically developed for inhalative augmentation therapy in patients with alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor deficiency or cystic fibrosis, may directly contribute to leukocyte accumulation as it may function as a chemoattractant. The migratory effects of yeast-derived human recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on human peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils were therefore tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human peripheral blood leukocytes were prepared from forearm venous blood and tested for migration toward various preparations of yeast-derived recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in modified Boyden-chamber micropore filter assays. RESULTS: No direct effects of yeast-derived recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on in vitro migration of isolated neutrophils or eosinophils were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of direct chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor despite anti-inflammatory effects in other biological activities of leukocytes may contribute to the preserved antibacterial defense mechanisms observed in patients under experimental augmentation therapy with inhaled alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor.  (+info)

C-terminal repeats of Clostridium difficile toxin A induce production of chemokine and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and promote migration of leukocytes. (5/45)

The C-terminal repeating sequences of Clostridium difficile toxin A (designated ARU) are homologous to the carbohydrate-binding domain of streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that were recently identified as potent modulins. To test the hypothesis that ARU might exert a similar biological activity on endothelial cells, recombinant ARU (rARU), which was noncytotoxic to cell cultures, was analyzed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The rARU could bind directly to endothelial cells in a serum- and calcium-dependent manner and induce the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in a dose-dependent manner. An oligosaccharide binding assay indicated that rARU, but not GTFC, binds preferentially to Lewis antigens and 3'HSO3-containing oligosaccharides. Binding of rARU to human endothelial or intestinal cells correlated directly with the expression of Lewis Y antigen. Bound rARU directly activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in endothelial cells to release biologically active chemokines and adhesion molecules that promoted migration in a transwell assay and the adherence of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells to the endothelial cells. These results suggest that ARU may bind to multiple carbohydrate motifs to exert its biological activity on human endothelial cells.  (+info)

Infection of endothelial cells with virulent Rickettsia prowazekii increases the transmigration of leukocytes. (6/45)


Epstein-Barr virus lytic transactivator Zta enhances chemotactic activity through induction of interleukin-8 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. (7/45)


Comparative study of the usefulness of the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test and the leukocyte migration test in drug allergies. (8/45)

In 133 patients suspected of hypersensitivity to drugs and 102 control patients without hypersensitivity to drugs, the identification of allergenic drugs was performed by the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) and the leukocyte migration test (LMT) to compare their usefulness in identifying drug allergies. In the 133 subject patients, the positive rate was 24.8% on the DLST and 60.9% on the LMT (agreement rate; 77.4%); thus, the LMT showed a significantly higher positive rate than the DLST (p<0.000001, chi(2)-test). In the 102 control patients, the positive rates on the DLST and LMT were 6.9%. In addition, the LMT showed a higher positive rate than the DLST for many hypersensitivity symptoms such as skin eruptions and hepatic injury, and for many drug efficacy categories of the suspected drugs such as antibacterial drugs, etc. Furthermore, the positive rate of the DLST did not change when adjusted for the patients' serum and sex, while that of the LMT increased when adjusted for the patients' serum and was found to be higher in females than in males. Our findings indicate that the LMT may be more useful than the DLST in identifying the causative drug in drug allergies and that its interpretation is influenced by the patient's serum and sex.  (+info)

Guest Editorial: Tuberculin conversion and tuberculosis disease in infants and young children from the Drakenstein Child Health Study: A call to action
Guest Editorial: Tuberculin conversion and tuberculosis disease in infants and young children from the Drakenstein Child Health Study: A call to action
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LMT Forex Formula. V 2.0 . lmt forex review. It stands for Low Maintenance Trading. Its a method devised after years and years of searching for systems to trade the Forex market. They say with age comes wisdom. Thats totally untrue. Age means nothing. The fact is experience breeds wisdom.
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Corridor Consult Eric Macy, MD, MS Fall 2009 - Volume 13 Number 4 What Is a Drug Allergy? Formally, a drug allergy is a clinically significant adverse reaction mediated by IgE that is reproducible on rechallenge. To cause a drug allergy, a d
There is generally no way to prevent a drug allergy.. If you have a known drug allergy, avoiding the drug is the best way to prevent an allergic reaction. You may also be told to avoid similar medicines.. In some cases, a provider may approve the use of a drug that causes an allergy if you are first treated with medicines that slow or block the immune response. These include corticosteroids (such as prednisone) and antihistamines. Do not try this without a providers supervision. Pretreatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines has been shown to prevent allergic reactions in people who need to get x-ray contrast dye.. Your provider may also recommend desensitization. ...
Drug allergies are a group of symptoms caused by an allergic reaction to a drug (medication). The chances of developing an allergy are higher when you take the medication frequently or when it is rubbed on the skin or given by injection, rather than taken by mouth.
A drug allergy is a serious physical reaction to a certain medication. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by reading here.
by Brockow, K and Garvey, L. H and Aberer, W and Atanaskovic-Markovic, M and Barbaud, A and Bilo, M. B and Bircher, A and Blanca, M and Bonadonna, B and Campi, P and Castro, E and Cernadas, J. R and Chiriac, A. M and Demoly, P and Grosber, M and Gooi, J and Lombardo, C and Mertes, P. M and Mosbech, H and Nasser, S and Pagani, M and Ring, J and Romano, A and Scherer, K and Schnyder, B and Testi, S and Torres, M and Trautmann, A and Terreehorst, I and ENDA EAACI Drug Allergy Interest and ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group and The ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group ...
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Tell your doctor your medical history, especially of: liver problems, allergies (especially drug allergies). Limit alcohol intake as it may increase the side effects of this drug. Caution, performing tasks, requiring mental alertness (e.g., driving), since it is possible this drug may cause drowsiness. This drug is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Consult your doctor for details. It is not known if this drug is excreted into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding ...
I have bad drug allergies and have experienced every side effect known to man and then some. My Dr. just started me on a very very low dose of Celexa, about 10 days ago. I woke up today and feel better than I have in months. I did have nausea a couple of days but it went away. So far I seem to tolerate this med pretty well. I think Celexa is a lot like Lexapro, made by same manufacturer ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
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Due to the uncertainty of when and how much the COVID-19 will affect the US population, the ARCB is suspending all testing until further notice. We will notify you as conditions change ...
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History of drug allergy is of major concern during perioperative period. Medical records usually lack documents confirming the stated allergy. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported drug allergies and their...
How do Food and Drug Allergies Differ from Intolerances? What are the symptoms Allergies vs Intolerances. What are the Medical Considerations?
Question - How can I test drug allergies ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Cefadroxil, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
TY - GEN. T1 - TGV-based flow estimation for 4D leukocyte transmigration. AU - Frerking, L.. AU - Burger, M.. AU - Vestweber, D.. AU - Brune, Christoph. PY - 2014/8/26. Y1 - 2014/8/26. N2 - The aim of this paper is to track transmigrating leukocytes via TGV flow estimation. Recent results have shown the advantages of the nonlinear and higher order terms of TGV regularizers, especially in static models for denoising and medical reconstruction. We present TGV-based models for flow estimation with the goal to get an exact recovery of simple intracellular and extracellular flows, as well as its implication on realistic tracking situations for transmigration through barriers. To study and quantify different pathways of transmigrating leukocytes, we use large scale 4D fluorescence live microscopy data in vivo.. AB - The aim of this paper is to track transmigrating leukocytes via TGV flow estimation. Recent results have shown the advantages of the nonlinear and higher order terms of TGV regularizers, ...
An allergic reaction is caused by the bodys immune system overreacting to the drug, which is viewed as a chemical invader, or antigen. This overreaction is often called a hypersensitivity reaction ...
Learn which drugs are more likely to cause an allergic reaction, what symptoms look like and what treatments can calm such a reaction.
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Allergic reactions to medications can range from mild, moderate, severe or even fatal. Learn about which medications people are commonly allergic to.
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Unlike most other allergens, such as pollen or mold spores, drug molecules often are too small to be detected by the immune system. Smaller drugs such as antibiotics cannot induce an immune response unless they combine with a body cell or a carrier protein in the blood. Furthermore, drug allergies often are caused by the breakdown products or metabolites of the drug rather than by the drug itself. Sometimes the same drug, such as penicillin, can induce different types of allergic reactions. IGE-MEDIATED ALLERGIES Most allergies, including most drug allergies, occur because of a reaction with an immune system antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE). The first exposure to the drug sensitizes the childs immune system by inducing specialized white blood cells to produce IgE that recognizes the specific drug. On subsequent exposure to the drug, the drug-specific IgE antibodies bind to the drug on the surfaces of certain cells of the immune system. This binding activates the cells to release histamine ...
Garden Grove California Asthma & Allergy Specialist Doctors physician directory - Drug or medication allergies happen when the bodys immune system over-reacts to a medication. Symptoms of a drug allergy are rash, hives, itching, and swelling of the lips, and tongue. The most common drugs that cause allergic reactions are sulfur drugs, penicillins, insulin, and iodine. Treatment for an allergic reaction to a medication are discontinuing the drug and seeking medical care.
Gaithersburg Maryland Asthma & Allergy Specialist Doctors physician directory - Drug or medication allergies happen when the bodys immune system over-reacts to a medication. Symptoms of a drug allergy are rash, hives, itching, and swelling of the lips, and tongue. The most common drugs that cause allergic reactions are sulfur drugs, penicillins, insulin, and iodine. Treatment for an allergic reaction to a medication are discontinuing the drug and seeking medical care.
Dr. Hebert says penicillin is the most common type of drug allergy and anaphylactic reactions to it cause 400 deaths a year in the U.S. alone
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Drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) is defined as an immunologically mediated response to a pharmacology agent. Some reactions require prior sensitization and some do not. The interactions between different drugs and the immune system occur by different mechanisms leading to variable clinical features. Some reactions are simple and do not alter patient quality of life. Some are life threatening and require immediate recognition and appropriate therapy. Confirming the diagnosis of DHR is often challenging. The environment in the Intensive care units (ICU) is considered high risk place for DHR development as it offers most of the risk factors. In this review, we offer a delicate combined approach that allows an accurate diagnosis of most of the DHRs encountered in the ICU.
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Participants, who were receiving atorvastatin 20 mg over-encapsulated tablets orally at baseline, received Alirocumab 75 mg SC injection Q2W, atorvastatin 20 mg over-encapsulated tablets orally QD, and placebo for ezetimibe over-encapsulated tablets orally QD added to stable LMT for 24 weeks. Alirocumab dose up-titrated to 150 mg Q2W from Week 12 when LDL-C levels ≥70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L) or ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) at Week 8, based on baseline disease characteristic and medical history ...
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Neutrophils are a key cell type of nonadaptive immune system and are the first phagocytic cell type that reaches mucosal inflammatory sites. On the last stage of their journey from the blood stream to a mucosal surface, neutrophils cross a generally sealed epithelium by migrating along the paracellu …
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What you can expect from a Trager® session When you come for your first Trager session you can expect to fill out a brief intake form and spend some time chatting with me. We can discuss the Trager approach, how you are feeling, how you would like to feel, and any other questions or concerns you…
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Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... For example, leukocytes complex urokinase (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), and integrins which participate in cell adhesion ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...
... cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450.495.160 - cytotoxicity tests, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.160.155 - complement ... radioimmunoprecipitation assay MeSH E01.450.495.410.700.830 - radioimmunosorbent test MeSH E01.450.495.460 - leukocyte ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 - patch tests MeSH E01.370. ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 - patch tests MeSH ...
Sulf2 was upregulated in a majority of HCCs and HCC cell lines, and Sulf2 knockdown eliminated migration and proliferation. ... Finally, in a transcriptome wide assay in chronic wound, fortyfold higher expression Sulf1 was noted in wound-site vessels. ... Sulf1 and 2 also display regulation over muscle development, angiogenesis, leukocyte rolling and wound healing. In adult mice, ... Squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (SCCHN) has three cell lines lacking Sulf1 expression. Transfected-in Sulf1 expression ...
... has been shown to be necessary for in vitro cell migration. Upon cleavage the N-terminus has been shown to associate with ... Inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation assays in overexpressing HEK293 cells have demonstrated coupling of EMR2 to Gα15. EGF- ... "The human EGF-TM7 family member EMR2 is a heterodimeric receptor expressed on myeloid cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 71 ... Davies JQ, Lin HH, Stacey M, Yona S, Chang GW, Gordon S, Hamann J, Campo L, Han C, Chan P, Fox SB (March 2011). "Leukocyte ...
... the assay can also be used to study cell invasion or cell migration. Co-culture designs can be adapted to tri- or multi-culture ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 100 (5): 1027-1035. doi:10.1189/jlb.3ma0216-087r. PMC 5069089. PMID 27190303. Tang Y, Soroush F, ... 107 cells); this can make studying certain cell-cell interactions more accessible. These reduced cell numbers make studying non ... Gel free 3D cell cultures have been developed to allow cells to grow in either a cell dense environment or an ECM poor ...
"Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. PMID ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (Aug 1995). "Plasma assay of ... Gelatinase B, along with elastase, appears to be a regulatory factor in neutrophil migration across the basement membrane. ...
... cell migration, learning and memory, as well as in pathological processes, such as arthritis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. PMID ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (August 1995). "Plasma assay of ... "Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ...
... has been shown to influence the migration of neurons and glia, leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Slit1 and Slit2 ... Several years later, genetic evidence, biochemical binding experiments, and explant assays identified Slits as the repulsive ... Slits mediate cell communication in many diverse systems, regulating the guidance, cell migration and polarization of many ... "Multiple roles for slits in the control of cell migration in the rostral migratory stream". J. Neurosci. 24 (6): 1497-506. doi: ...
Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... TAAR1 is necessary for chemotaxic migration of cells towards TAAR1 agonists. In addition, TAAR1 signaling in B and T cells can ... Functional Assays ... Mobilization of internal calcium in RD-HGA16 cells transfected with unmodified human TA1 Response ... Phytohaemagglutinin upregulates hTAAR1 mRNA in circulating leukocytes; in these cells, TAAR1 activation mediates leukocyte ...
... and otherwise activate inflammation-inducing cells such as circulating leukocytes and tissue macrophages and dendritic cells ... monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovascular ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ...
... white blood cells). The binding of PSGL-1 on the leukocyte to P-selectin on the endothelial cell allows for the leukocyte to ... "Bioinspired microfluidic assay for in vitro modeling of leukocyte-endothelium interactions". Analytical Chemistry. 86 (16): ... paracellular migration or transcellular migration. Selectins[edit]. Selectins are expressed shortly after cytokine activation ... Transmigration of the leukocyte occurs as PECAM proteins, found on the leukocyte and endothelial cell surfaces, interact and ...
... of the total CSF leukocyte (white blood cell) count. The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in " ... Experimental assays in animal models are needed to validate a chemically induced chemotaxis by use of anticholinergic drugs to ... Neurologic findings and symptoms wax and wane as initial damage is done by the physical in-migration of the worms and secondary ... Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line, which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ...
S100A4 expression is associated with enhanced cell migration through maintenance of cell polarization and inhibition of cell ... and the features of leukocyte inclusions. Within a phase 2 trial, eltrombopag, an agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor, ... of MYH9-RD is confirmed by the identification of the NMHC IIA inclusions in granulocytes through an immunofluorescence assay on ... Ravid S (2014). "The tumor suppressor Lgl1 regulates front-rear polarity of migrating cells". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 8 (4 ...
Companion studies using an in vitro scratch test assay indicated that 12-HHT stimulated human and mouse keratinocyte migration ... kidney renal cell carcinoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 43 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1002/jlb.43.2.117. PMID 3422086.. ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...
Wong MJ, Malapitan IA, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2003). "A cell-free binding assay maps the LSP1 cytoskeletal binding site to ... 1997). "Alternatively spliced exons encode the tissue-specific 5' termini of leukocyte pp52 and stromal cell S37 mRNA isoforms ... and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. ... S37 is expressed in embryonic mesenchymal cells". J. Cell Sci. 107 (12): 3591-600. PMID 7706408. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). " ...
This is due to the migration of other leukocytes such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages to the initial ... The immune system does not recognize the affected cells as normal parts of the body, causing a T-cell-mediated immune response ... Radiometric assays include the radioallergosorbent test (RAST test) method, which uses IgE-binding (anti-IgE) antibodies ... In type IV hypersensitivity, there is activation of certain types of T cells (CD8+) that destroy target cells on contact, as ...
"FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (5): 249-56. doi:10.1038/ ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5- ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 65 (4): 523-34. doi:10.1002/jlb.65.4.523. PMID 10204582. S2CID 18340540. Wong A, Lamothe B, Lee A ... migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): 1019-31. doi:10.1083/jcb.144.5.1019. PMC ...
... the cell cycle, cell differentiation or migration. Neurofibromin is also known to interact with CASK through syndecan, a ... Expression is at its highest level in adult neurons, Schwann cells, astrocytes, leukocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The catalytic ... Research based on these preclinical models has already proven its efficacy as multiple clinical assays have been initiated ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ...
EID: 2-s2.0-0022340824 Pick, Edgar (2020). Cell-Free NADPH Oxidase Activation Assays: A Triumph of Reductionism. Neutrophil: ... Mitogen-induced release of skin reactive and macrophage migration inhibitory factors". Cellular Immunology. 1 (1): 92-109. doi: ... "Journal of Leukocyte Biology" (1996-2001; Section Editor), and "FASEB Journal" (2006-2018). He is a member of the Advisory ... In 1967 he joined the laboratory of John L.Turk, the world leader of cell-mediated immunity studies. He received a Ph.D. from ...
May 2007). "The tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 interacts with NPM-ALK and regulates anaplastic lymphoma cell growth and migration". ... Weiss JB, Xue C, Benice T, Xue L, Morris SW, Raber J (January 2012). "Anaplastic lymphoma kinase and leukocyte tyrosine kinase ... "VENTANA ALK (D5F3) CDx Assay". Travis WD, Brambilla E, Noguchi M, Nicholson AG, Geisinger KR, Yatabe Y, et al. (February 2011 ... Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was originally discovered in 1994 in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. ALCL is ...
MMPs are also thought to play a major role in cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration (adhesion/dispersion), ... "Chemokine and cytokine processing by matrix metalloproteinases and its effect on leukocyte migration and inflammation". J. ... Gross J, Lapiere C (1962). "Collagenolytic Activity in Amphibian Tissues: A Tissue Culture Assay". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 48 ( ... They are known to be involved in the cleavage of cell surface receptors, the release of apoptotic ligands (such as the FAS ...
... polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture assay Madin- ... Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one ... Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to ... Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell. Almost all cell types exhibit some ...
Melanoma survival, migration and proliferation is affected by DDX3X activity. Melanoma cells with low DDX3X expression exhibit ... as verified with chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Since the expression of DDX3X is affected by the ... "An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility ... In HeLa cells DDX3X is reported to control cell cycle progression through Cyclin E1. More specifically, DDX3X was shown to ...
... in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... while not detected by in the mouse model of peritonitis or stimulated leukocytes, is more potent than even PD1 in inhibiting ... T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ...
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. Memory cell proliferation (activation) can also be assayed ... Günthert U (1994). "CD44: a multitude of isoforms with diverse functions". Adhesion in Leukocyte Homing and Differentiation ( ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ...
Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... High leukocyte and neutrophil counts are typically observed, leading to an inflammatory reaction at the infection site ( ... 2 (232-239) Miflin, J.K. and Balckall, P.J. (2001) Development of a 23 SrRNA-based PCR assay for the identification of ... fowl cholera has been shown to follow bird migration routes, especially of snow geese. The P. multocida serotype-1 is most ...
It has been used to model T-cell-mediated suppression, peripheral lymphocyte migration, T-cell memory, tolerance, thymic ... "A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding ... toward repurposing of open access immunological assay data for translational and clinical research". Scientific Data. 5: 180015 ... Mehr R, Segel L, Sharp A, Globerson A (October 1994). "Colonization of the thymus by T cell progenitors: models for cell-cell ...
This is the method used to e.g. size and count erythrocytes (red blood cells [wiki]) as well as leukocytes (white blood cells) ... This feature makes the technology suitable for a wide variety of applications including proteomics and cell-based assays. ... the migration of particles by a magnetic field. This can be accomplished by sending a fluid containing at least one magnetic ... they are dispersed in a cell mixture where they bind to only the cells of interest. The resulting cell/particle mixture can ...
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome»։ Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 54 (3): 353-365։ June 2018։ PMID 25944644։ doi:10.1007 ... Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases»։ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 105 (6): 1077-1084։ June ... Gibson PG, Henry RL, Shah S, Powell H, Wang H (September 2003). "Migration to a western country increases asthma symptoms but ... Histamine Release from Human Leukocytes by Anti-λE Antibodies»։ Journal of Immunology 102 (4): 884-892։ Վերցված է 2016-02-29 ...
"Protein & Cell. 6: 363-72. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5. PMC 4417674 . PMID 25894090. Retrieved 24 April 2015.. ... Goldstein DB, Chikhi L (2002). "Human migrations and population structure: what we know and why it matters". Annu Rev Genom Hum ... Technicians in the diagnostic or research labs handle samples and run the assays at the bench. Often these individuals are ... either in leukocytes, skin fibroblasts, liver, or muscle) are also employed under certain circumstances. In the US, the newborn ...
... of the total CSF leukocyte (white blood cell) count.[36] The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in " ... Neurologic findings and symptoms wax and wane as initial damage is done by the physical in-migration of the worms and secondary ... Experimental assays in animal models are needed to validate a chemically induced chemotaxis by use of anticholinergic drugs to ... Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line, which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ...
... and otherwise activate inflammation-inducing cells such as circulating leukocytes and tissue macrophages and dendritic cells ... monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovascular ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ...
Stimulation of blood leukocytes[edit]. 13-HODE (and 9-HODE) are moderately strong stimulators of the directed migration (i.e. ... Statins also inhibit PPARγ in human macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells; this action may ... "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter™ Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... and export of the 13-OXO-glutathione conjugate in HT-29 cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell ...
... it can stimulate B-cells that also recognize the same molecule in their B cell receptors. Thus, T cells help B cells make ... Together with difficulty of cellular assay in generating and maintaining cellular typing reagents, cellular assay is being ... These haplotypes can be used to trace migrations in the human population because they are often much like a fingerprint of an ... These cells have receptors that are similar to B cell receptors, and each cell recognizes only a few class II-peptide ...
Turner CE, Burridge K (1989). "Detection of metavinculin in human platelets using a modified talin overlay assay". Eur. J. Cell ... "Leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium induces E-selectin linkage to the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Biol. 133 (2): 445- ... Vinculin Información con ligazóns na Cell Migration Gateway. Traído desde "https://gl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinculina ... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". J. Cell Biol. (UNITED STATES) 144 (5 ...
where ρ represents mass density, R represents a mass flux (from cell migration), and R0 represents a mass source (from cell ... Other leukocytes to enter the area include helper T cells, which secrete cytokines to cause more T cells to divide and to ... which can be modelled in vitro using the collagen gel contraction assay or the dermal equivalent model.[27][54] ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ...
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • positive regulation of ... Promotes adhesion and binding required for leukocyte migration. *Induces the expression of intrinsic defense factors-for ... Those reports also contained the basic observation underlying the now widely employed interferon gamma release assay used to ... Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ...
positive regulation of cell migration. • activation of blood coagulation via clotting cascade. • positive regulation of ... Historically, thromboplastin was a lab reagent, usually derived from placental sources, used to assay prothrombin times (PT ... present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes. Its role in the clotting process is the initiation of thrombin formation from ... Another cell type that expresses TF on the cell surface in inflammatory conditions is the monocyte (a white blood cell). ...
... the surrounding tissue an inflammatory response which attracts leukocytes and nearby phagocytes which eliminate the dead cells ... an investigation of the effects of secretions from Lucilia sericata larvae upon the migration of human dermal fibroblasts over ... The first of these two pathways initially involves oncosis, where swelling of the cells occur.[14] The cell then proceeds to ... Thus, untreated necrosis results in a build-up of decomposing dead tissue and cell debris at or near the site of the cell death ...
Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production". Cell. Immunol. 12 (1): 150-9. doi:10.1016/ ... The term interleukin was initially used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes. ... Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified simultaneously in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom.[5][6] ... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ...
... the typical white blood cell count in septic arthritis is over 50,000-100,000 cells per 10−6/l (50,000-100,000 cell/mm3); where ... This fluid should be collected before the administration of antibiotics and should be sent for gram stain, culture, leukocyte ... Confirmation of Lyme disease is done through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by confirmation using Western ... Other symptoms of disseminated gonococcal infection can include migration of joint pain, tenosynovitis and dermatitis. Synovial ...
Devreotes, P.N. and Zigmond, S.H. (1988) Chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells: a focus on leukocytes and Dictyostelium. Annu Rev Cell ... Chang, H., Kim, B. J., Kim, Y. S., Suarez, S. S., and Wu, M. (2013) Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm ... Chemotaxis of capacitated rabbit spermatozoa to follicular fluid revealed by a novel directionality-based assay. Biol. Reprod. ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells". Mol ... This ratio of large HDL to total HDL particles varies widely and is measured only by more sophisticated lipoprotein assays ... At the inflammation site, it attracts and activates leukocytes. In chronic inflammations, its deposition in the tissues ... Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells ...
... titer can also be assessed by using plaque assay in LLC-MK2 cells and by serial end point 2x dilution hemagglutination assay ( ... type I IFNs promote SeV clearance and speed up the migration and maturation of dendritic cells. However, soon after viral ... "Distribution of VIM-2 and SSEA-1 glycoconjugate epitopes among human leukocytes and leukemia cells". Leukemia Research. 14 (2 ... Not all cancer cells have cell entry receptors for the virus and not all cancer cells express virus processing serine proteases ...
"Chemoattractant induces LFA-1 associated PI 3K activity and cell migration that are dependent on Fyn signaling." FASEB J 2005; ... These events regulate immune responses by controlling the access of leukocytes to sites of inflammatory or immune reaction in ... "Short-term homing assay reveals a critical role for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in the hepatic recruitment of ... Butcher and his research team study the trafficking of white blood cells (lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, etc.), ...
For example, cell membrane integrins on circulating leukocytes are maintained in an inactive state to avoid epithelial cell ... A Cell Based Immunocytochemical Assay For Monitoring Kinase Signaling Pathways And Drug Efficacy (PDF) Analytical Biochemistry ... Calcium is used in many processes including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, and cell migration ... Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular ...
... and total/differential cell counts (A) and protein concentrations (Bradford assay; B) were assessed. Results are means ± SE of ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ...
Migration assay. Cells (2 × 105) were seeded into a transwell chamber (8 μm; BD Falcon, Heidelberg, Germany) in a 24-well plate ... Mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) assay. A total of 105 responding cells from allogeneic PBMCs were cultured in 96-well flat- ... Immunostaining and cell viability assay. Cells were stained using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)- or phycoerythrin- ... A central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses is played by dendritic cells (DCs), a trace leukocyte population ...
positive regulation of cell migration Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) ... UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) interacts with multiple leukocyte receptors. C-C ... regulation of cell shape Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*. "Differential regulation of eosinophil chemokine ... cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles where the ...
In vitro assay of primary astrocyte migration as a tool to study Rho GTPase function in cell polarization; Real time centrosome ... An in vitro model to study the role of endothelial Rho GTPases during leukocyte transendothelial migration; Analysis of a ... å by Rho GTPases in an intact cell assay system; Activation of Rho and Rac by Wnt/Frizzled signalling; Fluorescent assay of ... Plexin-induced collapse assay in COS cells; Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Rac1 in Three-Dimensional Epithelial Cell ...
leukocyte migration TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info. negative regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity IDA Inferred ... colocalizes_with T cell receptor complex IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. The encoded ... CEACAM1 overexpression significantly suppressed MM cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion and ...
... and anti-migratory factors on cell migration within a three-dimensional... ... Figure 5: Comparison to standard 2D scratch assay. (A) Representative images of cell migration in a standard scratch assay over ... Lämmermann, T., et al. Rapid leukocyte migration by integrin-independent flowing and squeezing. Nature. 453, (7191), 51-55 ( ... Although there are differences in modes of migration present in this 2D assay vs. the 3D spheroid assay, overall migration ...
In vitro assay for leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. T cell adhesion to EC monolayers and transendothelial ... 107 cells/ml, and small boluses (3 × 106 of each cell type) of a mixture of both cells were injected retrograde into the ... mouse heart endothelial cell. nTreg. naturally occurring regulatory T cells. RA. retinoic acid. sTNFRII. soluble TNFRII. Treg. ... Foxp3+-Inducible Regulatory T Cells Suppress Endothelial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment. Elena Maganto-García, De-xiu Bu ...
In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), SPM inhibit cell migration in a wound assay and chemotaxis to PDGF. They ... Leukocyte Biology 2010-Bonazinga Award. Dr. Serhan was elected Fellow of AAAS in 2011, delivered the Tabak NIH-Lectureship, ... dead cells with tumor cells has been long known to reduce the inoculum of tumor cells needed to produce tumors in rodents ( ... In health, cell-cell interactions at the onset of acute inflammation establish biosynthetic circuits for these pro-resolving ...
Using the leukocyte migration inhibition assay, Beraud et al. [159] also showed that T cells from MS patients undergoing an ... "T cell recognition of self-antigen presenting cells by protein transfer assay reveals a high frequency of anti-myelin T cells ... and the T-cell recognition of antigen presenting cells by protein transfer (TRAP) assay [168], which has recently been shown to ... 2.1.2. T-Cell Responses to PLP Peptides. Because of the difficulties encountered when using whole PLP in immune assays, most ...
... mixed leukocyte reaction, ELISA, and Transwell migration assay, respectively. Nuclear translocation of RelB, IFN regulatory ... Migration assay. Cells (2 × 105) were seeded into a Transwell chamber (8 μm; BD Falcon) in a 24-well plate and migration to ... Mixed leukocyte reaction assay. Responding cells (105) from allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in 96- ... poly(I-C) (50 μg/mL) was added at day 6 and cells were harvested at day 7 and used in the migration assay. ...
... but these assays require postmortem analyses of leukocyte tissue distribution.3 In contrast, in vivo studies of the migration ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells? You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 9 2010, Vol.113, 512-513. doi:10.1097/ALN. ... Michel Carles, Jean-Francois Pittet; Leukocyte Chemotaxis and Migration: Can We Follow the Cells?. Anesthesiology 2010;113(3): ...
... trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, gentle,... ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells ( ... Zigmond, S. H. Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to ... Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay. Christopher C. Walheim1, Juan Pablo Zanin ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells (trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, ...
In vitro two-chamber migration assay for leukocytes. Chemokine-dependent chemotaxis was assayed on various leukocytes by an in ... be involved in diverse T cell trafficking involving T cell migration in thymus and maturation of T cells and T cell migration ... Migration of CD3+ T cells was represented as percentage of input CD3+ T cells migrated into the lower chamber. * Indicates ... Actin polymerization assay. T cells were resuspended in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.1% BSA at 1.25 × 106 cells/ml. CKβ-11/MIP ...
Leukocytes deficient for caspase 11 were defective in cell migration in culture (transwell assays) and in vivo. When injected ... Caspase-11 regulates cell migration by promoting Aip1-cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 276-286 (2007 ... now show that caspase 11 also has a role in regulating actin dynamics that contributes to cell migration. ... RNA interference experiments confirmed that AIP1 was important for cell migration with membrane ruffling defective in the ...
WT BM transplanted into KO hosts corrected the leukocyte migration defect on the TG assay (Figure 10A). Alternatively, KO BM ... To further determine whether FXII promoted directional cell migration, a kinetic chemotaxis assay was developed, employing a ... FXII influences leukocyte migration into skin wounds. (A and C) Frozen sections of day 2 (D2) and day 5 (D5) wounds were ... Leukocyte migration in TG-induced peritonitis. WT and F12-/- mice were injected intraperitoneally with TG solution. At 4 hours ...
Cell Migration Assay.. Cell migration assays were conducted using 8.0-μm-pore transwell filters (Costar). Peritoneal monocytes/ ... S6D).These results suggest that the regulation of chemokine production and leukocyte migration by RXRα is independent of PPARγ. ... Endothelial Transmigration Assay.. Cell transmigration assays were performed in 5-μm-pore Transwell chambers (Costar) as ... These conditioned media significantly induced the migration of bone marrow mononuclear cells across activated endothelial cells ...
... seen in the CHS and DTH assays suggest the existence of a defect in the activation and/or migration of the CD4+ T-cell subsets ... CCR6 expression in dendritic, T, and B cells suggests that this β-chemokine receptor may regulate the migration and recruitment ... Here we demonstrate that CCR6-/- mice have underdeveloped Peyers patches, in which the myeloid CD11b+ CD11c+ dendritic-cell ... CCR6-/- mice also have increased numbers in T-cell subpopulations within the intestinal mucosa. In 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene- ...
Leukocyte migration inhibition factor (LMIF) assays have been used as a measure of cell-mediated immune responses. Direct ... leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF). Mononuclear cells as well as purified T-cells did not elaborate LIF in the ... The migration is determined with polyclonal anti-macrophage antibodies in an ELISA assay. The numbers of macrophages thus ... Macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) derived from human lymphoid cell lines was found to lose biologic activity on ...
Migration of PC3, PC3/Fl-RAGE, PC3/Nt-RAGE, and DU145 cells was evaluated in a transwell assay in the presence of PR3 and JNK ... PR3 activity and cell motility assays. PR3 from primary human leukocytes (Sigma) was used unless otherwise specified. For ... Cell adhesion assays. Binding of PR3-expressing U937 cells to PC3 cells was assayed by coculturing adherent PC3 cells with a 10 ... and DU145 cells, but not PC3/Nt-RAGE cells. Cell migration was inhibited in the presence of a JNK-specific inhibitor (Fig. 3C ...
Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. These results provide ... Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. Th... ... Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin ... Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin ...
Never miss a moment with the IncuCyte® Live-Cell Analysis System enabling real-time, automated analysis of chemotatic cell ... Measure cell motility in the presence of a chemical gradient. ... migration and invasion inside your tissue culture incubator. ... Chemotatic Migration and Invasion Assays for Live-Cell Analysis. Use the IncuCyte® Live-Cell Analysis Platform to study ... Chemotatic transendothelial migration of leukocytes. *Monitor and quantify directional leukocyte migration across an ...
Transendothelial Migration Assay. The transendothelial migration of leukocytes was quantified in irradiated and nonirradiated ... Cell Adherence Studies. U-937 cells were maintained at cell concentrations between 2×105 cells/mL and 9×105 cells/mL in RPMI ... Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1 modulates cell migration. J Cell Physiol. 1992;153:417-428. ... The Proportion of Cells in Each Phase of the Cell Cycle. The proportion of cells in various phases of the cell cycle was ...
... which are associated with cell adhesions, migration, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton remodeling [1, 6]. Talin-1 also promotes cell ... migration, and apoptosis [1, 6]. Talin-1 is also recognized to regulate platelet and leukocyte integrin functions [16]. Talin-1 ... Using ex vivo and in vivo assays, Talin-1 was shown to play a major role in neutrophil slow rolling and arrest [18]. These ... Focal adhesions are key attachments between the cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are important for maintaining cell ...
In the chemotaxis assay, glutamate inhibited GABA-induced migration of cp cells in a dose-dependent manner. High concentrations ... including leukocytes (Geiser et al., 1993), smooth muscle cells (Higashiyama et al., 1993), and microglia (Yao et al., 1990), ... In the presence of PTX the vz cell migration to femtomolar GABA and cp cell migration to micromolar GABA were blocked ... After migration in the chemotaxis assay, the cells were stained with cresyl violet and then immunolabeled for neurofilament ...
Invasion Assays are important investigate for different cell types and disease states. Read more in this Article. ... Or leukocytes need to migrate to different areas of the body during infection. Therefore, assays that can measure cell ... Another way to measure cell migration is to use the Platypus® OrisTM Cell Migration Assay. Here a plug is placed in the center ... Review this application note to learn more: Analysis of migration using the Oris(TM) Cell Migration Assay-TriCoated kit on the ...
... cell migration, or transcriptional activation.. D6 is expressed by lymphatic endothelium and by some leukocytes and binds ... For saturation binding assays, mCCRL2/L1.2 cells were plated at 0.5 × 106 cells/well. Nonspecific binding was measured in the ... T cell-mast cell coculture.. For CD3+ T cell purification, a single cell suspension of spleen cells was prepared, and RBCs were ... For migration experiments using cell lines, 2.5 × 105 cells/100 μl chemotaxis media (RPMI + 10% FCS) were added to the top ...
May also regulate angiogenesis through regulation of expression of genes controlling endothelial cell migration and invasion ( ... May control the differentiation, survival and proliferation of lymphoid cells. ... positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell Source: MGI. *positive regulation of transcription, DNA- ... DNA binding Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or ...
Chemotaxis is a complex response of a cell to an external stimulus ... Chemoattractant receptor crosstalk as a regulatory mechanism in leukocyte adhesion and migration. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:2571‐2578 ... J. Cell Physiol. 135:355‐366. Jungi, T.W. 1975. Assay of chemotaxis by a reversible Boyden chamber eliminating cell detachment ... Measurement of the chemotaxis coefficient for human neutrophils in the under‐agarose migration assay. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton ...
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell migration of peritoneal cells were also assessed. Antinociceptive effects were evaluated by ... An in vivo assay to test blood vessel permeability. Journal of Visualized Experiments 16, e50062.Google Scholar ... It also reduced leukocytes, neutrophils, and IL-1β levels in the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan group (P , ... semisynthetic compound cell migration inhibition cytokine reduction analgesia opioid system involvement Rivelilson Mendes de ...
... direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays ... The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not ... Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. Our study ... It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. ...
  • Depending on the type of target cells and place of action, chemokines can be involved in diverse biologic processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, regulation of cell proliferation and maturation, and leukocyte homing or migration. (jimmunol.org)
  • May also regulate angiogenesis through regulation of expression of genes controlling endothelial cell migration and invasion (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • A µ-Slide used to investigate angiogenesis in tube formation assays. (ibidi.com)
  • MKEY pretreatment reduced aortic diameter enlargement, preserved medial elastin fibers and smooth muscle cells, and attenuated mural macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, and aortic metalloproteinase 2 and 9 expression after porcine pancreatic elastase infusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • By definition leukocyte chemoattraction is the hallmark function of chemokines, however chemokines also induce cellular responses that are unrelated to leukocyte migration such as cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ), apoptosis ( 2 ), development ( 3 ), angiogenesis ( 4 ), or tumor growth and metastasis ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 3 or 5 or 8 µm in chemotaxis, invasion, angiogenesis or transendothelial migration assays. (emdmillipore.com)
  • At later stages of angiogenesis when endothelial cell proliferation ceases, SPARC may exert inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. (skinbiology.com)
  • Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels, results from migration of endothelial cells and is regulated by ECM components, angiogenic, and anti-angiogenic factors. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Furthermore, in vitro assays allow the study of isolated steps that contribute to angiogenesis, permit the identification of specific effects on endothelial cell function besides being more rapid and easily quantified. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a critical role in protecting against autoimmunity and regulating immune responses by suppressing T cell proliferation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Accordingly, candidate protein interactions that promote osteoblastic proliferation of tumor and stromal cells have been identified ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Talin-1 also promotes cell proliferation by activating focal adhesion proteins and by influencing integrin adhesions with cell cycle progression [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • May control the differentiation, survival and proliferation of lymphoid cells. (uniprot.org)
  • The in vitro effects of L-PRP and P-PRP on the proliferation, viability and migration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) and EaHy926, tube formation of EaHy926, and osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, scratch assay, tube formation assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and Alizarin red staining, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P-PRP, which had similar platelet and growth factors concentrations but significantly lower concentrations of leukocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with L-PRP, promoted the proliferation, viability and migration of HBMSCs and EaHy926, tube formation of EaHy926 and osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs in vitro, compared with L-PRP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kindlins are a small family of proteins that mediate protein-protein interactions involved in integrin activation and thereby have a role in cell adhesion migration differentiation and proliferation. (bio-rad.com)
  • 1997), FGF2 may participate in directing cell proliferation following pulmonary fibrosis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Preventive EAE treatment with A2aR-specific agonist inhibited myelin-specific T cell proliferation ex vivo and ameliorated disease, while application of the same agonist after disease onset exacerbated non-remitting EAE progression and resulted in more severe tissue destruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a platelet lineage specific MHC-I deficient mouse strain (B2mf/f--Pf4Cre), we demonstrate that platelet MHC-I regulates antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro, as well as the number and functional responses of CD8+ T cells in vivo during sepsis. (bvsalud.org)
  • HPS and NE serum cytokine profile presents evidence to suggest degradation of extracellular matrix, increased mononuclear leukocyte proliferation and transendothelial migration. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although only a simple monolayer, the healthy endothelium is optimally placed and is able to respond to physical and chemical signals by production of a wide range of factors that regulate vascular tone, cellular adhesion, thromboresistance, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and vessel wall inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the TME contains soluble paracrine signals that are important for the homing of several leukocyte subsets which foster immunosuppression and that promote the proliferation and survival of transformed and stromal cells in the TME. (findaphd.com)
  • 15 In addition to these functions, extracellular nucleotides also modulate the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • They are integral regulators of essential cell signaling pathways affecting cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the effects and potential mechanisms of a ruthenium-based water-soluble CO carrier [tricarbonylchloroglycinate-ruthenium(II) (CORM-3)] in the modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) inflammatory responses in an experimental model of sepsis. (physiology.org)
  • To explore the possibility that Treg may have direct anti-inflammatory influences on tissues, independent of their well-established suppressive effects on lymphocytes, we studied the adhesive interactions between mouse Treg and endothelial cells, as well as their influence on endothelial function during acute inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, Foxp3 + iTreg develop from naive CD4 + T cells in the lymphoid tissues in response to environmental Ags presented in association with TGF-β1 but without the influence of "danger signals," such as pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, or inflammatory cytokines that stimulate APCs, such as IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12 ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β/chemokine, motif CC, ligand 19-induced migration, immunostimulatory capacity, and cytokine secretion by DCs are also profoundly impaired. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this issue of the Journal, Dr. Larmann and colleagues propose to use a novel intravital imaging technique to longitudinally quantify cell trafficking in inflammatory models in live animals. (asahq.org)
  • It is noteworthy that the intensity of the inflammatory cell response in their model of thioglycollate peritonitis was largely underestimated by lavaging the peritoneum, a classic technique that is used to evaluate the number of leukocytes that accumulated in that cavity. (asahq.org)
  • Caspases are well known for their roles in programmed cell death and for their roles in maturation of inflammatory cytokines. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, caspase 11 now appears to influence multiple inflammatory cell processes: cytokine secretion, apoptosis, and cell migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors propose that caspase 11 may serve early in the inflammatory response by aiding the delivery of cytokine-producing cells to the site of infection and then by terminating cytokine production through stimulation of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemokines and their receptors have been implicated in the modulation of leukocyte trafficking, immune/inflammatory responses, sepsis, and multiorgan failure ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • RXRα deletion also results in decreased levels of CCL6 and CCL9 in vivo, correlating with impaired leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites and prolonged survival in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • CCR6 expression in dendritic, T, and B cells suggests that this β-chemokine receptor may regulate the migration and recruitment of antigen-presenting and immunocompetent cells during inflammatory and immunological responses. (jci.org)
  • Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent work led us to hypothesize that this tropism may reflect pathogenic interactions between RAGE, a cell surface receptor expressed on malignant cells in advanced prostate cancer, and proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease present in inflammatory neutrophils and hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blocking integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion, although beneficial in experimental models, has had limited success in treating inflammatory diseases in humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell migration of peritoneal cells were also assessed. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, (+)-limonene epoxide inhibited release/activity of inflammatory mediators, vascular permeability, migration of neutrophils and displayed systemic and peripheral analgesic-dependent effects of the opioid system. (springer.com)
  • CCL8 responsiveness defined a population of highly differentiated, CCR8-expressing inflammatory T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells enriched for interleukin (IL)-5. (nih.gov)
  • One mAb termed 2D7 completely blocked the binding and chemotaxis of the three natural chemokine ligands of CCR5, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β, to CCR5 transfectants. (rupress.org)
  • RESULTS: Plasmodium berghei NK65 infection generated an intense lung injury, with increased levels of inflammatory mediators, oedema, and cell migration into the lung. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which cells migrate is important in determining the role of inflammatory cells in disease processes. (corning.com)
  • This bulletin presents data on an in vitro model for the study of inflammatory cell migration through an interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM) produced on a 3.0 μm Falcon® permeable supports. (corning.com)
  • It has been documented that GC31, a 31-animo acid peptide from human thrombomodulin, has potent anti-inflammatory properties in endotoxin-induced uveitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, while the role of GC31 in the endothelial cells has not yet been fully understood. (molvis.org)
  • High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may activate the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway to counter the beneficial effect of the growth factors on bone regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leukocytes in L-PRP may activate the NF-κB pathway via the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce the inferior effects on bone regeneration of L-PRP compared with P-PRP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MMP-12-cleaved mCXCL2 (macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2]) and mCXCL3 (dendritic cell inflammatory protein-1 [DCIP-1]) lost chemotactic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Acute inflammation is the host response to tissue injury or infection that is characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators, culminating in the initial but transient recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) that is followed by a prolonged macrophage accumulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The passage of circulating immune cells through blood vessel walls is a key step in the establishment of effective immune responses and a critical component in the development of multiple inflammatory diseases. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction is a reliable model to assess immune cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory response. (ovid.com)
  • The lymphotoxin (LT) -LT beta receptor (LTβR) signal axis regulates lymphatic function and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across lymphatic vessels during homeostatic and inflammatory immune response. (ovid.com)
  • Administration of a decoy peptide which inhibits LTβR-mediated classical NFκB signaling at the time of hapten sensitization augmented the CHS inflammatory response, with increased local infiltration of T cells and DC at the hapten challenged tissues. (ovid.com)
  • Administration of the decoy peptide at the time of inflammatory resolution promoted tissue quiescence, with reduced numbers of DCs and T cells infiltrating the hapten challenged tissues, again as a result of enhanced migration out of the site of antigen deposition. (ovid.com)
  • LTβR-mediated classical NFκB signaling regulates inflammatory responses through regulation of lymphatic vessel function and transendothelial migration of T cells and DCs. (ovid.com)
  • This decoy peptide is a novel intervention to regulate immune cell migration and responses during distinct phases of the inflammatory response, and serves as a proof of concept for building unique therapeutic molecules to guide immune responses. (ovid.com)
  • These coinduced chemokines may cooperate to attract leukocytes to the site of infection, thereby enhancing the outcome of an inflammatory response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, bioinformatics and pathway analysis of gene expression data from tumor cell lines combined with experimental validation revealed tumor-derived IL1β as one mediator of the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in MSCs exposed to tumor CM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, our data support a model where MSCs could promote cancer progression through becoming pro-inflammatory cells within the cancer stroma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and FGF2 synergistically reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines in the treatment of LPS-induced lung injury. (deepdyve.com)
  • Assays to evaluate the extravasation of leukocytes are essential for the study host-defense response and inflammatory disorders. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Conditions of inflammatory tissue distress are associated with high extracellular levels of adenosine, due to increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation upon cellular stress or the release of extracellular ATP upon cell death, which can be degraded to adenosine by membrane-bound ecto-enzymes like CD39 and CD73. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, A2aR-deficient mice showed accelerated and exacerbated disease manifestation with increased frequencies of IFN-γ-, IL-17- and GM-CSF-producing CD4 + T helper cells and higher numbers of inflammatory lesions in the early stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A2aR activation exerts a complex pattern in chronic autoimmune neurodegeneration: while providing anti-inflammatory effects on T cells and thus protection at early stages, A2aR seems to play a detrimental role during later stages of disease and may thus contribute to sustained tissue damage within the inflamed CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. (abcam.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in the accumulation of macrophages, T cells and B cells within the synovium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 , 2 The pharmacological treatment of AC includes antihistamines, mast cell membrane stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids, which are used in the more severe forms and have a greater risk of adverse effects such as increased IOP and cataractogenesis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Neutrophil activation and migration during an inflammatory response is preceded or accompanied by plasma membrane electrical changes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, our results disclose the possibility that ATP-sensitive potassium channels may have a role in neutrophil migration and chemotaxis and plasma exudation in the inflammatory response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The neutrophil activation and migration during an inflammatory response result from a series of events, including up-regulation of cell surface integrin expression, adhesion to the endothelium, diapedesis, and transmigration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • DCs from Eps8-deficient mice are impaired in directional and chemotactic migration in 3D in vitro and are delayed in reaching the draining lymph node (DLN) in vivo after inflammatory challenge. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 One of the key inflammatory responses of the endothelium is the exposure of adhesion molecules to recruit subsets of leukocytes, including neutrophils and monocytes, which play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In general, one of the hallmarks of systemic inflammation [as a consequence of mechanical trauma, transplantation, or bacterial infection (i.e., sepsis)] is an increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation in the affected systemic organs, such as the lung, heart, kidney, and liver. (physiology.org)
  • The ability of regulatory T cells (Treg) to traffic to sites of inflammation supports their role in controlling immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data support the concept that Foxp3 + iTreg help to regulate inflammation independently of their influence on effector T cells by direct suppression of endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis during inflammation have been investigated with great detail, 1 the measurement of the migration of immune cells into organs or body cavities still rely on the lavage of these cavities to obtain immune cells, or on the sampling of tissues for quantification of markers of immune cell activity, such as the myeloperoxidase produced by neutrophils. (asahq.org)
  • Mice lacking RXRα in myeloid cells exhibit reduced levels of CCL6 and CCL9, impaired recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation, and lower susceptibility to sepsis. (pnas.org)
  • Inflammation, one of the first responses of the immune system to infection, is mediated by immune system cells, whose accumulation in injured tissues triggers the removal of the foreign agent, prevents subsequent infections, and promotes tissue repair ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The altered responses seen in the CHS and DTH assays suggest the existence of a defect in the activation and/or migration of the CD4+ T-cell subsets that downregulate or elicit the inflammation response, respectively. (jci.org)
  • Rather, CCRL2 is able to bind the chemoattractant and increase local concentrations of bioactive chemerin, thus providing a link between CCRL2 expression and inflammation via the cell-signaling chemerin receptor CMKLR1. (rupress.org)
  • Monocyte migration and their differentiation into macrophages critically regulate vascular inflammation and atherogenesis and are governed by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CCL8-CCR8 chemokine axis is therefore a crucial regulator of T(H)2 cell homing that drives IL-5-mediated chronic allergic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • They coordinate leukocyte migration during immunity and inflammation and are also involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro cell migration, chemotaxis, and invasion assays can provide invaluable insights into the progression of inflammation by identifying factors that regulate directional migration of leukocytes. (corning.com)
  • In vitro chemotaxis assays can provide valuable insight into the progression of inflammation. (corning.com)
  • A misbalance between the production and detoxification of ROS increases oxidative stress that is involved in the vascular remodeling associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension by affecting inflammation, hypertrophy, migration, growth/apoptosis and extracellular matrix protein turnover. (cellmigration.org)
  • In addition, when dosed orally, the compound potently inhibited neutrophil migration in a carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Through the activity of macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), we found that macrophages dampen the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)-thus providing a new mechanism for the termination of PMN recruitment in acute inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chemokines are an important class of chemoattractant cytokines produced locally in tissues that provide the directional cues for the movement of blood-derived leukocytes in development, homeostasis, and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • After the initial PMN influx, the next stage of inflammation is directed in part by CC chemokines consisting of CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CCL8/MCP-2, and CCL13/MCP-4, which target multiple leukocyte subsets (monocytes, T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils). (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this context, we are interested in the molecular mechanisms mediating lymphocyte migration through the pericyte network and the potential immunoregulatory role for pericytes during physiological inflammation as well as pathological conditions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Transendothelial migration is the movement of leukocytes across the endothelium at the site of inflammation and is a critical step in the immune response. (essenbioscience.com)
  • These findings suggest that functional interaction between neurons and glial cells is critical in persistent orofacial pain associated with orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury. (go.jp)
  • The accumulation of these cells is involved in the development of inflammation, joint destruction and pain [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCR9 is reported as a receptor on lymphoid cells and is expressed both constitutively and in inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe the ability of CST9 to increase the intracellular killing of Ft by macrophages ( Ft 's primary target cell population) and simultaneously restrained inflammation ultimately resulting in host survival. (springer.com)
  • Our aim is to determine whether the endothelial P2Y 1 receptor plays a role in leukocyte recruitment during vascular inflammation and characterize underlying mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, intravital microscopy techniques have been used to study the interactions between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. (asahq.org)
  • Second, the investigators demonstrated the feasibility of their proposed technique by reporting that the staining of the immune cells did not affect their ability to adhere to the vascular endothelium, as well as to migrate across this cell barrier. (asahq.org)
  • Platelets may interact with parasitized erythrocytes, leukocytes and endothelium. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite those studies, it is still unknown whether the effect of GC31 on EIU is mediated by inhibiting leukocyte-endothelium adhesion. (molvis.org)
  • We and others have observed that IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha induce 51Cr-labelled PMNL migration across monolayers of umbilical vein endothelium via an endothelial cell-dependent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • In order to enter extravascular tissue compartments, leukocytes pass the venular endothelium in a defined cascade of adhesive events. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Targeting LTβR-classical NFκB pathway enhanced DC migration across lymphatic endothelium in in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • The actin cytoskeleton, regulated by the Rho small GTPase family, initially forms cellular projections to mediate either the forward movement of a cell or the development of mature cellular processes (e.g., axons).Cells use adhesion proteins to maintain forward progress, from the rolling migration of a leukocyte along the blood vessel endothelium to the mesenchymal movement of a fibroblast along the extracellular matrix. (qiagen.com)
  • Recently, a novel activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in leukocyte transmigration across the endothelium. (elsevier.com)
  • We now show that upregulation of ALCAM in the brain endothelium seen in HIV + /cocaine drug abusers paralleled increased CD68 immunostaining compared with HIV + /no cocaine or uninfected controls, suggesting the important role of ALCAM in promoting leukocyte infiltration across the BBB. (elsevier.com)
  • 8 The endothelium also mediates hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells via an NO-independent pathway, which increases potassium conductance and subsequent propagation of depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells, to maintain vasodilator tone. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 , - , 4 Members of the selectin family, like P- and E-selectin 5 and the immunoglobulin (Ig) family, notably intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), 4 , 6 promote irreversible adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium and their transmigration into the subendothelial space. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we used an alternative strategy of inhibiting leukocyte recruitment by activating CD11b/CD18 with small-molecule agonists, which we term leukadherins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leukadherins also decreased leukocyte recruitment and reduced arterial narrowing after injury in rats. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intravenous administration of Gremlin-1, but not of control protein, significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment towards the inflamed carotid artery of ApoE-/- mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adoptive transfer studies established CCR8 as a key regulator of T(H)2 cell recruitment into allergen-inflamed skin. (nih.gov)
  • Neutrophils are rapidly and massively recruited to sites of microbial infection, where they can influence the recruitment of dendritic cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we have analyzed the role of neutrophil released chemokines in the early recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) in an experimental model of Leishmania major infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • We further used PF-4950834 to study the role of Rho kinase activation in lymphocyte and neutrophil migration in addition to the endothelial cell-mediated expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines, which are essential for leukocyte recruitment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, activated CD8 + T cells orchestrated the local recruitment of lymph node-resident XCR1 chemokine receptor-expressing DCs via secretion of the XCL1 chemokine. (nih.gov)
  • Immune cell recruitment to the site of antigen challenge during the individual phases is required for CHS, however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate leukocyte trafficking are not fully understood. (ovid.com)
  • This leukocyte recruitment is tightly regulated by the interplay between endothelial cells and leukocytes, a process in which G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, including complement factor C5a, bacterial peptides (e.g., fMLP), and chemokines, play a central role. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The reseeding of circulating cells also stimulated tumor vascularization and leukocyte recruitment, enhancing the growth of recipient tumors beyond what was expected from the mere addition of donor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Methods and Results- We show here that the P2Y 1 receptor plays a role in leukocyte recruitment in inflamed mouse femoral arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, in wild-type bone marrow-transplanted chimeric P2Y 1 -deficient mice with an apolipoprotein E-deficient background, a strong reduction of adhesion molecule-dependent leukocyte recruitment was observed after local injection of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β, excluding a role for the platelet or other hematopoietic cell type P2Y 1 in these events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, in vivo administration of MRS2500 resulted in strong reduction of leukocyte recruitment in inflamed femoral arteries of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • The in vitro effects of L-PRP and P-PRP on the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxid were assessed by western blotting, RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Griess reaction, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Serial urine samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for netrin-1 in 26 patients who developed AKI (defined as a 50% or greater increase in serum creatinine after CPB) and 34 controls (patients who did not develop AKI after CPB). (asnjournals.org)
  • In summary, we have used a pharmacologic approach to link Rho kinase activation to multiple phenotypes that can contribute to leukocyte infiltration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GC31 intravitreal injection could reduce leukocyte counts in aqueous humor and leukocyte infiltration in the anterior chamber, iris-ciliary bodies, and posterior vitreous according to histological examination. (molvis.org)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) both induce polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) infiltration into tissues and they have a synergistic action in this respect. (nih.gov)
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) interacts with multiple leukocyte receptors. (uniprot.org)
  • Recombinant human CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC expressed from a mammalian cell system showed potent chemotactic activity for T cells and B cells but not for granulocytes and monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • An optimal concentration of CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC attracted most input T cells within 3 h, a chemotactic activity comparable with that of stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a highly efficacious CXC chemokine. (jimmunol.org)
  • Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin A and Gracilin L. These positive results lead us to test the in vivo effect of Gracilin H and L in a mouse ear delayed hypersensitive reaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Use the IncuCyte® Live-Cell Analysis Platform to study chemotactic cell migration across 2D substrates and directional cell invasion through 3D biomatrix gels. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Explore differential biology of chemotactic cell migration and invasion in the same plate. (essenbioscience.com)
  • While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been shown that these toxins can alter chemotactic responses of neutrophils and intestinal epithelial cells leading to innate immune responses and tissue damages. (mdpi.com)
  • This mAb inhibited most of the RANTES and MIP-1α chemotactic responses of activated T cells, but not of monocytes, suggesting differential usage of chemokine receptors by these two cell types. (rupress.org)
  • The effect of TNF-alpha was not related to fibroblast chemotactic factor production (primarily IL-8), or to ICAM-1 up-regulation, since IL-1 was as active as TNF-alpha in this respect, without activating fibroblasts to support PMNL transfibroblast migration. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 significantly and dose-dependently increased the migration of monocytes, expressing the corresponding CXC chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, toward suboptimal concentrations of the monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2 or CCL7. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A chemotaxis assay's function is to assess whether a factor or molecule of interest has chemotactic activity on a motile cell type. (molecularstation.com)
  • The chemotactic assay is based on the creation of a chemical gradient of the chemotactic agent which will cause cells to migrate through the gradient towards the chemotactic agent. (molecularstation.com)
  • Waldron and Cole, 1999 ) and that knowledge of the functional and physiological significance of this potassium channel in neutrophils is still relatively sparse, in this report we investigated the role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in neutrophil migration induced by different chemotactic stimulus, using both in vivo and in vitro studies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vitro assays for cell migration and chemotaxis are necessary for both basic-research and drug discovery. (essenbioscience.com)
  • The topics discussed in this updated second edition include novel techniques for studying cell-cell adhesion, neutrophil chemotaxis, in vitro assays used to study leukocyte migration through monolayers of cultured endothelial cells, and novel techniques to purify pseudopodia from migratory cells. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • With cell culture solutions from Corning, you can perform relatively simple, consistent in vitro assays to study the body's wound healing and immune responses. (corning.com)
  • TME is not typically incorporated in in vitro assays used to assess the efficacy of genetically redirected T cells, leading to poor predictive power. (findaphd.com)
  • CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC was also a more efficacious chemoattractant for B cells than MIP-1α, a known B cell chemoattractant. (jimmunol.org)
  • We report here that CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC is a strong chemoattractant for T cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD45RO, and CD45RA, and for mature B cells, but not for monocytes and granulocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Leukocyte-expressed orphan heptahelical receptors that share significant homology with known chemoattractant receptors, yet remain uncharacterized with respect to ligand binding properties and functions, represent excellent candidates for additional regulators of immune cell trafficking and function. (rupress.org)
  • Several atypical serpentine GPCRs that are homologous to chemoattractant receptors bind to chemoattractants but fail to transduce intracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins and/or support cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we employed microfluidic mazes that replicate features of interstitial spaces and chemoattractant gradients within tissues to analyze the migration patterns of human neutrophils. (nature.com)
  • We find that neutrophils respond to LTB4 and fMLF gradients with highly directional migration patterns and converge towards the source of chemoattractant. (nature.com)
  • Overlapping gradients of chemoattractants conserve the convergent and divergent migration patterns corresponding to each chemoattractant and have additive effects on the number of neutrophils migrating. (nature.com)
  • The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) was first identified as a chemoattractant for naïve T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The secretion of chemokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also inhibited in activated endothelial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GHK was most potent chemoattractant tested for mast cells, but Gly-His-Gly, His-Lys, and His-Gly-Gly were inactive. (skinbiology.com)
  • An in vivo assay for chemoattractant activity. (skinbiology.com)
  • The cells then invade through the gel into a lower chamber containing a chemoattractant [ 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The progenitor or stem cells are added to the top chamber and a chemoattractant agent is added to the bottom chamber to induce the cells to invade the Matrigel matrix and migrate through the porous filter to the bottom chamber. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Note that cytochalasin D inhibits cell migration towards chemoattractant FBS. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Fetal bovine serum functions as an effective chemoattractant, stimulating cell migration on FN but not on BSA. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The protocol is a method for studying migration towards a concentration gradient of chemoattractant of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) or other migratory cells. (molecularstation.com)
  • An upper chamber containing a suspension of cells is separated by a membrane from a lower chamber containing medium with chemoattractant. (molecularstation.com)
  • Directed migration of primary T cells through a monolayer of HUVEC endothelial cells toward the chemoattractant SDF-1α, using an IncuCyte® ClearView 96-well Cell Migration Plate. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Leukocytes deficient for caspase 11 were defective in cell migration in culture (transwell assays) and in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • Discover how Transwell® inserts provide a relatively simple in vitro approach to performing chemotaxis and cell invasion assays. (corning.com)
  • Furthermore, an in vitro transwell migration assay showed that the addition of DNA enhanced an induction of osteoblast migration, compared with the medium alone. (cellmigration.org)
  • These assays include wound healing or scratch assay, time-lapse microscopy, and the transwell or Boyden Chamber assay. (jcancer.org)
  • The more physiologically relevant transwell or Boyden Chamber assay, which is a 3D system, requires the cells to be removed from their original environment and seeded on a layer of ECM in the upper chamber of the transwell. (jcancer.org)
  • Chemokine-directed BM-MNC cell invasion across a Matrigel-coated Transwell filter was measurable within minutes using the ECIS system we developed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This ECIS-Transwell chamber system provides a rapid and sensitive test of stem and progenitor cell invasive capacity for evaluation of stem cell functionality to provide timely clinical data for selection of patients likely to realize clinical benefit in regenerative medicine treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell migration was assessed using a transwell migration system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To address the question of whether non-pathogenic bacteria modify the immune response of the intestinal epithelium, we co-cultivated enterocyte-like CaCO-2 cells with human blood leucocytes in separate compartments of transwell cultures. (bmj.com)
  • 8 Recent experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced expression of the membrane glycoproteins E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells is involved in the mechanisms mediating increased leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions after irradiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 10 Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is a 130-kDa membrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family and is constitutively expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, platelets and circulating leukocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upon LPS stimulation, GC31 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs and remarkably reduced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. (molvis.org)
  • The endothelial cell migration assay provides a quick and efficient system to study a compound's ability to induce or inhibit endothelial cell migration. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Visualize transendothelial migration: leukocyte extravasation across an endothelial cell monolayer. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Resistance measurements of a Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a supporting matrix of fibronectin was measured using a digital multimeter. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Therefore, a conditionally immortalized choroidal endothelial cell (ciChEnC) line has been established. (arvojournals.org)
  • The cell line obtained was characterized based on expression of endothelial marker proteins and endothelial cell-specific responses to various stimuli. (arvojournals.org)
  • Similarly, the in vitro adhesion of isolated mouse monocytes to tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated murine endothelial cell monolayers and their migration across the cell layers were strongly reduced in P2Y 1 -deficient compared with wild-type endothelial cells, as was the expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin, Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • These adhesion molecules are upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), the effects of which also include the induction of endothelial cell permeability, motility changes, and the secretion of additional cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased HDAC activity is almost invariably observed in cancer cells leading to changes in local chromatin structure, altered gene transcription, and impaired differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore Gremlin-1 can modulate MIF dependent monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the influence of the salmon DNA on osteoblastic differentiation and induction of osteoblast migration using MG63 cells (human preosteoblasts) in vitro. (cellmigration.org)
  • These results indicate that the salmon DNA enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and induction of migration, resulting in the facilitation of bone regeneration. (cellmigration.org)
  • Effects of synthetic tripeptide on the differentiation of dissociated cerebral hemisphere nerve cells in culture. (skinbiology.com)
  • Gly-His-Lys supported chick neuron differentiation and viability in cell culture of various neurons - chick embryo PNS (ganglion trigeminale) and from CNS of embryonal rats (hippocampus) and dissociated cells from chick embryo cerebral tissue. (skinbiology.com)
  • First, it is known that marrow stromal cells support hematopoiesis by secreting bioactive molecules that aid in the growth, differentiation, function and migration of hematopoietic cells within the marrow cavity. (mit.edu)
  • There are reports of differentiation into neural cells, 3 , 4 cardiac muscle cells, 5 endocrine cells, 6 hepatocytes, 7 hepatocytic cells 8 and epithelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Because of their wide differentiation potential and accessibility many research groups are investigating the therapeutic potential of these stem cells. (haematologica.org)
  • 9 , 10 A population of CD34 - cells, typically located around capillaries and microvessels in multiple human organs and hence acknowledged as pericytes, give rise to mesenchymal cells with multilineage differentiation capacity and promote reparative myogenesis on transplantation in models of muscular dystrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • By mAb staining, huCCRL2 is expressed by circulating human T cells, neutrophils, monocytes, CD34 + BM precursors, and monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs and is generally up-regulated upon activation of such cells ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, neutrophils respond to gradients of C5a and IL-8 with a low-directionality migration pattern and disperse within mazes. (nature.com)
  • Inhibitors of MAP kinase and PI-3 kinase signaling pathways do not alter either convergent or divergent migration patterns, but reduce the number of responding neutrophils. (nature.com)
  • Chemotaxis of immunological cells such as leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and other immune cells. (molecularstation.com)
  • The protocol describes the method used for isolation of monocytes and neutrophils used in both the chemotaxis assay and microbicidal assays. (molecularstation.com)
  • FGF2, which is predominately derived from epithelial cells, recruits and activates neutrophils via the FGFR2-PI3K-AKT-NFκB signaling pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES). (bvsalud.org)
  • Neutrophils are the most abundant polymorphonuclear leukocyte, constituting the main cell type involved in the nonimmune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer activity, impairs several immune properties of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cumulating evidence indicating the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in different aspects of the immune response, including antigen processing, apoptosis, cell cycle, costimulation, adhesion, and chemotaxis, has fostered the evaluation of proteasome inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. (bloodjournal.org)
  • A central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses is played by dendritic cells (DCs), a trace leukocyte population with antigen-presenting cell (APC) function that patrols the peripheral tissues for the presence of unwanted antigenic material of infectious (and possibly tumoral) source. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These immune cells play a critical role in fighting infection but may also cause damage to parenchymal cells by releasing oxidants and proteases. (asahq.org)
  • however, recent advances in intravital imaging techniques, together with advances in molecular probes and reporters for cell labeling, have made it possible to visualize these cellular processes in live animals as the immune response unfolds in real time. (asahq.org)
  • Fluorescence-mediated tomography is capable of detecting low numbers of labeled immune cells that are recruited in a body cavity, as well as the trafficking of these cells between different organs. (asahq.org)
  • We have examined the role of RXRα in the innate immune system by conditionally disrupting RXRα in myeloid cells. (pnas.org)
  • The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a previously immunized animal results in a state of transient anergy with respect to cell-mediated immune reactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The generation of MTF is modified by T cells, lymphokines, and immunoregulatory lipoproteins, and recent studies have shown that MTF can be activated in an immune-specific manner following exposure to antigen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mast cells contribute importantly to both protective and pathological IgE-dependent immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • 5 Cell Biology of the Immune System Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal. (sciencemag.org)
  • The integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1), which is a heterodimer of the α M (CD11b) and β 2 (CD18) subunits, is critical for leukocyte adhesion and migration and for immune functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific loss of CD47 does not induce spontaneous immune-mediated intestinal barrier disruption but results in defective mucosal repair after biopsy-induced colonic wounding or Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced mucosal damage. (nature.com)
  • Cell migration and invasion are central to achieving functions such as wound repair and immune response. (corning.com)
  • GHK attracted wound healing immune cells (mast cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes) at about 10exp (-10) M. (skinbiology.com)
  • Plaque leukocytes 1 , 2 interacting with SMC 3 - 6 are thought to initiate adaptive immune responses toward arterial wall-derived antigens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, a detailed understanding of the interactions between immune cells and the blood vasculature is essential for our basic understanding of the immune system and for the development of novel therapies for pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, myocardial infarction and stroke. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Our current research aims to elucidate how leukocytes interact with venular pericytes during innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The overall goal of our work is to gain a better understanding of a little investigated phase of leukocyte migration and to aid the establishment of new therapeutic avenues aimed at regulating leukocyte trafficking and activation during pathological immune responses. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Specific modulators of immune cell migration at each of the immune phases are not defined. (ovid.com)
  • Circulating platelets interact with leukocytes to modulate host immune and thrombotic responses. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. strong activation of innate immune response, especially NK cells in HPS cases as compared to NE. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a mouse model of F t inhalation, rCST9 significantly decreased organ bacterial burden and improved survival, which was not accompanied by excessive cytokine secretion or subsequent immune cell migration. (springer.com)
  • Epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract are considered to participate in the initiation and regulation of the mucosal immune response to bacteria by interacting with immune cells of the gut associated lymphoid tissue, lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). (bmj.com)
  • Red blood cells and phagocytosis: how the immune system sorts new cells from old. (findaphd.com)
  • SDF-1, a CXC chemokine, has been reported to attract lymphocytes, monocytes, and hemopoietic progenitor cells ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 47 ) and, thus far, appears to be one of the most efficacious chemoattractants for T cells among known CC and CXC chemokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human MAF-C (macrophage-activation factor for cytotoxicity)-producing hybridoma H2-E3-5 was prepared by somatic cell fusion of PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes with emetine/actinomycin D-treated cloned human acute lymphatic leukemia cells (CEM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been reported to recruit T and B lymphocytes, and we show here, natural killer (NK) cells, but with low efficacy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its receptor has remained elusive since its cloning in 1997, although it has been reported to induce migration of breast cancer cells by signaling through PITPNM3, but we show that this receptor is not expressed on lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The inhibitor blocked stromal cell-derived factor-1α-mediated chemotaxis of T lymphocytes in vitro and the synthesis of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in activated human endothelial cells in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adaptive cellular immunity is initiated by antigen-specific interactions between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based assay that allows the quantification of LFA-1 internalization and its re-expression on the cell surface in T lymphocytes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or genetically redirected T cells are some of the most promising approaches to emerge recently for the treatment of metastatic disease. (findaphd.com)
  • The role of carbohydrate in the interaction of human migration inhibitory factor (MIF) with human peripheral blood monocytes was investigated by studying the effects of different exoglycosidases on the cellular response to MIF. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CC and CXC chemokines coinduced in fibroblasts and leukocytes by cytokines and microbial agents determine the number of phagocytes infiltrating into inflamed tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • By using trans-endothelial migration assays, the authors identify two cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, that act as paracrine attractants released by the recipient tumors to lure circulating tumor cells back to their site of origin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Serum levels of 48 cytokines were analyzed using Luminex multiplex magnetic bead-based antibody detection assay. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii , an intestinal isolate, showed reduced potential to induce proinflammatory cytokines but increased transforming growth factor beta mRΝA in leucocyte sensitised CaCO-2 cells. (bmj.com)
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for numerous heparin-binding growth factors and cytokines and are involved in cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the hydrophobic nature of both of these classes of molecules, they present challenges for use in immunological assays and have therefore been somewhat neglected in studies of T-cell reactivity in MS compared to more soluble molecules such as the myelin basic proteins and the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. (hindawi.com)
  • Focal adhesions are key attachments between the cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are important for maintaining cell integrity and intercellular communication. (hindawi.com)
  • however, it requires a cell to migrate through an extracellular matrix (ECM) or basement membrane extract (BME) barrier by first enzymatically degrading the barrier in order to become established in a new location. (corning.com)
  • Here we present a simple design for an inverted vertical invasion assay able to assess the invasion capabilities of cells in a three dimensional, extracellular matrix-based environment without displacement from the original culture location. (jcancer.org)
  • Using this assay, we found that MSCs, breast cancer cells, and corresponding fusion products are able to migrate and invade through the extracellular matrix and that hybrids invade in a manner more similar to stromal cells than cancer cells. (jcancer.org)
  • To successfully relocate in the body cancer cells must invade local tissues by degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) components and ultimately, transverse the basement membrane. (jcancer.org)
  • Chemotaxis describes cell migration in response to extracellular chemical signals. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Haptotaxis describes cell migration towards an immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM) protein gradient such as vitronectin, fibronectin, or collagen coated on the bottom of the Boyden Chamber insert. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The source of adenosine can either be intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation upon cellular stress, particularly under high energy demand, and subsequent transportation to the extracellular space via specialised nucleoside transporters or the appearance of large amounts of extracellular ATP due to tissue damage and cell death, which can be degraded to adenosine by membrane-bound ecto-enzymes like CD39 and CD73 [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a highly complex process involving extensive interplay between cells, soluble factors, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the tumour microenvironment (TME), comprising extracellular matrix and multiple stromal cell types, is often unconducive for effector T cell activity, limiting the effectiveness of ACT. (findaphd.com)
  • The function of HSPGs extends beyond providing an extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and scaffold for cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • this was the first evidence that an extracellular sulf was capable of modifying HS and therefore cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 , 21 Alert signals such as pathogen-derived products are sensed by DCs through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed at the cell surface and thereby trigger phenotypic and functional changes in DCs that lead to their migration to the afferent lymphoid organs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 22 23 CD31-ligand interactions may participate in the activation of integrin receptors on leukocytes during adherence to endothelial cells 24 25 26 and recent studies suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of CD31 could be involved in the signal transduction process mediating this phenomenon. (ahajournals.org)
  • The precise role of other chemokine receptors on T cells has been difficult to assess, since specific reagents or receptor antagonists have not been available. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine receptors also serve as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into cells. (rupress.org)
  • The family consists of approximately 50 chemokines which trigger their biological responses by activating seven-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM GPCRs) on their target cells, 20 of which have been identified to date. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein that associates with a variety of receptors to facilitate critical cell signaling events. (nature.com)
  • The homing, recruiting, organising and retaining activities of chemokines is dependent on the presence of and interaction with chemokine receptors on the leukocyte surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evidence has accumulated to show that chemokine receptors and their ligands are involved in the migration and retention of leukocytes in the RA joint [ 13 , 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An advantage of using flow cytometry-based assay over biochemical methods is the low number of needed cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Members of the chemokine superfamily are small peptide molecules with molecular mass of ∼10 kDa, activating, suppressing, and attracting cells with relatively specific activities. (jimmunol.org)
  • CKβ-11 was identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a human fetal spleen library by Human Genome Sciences (Rockville, MD). This chemokine was expressed in mammalian cells and the resulting protein was characterized using various leukocyte cell populations. (jimmunol.org)
  • CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed by T cells and macrophages, which also functions as the principal coreceptor for macrophage (M)-tropic strains of HIV-1. (rupress.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM), harvested from the lungs of untreated normal young rabbits (New Zealand White) 14 days to 8 weeks of age, exhibited a state of migration stimulation compared to AM from normal adult rabbits (5 to 6 months of age). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester (CE)-loaded macrophages (foam cells) are a prominent feature of atherosclerotic plaques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In previous studies including ours, hybrids arising from fusion between cancer cells and cells of the tumor microenvironment (mesenchymal stem/stroma cells, macrophages) have been proposed to contribute to tumor metastasis [ 8 - 18 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Supernatants of TNFR-1/LT β R-activated SMC markedly supported migration of splenic T cells, B cells, and macrophages/dendritic cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In vitro, we investigated the effect of A2aR on migration of CD4 + T cells, macrophages and microglia, as well as the impact of A2aR on phagocytosis of macrophages and microglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found an upregulation of A2aR in the central nervous system (CNS) in EAE, predominantly detected on T cells and macrophages/microglia within the inflamed tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro, activation of A2aR inhibited phagocytosis of myelin by macrophages and primary microglia as well as migration of CD4 + T cells, macrophages and primary microglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data support a model in which CD8 + T cells upon activation create their own optimal priming microenvironment by recruiting additional DC subsets to the site of initial antigen recognition. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of cells exhibiting chemokinetic responses to micromolar GABA contains glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme that synthesizes GABA from glutamate. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vz and cp cell motility responses to each chemotropic concentration of GABA were analyzed. (jneurosci.org)
  • This unit describes a number of chemotaxis assays that can be used to identify chemoattractants individually and in large‐scale screenings, to distinguish chemotaxis from chemokinesis, and to analyze cellular behavioral and biochemical responses. (currentprotocols.com)
  • the bridge, pipet, and upshift assays can be used to analyze the responses of single cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • However, evidence that macrophage/foam cells/dendritic-like cells (DC) 7 and T cells may mediate antigen-dependent T-cell responses within plaques remains circumstantial. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The anatomic location for the initiation of antigen-dependent B-cell responses is similarly puzzling, 8 , 9 and impacts of antigen-specific T and B cells on disease progression remain to be delineated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 8 T-cell and B-cell responses typically require antigen-presenting DC in T-cell areas, follicular DC in activated germinal centers of B-cell follicles, and high rates of T-cell recirculation, none of which has been shown to occur in atherosclerotic plaques. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sepsis is associated with reduced CD8+ T cell numbers and functional responses, but whether platelets regulate CD8+ T cell responses during sepsis remains unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data identify a new mechanism by which platelets, through MHC-I, process and cross-present antigens, engage antigen specific CD8+ T cells, and regulate CD8+ T cell number, functional responses, and outcomes during sepsis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Humoral and cell-mediated responses to a ribosomal preparation from Streptococcus mutans. (asm.org)
  • Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient population of cells present in vertebrate development that emigrate from the dorsal neural tube (NT) after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro analyses using primary cultures of CD47-deficient murine colonic IEC or human colonoid-derived IEC treated with CD47-blocking antibodies demonstrate impaired epithelial cell migration in wound healing assays. (nature.com)
  • Given these observations, we surmised that expression of CD47 in epithelial cells may play an important role in regulating mucosal wound closure in vivo. (nature.com)
  • We further demonstrate a critical role of epithelial expressed CD47, as mice selectively deficient in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) CD47 expression did not display abnormalities under resting conditions but exhibited profound defects in closure of biopsy-induced mucosal wounds as well as markedly impaired colonic mucosal wound repair from cyclic exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced injury. (nature.com)
  • While multiple pore sizes are available, the 8 µm pore size of this assay's Boyden chambers is appropriate for migration studies of most cell types, but supports optimal migration for most epithelial and fibroblast cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This pore size supports optimal migration for most epithelial and fibroblast cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are thought to participate in the mucosal defence against bacteria and in the regulation of mucosal tissue homeostasis. (bmj.com)
  • 1 It was shown that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) may change phenotype as a consequence of stimulation by IEL derived soluble mediators such as interferon (IFN) γ. (bmj.com)
  • PMN accumulation in the lung (myeloperoxidase assay), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung vascular permeability (protein content in BAL fluid) were assessed 6 h later. (physiology.org)
  • The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. (nih.gov)
  • The production of a macrophage migration enhancement factor (MEF) has been achieved as a consequence of administering a desensitizing dose of purified protein derivative (PPD) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG-sensitized rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both CD31 mRNA and surface protein showed similar changes, suggesting that the increase in mRNA in irradiated HUVECs is responsible for the elevation in cell surface protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pertussis toxin (PTX) blocked GABA-induced migration, indicating that chemotropic signals involve G-protein activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that GABA, a single ligand, can promote motility via G-protein activation and arrest attractant-induced migration via GABA A receptor-mediated depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used for total and differential leukocyte count and for protein measurement. (bvsalud.org)
  • The second edition of Adhesion Protein Protocols combines traditional techniques with cutting-edge and novel techniques that can be adapted easily to different molecules and cell types. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • The salmon DNA enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of the osteogenesis-related factors, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, and osterix (OSX) in the MG63 cells, compared with the cultivation using osteogenic induction medium alone. (cellmigration.org)
  • Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) are attractive therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer based on established importance in tumor cell migration, adhesion, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells grew into dense monolayers with barrier function and showed characteristics of choriocapillary cells, such as expression of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein, human leukocyte antigen ABC, carbonic anhydrase IV, and membrane indentations reflecting fenestrations. (arvojournals.org)
  • This preparation contained 80% RNA and 20% protein, and carbohydrate was not detected by phenol-sulfuric acid and methyl pentose assays. (asm.org)
  • Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemoattracting protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-10 was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cytokine secretion) and by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. (bmj.com)
  • We show that ubiquitin-specific protease 33 (USP33)/VDU1, originally identified as a von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) protein-interacting deubiquitinating enzyme, binds to the Robo1 receptor, and that USP33 is required for Slit responsiveness in breast cancer cells. (northwestern.edu)
  • Thus, we have identified Eps8 as a unique actin capping protein specifically required for DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many researchers studying cell migration employ a qualitative scratch assay and/or the more quantitative Boyden Chamber technique. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The chemotaxis cell migration assay measures directional cell movement in response to chemical concentration gradients. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Slit impairs directional migration of breast cancer cells without affecting their migration speed. (northwestern.edu)
  • Importantly, virtually all the HDAC inhibitors available show some degree of preclinical activity in tumor cell lines and in animal cancer models ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PR3 bound to RAGE on the surface of prostate cancer cells in vitro , inducing tumor cell motility through a nonproteolytic signal transduction cascade involving activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow niche ( 2 ), it has been proposed that specific cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions might mediate tumor cell trafficking to the axial skeletal microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MSCs exhibited significant tropism toward secreted factors from the aforementioned tumor cell lines, while both normal and MSCs exposed to tumor CM were capable of attracting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • When injected into host mice, these cells were defective in homing (leaving the blood and reaching the target organs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that CCR6-/- mice have underdeveloped Peyer's patches, in which the myeloid CD11b+ CD11c+ dendritic-cell subset is not present in the subepithelial dome. (jci.org)
  • CCR6-/- mice also have increased numbers in T-cell subpopulations within the intestinal mucosa. (jci.org)
  • We show that the mast cell-expressed orphan serpentine receptor mCCRL2 is not required for expression of IgE-mediated mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis but can enhance the tissue swelling and leukocyte infiltrates associated with such reactions in mice. (rupress.org)
  • We found that Gremlin-1 inhibited MIF-dependent monocyte migration and adhesion to activated endothelial cells in flow chamber perfusion assay in vitro and to the injured carotid artery of WT and ApoE-/- mice in vivo as deciphered by intravital microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Besides, leukocytes from MIF-/- when administered into ApoE-/- mice showed lesser adhesion as compared to wild type. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • MKEY treatment partially inhibited migration of adaptively transferred leukocytes into aneurysmal aortae in recipient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, a lack of tissue-targeted knockout mice has limited studies that address the function of CD47 expression by non-hematopoietic cell types in vivo. (nature.com)
  • Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β -receptor (LT β R). Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LT β R to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data suggest that SMAD3 has an important role in TGF‐β‐mediated regulation of T cell activation and mucosal immunity, and that the loss of these functions is responsible for chronic infection and the lethality of Smad3 ‐null mice. (embopress.org)
  • Massagué and colleagues now use an assay they termed the "tumor seeding assay," in which a fluorescently labeled "donor" tumor from a human breast, melanoma, or colon cancer cell line is implanted and grown in mice that harbor unlabeled "recipient" tumors at distant sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • TNF-alpha, but not IL-1 alpha, was found to activate fibroblast monolayers, grown on polycarbonate filters, to stimulate PMNL transfibroblast migration. (nih.gov)
  • Antiserum to IL-8, present during the assay, did not inhibit PMNL migration across the monolayers. (nih.gov)
  • For antibody inhibition, HUVEC monolayers were cultured overnight on fibronectin and then pre-treated with neutralizing ICAM-1 for 1 hour at 37°C. CD3/CD28 Dynabead activated T cells were plated at a density of 5,000 cells per well on to the HUVEC monolayer then exposed to 100 nM SDF-1α (EC 80 concentration). (essenbioscience.com)
  • For BIRT 377 (allosteric modulator of LFA-1) and AMD 3100 (CXCR4 receptor antagonist) inhibition studies, CD3/CD28 activated T cells were pre-treated for 1 hour at 37°C at indicated inhibitor concentrations, then seeded onto HUVEC monolayers and exposed to 100 nM SDF-1α. (essenbioscience.com)
  • How can cell migration or invasion assays be measured on a microplate reader? (bmglabtech.com)
  • Cell migration and cell invasion are important parameters to investigate for different cell types and for different disease states. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Therefore, assays that can measure cell migration and cell invasion are important tools to have for a microplate reader. (bmglabtech.com)
  • One way to measure cell invasion is to use the FluoroBlok TM assay from BD. (bmglabtech.com)
  • 5 or 8 µm used in chemotaxis or invasion assay. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The ability to quantify cell migration and invasion is critical in the study of cancer metastasis. (jcancer.org)
  • Current invasion assays, such as the Boyden Chamber, present difficulties in the measurement of the invasion of cells that are few in number and are intrinsically tied to the cell microenvironment. (jcancer.org)
  • There exists a need for a three-dimensional invasion assay that is easily reproduced, accessible for most laboratories, and requires no displacement of cells from their original microenvironment. (jcancer.org)
  • These hybrids are formed reliably but rarely (1 in 1,000 cells) and for this reason require an invasion assay that does not involve extensive cell manipulation. (jcancer.org)
  • Approximately 90% of cancer-related deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Thus, increased invasion and migration capabilities of cancer cells often indicate increased metastatic potential [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • However, traditional cell-based assays are not suitable to quantify the migration and invasion capability of hybrids since hybrids are vulnerable to the microenvironment in culture and the pool of hybrid cells is very small occurring at a frequency of 1 in 1000 cells [ 18 ] or less. (jcancer.org)
  • Design and Methods In vitro invasion and transendothelial migration assays were performed. (haematologica.org)
  • To develop a rapid, sensitive and reproducible invasion assay, we employed Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple assays of cell behavior using SKOV3ip and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac significantly inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore CCR9 has mainly been reported to function in lymphocyte migration although other cell types, such as tumour cells, can express CCR9, playing a role in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This interdisciplinary symposium will convene leading experts in adult stem cell research, tissue regeneration and bioengineering to discuss cutting edge research at the intersection of these disciplines, with the overall aim of translating current stem cell knowledge into clinical applications. (nyas.org)
  • but these assays require postmortem analyses of leukocyte tissue distribution. (asahq.org)
  • The efficacy of chemoattraction by CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC and tissue expression of its mRNA suggest that CKβ-11/MIP-3β/ELC may be important in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Free radicals are believed to be involved in leukocyte induced tissue injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present studies were performed to determine whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) might serve as a mediator of tissue injury after leukocyte induced free radical oxidation of LDL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microfluidics can also mimic the biophysical properties of the tissue by recapitulating spatial and temporal events like those that leukocytes encounter in vivo 18 . (nature.com)
  • These findings indicate that the DNA induced the migration and accumulation of osteogenic cells to the regenerative tissue. (cellmigration.org)
  • We discovered that MSCs can express peripheral tissue antigens similar to other specialized antigen presenting cells in the thymus and lymph nodes - a process known to induce tolerance to self-reactive T cells in vivo. (mit.edu)
  • The functional involvement in MSC migration was assessed using neutralizing anti-MMP-2 antibody, MMP-2 short interfering RNA or recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-3). (haematologica.org)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have demonstrated that the incorporation of monoclonal antibody to CD31 significantly inhibited the transmigration of human peripheral blood leukocytes through a monolayer of irradiated HUVECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasmodium berghei infection was also accompanied by marked thrombocytopaenia and formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in peripheral blood. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have developed a radiolabeled equilibrium competition binding assay and demonstrated that it bound with high affinity to peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), but the binding was displaced similarly by both unlabelled CCL18 as well as heparin. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been a longstanding view that local relapse occurs as a result of tumor cells that persist in the peripheral area of the primary tumor, whereas metastasis is thought to develop from cells that escape into the circulation and remain dormant at distant sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leucocyte sensitised CaCO-2 cells produced TNF-α and IL-1β whereas IL-10 was exclusively secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (bmj.com)
  • abstract = "Slit regulates migration of not only neurons, but also nonneuronal cells, such as leukocytes and cancer cells. (northwestern.edu)
  • These results suggest that convergent and divergent neutrophil migration-patterns are the result of simultaneous activation of multiple signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • Our previous work has shown that pericyte-derived chemokines provide essential guiding cues for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissues (Girbl et al. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Analyzing the early mechanisms controlling dendritic cell migration to the skin will contribute to the understanding of the development of immunity against infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • T cell and dendritic cell (DC) migration were assessed with in vitro and in vivo assays. (ovid.com)
  • From the histochemical and immunohistochemical assays using frozen sections of the bone defects from animals that were implanted with DNA disks, many cells were found to express aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, one of the markers for mesenchymal stem cells. (cellmigration.org)
  • We used the assay to determine the migratory capacity of hybrids between mesenchymal/multipotent stem/stroma cells (MSCs) and breast cancer cells MCF7. (jcancer.org)
  • The bone marrow contains a multipotent stromal cell, commonly referred to as a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). (mit.edu)
  • Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells that can be expanded many fold in vitro and have the therapeutic potential to restore the bone marrow microenvironment and support hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, adult stem cells predominantly residing in the stromal compartment of hematopoietic bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • 11 , 12 Another population of CD34 + cells, located around the vasa vasorum in the adventitia of arteries and veins, also express typical pericyte markers (NG2, PDGFRβ, and RGS5) together with mesenchymal (CD44, CD90, CD73, CD29) and stemness antigens (Oct-4 and Sox-2). (ahajournals.org)
  • The biological interaction between stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) and cancer cells remains incompletely understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, HDAC inhibitors induce promoter hyperacetylation and subsequent up-regulation of different members of the surface death receptor pathway, including Fas, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor DR5, and cooperatively enhance TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in leukemic cells ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Talin-1 is recognized to be a potent integrin activator and to influence the integrin functions, which are associated with cell adhesions, migration, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton remodeling [ 1 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the phagocyte. (abcam.com)
  • During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. (abcam.com)
  • f ) Dose-response migration of T H 2-R2A cells to mouse CCL8 (representative of more than 10 experiments) and PTX-mediated inhibition of mouse CCL8-induced migration (one of three independent experiments shown). (nih.gov)
  • Using an unidirectional leukocyte migration-inhibition (LMI) assay, we investigated the migration-inhibitory activity (LIF) in the sera of 25 infants who developed bronchiolitis following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of leukocyte extravasation. (essenbioscience.com)
  • For instance, tumor cells undergo a transformation where they metastasize to another area of the body by invading different tissues. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Here we investigated the interaction of PMNL with fibroblasts, since PMNL probably encounter such cells in many tissues once they traverse the vascular wall. (nih.gov)
  • Two main mural cell populations, probably originating from a common embryonic ancestor, have been described in adult tissues based on stringent topographical, clonogenic, antigenic, and functional criteria. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment with decoy peptide at the time of antigen challenge and elicitation inhibited CHS with reduced ear swelling and fewer CD3+ T cells and CD11C+ DCs infiltrating the inflamed tissues. (ovid.com)
  • This effect was due to enhanced egress of T cells and DCs out of the tissues. (ovid.com)
  • Finally, in vitro studies have the advantage of allowing genetic manipulation of cells as well as the utilization of cells and tissues from transgenic species [3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Micromolar concentrations stimulate chemokinesis (random motility), whereas femtomolar GABA levels induce chemotaxis (directed migration). (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, the population exhibiting chemotaxis to femtomolar GABA is not enriched in GAD + cells, indicating that each GABA concentration stimulates motility in a distinct subpopulation of cortical neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although very low concentrations fail to promote cell movement, optimal concentrations stimulate migration, and excessive levels of attractant inhibit further motility. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. (mdpi.com)
  • The frequently used wound healing assay and time lapse microscopy are two dimensional systems and do not closely mimic the in vivo environment especially with respect to cell adhesion and associated cell motility [ 2 - 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • CD40-mediated activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells promotes their CD44-dependent adhesion to hyaluronan and restricts CCL21-induced motility. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Chemotaxis assays are ideal for assessing the effects of pharmacological compounds on the motility of tumor cells, for example, and for analyzing the migratory capacity of multiple cell lines in parallel. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Dysregulation of cellular motility or migration can cause diseases such as developmental abnormalities or immunodeficiencies. (qiagen.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell motility research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • The Human Cell Motility RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in the movement of cells. (qiagen.com)
  • The second natural function of MSCs that was exploited for therapy concerns recent evidence that stromal cells can present antigens in lymphoid organs. (mit.edu)
  • We now propose further engineering genetically redirected T cells so they can respond to signals intended for transformed and stromal cells within the TME in order to couple tumour-promoting paracrine signals to their migration and cancer reactivity of genetically redirected T cells. (findaphd.com)
  • Regenerative medicine studies using autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) have shown improved clinical outcomes that correlate to in vitro BM-MNC invasive capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endothelial CD31 is important in the transmigration of leukocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Functional implication of upregulated ALCAM was confirmed using cell adhesion and transmigration assays. (elsevier.com)
  • Western blot analysis of cell lysate (20 µg, lane 1) or 20 µl of the eluted samples (lanes 2, 3, and 4) was performed using a Rap1 Rabbit Antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • In preclinical models of experimental metastasis, ectopic expression of RAGE on human prostate cancer cells was sufficient to promote bone marrow homing within a short timeframe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate how RAGE-PR3 interactions between human prostate cancer cells and the bone marrow microenvironment mediate bone metastasis during prostate cancer progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They suggested that talin-1 downregulation causes the loosening of cell-ECM interactions, thereby leading to the injury and disintegration of vascular walls in atherosclerosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Vascular cells express several NOXs being NOX-1 and NOX-4 the most abundant NOXs present in vascular smooth muscle cells. (cellmigration.org)
  • Leukocytes need to be quick to extravasate from the vascular in order to defeat invading pathogens. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 6 This gas diffuses to the vascular smooth muscle cells and activates guanylate cyclase, which leads to cGMP-mediated vasodilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • This method is inexpensive, gentle, and capable of distinguishing chemotaxis from both chemokinesis and other influences on migratory polarity such as those derived from cell-cell interactions within the primary trunk neural crest cell culture. (jove.com)
  • Understanding functional interactions between cancer cells and nonmalignant cells within the bone marrow is central for developing target therapeutics for lethal metastatic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Integrins play a pivotal role in the structural integrity of focal adhesions and in the cell-to-ECM adhesive interactions [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro studies using cell lines suggest that CD47 is also an important regulator of integrin signaling through in cis interactions with integrin heterodimers. (nature.com)
  • In sepsis, platelet-leukocyte interactions are increased, and have been associated with adverse clinical events, including increased platelet-T cell interactions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Upregulation of platelet MHC-I during sepsis increases antigen cross-presentation and interactions with CD8+ T cells in an antigen-specific manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • ADAMs participate in a wide variety of cell surface remodeling processes, including ectodomain shedding, regulation of growth factor availability and mediating cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactivity of IEC to bacterial signals may depend on interactions with immunocompetent cells. (bmj.com)
  • Some chemokines, such as IL-8, MIP-1β 3 and RANTES, are reported to modulate integrin adhesion and thought to be important in migration of cells from one environment to another ( 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The malignant cells of HCL are diagnosed biochemically by aberrant expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and the β2-integrin CD11c ( 7 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Leukocytes are the fastest migrating cell type in the human body, which express the leukocyte-specific integrin LFA-1. (bio-protocol.org)
  • c ) Migration of lymph node CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to mouse CCL8 and CXCL12. (nih.gov)
  • Migration to mouse CXCL11 and CXCL12 was a positive control. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, in contrast to intact CXCL12, truncated CXCL12(3-68), which has impaired receptor signaling capacity but can still desensitize CXCR4, was unable to synergize with CCL2 in monocytic cell migration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Primary T cells extravasation toward CXCL11 and CXCL12. (essenbioscience.com)
  • The insert containing T cell:HUVEC monolayer co-cultures was then exposed to either CXCL11 or CXCL12 gradients at the indicated concentrations. (essenbioscience.com)
  • RESULTS: Early moderate physical exercise was able to normalize functional capillary density and reduce leukocyte rolling in the brain of animals with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation was assayed using the flow cytometer. (bvsalud.org)
  • The therapeutic use of MSC would benefit from a selection of culture conditions that allow optimal extravasation of these cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Images show intracellular contact integrity of HUVEC monolayer, which is vital for the control of leukocyte extravasation. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Visualization of leukocyte extravasation. (essenbioscience.com)
  • The effects of SEMA4C on lymphangiogenesis in vitro were evaluated using migration assay and tube-formation assay of LECs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pore size determination depends entirely on your cell type. (emdmillipore.com)
  • A quickliterature search will enable you to decide the best pore size for the particular cells you are using. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The following chart illustrates pore size choice for cell lines used in our laboratory and by some of our customers for these assays. (emdmillipore.com)
  • 3 μm pore size is appropriate for leukocyte or lymphocyte migration. (emdmillipore.com)
  • 5 µm pore size is appropriate for a subset of fibroblast cells or cancer cells such as NIH-3T3 and MDA-MAB 231 cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • 8 μm pore size is appropriate for most cell types. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Note - the 8 μm pore size is not appropriate for lymphocyte migration experiments. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Click here to match your cell type to its suitable assay pore size. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This versatile assay permits counting of individual migratory cells, and more importantly, allows for quantitative analysis by optical density (OD) using a standard microplate reader. (emdmillipore.com)