Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A proteinase inhibitor found in various BODILY SECRETIONS that coat mucosal surfaces such as SEMINAL PLASMA; CERVICAL MUCUS; and bronchial secretions. It plays a role in protecting epithelial tissues from LEUKOCYTE-derived serine proteases such as NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)

Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and matrix metalloproteinases causes blood-brain barrier injury: Novel mechanism for neurodegeneration associated with alcohol abuse. (1/45)

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) regulates the passage of molecules and leukocytes in and out of the brain. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alteration of basement membrane (BM) associated with BBB injury was documented in stroke patients. While chronic alcoholism is a risk factor for developing stroke, underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH)-induced protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling resulted a loss of BBB integrity via MMPs activation and degradation of BM component, collagen IV. Treatment of BMVEC with EtOH or acetaldehyde (AA) for 2-48 h increased MMP-1, -2 and -9 activities or decreased the levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2) in a PTK-dependent manner without affecting protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. Enhanced PTK activity after EtOH exposure correlated with increased phosphorylated proteins of selective receptor and nonreceptor PTKs. Up-regulation of MMPs activities and protein contents paralleled a decrease in collagen IV content, and inhibitors of EtOH metabolism, MMP-2 and -9, or PTK reversed all these effects. Using human BMVEC assembled into BBB models, we found that EtOH/AA diminished barrier tightness, augmented permeability, and monocyte migration across the BBB via activation of PTKs and MMPs. These findings suggest that alcohol associated BBB injury could be mediated by MMPs via BM protein degradation and could serve as a comorbidity factor for neurological disorders like stroke or neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our preliminary experiments indicated that human astrocytes secreted high levels of MMP-1 and -9 following exposure to EtOH, suggesting the role of BM protein degradation and BBB compromise as a result of glial activation by ethanol. These results provide better understanding of multifaceted effects of alcohol on the brain and could help develop new therapeutic interventions.  (+info)

Neutrophil interactions with keratocytes during corneal epithelial wound healing: a role for CD18 integrins. (2/45)

PURPOSE: To determine the role of keratocytes and leukocyte beta(2) (CD18) integrins in neutrophil (PMN) migration through the corneal stroma after epithelial scrape injury. METHODS: Using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, corneas were excised at 6 hours (wild-type) or 24 hours (CD18(-/-)) after central corneal epithelial abrasion, time points determined previously to have similar levels of emigrated PMNs. Corneas were prepared for ultrastructural morphometric analysis of PMNs, keratocyte networks, and collagen. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy revealed intact keratocyte networks within the paralimbus that were morphometrically similar, regardless of epithelial injury or mouse genotype. Secondary to epithelial abrasion, extravasated PMNs within the paralimbus developed close contacts with keratocytes and collagen. In wild-type mice, 40% of the PMN surface was in contact with the keratocyte surface, and this value decreased to 10% in CD18(-/-) mice. PMN contact with collagen was similar in wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, with approximately 50% of the PMN surface contacting the collagen fibrils. Since corneal edema resulting from scrape injury was similar, regardless of genotype and did not involve structural changes in collagen fibrils, these data favor a direct role for CD18 in mediating PMN contact with keratocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that in response to epithelial scrape injury, PMN migration in the corneal stroma involves close contact between keratocytes and collagen. Although PMN-keratocyte contacts require CD18 integrins, contact with collagen is CD18 independent. Fundamentally, PMN migration along keratocyte networks constitutes the beginning of a new experimental concept for understanding leukocyte migration within the wounded cornea.  (+info)

STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier. (3/45)

The relationship among neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and progressive HIV-1 infection as they affect the onset and development of neuroAIDS is incompletely understood. One possible link is signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways. These respond to proinflammatory and regulatory factors and could affect neuroinflammatory responses induced from infected cells and disease-affected brain tissue. Our previous works demonstrated that HIV-1 activates pro-inflammatory and interferon-alpha-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and that these genes are linked to the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. We now demonstrate that HIV-1 activates STAT1, induces IL-6 expression, and diminishes expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2 in HBMECs. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, blocked HIV-1-induced IL-6, diminished HIV-1-induced claudin-5 and ZO-1 down-regulation, and blocked HIV-1- and IL-6-induced monocyte migration across a BBB model. Enhanced expression and activation of STAT1 and decreased claudin-5 were observed in microvessels from autopsied brains of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an integral role in HIV-1-induced BBB damage and is relevant to viral neuropathogenesis. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes.  (+info)

Immunomodulation by alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor: lack of chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor from yeast on human peripheral blood granulocytes. (4/45)

INTRODUCTION: Recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor, clinically developed for inhalative augmentation therapy in patients with alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor deficiency or cystic fibrosis, may directly contribute to leukocyte accumulation as it may function as a chemoattractant. The migratory effects of yeast-derived human recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on human peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils were therefore tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human peripheral blood leukocytes were prepared from forearm venous blood and tested for migration toward various preparations of yeast-derived recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in modified Boyden-chamber micropore filter assays. RESULTS: No direct effects of yeast-derived recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on in vitro migration of isolated neutrophils or eosinophils were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of direct chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor despite anti-inflammatory effects in other biological activities of leukocytes may contribute to the preserved antibacterial defense mechanisms observed in patients under experimental augmentation therapy with inhaled alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor.  (+info)

C-terminal repeats of Clostridium difficile toxin A induce production of chemokine and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and promote migration of leukocytes. (5/45)

The C-terminal repeating sequences of Clostridium difficile toxin A (designated ARU) are homologous to the carbohydrate-binding domain of streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that were recently identified as potent modulins. To test the hypothesis that ARU might exert a similar biological activity on endothelial cells, recombinant ARU (rARU), which was noncytotoxic to cell cultures, was analyzed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The rARU could bind directly to endothelial cells in a serum- and calcium-dependent manner and induce the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in a dose-dependent manner. An oligosaccharide binding assay indicated that rARU, but not GTFC, binds preferentially to Lewis antigens and 3'HSO3-containing oligosaccharides. Binding of rARU to human endothelial or intestinal cells correlated directly with the expression of Lewis Y antigen. Bound rARU directly activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in endothelial cells to release biologically active chemokines and adhesion molecules that promoted migration in a transwell assay and the adherence of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells to the endothelial cells. These results suggest that ARU may bind to multiple carbohydrate motifs to exert its biological activity on human endothelial cells.  (+info)

Infection of endothelial cells with virulent Rickettsia prowazekii increases the transmigration of leukocytes. (6/45)


Epstein-Barr virus lytic transactivator Zta enhances chemotactic activity through induction of interleukin-8 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. (7/45)


Comparative study of the usefulness of the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test and the leukocyte migration test in drug allergies. (8/45)

In 133 patients suspected of hypersensitivity to drugs and 102 control patients without hypersensitivity to drugs, the identification of allergenic drugs was performed by the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) and the leukocyte migration test (LMT) to compare their usefulness in identifying drug allergies. In the 133 subject patients, the positive rate was 24.8% on the DLST and 60.9% on the LMT (agreement rate; 77.4%); thus, the LMT showed a significantly higher positive rate than the DLST (p<0.000001, chi(2)-test). In the 102 control patients, the positive rates on the DLST and LMT were 6.9%. In addition, the LMT showed a higher positive rate than the DLST for many hypersensitivity symptoms such as skin eruptions and hepatic injury, and for many drug efficacy categories of the suspected drugs such as antibacterial drugs, etc. Furthermore, the positive rate of the DLST did not change when adjusted for the patients' serum and sex, while that of the LMT increased when adjusted for the patients' serum and was found to be higher in females than in males. Our findings indicate that the LMT may be more useful than the DLST in identifying the causative drug in drug allergies and that its interpretation is influenced by the patient's serum and sex.  (+info)

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.

The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.

The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:

1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.

To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:

1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.

Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... For example, leukocytes complex urokinase (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), and integrins which participate in cell adhesion ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...
... gradient Detected responses are the results of active migration of cells Despite the fact that an ideal chemotaxis assay is ... migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal function and health (e.g., migration of leukocytes during injury or ... Although migration of cells was detected from the early days of the development of microscopy by Leeuwenhoek, a Caltech lecture ... Chemoattractants in eukaryotes are well characterized for immune cells. Formyl peptides, such as fMLF, attract leukocytes such ...
Sulf2 was upregulated in a majority of HCCs and HCC cell lines, and Sulf2 knockdown eliminated migration and proliferation. ... Finally, in a transcriptome wide assay in chronic wound, fortyfold higher expression Sulf1 was noted in wound-site vessels. ... Sulf1 and 2 also display regulation over muscle development, angiogenesis, leukocyte rolling and wound healing. In adult mice, ... Squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (SCCHN) has three cell lines lacking Sulf1 expression. Transfected-in Sulf1 expression ...
... cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450.495.160 - cytotoxicity tests, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.160.155 - complement ... radioimmunoprecipitation assay MeSH E01.450.495.410.700.830 - radioimmunosorbent test MeSH E01.450.495.460 - leukocyte ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 - patch tests MeSH E01.370. ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 - patch tests MeSH ...
... has been shown to be necessary for in vitro cell migration. Upon cleavage the N-terminus has been shown to associate with ... Inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation assays in overexpressing HEK293 cells have demonstrated coupling of EMR2 to Gα15. EGF- ... "The human EGF-TM7 family member EMR2 is a heterodimeric receptor expressed on myeloid cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 71 ... Davies JQ, Lin HH, Stacey M, Yona S, Chang GW, Gordon S, Hamann J, Campo L, Han C, Chan P, Fox SB (March 2011). "Leukocyte ...
"Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. PMID ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (Aug 1995). "Plasma assay of ... Gelatinase B, along with elastase, appears to be a regulatory factor in neutrophil migration across the basement membrane. ...
... cell migration, learning and memory, as well as in pathological processes, such as arthritis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. doi: ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (August 1995). "Plasma assay of ... "Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ...
... the assay can also be used to study cell invasion or cell migration. Co-culture designs can be adapted to tri- or multi-culture ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 100 (5): 1027-1035. doi:10.1189/jlb.3ma0216-087r. PMC 5069089. PMID 27190303. Tang Y, Soroush F, ... 107 cells); this can make studying certain cell-cell interactions more accessible. These reduced cell numbers make studying non ... cell-cell interactions, cell-molecule interactions, cell-substrate interactions), and physicochemical (pH, CO2, temperature, O2 ...
Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... TAAR1 is necessary for chemotaxic migration of cells towards TAAR1 agonists. In addition, TAAR1 signaling in B and T cells can ... Functional Assays ... Mobilization of internal calcium in RD-HGA16 cells transfected with unmodified human TA1 Response ... Phytohaemagglutinin upregulates hTAAR1 mRNA in circulating leukocytes; in these cells, TAAR1 activation mediates leukocyte ...
... migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Thrombin is implicated in the ... Cerastocytin Fibrin glue Fibrinogen PA clan of proteases The Proteolysis Map Thrombin generation assay GRCh38: Ensembl release ... leukocyte recruitment into the atherosclerotic plaque, enhanced oxidative stress, ... Acting via its specific cell membrane receptors (protease activated receptors: PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4), which are abundantly ...
... has been shown to influence the migration of neurons and glia, leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Slit1 and Slit2 ... Several years later, genetic evidence, biochemical binding experiments, and explant assays identified Slits as the repulsive ... Slits mediate cell communication in many diverse systems, regulating the guidance, cell migration and polarization of many ... "Multiple roles for slits in the control of cell migration in the rostral migratory stream". J. Neurosci. 24 (6): 1497-506. doi: ...
... of the total CSF leukocyte (white blood cell) count. The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in " ... Experimental assays in animal models are needed to validate a chemically induced chemotaxis by use of anticholinergic drugs to ... Neurologic findings and symptoms wax and wane as initial damage is done by the physical in-migration of the worms and secondary ... Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line, which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ...
S100A4 expression is associated with enhanced cell migration through maintenance of cell polarization and inhibition of cell ... and the features of leukocyte inclusions. Within a phase 2 trial, eltrombopag, an agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor, ... of MYH9-RD is confirmed by the identification of the NMHC IIA inclusions in granulocytes through an immunofluorescence assay on ... Ravid S (2014). "The tumor suppressor Lgl1 regulates front-rear polarity of migrating cells". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 8 (4 ...
Wong MJ, Malapitan IA, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2003). "A cell-free binding assay maps the LSP1 cytoskeletal binding site to ... 1997). "Alternatively spliced exons encode the tissue-specific 5' termini of leukocyte pp52 and stromal cell S37 mRNA isoforms ... and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. ... S37 is expressed in embryonic mesenchymal cells". J. Cell Sci. 107 (12): 3591-600. doi:10.1242/jcs.107.12.3591. PMID 7706408. ...
EID: 2-s2.0-0022340824 Pick, Edgar (2020). "Cell-Free NADPH Oxidase Activation Assays: A Triumph of Reductionism". Neutrophil. ... Mitogen-induced release of skin reactive and macrophage migration inhibitory factors". Cellular Immunology. 1 (1): 92-109. doi: ... "Journal of Leukocyte Biology" (1996-2001; Section Editor), and "FASEB Journal" (2006-2018). He was a member of the Advisory ... In 1967 he joined the laboratory of John L.Turk, the world leader of cell-mediated immunity studies. He received a Ph.D. from ...
... the cell cycle, cell differentiation or migration. Neurofibromin is also known to interact with CASK through syndecan, a ... Expression is at its highest level in adult neurons, Schwann cells, astrocytes, leukocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The catalytic ... Research based on these preclinical models has already proven its efficacy as multiple clinical assays have been initiated ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ...
May 2007). "The tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 interacts with NPM-ALK and regulates anaplastic lymphoma cell growth and migration". ... "VENTANA ALK (D5F3) CDx Assay". Diagnostics. Patcas A, Chis AF, Militaru CF, Bordea IR, Rajnoveanu R, Coza OF, et al. (February ... Weiss JB, Xue C, Benice T, Xue L, Morris SW, Raber J (January 2012). "Anaplastic lymphoma kinase and leukocyte tyrosine kinase ... Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was originally discovered in 1994 in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. ALCL is ...
This is due to the migration of other leukocytes such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages to the initial ... The immune system does not recognize the affected cells as normal parts of the body, causing a T-cell-mediated immune response ... Radiometric assays include the radioallergosorbent test (RAST test) method, which uses IgE-binding (anti-IgE) antibodies ... In type IV hypersensitivity, there is activation of certain types of T cells (CD8+) that destroy target cells on contact, as ...
"FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (5): 249-56. doi:10.1038/ ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5- ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 65 (4): 523-34. doi:10.1002/jlb.65.4.523. PMID 10204582. S2CID 18340540. Wong A, Lamothe B, Lee A ... migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): 1019-31. doi:10.1083/jcb.144.5.1019. PMC ...
MMPs are also thought to play a major role in cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration (adhesion/dispersion), ... "Chemokine and cytokine processing by matrix metalloproteinases and its effect on leukocyte migration and inflammation". J. ... Gross J, Lapiere C (1962). "Collagenolytic Activity in Amphibian Tissues: A Tissue Culture Assay". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 48 ( ... They are known to be involved in the cleavage of cell surface receptors, the release of apoptotic ligands (such as the FAS ...
... in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... while not detected by in the mouse model of peritonitis or stimulated leukocytes, is more potent than even PD1 in inhibiting ... T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ...
Companion studies using an in vitro scratch test assay indicated that 12-HHT stimulated human and mouse keratinocyte migration ... kidney renal cell carcinoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 43 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1002/jlb.43.2.117. PMID 3422086. S2CID 6808683. Okuno, T; Iizuka, Y; ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...
... polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture assay Madin- ... Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one ... Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to ... Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell. Almost all cell types exhibit some ...
... and otherwise activate inflammation-inducing cells such as circulating leukocytes and tissue macrophages and dendritic cells ... monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovascular ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ...
Melanoma survival, migration and proliferation is affected by DDX3X activity. Melanoma cells with low DDX3X expression exhibit ... as verified with chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Since the expression of DDX3X is affected by the ... "An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility ... In HeLa cells DDX3X is reported to control cell cycle progression through Cyclin E1. More specifically, DDX3X was shown to ...
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. Memory cell proliferation (activation) can also be assayed ... Günthert U (1994). "CD44: a multitude of isoforms with diverse functions". Adhesion in Leukocyte Homing and Differentiation ( ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ...
2006, p. 6 Zen K, Parkos CA; Parkos (October 2003). "Leukocyte-epithelial interactions". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 557-64 ... and glomerular cells can be damaged further by the adhesion molecules during the migration of neutrophils. The injury done to ... Hampton MB, Vissers MC, Winterbourn CC; Vissers; Winterbourn (February 1994). "A single assay for measuring the rates of ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ...
It has been used to model T-cell-mediated suppression, peripheral lymphocyte migration, T-cell memory, tolerance, thymic ... "A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding ... toward repurposing of open access immunological assay data for translational and clinical research". Scientific Data. 5: 180015 ... Mehr R, Segel L, Sharp A, Globerson A (October 1994). "Colonization of the thymus by T cell progenitors: models for cell-cell ...
Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production". Cell. Immunol. 12 (1): 150-59. doi:10.1016/ ... Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified simultaneously in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom. In 1969, ... Wheelock EF (July 1965). "Interferon-Like Virus-Inhibitor Induced in Human Leukocytes by Phytohemagglutinin". Science. 149 ( ... and osteopetrosis Adipokines Apoptosis Cytokine redundancy Cytokine release syndrome Cytokine secretion assay ELISA assays ...
... the typical white blood cell count in septic arthritis is over 50,000-100,000 cells per 10−6/l (50,000-100,000 cell/mm3); where ... Confirmation of Lyme disease is done through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by confirmation using Western ... Other symptoms of disseminated gonococcal infection can include migration of joint pain, tenosynovitis and dermatitis. Synovial ... leukocyte count with differential, and crystal studies. This can include NAAT testing for N. gonorrhoeae if suspected in a ...
Devreotes, P.N. and Zigmond, S.H. (1988) Chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells: a focus on leukocytes and Dictyostelium. Annu Rev Cell ... Chang, H., Kim, B. J., Kim, Y. S., Suarez, S. S., and Wu, M. (2013) Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm ... Chemotaxis of capacitated rabbit spermatozoa to follicular fluid revealed by a novel directionality-based assay. Biol. Reprod. ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells". Mol ... This ratio of large HDL to total HDL particles varies widely and is measured only by more sophisticated lipoprotein assays ... At the inflammation site, it attracts and activates leukocytes. In chronic inflammations, its deposition in the tissues ... Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles, which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells. ...
... titer can also be assessed by using plaque assay in LLC-MK2 cells and by serial end point 2x dilution hemagglutination assay ( ... type I IFNs promote SeV clearance and speed up the migration and maturation of dendritic cells. However, soon after viral ... "Distribution of VIM-2 and SSEA-1 glycoconjugate epitopes among human leukocytes and leukemia cells". Leukemia Research. 14 (2 ... Not all cancer cells have cell entry receptors for the virus and not all cancer cells express virus processing serine proteases ...
"Chemoattractant induces LFA-1 associated PI 3K activity and cell migration that are dependent on Fyn signaling." FASEB J 2005; ... These events regulate immune responses by controlling the access of leukocytes to sites of inflammatory or immune reaction in ... "Short-term homing assay reveals a critical role for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in the hepatic recruitment of ... Butcher and his research team study the trafficking of white blood cells (lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, etc.), ...
For example, cell membrane integrins on circulating leukocytes are maintained in an inactive state to avoid epithelial cell ... A Cell Based Immunocytochemical Assay For Monitoring Kinase Signaling Pathways And Drug Efficacy (PDF) Analytical Biochemistry ... Calcium is used in many processes including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, and cell migration ... Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular ...
Proteomic identification of desmoglein 2 and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule as substrates of ADAM17 and ADAM10 by ... Unfortunately, these assays fail to provide insight on enzymatic function for proteases and suffer similar drawbacks to western ... cellular proliferation and migration, hemostasis, immunity, and apoptosis. The degradome was broken down into two concepts, the ... Cell Proteomics 3(6):565-76 (2004). Bredemeyer A.J., Lewis R.M., Malone J.P., Davis A.E., Gross J., Townsend R.R., Ley T.J. A ...
... to cause cell injury. 13-HODE (and 9-HODE) are moderately strong stimulators of the directed migration (i.e. chemotaxis) of cow ... to a far greater extent than any other type of leukocyte. The mechanism responsible for 13-HODE's impact on airway epithelial ... "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Statins also inhibit PPARγ in human macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells; this action may ...
... was quickly shown by leukocyte migration assay to be a functional inhibitor of many chemokines in vitro with similar potency. ... "The MHP36 line of murine neural stem cells expresses functional CXCR1 chemokine receptors that initiate chemotaxis in vitro". J ... Frow EK, Reckless J, Grainger DJ (2004). "Tools for anti-inflammatory drug design: In vitro models of leukocyte migration". Med ... Reckless J, Grainger DJ (1999). "Identification of oligopeptide sequences which inhibit migration induced by a wide range of ...
... stimulate the bacteria-killing capacity of leukocytes and airway epithelial cells; b) block production of the pro-inflammatory ... LXA4 relaxes the smooth muscle contraction caused by the cysteinyl leukotrienes in the hamster cheek pouch assay and a ... 14-eicosatetraenoic acid is a potent stimulator of human eosinophil migration". J. Immunol. 154 (8): 4123-32. PMID 7706749. ... either by direct effecting these cells or by stimulating NK cells to do so; d) cause various cell types to reduce production of ...
... receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration". Cell ... Dhawan P, Richmond A (July 2002). "Role of CXCL1 in tumorigenesis of melanoma". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 72 (1): 9-18. doi ... for its location in the nitrocellulose colony hybridization assay. This designation is sometimes erroneously believed to be an ... It's produced by a variety of immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, or Th17 population. Moreover ...
Multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are associated with NMOSD. NMO was associated in the past with many systemic ... Cabre P, Signate A, Olindo S, Merle H, Caparros-Lefebvre D, Béra O, Smadja D (December 2005). "Role of return migration in the ... Loss of cells other than astrocytes is a consequence of collateral inflammatory damage or astrocyte dysfunction. NMOSD ... The first quantitative ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits were soon developed, However, serum AQP4-IgG titer only ...
... white blood cells). The binding of PSGL-1 on the leukocyte to P-selectin on the endothelial cell allows for the leukocyte to ... "Bioinspired microfluidic assay for in vitro modeling of leukocyte-endothelium interactions". Analytical Chemistry. 86 (16): ... paracellular migration or transcellular migration. Selectins are expressed shortly after cytokine activation of endothelial ... In this form, leukocytes extend pseudopodia and pass through gaps between endothelial cells. This passage of cells through the ...
May 2020). "B Cell Tetherin: A Flow Cytometric Cell-Specific Assay for Response to Type I Interferon Predicts Clinical Features ... Tetherin has also been predicted to be involved in cell adhesion and cell migration. Recently it has, also, been identified as ... "Characterization of antibodies submitted to the B cell section of the 8th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshop by ... B cell Tetherin was used as a Cell-Specific Assay for Response to Type I Interferon Predicts Clinical Features and Flares in ...
Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... High leukocyte and neutrophil counts are typically observed, leading to an inflammatory reaction at the infection site ( ... 2 (232-239) Miflin, J.K. and Balckall, P.J. (2001) Development of a 23 SrRNA-based PCR assay for the identification of ... fowl cholera has been shown to follow bird migration routes, especially of snow geese. The P. multocida serotype-1 is most ...
"Kruppel-like factor 2 regulates thymocyte and T-cell migration". Nature. 442 (7100): 299-302. Bibcode:2006Natur.442..299C. doi: ... genes that encode endothelial cell adhesion molecules, causing decreased lymphocyte and leukocyte activation and hence ... By transactivation assay in mouse fibroblasts, KLF2 was also noticed to bind to the β-globin gene promoter containing the CACCC ... T-cells are activated and more prone to apoptosis without KLF2, suggesting that KLF2 regulates T-cell quiescence and survival. ...
Mesenchymal stem cells are often transplanted into inflammatory environments where they are able to survive and modulate host ... Leucocyte migration assay of human PMNs using a transwell insert culture system towards different stimuli. Upper chamber were ... IL1β induces mesenchymal stem cells migration and leucocyte chemotaxis through NF-κB Rubén Carrero et al. Stem Cell Rev Rep. ... IL1β induces mesenchymal stem cells migration and leucocyte chemotaxis through NF-κB Rubén Carrero 1 , Inmaculada Cerrada, ...
8. Cell-mediated immunity in chronic polymorphous light eruptions. Leukocyte migration inhibition assay with irradiated skin as ... Cell-mediated immunity to hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) demonstrated by leucocyte migration test during and after acute B ... A comparison of the inhibition of leucocyte migration and monocyte spreading as in vitro assays for tuberculin hypersensitivity ... Test of leukocyte migration inhibition. II. Comparative study of the techniques in capillary tubes and in agarose.. Stanciu L; ...
Cell Migration Assays [E05.242.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.242.335.500] * Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage [ ... LMAT Cell Migration Assay LMCT Cell Migration Assay Leukocyte Capillary Tube Migration Test Leukocyte Migration Agarose Test ... Leukocyte Migration Agarose Test (LMAT) Leukocyte Migration Assays Leukocyte Migration Capillary Tube Technique Leukocyte ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.500.335.500] ...
Cell migration assay and micropore filter assay used to assess effect of NaF on locomotion and chemotaxis of human blood ... Fluoride, usually in the millimolar range, has a number of effects on immune cells, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, ... Erosion and cell death of the surface mucosa, hemorrhage, cell death of Brunners gland, clumped submucosa, and hypertrophy of ... At the very early stages of stem cell differentiation in bone, fluoride could affect which cell line is stimulated or inhibited ...
We hypothesized that acute ethanol administration would inhibit leukocyte recruitment and endothelial cell activation during ... A real time in vitro assay for studying leukocyte transendothelial migration under physiological flow conditions. Cinamon G, ... Because endothelial cell activation and immune cell-endothelial cell interactions are critical regulators of leukocyte ... Finally, we examined the direct effects of ethanol on endothelial cell activation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions ...
Assay, Leukocyte Migration. Assays, Leukocyte Migration. LMAT Cell Migration Assay. LMCT Cell Migration Assay. Leukocyte ... Assay, Leukocyte Migration Assays, Leukocyte Migration Leukocyte Migration Assay Leukocyte Migration Assays Leukocyte Migration ... Leukocyte Migration Test. Leukocyte Migration Tests. Migration Assay, Leukocyte. Migration Assays, Leukocyte. Migration ... Migration Assay, Leukocyte Migration Assays, Leukocyte Test, Leukocyte Migration Migration Inhibitory Tests, Leukocyte - ...
Cell Migration Assays [E05.242.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.242.335.500] * Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage [ ... LMAT Cell Migration Assay LMCT Cell Migration Assay Leukocyte Capillary Tube Migration Test Leukocyte Migration Agarose Test ... Leukocyte Migration Agarose Test (LMAT) Leukocyte Migration Assays Leukocyte Migration Capillary Tube Technique Leukocyte ... Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E01.370.225.500.335.500] ...
... invading tumor cells, much like leukocytes, are capable of undergoing transcellular migration; (2) tumor cells induce transient ... The endothelial cells in our assay system did not attract the cancer cells, and the MDA MB-231 cells did not undergo directed ... Note that the tumor cell entered an area next to the endothelial cell nucleus that is devoid of endothelial cell-cell junction ... Note that the tumor cell entered an area next to the endothelial cell nucleus that is devoid of endothelial cell-cell junction ...
Assay Kit for studying Rap1A in the research area. ... cell-cell adhesion, hematopoiesis, leukocyte migration and ... Cellular Assay Kits * Active Rap1 Detection Kit Active Rap1 Detection Kit #8818. ... Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.. All other trademarks are the property of their ... cell survival, actin cytoskeletal organization, cell polarity and movement, and vesicular and nuclear transport (1). An ...
We investigated effects of naloxone on leukocyte chemotaxis. Cell migration was tested in micropore filter assays using ... Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in opiate receptor-mediated cell migration. Kaneider, Nicole C; Dunzendorfer, Stefan ... results indicate that naloxone interacts with syndecan-4 function in cell migration and suggest a role for heparan sulfate ... Opioid receptors are expressed in cells of the immune system, and potent immunomodulatory effects of their natural and ...
CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ... The 3 µm pore size is best for the smallest cells including neutrophils and other leukocytes. ... CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ... CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. The 3 µm pore size is best for ...
Conventional chemokine receptors (cCKRs) directly control cell movement; atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) regulate ... Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is crucial for effective immune and inflammatory responses. ... Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is crucial for effective immune and inflammatory responses. Conventional chemokine ... Fluorescent chemokine uptake assays were instrumental in providing these novel insights into CCL2 receptor biology, and the ...
Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte. * Epithelial Cells. * Gene Deletion. * Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ... sensor response regulator RoxS/RoxR plays a role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions with airway epithelial cells. Microbes ... sensor response regulator RoxS/RoxR plays a role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions with airway epithelial cells. ... sensor response regulator RoxS/RoxR plays a role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions with airway epithelial cells. ...
... of antigen o Bone marrow transplantation or donor-specific transfusion o Other approaches such as leukocyte migration blockade ... determined by T-cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-cell activity, antibody production, cytokine secretion, and immediate or ... Proposed tolerance assay studies are to include: identification of and rationale for the immune and/or surrogate markers ... o A plan detailing the acquisition and preparation, if applicable, of the solid organs, tissues or cells to be used in the ...
The 3 µm pore size is best for the smallest cells including neutrophils and other leukocytes. ... Description: The Radius Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the ... Description: The Radius Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the ... Migration Assay Bioteck. Migration Assay Bioteck. Lab Reagents Assay Biotech Omnikine Laboratories manufactures the migration ...
... macrophage migration, carbon clearance in vivo) or tumor cells (growth rate, metastasis) can be detected in animals. ... Older studies often cited concentrations using a nonspecific assay which were roughly twice those of specific assays. Assay ... At high concentrations, the uptake by leukocytes and erythrocytes becomes saturated. In plasma, approximately 90% is bound to ... Tubular cells with vacuolization and Degenerative tubular cells, plasma cells, and granularization. lymphocyturia , 20% of ...
... of antigen o Bone marrow transplantation or donor-specific transfusion o Other approaches such as leukocyte migration blockade ... determined by T-cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-cell activity, antibody production, cytokine secretion, and immediate or ... Proposed tolerance assay studies are to include: identification of and rationale for the immune and/or surrogate markers ... o A plan detailing the acquisition and preparation, if applicable, of the solid organs, tissues or cells to be used in the ...
The principle of the assay is based upon the ability of DNA fragments to migrate out of the cell under the influence of an ... provides a simple and effective method for evaluation of DNA damage and DNA-repair capacity in single cells such as leukocytes ... An evaluation of the "comet" tail shape and DNA fragments migration pattern allows for assessment of DNA damage and repair ... The prognostic role of leukocyte activity in breast cancer patients has long been recognised. Although fluctuating considerably ...
E5.242.335 Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte E1.450.495.125.500 E1.370.225.500.335.500 E1.370.225.812.125.500 E5.200.812.125.500 ... E5.242.223 Cell Fractionation E5.200.500.251 E5.242.251 Cell Fusion E5.200.500.307 E5.242.307 Cell Migration Assays E1.450. ... E5.242.335.500 Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage E1.450.495.125.750 E1.370.225.500.335.750 E1.370.225.812.125.750 E5.200. ... G1.311.330 Giant Cells A11.502 A11.500 Giant Cells, Foreign-Body A11.502.376 A11.500.376 Giant Cells, Langhans A11.502.380 ...
Leukocyte Migration Test BX - Migration Inhibitory Tests, Leukocyte MH - Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage UI - D054442 MN - ... HN - 2008; for LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION TEST use CELL MIGRATION INHIBITION 1989-2007 BX - Leukocyte Migration Inhibition Tests BX - ... HN - 2008; for MACROPHAGE MIGRATION TEST use CELL MIGRATION INHIBITION 1988-2007 BX - Macrophage Migration Test MH - Cell ... Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in ...
... scratch assays, transmembrane assays, microfluidic devices and cell exclusion zone assays. ... there has been a movement towards the use of physiologically relevant cell-based assays earlier in the testing paradigm. This ... This article will review the effective use of several principle formats for studying cell motility: ... Cell migration and invasion are processes that offer rich targets for intervention in key physiologic and pathologic phenomena ...
... cell adhesion; cell invasion; cell invasion assay; cell migration; cell viability; colorectal cancer; controlled study; DNA ... 2,3,5,4 tetrahydroxystilbene 2 o beta dextro glucoside; antimetastatic agent; chemical compound; endothelial leukocyte ... binding; DNA binding assay; electric resistance; endothelium cell; fluorescence microscopy; HT 29 cell line; human; human cell ... cell motion; Colorectal Neoplasms; drug effects; HT-29 cell line; metabolism; metastasis; pathology; signal transduction; Cell ...
... migration inhibitory factor was assessed by the agarose droplet cell migration inhibition assay, using peritoneal exudate cells ... Migration inhibitory factor activity was not detected in cultures of splenic leukocytes from ts 1 survivors of CVB3(m)- ... Cells dissociated from migrating slugs formed cell clumps in shaking culture, with or without cyclic AMP, and the cell contact ... PMID- 6300147 TI - Cell hybrids between SV40-transformed macrophage cell lines and a Chinese hamster cell line: growth ...
"Directed cell migration on fibronectin gradients: effect of gradient slope." Experimental Cell Research 312, no. 13 (August ... "Migration assay to measure cellular response to signalling gradients." Transactions 7th World Biomaterials Congress, December 1 ... "Effect of streptavidin-biotin on endothelial vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion." Biomaterials 25, no. 18 (August 2004): ... "Bi-ligand surfaces with oriented and patterned protein for real-time tracking of cell migration." Colloids and Surfaces. B, ...
In addition, effector function and CNS migration of T cells using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) assay were ... METHODS: Frequency and absolute numbers of peripheral leukocytes of treatment-naive patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS ... In addition, effector function and CNS migration of T cells using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) assay were ... In addition, effector function and CNS migration of T cells using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) assay were ...
... a critical bi-facet step that first supports leukocyte docking, then initiates transmigration through endothelium. ... PMNs in static transendothelial cell migration (TEM) assays through MDMVEC. n = 96 (WT), 54 (PILR-α-/-) and 41 (PILRβ1-/-) ... CD99 is an O-glycosylated cell surface protein expressed on most leukocytes and endothelial cells, which participates in the ... assays lack endothelial cells. In proper transmigration assays across a monolayer of endothelial cells we found that PILR-α ...
leukocyte adhesion molecule 1. leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1. lymph node homing receptor. lymphocyte antigen ... chronic inflammation may promote tumor growth via induction of CD62L expression by MDSCs that can facilitate their migration to ... located_in cell surface IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info. PubMed ... involved_in heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of ...
... receptor 3 and noncanonical Wnt5a expression in pancreatic cancer and melanoma together with tumor cell growth and migration.. ... Sundd, P., Zou, X., Goetz, D., Tees, D. (2008). Leukocyte Adhesion in Capillary-Sized, P-selectin Coated Micropipettes. 2. ... an assay methodology for screening potential phenylmethimazole analogs.. 8. Drug development research; 75: 497-509. ... "Cell-Cell Adhesive Interactions in an In Vitro Flow Chamber" in Adhesion Protein Protocols. Humana Press; 137-145. ...
Boyden chamber migration assay. Cell migration assays were performed using a Boyden chamber consisting of transwell inserts (8 ... Human washed platelets were isolated from leukocyte concentrates derived from healthy volunteers after obtaining written ... Figure 6: Blockage of EP3 affects EMT and migration in platelet-HT29 cell cocultures. HT29 cells were cultured alone (1×106, ... Figure 7: An antagonist of platelet P2Y12 receptor affects EMT and migration of HT29 cells exposed to platelets. HT29 cells ...
  • Murine and human endothelial cells (ECs) were infected with R. prowazekii, including the virulent Breinl strain and the attenuated Madrid E strain. (nih.gov)
  • Simple Modifications to Methimazole that Enhance its Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-Induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Human Endothelial Cells. (ohio.edu)
  • Attachment of tumor cells to endothelial cells is crucial for migration of Tubastatin A HCl tumor cells from the vascular program to determine metastases. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • The activation of XO and reduced Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) levels in endothelial cells leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn leads to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and further production of superoxide (Thomas, et al 2010). (justia.com)
  • The Sickled-shaped erythrocytes together with endothelial cells, activated leukocytes, platelets and plasma proteins participate in the multistep vaso-occlusion process (Frenette 2002). (justia.com)
  • In endothelial cells arginase can constrain eNOS activity by limiting the availability of L-arginine functionally. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • Although KG-WE can induce NO creation in endothelial cells the root molecular systems and proteins involved with this pathway possess yet to become elucidated. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • However, very little is known about the regulation of CARD8 in endothelial cells and atherosclerosis. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate CARD8 in the regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression in endothelial cells. (nature.com)
  • The CARD8 mRNA was knocked-down in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and OLINK Proteomics. (nature.com)
  • The present study suggest that CARD8 regulate the expression of cytokines and chemokines in endothelial cells and atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that CARD8 plays a significant role in endothelial activation. (nature.com)
  • 3. [Determination of the tuberculin hypersensitivity by in vitro method of leukocyte migration inhibition from the capillary micro-hematocrit]. (nih.gov)
  • 6. [Cellular immunity: in vitro leukocyte migration inhibition does not correlate with the tuberculin skin test]. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Correlation of in vitro and in vivo tests for cell-mediated immunity in the dog. (nih.gov)
  • 15. A comparison of the inhibition of leucocyte migration and monocyte spreading as in vitro assays for tuberculin hypersensitivity in man. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we examined the direct effects of ethanol on endothelial cell activation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Ethanol, at concentrations within the range found in human blood after acute exposure and below the levels that induce cytotoxicity (0.1-0.5%), did not induce endothelial cell activation, but significantly inhibited TNF-mediated endothelial cell activation, as measured by adhesion molecule (E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1) expression and chemokine (IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES) production and leukocyte adhesion in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • NIH/3T3 cell lysates (500 µl at 1 mg/ml) were treated in vitro with GTPγS or GDP to activate or inactivate Rap1 (refer to optional step C in protocol). (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition, effector function and CNS migration of T cells using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) assay were analyzed. (regionh.dk)
  • The injection of HT29 cells, exposed to platelets in vitro , into the tail vein of humanized immunodeficient mice led to higher incidence of lung metastasis compared to the injection of untreated HT29 cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • Platelet COX-1 inhibition by aspirin administration to mice prevented the increased rate of metastasis as well as the enhanced production of TXA 2 and PGE 2 induced by the in vitro priming of HT29 cells by platelets. (oncotarget.com)
  • In this model, ethanol markedly suppressed leukocyte accumulation and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Enables cell adhesion molecule binding activity. (nih.gov)
  • It counts epithelial cancer cells from whole blood using magnetic immunotargeting of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and subsequently identifies CTCs with fluorescently labelled antibodies against cyto-keratin7. (cadworks3d.com)
  • Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is crucial for effective immune and inflammatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • Fluorescent chemokine uptake assays were instrumental in providing these novel insights into CCL2 receptor biology, and the sensitivity, specificity, and versatility of these assays are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • Reduction of chemokine levels and leukocyte traffic to joints by tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the hypothesis that in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) plays a critical role in regulating leukocyte trafficking and chemokine levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • E. Comet Assay Slide Scoring. (nih.gov)
  • F. Statistical Methods Used in the Evaluation of Comet Assay Data. (nih.gov)
  • 3. NTP Evaluation of the Comet Assay Results in Mice and Rats. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Summary Data Tables for the Comet Assay. (nih.gov)
  • Comet Assay analysis The "Comet assay" provides a simple and effective method for evaluation of DNA damage and DNA-repair capacity in single cells such as leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Platelet activation has been associated with an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), while Tissue Factor (TF) protein expression by cancer cells has been shown to correlate with hypercoagulable state and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this work was to determine the effect of platelet-cancer cell interaction on TF and "Metastasis Initiating Cell (MIC)" marker levels and migration in ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cells isolated from the ascetic fluid of ovarian cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that platelet-cancer cell interaction plays a role in the formation of metastatic foci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated whether platelets prime colon cancer cells for metastasis and whether pharmacological inhibition of platelet function may prevent it. (oncotarget.com)
  • In conclusion, targeting platelet COX-1 with low-dose aspirin exerts an antimetastatic action by averting the stem cell mimicry of cancer cells associated with enhanced proaggregatory effects induced by platelet-tumor cell interactions. (oncotarget.com)
  • The regenerative potential of two types of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), prepared in the presence of EDTA (EPRP) and citrate (CPRP) and an alternative blood product-hyperacute serum (hypACT) was evaluated using a 3D osteoarthritic chondrocyte pellet model by assessing the metabolic cell activity, cartilage-related gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition within the pellets. (mdpi.com)
  • The endothelium plays a central role in overall vascular homeostasis by regulating vasoreactivity oxidation of low-density lipoprotein platelet activation leukocyte adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • CytoSelect Cell Migration Assays are ideal for determining the chemotactic properties of cells. (bionotatki.com)
  • No functional effects on phagocytic (changes in enzyme secretions not altered, chemotactic migration of granulocytes, macrophage migration, carbon clearance in vivo ) or tumor cells (growth rate, metastasis) can be detected in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Some chemotactic elements including ECM substances have been proven to stimulate the intrinsic motility of tumor cells (7 8 These elements are thought to influence both extent as well as the path of tumor cell motion to specific focus on organs. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • Tumor cells display an amoeboid motion similar compared to that of individual polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes seen as a pseudopod protrusion on the leading edge from the cell accompanied by directional locomotion toward a chemotactic supply derived from the mark tissues. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • For chemotactic assays the collagen was diluted to several concentrations in Dulbecco's improved Eagle's moderate (DMEM) (Biofluids MD) with 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) (Sigma St. Louis MO) and the answer was taken to a pH of 7.4 and an osmolality of 300 mmol/kg. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • 11. Leucocyte migration test in agarose. (nih.gov)
  • They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary. (nih.gov)
  • The capacity for production of migration inhibitory factor was assessed by the agarose droplet cell migration inhibition assay, using peritoneal exudate cells and a CVB3(m) cell lysate or KCl extracted antigens from heart tissues of CVB3(m)-inoculated mice. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, by using fluorescent CCL2 uptake to label cells bearing functional CCL2 receptors, we have defined the expression profile, scavenging activity, and ligand specificity of CCL2 receptors on mouse leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the increased risk of tumour-spreading by invasive biopsies, a serious disadvantage of utilizing biopsy samples for molecular imaging is the mixed cell population obtained, strongly varying from case to case, and resulting in differential gene expression with limited specificity related to the pathology. (nih.gov)
  • Chondrocyte viability was determined by XTT assay and it revealed no significant difference in metabolic activity of OA chondrocyte pellets after supplementation with different blood products. (mdpi.com)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the ldh cytoselecttm cell biolabs milano italia reagents distributed by Genprice. (bionotatki.com)
  • Assay Biotech Omnikine Laboratories manufactures the migration assay bioteck reagents distributed by Genprice. (bioinfolab.org)
  • The 8 µm pore size is suitable for most cell types including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and cancer cell lines. (bionotatki.com)
  • The two-component sensor response regulator RoxS/RoxR plays a role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions with airway epithelial cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Metastasis Initiating Cells (MICs) are characterized by their enhanced chemoresistance, low metabolic rate, possessing "stemness", for having undergone Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and their enhanced capacity to generate metastatic foci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present a pipeline to quantify and analyse cell shapes as cells undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (mpg.de)
  • We find that cell morphology is closely associated with their state: While epithelial cells display spherical shapes, mesenchymal cells undergo spreading. (mpg.de)
  • Cell-mediated immunity in ts 1 survivors was compared with that of normal mice after challenge with CVB3(m). (nih.gov)
  • Migration inhibitory factor activity was not detected in cultures of splenic leukocytes from ts 1 survivors of CVB3(m)-inoculated ts 1 survivors, but it was readily detected in cultures of splenic leukocytes from CVB3(m)-inoculated normal adolescent mice. (nih.gov)
  • A higher proportion of normal mice and ts 1 survivors, both inoculated with CVB3(m), contained splenic cytotoxic T lymphocytes with higher reactivity against CVB3(m)-infected neonatal skin fibroblasts than against normal skin fibroblasts, as assessed by a (51)Cr release assay. (nih.gov)
  • The data are compatible with the notion that an immune deviation mechanism, thought to be controlled through a mechanism requiring suppressor cell activity which inhibits macrophage activation in ts 1 survivors, protects these mice from induction of myocarditis. (nih.gov)
  • Inactive Sendai virus grown in LLC-MK(2) cells, which possessed an uncleaved precursor glycoprotein, F, and was noninfectious to tissue culture cells, neither grew nor caused pathological changes in the lung of mice. (nih.gov)
  • Inside a vascular pressure assay when aortas isolated from crazy type mice had been incubated with KG-WE NO-dependent improved vasorelaxation was noticed. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • and leucocyte counts, pulmonary oedema and oedema paw of mice in a dose-dependent manner. (who.int)
  • Description: The Radius Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the Boyden chamber. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Unlike Boyden chamber assays which may only be analyzed at endpoint, the Radius assay uses a proprietary cell culture plate containing a carefully-defined biocompatible hydrogel (Radius gel) spot centralized at the bottom of each well. (bioinfolab.org)
  • Cancer cell migration was determined by Boyden chambers and the scratch assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous assays are being developed to measure blood concentrations of cyclosporine. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of concentrations in published literature to patient concentrations using current assays must be done with detailed knowledge of the assay methods employed. (nih.gov)
  • Serum IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There was a simultaneous and significant reduction in the numbers of infiltrating synovial CD3+ T cells, CD22+ B cells, and CD68+ macrophages and in the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1, with a trend toward a reduction in serum concentrations of these chemokines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, infects vascular endothelium, leading to vasculitis and tissue infiltration of leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • members mediate the original moving of circulating cells over the endothelium whereas solid adhesion is normally mediated by connections between integrin receptors and immunoglobulin very family members (4). (hiv-proteases.com)
  • Western blot analysis of cell lysate (20 µg, lane 1) or 20 µl of the eluted samples (lanes 2, 3, and 4) was performed using a Rap1 Rabbit Antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • These studies were conducted to obtain additional information and clarification regarding the in vivo genotoxicity of cumene to help in interpretation of the sporadic positive responses that were reported in the literature for some genetic toxicity assays. (nih.gov)
  • Conventional stream chambers can be used to research cell connections with different surface area (5 6 Metastasizing tumor cells Tubastatin A HCl will probably encounter both soluble and insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) elements because they traverse vascular wall space and cellar membranes. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • This system in addition has been connected with vascular dysfunction normal of atherogenesis ageing erection dysfunction and sickle cell disease [12-20]. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • Arginase activity assay Cells lysates had been ready using lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH7.5 0.1 mM EDTA and protease inhibitors) by homogenization at 4℃ accompanied by centrifugation for 20 min at 14 0. (opioid-receptors.com)
  • In this study, cell migration, invasion and adhesion abilities as well as metastasis-associated protein and NF-B pathway signaling factor expression were analyzed after treating HT-29 cells with THSG. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Increasingly, more insight is available pertaining to the physiology of metastasis, and to the involvement of several stages in the metastatic cascade, includ-ing trans-endothelial migration and intravasation of tumour cells into the circulation, cell survival in the circulation, transport of cells through the vasculature followed by extravasation, and coloniza-tion and formation of metastatic lesions (Fig. 1)15,16. (cadworks3d.com)
  • Using a peristaltic pump circulating tumor cells can then become introduced into the circulation channel inside a well-defined circulation field. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • The total quantity of transmigrated tumor cells can be microscopically quantified in terms of various guidelines including shear stress chemoattractant focus and modulated cell adhesion. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • Tumor cells for assays had been detached while subconfluent by short contact with 0.05% trypsin/0.02% EDTA and permitted to regenerate for 1 hr within a tissues lifestyle medium containing DMEM/10% FBS. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • MicroRNA-376c inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma by targeting to transforming growth factor-alpha. (idrblab.net)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to individual Compact disc11a (LFA-1) Compact disc11b (Macintosh-1) and ICAM-1 had been bought from CalTag Laboratories (CA). 3.2 Cell Lifestyle C8161 individual melanoma cells had been cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • The transendothelial migration (TM) of murine and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) across ECs infected with Breinl organisms was significantly increased compared with that for uninfected ECs or for ECs infected with attenuated organisms, demonstrating that increased TM was related to R. prowazekii virulence. (nih.gov)
  • Because endothelial cell activation and immune cell-endothelial cell interactions are critical regulators of leukocyte recruitment, we analyzed the effect of acute ethanol exposure on endothelial cell activation in vivo using the localized Shwartzman reaction model. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest two mechanisms by which ts 1 survivors exhibit resistance to CVB3(m) induction of myocarditis, namely, the rapid production of high-titered anti-CVB3(m) neutralizing antibody in response to CVB3(m) inoculation and altered cell-mediated immune responses against CVB3(m) induced viral or novel cellular antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the derivative effects of B cell depletion on the peripheral immune system and a direct treatment effect on T cells expressing CD20. (regionh.dk)
  • Metastatic inefficiency offers largely been regarded as the result of a massive damage of malignancy cells within the dynamic blood circulation due to the immune system and/or hemodynamic shear causes. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • Frequently observed immunologic features include depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and a heightened helper T-cell type 1 (Th1) immune response at sites of disease. (medscape.com)
  • Circulating immune complexes, along with signs of B-cell hyperactivity, may also be found. (medscape.com)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • Surprisingly, tissue surface tension in such confluent tissues can induce unique interfacial behaviour like- cell shape elongation and topological pinning- that can make perhaps make cells extrusion much costlier, possibly resulting in a delayed onset of differentiation. (mpg.de)
  • Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and release including interleukin-2 or T-cell growth factor (TCGF). (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometry identifies RET by the presence of an active transferrin (CD71) cell surface receptor. (nih.gov)
  • We show that qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of CCR2 and ACKR2 endow individual leukocyte subsets with distinctive CCL2 receptor profiles and CCL2-scavenging capacities. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Frequency and absolute numbers of peripheral leukocytes of treatment-naive patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and patients treated with ofatumumab for a mean of 482 days were assessed in this observational study by flow cytometry. (regionh.dk)
  • Finally, our study pointed out a bias in the measurement of CD20+ cells due to a steric hindrance between the treatment antibody and the flow cytometry antibody. (regionh.dk)
  • TF, EMT and stem cell marker levels were determined by Western blotting, flow cytometry and RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present invention includes embodiments for treatment and/or prevention of sickle cell disease that employ Hydroxyfasudil or Isocoronarin D alone or either in conjunction with each other or an inducer of HbF production. (justia.com)
  • In particular aspects, the field of the present invention includes treatment and/or prevention of a blood disorder, such as sickle cell disease. (justia.com)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disorder in the world with statistics indicating that approximately 80% (230,000) of children affected globally are born in sub-Saharan Africa (Modell and Darlison 2008). (justia.com)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) can arise from a single point mutation that causes erythrocyte deformation or sickle-shaped erythrocytes (Ingram 1957). (justia.com)
  • 5. [Blood leukocyte migration in agar in tuberculin hypersensitivity: comparison with other methods and review of the literature]. (nih.gov)
  • Tubastatin A HCl Many methods such as micropipette (9) and migration chamber (10 11 have been used regularly to characterize cellular chemotaxis - the directional migration of cells along a gradient of soluble attractant activation. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • We will present how the morphological features of a cell can be quantified and analysed with the help of dimensional reduction methods. (mpg.de)
  • 17. Cellular immunity in man assessed by indirect migration inhibition test using murine spleen leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Cellular immunity in man assessed by indirect migration inhibition test using murine spleen leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Cell-mediated immunity to hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) demonstrated by leucocyte migration test during and after acute B hepatitis. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that acute ethanol administration would inhibit leukocyte recruitment and endothelial cell activation during inflammation and infection. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: TNFalpha blockade reduces synovial expression of the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 and diminishes inflammatory cell migration into RA joints. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Endothelial and smooth muscle cells in arterial tissue expressed CARD8 and CARD8 correlated with vWF , CD163 and the expression of inflammatory genes, such as CXCL1 , CXCL6 and PDGF-A in plaque. (nature.com)
  • These small G proteins have both GDP/GTP-binding and GTPase activities and function as binary switches in diverse cellular and developmental events that include cell cycle progression, cell survival, actin cytoskeletal organization, cell polarity and movement, and vesicular and nuclear transport (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Cell chemotaxis plays a pivotal role in the progression of cancer and other diseases. (bionotatki.com)
  • The current theory of cancer progression proposes that from the total population of cancer cells within a primary tumor, only a small sub-population has the capacity to migrate, survive in isolation and establish secondary tumors within distant organs [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During cancer progression, many tumours shed circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and other biomarkers into the bloodstream. (cadworks3d.com)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Anti centriole and centrosome antibody IgG in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (bionotatki.com)
  • The Ldh Cytoselecttm Cell Biolabs Milano Italia reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (bionotatki.com)
  • In this Review, we discuss progress towards the isolation and recovery of bulk CTCs from whole blood samples for the identification of cells with high metastatic potential. (cadworks3d.com)
  • At the same sequential time points, synovial biopsy samples were assessed for infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD22+ B cells, and CD68+ macrophages. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1. [Comparison between results of leukocyte migration inhibition test and skin hypersensitivity of tuberculin in man]. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Delayed hypersensitivity in thyroid diseases studied by means of the leukocyte migration test with human thyroglobulin]. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclosporine has been demonstrated to suppress some humoral immunity and to a greater extent, cell-mediated reactions such as allograft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Freund's adjuvant arthritis, and graft vs. host disease in many animal species for a variety of organs. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Sealed capillary leucocyte migration test. (nih.gov)
  • The luciferase activity of miR-376c transfected cells was significantly reduced and miR-376c-mediated repression of luciferase activity was abolished by the mutant putative binding site. (idrblab.net)
  • RESULTS: Anti-TNFalpha therapy in RA significantly reduced 111In-labeled granulocyte migration into affected joints. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In adult skin tissue, stem cells - which are responsible for repair and renewal - are confined to the bottom-most basal layer (attached to a basement membrane with high rigidity) and loose their 'stemness' irreversibly when it extrudes/leaves the basal layer into the supra-basal layer above. (mpg.de)
  • Description: Chemotaxis describes the movement of cells toward or away from a chemical stimulus in their environment. (bionotatki.com)
  • Dr. Reichert's research interests have included biosensors, protein mediated cell adhesion, wound healing, and biocompatibilty. (duke.edu)
  • Biosensors, protein mediated cell adhesion, and wound healing. (duke.edu)
  • 7. Tinelli M, Pantosti A, Lusardi C, Vim- international migration of rats and also negative. (cdc.gov)
  • The 3 µm pore size is best for the smallest cells including neutrophils and other leukocytes. (bionotatki.com)
  • 2. [Leukocyte migration inhibition test in blood microcultures in the assessment of cellular immunity in tuberculosis]. (nih.gov)
  • All experiments performed on red cell lysed bovine blood gated on lymphocytes in the presence of 10% bovine serum. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and other cancer-related biomarkers are present in the blood of many patients with cancer. (cadworks3d.com)
  • To further simulate tumor cell migration within the blood circulation standard circulation assay or micropipette technique will not be relevant. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • 13. [Inhibition of leukocyte migration in tuberculosis and diseases with cutaneous energy]. (nih.gov)
  • With informed patient consent, ascitic fluid isolated ovarian cancer cells, cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres were co-cultivated with human platelets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coculturing HT29 human colon carcinoma cells with human platelets led to the induction of mesenchymal-like cancer cells characterized by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of Twist1, enhanced cell mobility and a proaggregatory action on platelets. (oncotarget.com)
  • RESULTS: This study showed that ofatumumab treatment of patients with RRMS increased the control of effector T cells and decreased T cell autoreactivity. (regionh.dk)
  • Chronic Inflammation Contributes to Tumor Growth: Possible Role of L-Selectin-Expressing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs). (nih.gov)
  • While several cell-intrinsic biochemical markers have been discovered to predict stem cell potential, we explore a complementary hypothesis to this question with the help of tissue biomechanics, that can take into account the cell extrinsic mechano-chemical changes in the environment. (mpg.de)
  • We use a fully 3D vertex-like model to study the differentiation propensity in terms of cell extrusion dynamics, and its dependence on global mechanical properties like- tissue fluidity and basement tension. (mpg.de)
  • 19. Test of leukocyte migration inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • 20. [The leukocyte migration test: possibilities of its use]. (nih.gov)
  • Before each test the cells had been detached and rocked (8 rpm) for just one hour Tubastatin A HCl in lifestyle moderate at 37°C and for yet another hour in RPMI 1640 with 0.1%w/v BSA. (hiv-proteases.com)
  • miR-152 Controls Migration and Invasive Potentialby Targeting TGFa in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines. (idrblab.net)
  • The development of an organism is characterized by a series of cellular fate transitions where cells become increasingly specialized. (mpg.de)
  • After defining the distinct cellular shapes corresponding to cell states, we study how exactly the morphological features of a cell evolve during EMT. (mpg.de)
  • To this aim, we investigate cell trajectories of morphological features in a low-dimensional space and describe the time evolution of cellular features as a stochastic process. (mpg.de)
  • By integrating morphometric analysis into studies of cell fate changes, we aim to better understand the crosstalk between cellular fate and shape changes. (mpg.de)
  • Loss of L-selectin-guided CD8(+) , but not CD4(+) , cells protects against ischemia reperfusion injury in a steatotic liver. (nih.gov)
  • Following cell seeding the Radius gel is removed, allowing migratory cells to move across the area and close the gap. (bioinfolab.org)
  • It also showed that ofatumumab reduced the level of peripheral CD20+ T cells and that the observed decrease in CNS-migratory capacity of T cells was caused by the depletion of CD20+ T cells. (regionh.dk)
  • DISCUSSION: The substantial ofatumumab-induced alteration in the T cell compartment including a severely decreased CNS-migratory capacity of T cells could partly be attributed to the depletion of CD20+ T cells. (regionh.dk)
  • The prognostic role of leukocyte activity in breast cancer patients has long been recognised. (nih.gov)
  • The co-culture of patient-derived ovarian cancer cells with platelets causes: 1) a phenotypic change in cancer cells, 2) chemoattraction and cancer cell migration, 3) induced MIC markers (EMT/stemness), 3) increased sphere formation and 4) increased TF protein levels and activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenylmethimazole and a Thiazole Derivative of Phenylmethimazole Inhibit IL-6 Expression by Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells. (ohio.edu)
  • We present the first evidence that platelets act as chemoattractants to cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD62L expression level determines the cell fate of myeloid progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • Histograms were first gated on singlet, live lymphocytes and gating strategies applied to allow phenotyping of cells for expression of CD44, CD45RO and CD62L. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)