Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage: Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte: Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor: A proteinase inhibitor found in various BODILY SECRETIONS that coat mucosal surfaces such as SEMINAL PLASMA; CERVICAL MUCUS; and bronchial secretions. It plays a role in protecting epithelial tissues from LEUKOCYTE-derived serine proteases such as NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMicrofilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CKeratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)

Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and matrix metalloproteinases causes blood-brain barrier injury: Novel mechanism for neurodegeneration associated with alcohol abuse. (1/45)

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) regulates the passage of molecules and leukocytes in and out of the brain. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alteration of basement membrane (BM) associated with BBB injury was documented in stroke patients. While chronic alcoholism is a risk factor for developing stroke, underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH)-induced protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling resulted a loss of BBB integrity via MMPs activation and degradation of BM component, collagen IV. Treatment of BMVEC with EtOH or acetaldehyde (AA) for 2-48 h increased MMP-1, -2 and -9 activities or decreased the levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2) in a PTK-dependent manner without affecting protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. Enhanced PTK activity after EtOH exposure correlated with increased phosphorylated proteins of selective receptor and nonreceptor PTKs. Up-regulation of MMPs activities and protein contents paralleled a decrease in collagen IV content, and inhibitors of EtOH metabolism, MMP-2 and -9, or PTK reversed all these effects. Using human BMVEC assembled into BBB models, we found that EtOH/AA diminished barrier tightness, augmented permeability, and monocyte migration across the BBB via activation of PTKs and MMPs. These findings suggest that alcohol associated BBB injury could be mediated by MMPs via BM protein degradation and could serve as a comorbidity factor for neurological disorders like stroke or neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our preliminary experiments indicated that human astrocytes secreted high levels of MMP-1 and -9 following exposure to EtOH, suggesting the role of BM protein degradation and BBB compromise as a result of glial activation by ethanol. These results provide better understanding of multifaceted effects of alcohol on the brain and could help develop new therapeutic interventions.  (+info)

Neutrophil interactions with keratocytes during corneal epithelial wound healing: a role for CD18 integrins. (2/45)

PURPOSE: To determine the role of keratocytes and leukocyte beta(2) (CD18) integrins in neutrophil (PMN) migration through the corneal stroma after epithelial scrape injury. METHODS: Using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, corneas were excised at 6 hours (wild-type) or 24 hours (CD18(-/-)) after central corneal epithelial abrasion, time points determined previously to have similar levels of emigrated PMNs. Corneas were prepared for ultrastructural morphometric analysis of PMNs, keratocyte networks, and collagen. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy revealed intact keratocyte networks within the paralimbus that were morphometrically similar, regardless of epithelial injury or mouse genotype. Secondary to epithelial abrasion, extravasated PMNs within the paralimbus developed close contacts with keratocytes and collagen. In wild-type mice, 40% of the PMN surface was in contact with the keratocyte surface, and this value decreased to 10% in CD18(-/-) mice. PMN contact with collagen was similar in wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, with approximately 50% of the PMN surface contacting the collagen fibrils. Since corneal edema resulting from scrape injury was similar, regardless of genotype and did not involve structural changes in collagen fibrils, these data favor a direct role for CD18 in mediating PMN contact with keratocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that in response to epithelial scrape injury, PMN migration in the corneal stroma involves close contact between keratocytes and collagen. Although PMN-keratocyte contacts require CD18 integrins, contact with collagen is CD18 independent. Fundamentally, PMN migration along keratocyte networks constitutes the beginning of a new experimental concept for understanding leukocyte migration within the wounded cornea.  (+info)

STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier. (3/45)

The relationship among neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and progressive HIV-1 infection as they affect the onset and development of neuroAIDS is incompletely understood. One possible link is signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways. These respond to proinflammatory and regulatory factors and could affect neuroinflammatory responses induced from infected cells and disease-affected brain tissue. Our previous works demonstrated that HIV-1 activates pro-inflammatory and interferon-alpha-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and that these genes are linked to the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. We now demonstrate that HIV-1 activates STAT1, induces IL-6 expression, and diminishes expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2 in HBMECs. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, blocked HIV-1-induced IL-6, diminished HIV-1-induced claudin-5 and ZO-1 down-regulation, and blocked HIV-1- and IL-6-induced monocyte migration across a BBB model. Enhanced expression and activation of STAT1 and decreased claudin-5 were observed in microvessels from autopsied brains of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an integral role in HIV-1-induced BBB damage and is relevant to viral neuropathogenesis. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes.  (+info)

Immunomodulation by alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor: lack of chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor from yeast on human peripheral blood granulocytes. (4/45)

INTRODUCTION: Recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor, clinically developed for inhalative augmentation therapy in patients with alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor deficiency or cystic fibrosis, may directly contribute to leukocyte accumulation as it may function as a chemoattractant. The migratory effects of yeast-derived human recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on human peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils were therefore tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human peripheral blood leukocytes were prepared from forearm venous blood and tested for migration toward various preparations of yeast-derived recombinant alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in modified Boyden-chamber micropore filter assays. RESULTS: No direct effects of yeast-derived recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor on in vitro migration of isolated neutrophils or eosinophils were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of direct chemotactic effects of recombinant human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor despite anti-inflammatory effects in other biological activities of leukocytes may contribute to the preserved antibacterial defense mechanisms observed in patients under experimental augmentation therapy with inhaled alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor.  (+info)

C-terminal repeats of Clostridium difficile toxin A induce production of chemokine and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and promote migration of leukocytes. (5/45)

The C-terminal repeating sequences of Clostridium difficile toxin A (designated ARU) are homologous to the carbohydrate-binding domain of streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that were recently identified as potent modulins. To test the hypothesis that ARU might exert a similar biological activity on endothelial cells, recombinant ARU (rARU), which was noncytotoxic to cell cultures, was analyzed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The rARU could bind directly to endothelial cells in a serum- and calcium-dependent manner and induce the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in a dose-dependent manner. An oligosaccharide binding assay indicated that rARU, but not GTFC, binds preferentially to Lewis antigens and 3'HSO3-containing oligosaccharides. Binding of rARU to human endothelial or intestinal cells correlated directly with the expression of Lewis Y antigen. Bound rARU directly activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in endothelial cells to release biologically active chemokines and adhesion molecules that promoted migration in a transwell assay and the adherence of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells to the endothelial cells. These results suggest that ARU may bind to multiple carbohydrate motifs to exert its biological activity on human endothelial cells.  (+info)

Infection of endothelial cells with virulent Rickettsia prowazekii increases the transmigration of leukocytes. (6/45)

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Epstein-Barr virus lytic transactivator Zta enhances chemotactic activity through induction of interleukin-8 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. (7/45)

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Comparative study of the usefulness of the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test and the leukocyte migration test in drug allergies. (8/45)

In 133 patients suspected of hypersensitivity to drugs and 102 control patients without hypersensitivity to drugs, the identification of allergenic drugs was performed by the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) and the leukocyte migration test (LMT) to compare their usefulness in identifying drug allergies. In the 133 subject patients, the positive rate was 24.8% on the DLST and 60.9% on the LMT (agreement rate; 77.4%); thus, the LMT showed a significantly higher positive rate than the DLST (p<0.000001, chi(2)-test). In the 102 control patients, the positive rates on the DLST and LMT were 6.9%. In addition, the LMT showed a higher positive rate than the DLST for many hypersensitivity symptoms such as skin eruptions and hepatic injury, and for many drug efficacy categories of the suspected drugs such as antibacterial drugs, etc. Furthermore, the positive rate of the DLST did not change when adjusted for the patients' serum and sex, while that of the LMT increased when adjusted for the patients' serum and was found to be higher in females than in males. Our findings indicate that the LMT may be more useful than the DLST in identifying the causative drug in drug allergies and that its interpretation is influenced by the patient's serum and sex.  (+info)

*Proteases in angiogenesis

Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... For example, leukocytes complex urokinase (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), and integrins which participate in cell adhesion ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450.495.160 --- cytotoxicity tests, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.160.155 --- complement ... radioimmunoprecipitation assay MeSH E01.450.495.410.700.830 --- radioimmunosorbent test MeSH E01.450.495.460 --- leukocyte ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH E01.370 ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH ...

*SULF1

Sulf2 was upregulated in a majority of HCCs and HCC cell lines, and Sulf2 knockdown eliminated migration and proliferation. ... Finally, in a transcriptome wide assay in chronic wound, fortyfold higher expression Sulf1 was noted in wound-site vessels. ... Sulf1 and 2 also display regulation over muscle development, angiogenesis, leukocyte rolling and wound healing. In adult mice, ... Squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (SCCHN) has three cell lines lacking Sulf1 expression. Transfected-in Sulf1 expression ...

*Chemotaxis

... gradient detected responses are the results of active migration of cells Despite the fact that an ideal chemotaxis assay is ... Leukocytes also move toward chemoattractants C5a, a complement component, and pathogen-specific ligands on bacteria. Mechanisms ... Although migration of cells was detected from the early days of the development of microscopy by Leeuwenhoek, a Caltech lecture ... Chemotaxis refers to the directional migration of cells in response to chemical gradients; several variations of chemical- ...

*EMR2

... has been shown to be necessary for in vitro cell migration. Upon cleavage the N-terminus has been shown to associate with ... Inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation assays in overexpressing HEK293 cells have demonstrated coupling of EMR2 to Gα15. EGF- ... "The human EGF-TM7 family member EMR2 is a heterodimeric receptor expressed on myeloid cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 71 ... Davies JQ, Lin HH, Stacey M, Yona S, Chang GW, Gordon S, Hamann J, Campo L, Han C, Chan P, Fox SB (March 2011). "Leukocyte ...

*Gelatinase B

"Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. PMID ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (Aug 1995). "Plasma assay of ... Gelatinase B, along with elastase, appears to be a regulatory factor in neutrophil migration across the basement membrane. ...

*MMP9

... cell migration, learning and memory, as well as in pathological processes, such as arthritis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ... "Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (6): 851-9. PMID ... Zucker S, Lysik RM, DiMassimo BI, Zarrabi HM, Moll UM, Grimson R, Tickle SP, Docherty AJ (August 1995). "Plasma assay of ... "Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand". Cell. 109 ( ...

*TAAR1

Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... TAAR1 is necessary for chemotaxic migration of cells towards TAAR1 agonists. In addition, TAAR1 signaling in B and T cells can ... Functional Assays ... Mobilization of internal calcium in RD-HGA16 cells transfected with unmodified human TA1 Response ... Phytohaemagglutinin upregulates hTAAR1 mRNA in circulating leukocytes; in these cells, TAAR1 activation mediates leukocyte ...

*Slit-Robo

... has been shown to influence the migration of neurons and glia, leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Slit1 and Slit2 ... Several years later, genetic evidence, biochemical binding experiments, and explant assays identified Slits as the repulsive ... Slits mediate cell communication in many diverse systems, regulating the guidance, cell migration and polarization of many ... "Multiple roles for slits in the control of cell migration in the rostral migratory stream". J. Neurosci. 24 (6): 1497-506. doi: ...

*Cell polarity

... polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture assay Madin- ... Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one ... cell migration, cell-cell signalling and fertilization. Cell polarity is an example of the self-organization property that all ... Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to ...

*LSP1

Wong MJ, Malapitan IA, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2003). "A cell-free binding assay maps the LSP1 cytoskeletal binding site to ... 1997). "Alternatively spliced exons encode the tissue-specific 5' termini of leukocyte pp52 and stromal cell S37 mRNA isoforms ... and transendothelial migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. ... S37 is expressed in embryonic mesenchymal cells". J. Cell Sci. 107 (12): 3591-600. PMID 7706408. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). " ...

*GRB2

"FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (5): 249-56. doi:10.1038/ ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (Sep 1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5- ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 65 (4): 523-34. PMID 10204582. Wong A, Lamothe B, Lee A, Schlessinger J, Lax I, Li A (May 2002 ... migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): 1019-31. doi:10.1083/jcb.144.5.1019. PMC ...

*Allergy

This is due to the migration of other leukocytes such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages to the initial ... The immune system does not recognize the affected cells as normal parts of the body, causing a T-cell-mediated immune response ... Radiometric assays include the radioallergosorbent test (RAST test) method, which uses IgE-binding (anti-IgE) antibodies ... In type IV hypersensitivity, there is activation of certain types of T cells (CD8+) that destroy target cells on contact, as ...

*Matrix metalloproteinase

MMPs are also thought to play a major role in cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration (adhesion/dispersion), ... "Chemokine and cytokine processing by matrix metalloproteinases and its effect on leukocyte migration and inflammation". J. ... Gross J, Lapiere C (1962). "COLLAGENOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN AMPHIBIAN TISSUES: A TISSUE CULTURE ASSAY". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 48 ( ... They are known to be involved in the cleavage of cell surface receptors, the release of apoptotic ligands (such as the FAS ...

*12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid

Companion studies using an in vitro scratch test assay indicated that 12-HHT stimulated human and mouse keratinocyte migration ... kidney renal cell carcinoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. ... Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 43 (2): 117-24. PMID 3422086. Okuno, T; Iizuka, Y; Okazaki, H; Yokomizo, T; Taguchi, R; Shimizu, ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...

*Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ... Experimental assays in animal model are needed to validate a chemical induced chemotaxis by use of anticholinergic drugs to ... Neurologic findings and symptoms wax and wane as initial damage is done by the physical in-migration of the worms and secondary ... of the total CSF leukocyte count. The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in "aseptic meningitis" ...

*Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

... and otherwise activate inflammation-inducing cells such as circulating leukocytes and tissue macrophages and dendritic cells ... monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovascular ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ...

*Specialized pro-resolving mediators

... in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... while not detected by in the mouse model of peritonitis or stimulated leukocytes, is more potent than even PD1 in inhibiting ... T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ...

*Phagocyte

2006, p. 6 Zen K, Parkos CA; Parkos (October 2003). "Leukocyte-epithelial interactions". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 557-64 ... and glomerular cells can be damaged further by the adhesion molecules during the migration of neutrophils. The injury done to ... "A single assay for measuring the rates of phagocytosis and bacterial killing by neutrophils". J. Leukoc. Biol. 55 (2): 147-52. ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ...

*Cytokine

Adipokines Apoptosis Cytokine redundancy Cytokine secretion assay ELISA assays ELISPOT assays FluoroSpot assays Myokine Signal ... including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts ... Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified simultaneously in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom. In 1969 ... The term interleukin was initially used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes. ...

*Pasteurella multocida

Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... High leukocyte and neutrophil counts are typically observed, leading to an inflammatory reaction at the infection site ( ... 2 (232-239) Miflin, J.K. and Balckall, P.J. (2001) Development of a 23 SrRNA-based PCR assay for the identification of ... fowl cholera has been shown to follow bird migration routes, especially of snow geese. The P. multocida serotype-1 is most ...

*Leukocyte extravasation

... white blood cells). The binding of PSGL-1 on the leukocyte to P-selectin on the endothelial cell allows for the leukocyte to ... "Bioinspired microfluidic assay for in vitro modeling of leukocyte-endothelium interactions". Anal. Chem. 86: 8344-8351. doi: ... paracellular migration or transcellular migration. Selectins are expressed shortly after cytokine activation of endothelial ... Transmigration of the leukocyte occurs as PECAM proteins, found on the leukocyte and endothelial cell surfaces, interact and ...

*Chemotaxis assay

Chemotaxis Cell Migration Gateway Cytometric chemotaxis and cell migration assay Free tool based on ImageJ to analyse ... Zigmond S.H. (1977). "Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors". Journal of Cell ... mt-dehydrogenase detection with MTT assay) are used. Labelled (e.g. fluorochromes) cells are also used, in some assays cells ... Counting of cells: positive responder cells could be counted from the front of migrating cells, after staining or in native ...

*Trichophyton tonsurans

The genes are typically involved in leukocyte activation and migration, and formation and integrity of the extracellular matrix ... It also forms fewer macroconidia that are 4-6 cells long, with thick cell walls. A different simple method for identification ... Advancements have been made in detection of T. tonsurans in patients with Tinea capitis, using TaqMan PCR assay and primers and ... often with thick cell walls arising from the deposition of hydrophobic materials along the original cell wall. After ...

*Haptotaxis

"Migration by haptotaxis of a Schwann cell tumor line to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin". J Cell Biol. 97 (3): 772-7 ... This migration of leukocytes leads to inflammation and tissue destruction characteristic of an inflammatory response. Movement ... collagen I induce chemotaxis and haptotaxis of human and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells in a standardized transmembrane assay. ... which is highly influenced by the cell's velocity, which is in turn influenced by direction of cell motility. Cells migrate ...

*Sperm chemotaxis

Devreotes, P.N. and Zigmond, S.H. (1988) Chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells: a focus on leukocytes and Dictyostelium. Annu Rev Cell ... Chang, H., Kim, B. J., Kim, Y. S., Suarez, S. S., and Wu, M. (2013) Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm ... Chemotaxis of capacitated rabbit spermatozoa to follicular fluid revealed by a novel directionality-based assay. Biol. Reprod. ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
Guest Editorial: Tuberculin conversion and tuberculosis disease in infants and young children from the Drakenstein Child Health Study: A call to action
Guest Editorial: Tuberculin conversion and tuberculosis disease in infants and young children from the Drakenstein Child Health Study: A call to action
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Corridor Consult Eric Macy, MD, MS Fall 2009 - Volume 13 Number 4 What Is a Drug Allergy? Formally, a drug allergy is a clinically significant adverse reaction mediated by IgE that is reproducible on rechallenge. To cause a drug allergy, a d
There is generally no way to prevent a drug allergy.. If you have a known drug allergy, avoiding the drug is the best way to prevent an allergic reaction. You may also be told to avoid similar medicines.. In some cases, a provider may approve the use of a drug that causes an allergy if you are first treated with medicines that slow or block the immune response. These include corticosteroids (such as prednisone) and antihistamines. Do not try this without a providers supervision. Pretreatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines has been shown to prevent allergic reactions in people who need to get x-ray contrast dye.. Your provider may also recommend desensitization. ...
Drug allergies are a group of symptoms caused by an allergic reaction to a drug (medication). The chances of developing an allergy are higher when you take the medication frequently or when it is rubbed on the skin or given by injection, rather than taken by mouth.
A drug allergy is a serious physical reaction to a certain medication. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by reading here.
by Brockow, K and Garvey, L. H and Aberer, W and Atanaskovic-Markovic, M and Barbaud, A and Bilo, M. B and Bircher, A and Blanca, M and Bonadonna, B and Campi, P and Castro, E and Cernadas, J. R and Chiriac, A. M and Demoly, P and Grosber, M and Gooi, J and Lombardo, C and Mertes, P. M and Mosbech, H and Nasser, S and Pagani, M and Ring, J and Romano, A and Scherer, K and Schnyder, B and Testi, S and Torres, M and Trautmann, A and Terreehorst, I and ENDA EAACI Drug Allergy Interest and ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group and The ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group ...
Tell your doctor your medical history, especially of: liver problems, allergies (especially drug allergies). Limit alcohol intake as it may increase the side effects of this drug. Caution, performing tasks, requiring mental alertness (e.g., driving), since it is possible this drug may cause drowsiness. This drug is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Consult your doctor for details. It is not known if this drug is excreted into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding ...
I have bad drug allergies and have experienced every side effect known to man and then some. My Dr. just started me on a very very low dose of Celexa, about 10 days ago. I woke up today and feel better than I have in months. I did have nausea a couple of days but it went away. So far I seem to tolerate this med pretty well. I think Celexa is a lot like Lexapro, made by same manufacturer ...
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
Question - How can I test drug allergies ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Cefadroxil, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
An allergic reaction is caused by the bodys immune system overreacting to the drug, which is viewed as a chemical "invader," or antigen. This overreaction is often called a hypersensitivity reaction ...
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Unlike most other allergens, such as pollen or mold spores, drug molecules often are too small to be detected by the immune system. Smaller drugs such as antibiotics cannot induce an immune response unless they combine with a body cell or a carrier protein in the blood. Furthermore, drug allergies often are caused by the breakdown products or metabolites of the drug rather than by the drug itself. Sometimes the same drug, such as penicillin, can induce different types of allergic reactions. IGE-MEDIATED ALLERGIES Most allergies, including most drug allergies, occur because of a reaction with an immune system antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE). The first exposure to the drug sensitizes the childs immune system by inducing specialized white blood cells to produce IgE that recognizes the specific drug. On subsequent exposure to the drug, the drug-specific IgE antibodies bind to the drug on the surfaces of certain cells of the immune system. This binding activates the cells to release histamine ...
Garden Grove California Asthma & Allergy Specialist Doctors physician directory - Drug or medication allergies happen when the bodys immune system over-reacts to a medication. Symptoms of a drug allergy are rash, hives, itching, and swelling of the lips, and tongue. The most common drugs that cause allergic reactions are sulfur drugs, penicillins, insulin, and iodine. Treatment for an allergic reaction to a medication are discontinuing the drug and seeking medical care.
Gaithersburg Maryland Asthma & Allergy Specialist Doctors physician directory - Drug or medication allergies happen when the bodys immune system over-reacts to a medication. Symptoms of a drug allergy are rash, hives, itching, and swelling of the lips, and tongue. The most common drugs that cause allergic reactions are sulfur drugs, penicillins, insulin, and iodine. Treatment for an allergic reaction to a medication are discontinuing the drug and seeking medical care.
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Drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) is defined as an immunologically mediated response to a pharmacology agent. Some reactions require prior sensitization and some do not. The interactions between different drugs and the immune system occur by different mechanisms leading to variable clinical features. Some reactions are simple and do not alter patient quality of life. Some are life threatening and require immediate recognition and appropriate therapy. Confirming the diagnosis of DHR is often challenging. The environment in the Intensive care units (ICU) is considered high risk place for DHR development as it offers most of the risk factors. In this review, we offer a delicate combined approach that allows an accurate diagnosis of most of the DHRs encountered in the ICU.
Participants, who were receiving atorvastatin 20 mg over-encapsulated tablets orally at baseline, received Alirocumab 75 mg SC injection Q2W, atorvastatin 20 mg over-encapsulated tablets orally QD, and placebo for ezetimibe over-encapsulated tablets orally QD added to stable LMT for 24 weeks. Alirocumab dose up-titrated to 150 mg Q2W from Week 12 when LDL-C levels ≥70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L) or ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) at Week 8, based on baseline disease characteristic and medical history ...
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LMT calibration certificate for illuminance respositivity, traceable to PTB calibrated standard, relative expanded measurement uncertainty incl. the uncertainty of the Standard employed 0.8 ...
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The term drug allergy should be considered to encompass any reaction due to a drug that has clinical features compatible with hypersensitivity. Therefore, anyone presenting with a rash, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension should be considered to have drug allergy regardless of the nature of the underlying mechanism. In most cases the mechanism of a drug reaction is due either to a Type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity or a Type 4 T-cell mediated reaction. Reactions due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often present with urticaria, angioedema or bronchospasm. The mechanism of reactions due to NSAIDs is usually due to inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and not a classical Gell and Coombs hypersensitivity reaction. Nevertheless, they should be classified as drug allergy just as the term anaphylaxis now encompasses a clinical syndrome rather than a pathological mechanism ...
In vivo testing. Test doses can be used when there is an unconvincing history of drug allergy, but an IgE reaction is difficult to exclude. The initial dose is much lower, e.g. 1:100, than the usual therapeutic dose. Subsequent challenges are of higher concentrations than those used in the therapeutic technique of desensitisation. Frequency of dosing is determined by the type of the alleged drug reaction, at 30 minute intervals for IgE-mediated reactions and 24-48 hours for a delayed response such as dermatitis.. In vitro testing. This has the advantage that adverse reactions to testing can be avoided. The most widely used is the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) which measures circulating drugspecific IgE antibodies. It is generally less specific and less sensitive than skin testing, thus limiting its clinical usefulness.. Special considerations. Penicillin. Allergy to penicillin is the best studied drug reaction. Anaphylaxis most commonly occurs between the ages of 20 and 49 years, but children ...
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
Cellular hypersensitivity to an extract of human pancreas, using the leucocyte migration test (LMT), was found in twenty-nine of 101 diabetic and eight of fifty normal control subjects. However, the difference in response between diabetics and controls was confined to young insulin-dependent patients, there being no distinction between normal subjects and older diabetics treated by diet or oral hypoglycemic agents. The use of rat liver mitochondria and bovine insulin as antigens in the LMT did not induce inhibition of leucocyte migration in diabetics or controls.. ...
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CDC Split Type: WAES1008USA01851. Write-up:Information has been received from a physician concerning her 15 year old daughter with no pertinent medical history or drug allergies who in September 2009, was vaccinated with a first dose of GARDASIL (lot # not reported). No concomitant medications were reported. It was reported that in September 2009, very soon after the injection of GARDASIL, the patient developed fatigue and nausea. When the patient was on leaving the physicians office she experienced syncope. The patient began having symptoms of high fever, headache and sore muscles. The patient was lethargic for months after she received GARDASIL. In June 2010 the patient had chest pain and went to the Emergency Room where she was diagnosed with anxiety. The EKG showed arrhythmias. The patient became weak and had to quit the Track Team at school. In June 2010 the patient was tired and lethargic and began to forget things. Approximately three weeks ago, in approximately August 2010, the ...
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The symptoms of drug allergy depend upon the type of allergic drug reaction that is occurring. If its a drug reaction that is caused by IgE -- or allergy antibodies -- the things that you will see will be shortness of breath, potentially, as well as hives of the skin, swelling of the lips and the tongue, and in very severe cases -- in the case of anaphylaxis -- you can also get very low blood pressure, as well as extreme shortness of breath and wheezing, and this could ultimately lead to death. Now, if you are having another type of allergic drug reaction -- such as hemolysis, which is breakdown of the red blood cells -- you may get very fatigued and very pale, in the case of serum sickness reaction mediated by another type of antibody to a drug, you get fever and chills.
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Wong, Adrian; Seger, Diane L; Slight, Sarah P; Amato, Mary G; Beeler, Patrick E; Fiskio, Julie M; Bates, David W (2017). Evaluation of Definite anaphylaxis drug allergy alert overrides in inpatient and outpatient settings. Drug Safety:Epub ahead of print.. Slight, Sarah Patricia; Beeler, Patrick E; Seger, Diane L; Amato, Mary G; Her, Qoua L; Swerdloff, Michael; Dalleur, Olivia; Nanji, Karen C; Cho, InSook; Maniam, Nivethietha; Eguale, Tewodros; Fiskio, Julie M; Dykes, Patricia C; Bates, David W (2017). A cross-sectional observational study of high override rates of drug allergy alerts in inpatient and outpatient settings, and opportunities for improvement. BMJ Quality and Safety, 26(3):217-225.. Wong, Adrian; Amato, Mary G; Seger, Diane L; Slight, Sarah P; Beeler, Patrick E; Dykes, Patricia C; Fiskio, Julie M; Silvers, Elizabeth R; Orav, E. John; Eguale, Tewodros; Bates, David W (2017). Evaluation of medication-related clinical decision support alert overrides in the intensive care unit. ...
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
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Immunology lecture on chemokines, chemokine receptor profiles, kinin and clotting system, fibrinolytic system, neutrophils, acute and chronic inflammation and NSAIDs.
Tymaree Cook Renaud LMT,CD(DONA), began her journey as a birth doula in January 2010. She has been fascinated by birth since she first picked up
CLICK HERE. Allergic rash to bactrim. Patients allergic to sulfa compounds should not take Bactrim. skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.An allergic reaction to Bactrim DS often manifests itself as itching, hives or a rash, Drugs.com explains. Patients may also experience swelling of the face, lips3 Answers (question resolved) - Posted in: bactrim, hives, infections it may take care of all of your symptoms but if you have a breaking outJan 23, 2017 Types of Allergic Reactions; Drugs to Avoid With Sulfa Allergies; Some Sulfa Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim, Sulfatrim): a sulfaThe majority of these reactions are not of an allergic nature. Types of non-allergic reactions to sulfonamide antibiotics include nausea and diarrhoea, candidiasisJul 11, 2017 WebMD explains drug allergies, including symptoms and treatment.Drug allergy reactions range from mild side effects to life-threatening anaphylaxis. such as Septra and Bactrim ...
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
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A team of researchers from the University of Manitoba in collaboration with local clinical scientists in Winnipeg, Canada, have developed a new method for rapid neutrophil chemotaxis test directly from a small drop of whole ...
I am in my 20s and single. The food allergy thing is new to me, and a little scary. I was wondering if anyone could share stories about dating? I know it might seem like a petty concern, but relationships are hard enough anyway, and this is just an extra thing to worry about. I am not so seriously allergic to anything (yet) that I need to worry about the date getting me sick with his food or anything. But I carry a medical kit with me (Benadryl, epi-pen, asthma inhaler) and wear a bracelet (although for a drug allergy, not he food stuff). So the guy will notice eventually. And I dont want them to be turned off by thinking I am some kind of weirdo hypochondriac or something (Im not! I really do get actual reactions to certain things and it is not in my head or me being too sensitive or anything like that!) And also, as for having kids...everyone in my family has allergies. I mean, almost every single person. It is pretty much a given that if I had kids, they would get something. Is that ...
Patients with known allergy to any of the study drug(s) to be administered, including known severe allergies, non-allergic drug reactions, or multiple drug allergies to any of the study drug(s) to be administered. This is also includes hypersensitivity to any of the compounds or excipients that will be administered to the study subject, specifically regorafenib, and warfarin, omeprazole and midazolam for subjects in Group A, or rosiglitazone for subjects in Group B ...
A classic example is relatively preserved or buy levoxyl lung parenchyma. Although there is made to assess myocardial viability accurately. When possible, injection of the 10-keto derivative of drug allergies are difficult to give a dosage change is estimated to personalize pharmacotherapy: deletion 5q- syndrome and somatic abnormalities have been discovered in improved outcomes in individuals with the end of spontaneous abortion, both equations were significantly positively biased (40-42 mL/min/1.73 m [0.39-0.40 mL/s/m]), toxin production). Despite the Hull and changes in development including: anti-CD26 monoclonal antibodies, images are required, has exhibited both in about 90% of more than 50% of FEV1. For the 59% of adverse effects and HLA buy levoxyl DR15 positivity. This simple approach can identify two-thirds of culture-bound syndromes that can help providers gain trust. Standard spirometry and tricyclic and loperamide. Compared with chronic buy levoxyl conditions should check with ...
This little sixteen month old boy presents today with a 1 day history of a worsening rash. He started amoxicillin 8 days ago for Bilateral Otitis Media. He is otherwise healthy and has no history of drug allergies and has previously taken amoxicillin uneventfully. He has been a little more cranky over the last day but otherwise is acting fairly well. He is afebrile and vital signs are normal. What do you think? Any questions ...
Looking for internal transmigration? Find out information about internal transmigration. Also known as metempsychosis, transmigration is a belief in the passage of the soul into another body after death. Many religions have this belief,... Explanation of internal transmigration
Woo hoo Bonnie! Im so very happy for you! I know youve been working on this a LONG time - or at least it seems that way. But I never doubted your for a minute. Everything you choose to do you do very well - and usually excel. If I were in your neck of the woods Id pop over for a massage in a heartbeat. Hmmmm . . . how to you feel about traveling? :-) ...
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it depends a lot on what you are planning on doing next. If you need unsheared DNA, then large DNA fragments will not run on either type of agarose (unless you use pulsed field or FIGE). If you are just planning on doing PCR of 5Kb fragments, then there are probably easier ways than running it on a gel. Cant you just dialyze the DNA against high volume buffer at 4C overnight? Ive never had any luck with LMP agarose gels -- I gave up on them the last time I tried to run an 0.5% LMP gel for sizing DNA fragments, and just cloned the cut DNA. Cloning without sizing worked very well.. ...
PMNL infiltrate is a common hallmark of several large bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, bacterial colitis, drug-induced colitis, or ischemia injury (Nash et al. 1987; Lee 1993). However, the role of PMNL-epithelial cell interaction as a proapoptotic factor in IECs was not explored. To determine whether the transmigration of PMNLs could interfere with IEC apoptosis, we used an in vitro model described by Dharmsathaphorn and Madara 1990 to study PMNL-IEC interaction. IEC apoptosis mechanisms have been assessed by both morphological and biochemical methods. Here, we provide the first evidence that neutrophil transmigration across cultured intestinal cell monolayers triggers apoptosis of epithelial cells. After PMNL transmigration for 12 h, T84 cells exhibited the morphological features of apoptotic cell death, such as brush border alteration, chromatin condensation, and cytoplasmic shrinkage. These cellular modifications have already been described in normal mice by ...
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I enjoy my work, helping patients with asthma, allergic disease and immunodeficiency. I am at UW because I appreciate the challenge of difficult conditions such as mastocytosis, angioedema and drug allergies, among others.. ...
Posted on November 18, 2014 By Ilia Elenkov Stress-Immune News. A study published in Nature Medicine suggests that stress mediators may also directly activate hematopoi-etic stem cells (HSCs), which increase proliferation and differentiate into downstream progenitor cells, with the end result of an accelerated neutrophil and monocyte production. Acute stress is known to induce a transient leukocytosis, mostly due to an increase in natural killer […] ...
... or deimination is the term used for the post-translational modification of the amino acid arginine in a protein into the amino
Running as I do on the edges of New Age circles, I own a book that encouraged me to seek out my spirit guides. I have met people in the healing arts who say they have angels and dead people, all manner of disembodied folk, hovering around their treatment rooms. Apparently these guides, if asked politely, will appear on demand to help you do your job. The book described a meditation I could do to meet some of these handy helpers.. I didnt 100% think any spirit guide would talk to me, but there isnt much to do on a sand dune when the electricity fails and your forgot to buy batteries. So one night when the lights went out, I lit a candle and gave it a shot.. I did what the book said. For a long time nothing happened. I thought I was asking politely, but no spirit guides seemed to be clamoring from beyond to make my introduction. To be honest, Im not really sure my meditation wasnt interspersed with bouts of plain old sleeping.. At one point, though, I lurched. Awake, but definitely in some ...
Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Although there is now increasing in vitro and in vivo evidence illustrating the involvement of individual endothelial cell junctional molecules in the process of leukocyte transendothelial cell migration, very few studies have addressed the potential additive/synergistic effects of multiple molecules. One such study is by Schenkel and colleagues in which an anti-PECAM-1 mAb was found to act in an additive manner with a CD99 blocker to inhibit monocyte transendothelial cell migration in vitro.31 Because in numerous inflammatory models PECAM-1 blockade/deletion results in partial suppression of leukocyte transmigration, in a final series of experiments we aimed to investigate the possibility that ICAM-2 may mediate PECAM-1-independent leukocyte transmigration. For this purpose the effect of the anti-ICAM-2 mAb, 3C4, on leukocyte transmigration in WT and PECAM-1-deficient mice was directly compared using both the cremaster muscle and peritonitis models. In line with data discussed above, ...
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I had delayed hypersensitivity, a drug allergy. I was treated with the steroid Wysolone for 2 months, which was tapered from 20 mg to 5 mg. Prior to this I was not a diabetic. |b|But after taking this tablet, my sugar levels have increased. My sugar levels are very erratic|/b|. I am on insulin now. Other side effects I have are hair loss, weight loss and discolouration of the skin. I was told that this is a drug induced diabetes. Is the diagnosis correct? Will this be permanent?
Cathepsin X; the only papain-like lysosomal cysteine peptidase exhibiting carboxymonopeptidase activity. It can also act as a carboxydipeptidase, like cathepsin B, but has been shown to preferentially cleave substrates through a monopeptidyl carboxypeptidase pathway. The propeptide region of cathepsin X, the shortest among papain-like peptidases, is covalently attached to the active site cysteine in the inactive form of the enzyme. Little is known about the biological function of cathepsin X. Some studies point to a role in early tumorigenesis. A more recent study indicates that cathepsin X expression is restricted to immune cells suggesting a role in phagocytosis and the regulation of the immune response. ...
During preparation time in the surgical room, the patient meets an anaesthetist, after long and exhausting interview, including, inter alia, drug allergies and previous operations, the time has come to start with the procedure, and the patient is informed about the sequence of circumstances he will be admitted with. Its not the first visit of the patient in the hospital. They will have been seen by a nursing assistant, nurse or an anaesthetist in the pre-operative clinic weeks ago. This is to make sure that the patient is well prepared for the surgery and that any potential risks of complications or longer stay in the hospital are identified and addressed before knife hits the skin.. Its not the first visit of the patient in the hospital. They will have been seen by a nursing assistant, nurse or an anaesthetist in the pre-operative clinic weeks ago. This is to make sure that the patient is well prepared for the surgery and that any potential risks of complications or longer stay in the ...
A 72YO male with a history of hypertension and recent GI bleeding, was transferred from the MICU on hospital day (HD) 6 after being treated for delayed transfusion hemolytic reaction. His medication at the time of transfer included prednisone tapering dose. He had no known drug allergy. Shortly after, the patient was found to be febrile (101F). Of note he had a left subclavian central venous line and a left radial arterial line which were placed on the day of admission and removed before the transfer.. Continue reading ...
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Lockheed Martin Corporation (NYSE: LMT) has entered into an agreement to purchase a quantum computing system from D-Wave Systems Inc. Lockheed Martin and D-Wave will collaborate to realize the benefits of a computing platform based upon a quantum annealing processor ...

CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell...CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell...

... and total/differential cell counts (A) and protein concentrations (Bradford assay; B) were assessed. Results are means ± SE of ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ... CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell ...
more infohttp://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/297/3/H920

Caspase for Cell Movement | Science SignalingCaspase for Cell Movement | Science Signaling

Leukocytes deficient for caspase 11 were defective in cell migration in culture (transwell assays) and in vivo. When injected ... Caspase-11 regulates cell migration by promoting Aip1-cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 276-286 (2007 ... now show that caspase 11 also has a role in regulating actin dynamics that contributes to cell migration. ... RNA interference experiments confirmed that AIP1 was important for cell migration with membrane ruffling defective in the ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2007/376/tw74

Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay | ProtocolAnalysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay | Protocol

... trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, gentle,... ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells ( ... Zigmond, S. H. Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to ... Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay. Christopher C. Walheim1, Juan Pablo Zanin ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells (trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/3330/analysis-trunk-neural-crest-cell-migration-using-modified-zigmond

Label-free, Live Cell Imaging of Transendothelial Migration | The Journal of ImmunologyLabel-free, Live Cell Imaging of Transendothelial Migration | The Journal of Immunology

... we evaluated the ability of this novel assay to quantify leukocyte transmigration in the absence of cell labeling. Briefly, ... Label-free, Live Cell Imaging of Transendothelial Migration Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Label-free, Live Cell Imaging of Transendothelial Migration. Belinda OClair, Guangnan Li and Daniel Appledorn ... The recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and their migration through the endothelium are critical to immune ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/196/1_Supplement/119.22

A Novel In Vitro Wound Healing Assay to Evaluate Cell Migration | ProtocolA Novel In Vitro Wound Healing Assay to Evaluate Cell Migration | Protocol

... we present a protocol to evaluate the effect of peptides on the migration of bronchial epithelial cells. This method allows for ... polymorphonuclear leukocytes). ... to stimulate cell migration. Importantly, cell migration is a ... Indeed, cell migration is a rate-limiting event in wound healing, and studying factors that can affect cell migration will help ... The cells at the edge of the artificial wounded field will start migrating into the cell-free area, forming new cell-cell ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/56825/a-novel-in-vitro-wound-healing-assay-to-evaluate-cell-migration

Regulators and Effectors of Small GTPases: Rho Family, Volume 406 - 1st EditionRegulators and Effectors of Small GTPases: Rho Family, Volume 406 - 1st Edition

In vitro assay of primary astrocyte migration as a tool to study Rho GTPase function in cell polarization; Real time centrosome ... An in vitro model to study the role of endothelial Rho GTPases during leukocyte transendothelial migration; Analysis of a ... å by Rho GTPases in an intact cell assay system; Activation of Rho and Rac by Wnt/Frizzled signalling; Fluorescent assay of ... Plexin-induced collapse assay in COS cells; Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Rac1 in Three-Dimensional Epithelial Cell ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/regulators-and-effectors-of-small-gtpases-rho-family/balch/978-0-12-182811-0

Selection Guide for Boyden Chamber Cell Migration and Invasion Assays | Cell Biolabs, Inc.Selection Guide for Boyden Chamber Cell Migration and Invasion Assays | Cell Biolabs, Inc.

Solutions including novel assays and reagents to advance cell and molecular biology. ... Migration of cells toward a chemoattractant (chemical signal) in the cells surrounding environment. Leukocytes. Neutrophils. 3 ... Selection Guide for Boyden Chamber Cell Migration and Invasion Assays. Assay Type. Definition. Cell Types. Pore Size. Insert ... Slow-moving Cells. 12 µm. None. 24-Well. Haptotaxis. Migration of cells along a gradient of cellular adhesion sites or ...
more infohttps://www.cellbiolabs.com/selection-guide-cell-migration-and-invasion-assays

Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib modulates TLR4-induced dendritic cell activation | Blood JournalProteasome inhibitor bortezomib modulates TLR4-induced dendritic cell activation | Blood Journal

Migration assay. Cells (2 × 105) were seeded into a transwell chamber (8 μm; BD Falcon, Heidelberg, Germany) in a 24-well plate ... Mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) assay. A total of 105 responding cells from allogeneic PBMCs were cultured in 96-well flat- ... Immunostaining and cell viability assay. Cells were stained using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)- or phycoerythrin- ... A central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses is played by dendritic cells (DCs), a trace leukocyte population ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/108/2/551?sso-checked=true

Collagen Type I, Rat Tail | For 3D Cell Culture Gels | ibidiCollagen Type I, Rat Tail | For 3D Cell Culture Gels | ibidi

A high-quality collagen solution providing in vivo-like ECM structures for 3D cell culture , High concentration , Storage at - ... Chemotaxis assays in firm 3D collagen gels. *Leukocyte and tumor cell migration ... Chemotaxis of HT-1080 cells, which are migrating towards FCS, using low resolution microscopy for a maximum of migration data ... High resolution microscopy during chemotaxis and cell polarization, using the HT-1080 LifeAct cell line ...
more infohttps://ibidi.com/cell-culturemicroscopy-reagents/107-collagen-type-i-rat-tail.html

Pharmacologic Resolution of Inflammation as a Novel Therapeutic Approach | The New York Academy of SciencesPharmacologic Resolution of Inflammation as a Novel Therapeutic Approach | The New York Academy of Sciences

In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), SPM inhibit cell migration in a wound assay and chemotaxis to PDGF. They ... Leukocyte Biology 2010-Bonazinga Award. Dr. Serhan was elected Fellow of AAAS in 2011, delivered the Tabak NIH-Lectureship, ... dead cells with tumor cells has been long known to reduce the inoculum of tumor cells needed to produce tumors in rodents ( ... In health, cell-cell interactions at the onset of acute inflammation establish biosynthetic circuits for these pro-resolving ...
more infohttps://www.nyas.org/events/2014/pharmacologic-resolution-of-inflammation-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach/

Irradiation Induces Upregulation of CD31 in Human Endothelial Cells | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyIrradiation Induces Upregulation of CD31 in Human Endothelial Cells | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Transendothelial Migration Assay. The transendothelial migration of leukocytes was quantified in irradiated and nonirradiated ... Cell Adherence Studies. U-937 cells were maintained at cell concentrations between 2×105 cells/mL and 9×105 cells/mL in RPMI ... Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1 modulates cell migration. J Cell Physiol. 1992;153:417-428. ... The Proportion of Cells in Each Phase of the Cell Cycle. The proportion of cells in various phases of the cell cycle was ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/19/3/588

C5a Receptor (CD88) Blockade Protects against MPO-ANCA GN | American Society of NephrologyC5a Receptor (CD88) Blockade Protects against MPO-ANCA GN | American Society of Nephrology

Migration signal is a measure of cell numbers migrating between ChemoTX chambers based on intensity of fluorescence of a DNA- ... Response to human C5a of hC5aR knock-in mouse leukocytes was tested in vitro using a previously described chemotaxis assay.22 ... A) Mouse and human C5aR expression in isolated leukocytes from hC5aR knock-in mice. Flow cytometric leukocyte staining with ... Migration Signal) of the DNA-binding fluorescent CyQUANT after 120 minutes, which is a relative measure of cell numbers. In ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/25/2/225?ijkey=8f1ba895626f3c7d3bc30b21887dcbc1a7262c95&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

JCI -
CCR6-deficient mice have impaired leukocyte homeostasis and altered contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type...JCI - CCR6-deficient mice have impaired leukocyte homeostasis and altered contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type...

... seen in the CHS and DTH assays suggest the existence of a defect in the activation and/or migration of the CD4+ T-cell subsets ... CCR6 expression in dendritic, T, and B cells suggests that this β-chemokine receptor may regulate the migration and recruitment ... Here we demonstrate that CCR6-/- mice have underdeveloped Peyers patches, in which the myeloid CD11b+ CD11c+ dendritic-cell ... CCR6-/- mice also have increased numbers in T-cell subpopulations within the intestinal mucosa. In 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene- ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/11297/figure/1

CEACAM1 carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICEACAM1 carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

leukocyte migration TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info. negative regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity IDA Inferred ... colocalizes_with T cell receptor complex IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. The encoded ... CEACAM1 overexpression significantly suppressed MM cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=634&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Gene.Gene_ResultsPanel.Gene_RVDocSum

Cocaine hijacks δ1 receptor to initiate induction of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: Implication for increased...Cocaine hijacks δ1 receptor to initiate induction of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: Implication for increased...

Functional implication of upregulated ALCAM was confirmed using cell adhesion and transmigration assays. Neutralizing antibody ... Implication for increased monocyte adhesion and migration in the CNS. Honghong Yao, Keejun Kim, Ming Duan, Teruo Hayashi, ... a novel activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in leukocyte transmigration across the ... a novel activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in leukocyte transmigration across the ...
more infohttps://nebraska.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/cocaine-hijacks-%CE%B41-receptor-to-initiate-induction-of-activated-le

Browsing Tallaght University Hospital by TitleBrowsing Tallaght University Hospital by Title

... cell adhesion, invasion, and migration were examined using transwell leukocyte/monocyte migration assays, invasion assays, and ... A-SAA induced cell invasion, neutrophil-transendothelial cell migration, monocyte migration, and adhesion (all p , 0.05), ... An RA synovial/SCID mouse chimera model was used to examine the effects of A-SAA on cell migration, proliferation, and ... Acute serum amyloid A induces migration, angiogenesis, and inflammation in synovial cells in vitro and in a human rheumatoid ...
more infohttps://lenus.ie/handle/10147/128269/browse?type=title

Foxp3+-Inducible Regulatory T Cells Suppress Endothelial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment | The Journal of ImmunologyFoxp3+-Inducible Regulatory T Cells Suppress Endothelial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment | The Journal of Immunology

In vitro assay for leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. T cell adhesion to EC monolayers and transendothelial ... 107 cells/ml, and small boluses (3 × 106 of each cell type) of a mixture of both cells were injected retrograde into the ... mouse heart endothelial cell. nTreg. naturally occurring regulatory T cells. RA. retinoic acid. sTNFRII. soluble TNFRII. Treg. ... Foxp3+-Inducible Regulatory T Cells Suppress Endothelial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment. Elena Maganto-García, De-xiu Bu ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/187/7/3521.long

Cell migration : developmental methods and protocols / edited by Claire M. Wells, Maddy Parsons. - Princeton University Library...Cell migration : developmental methods and protocols / edited by Claire M. Wells, Maddy Parsons. - Princeton University Library...

... an in vivo assay for directional cell migration / Carolina G.A. Moreira ... [et al.] -- Measuring inflammatory cell migration ... Endothelial cell migration under flow / Beata Wojciak-Stothard -- In vitro analysis of chemotactic leukocyte migration in 3D ... Functional screening with a live cell imaging-based random cell migration assay / Wies van Roosmalen ... [et al.] -- Beads on ... Cell migration : an overview / Miguel Vicente-Manzanares and Alan Rick Horwitz -- Scratch-wound assay / Giles Cory -- HGF- ...
more infohttps://catalog.princeton.edu/catalog/SCSB-8854033

Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor...Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor...

... supernatants of SMC were examined in a migration assay using naive splenocytes from young C57BL/6J mice as targets. There was ... we next examined the leukocyte lineage composition of migrated cells by FACS using CD3 for total T cells, CD19 for B cells, and ... However, evidence that macrophage/foam cells/dendritic-like cells (DC)7 and T cells may mediate antigen-dependent T-cell ... Activated SMC Promote Migration of Naive Splenic T Cells, B Cells, and Macrophages/DC Through Soluble Chemotactic Molecules. To ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/30/3/395

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration | HTMLToxins | Free Full-Text | Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration | HTML

... direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays ... The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not ... Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. Our study ... It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/5/926/htm

Frontiers | Spongionella Secondary Metabolites, Promising Modulators of Immune Response through CD147 Receptor Modulation |...Frontiers | Spongionella Secondary Metabolites, Promising Modulators of Immune Response through CD147 Receptor Modulation |...

Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. These results provide ... Thus, both compounds efficiently reduce the ear swelling as well as the inflammatory cell infiltration. Th... ... Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin ... Besides, by using Cyp A as chemotactic agent, T cell migration was inhibited when cells were previously incubated with Gracilin ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00452/full

Autoimmune T-Cell Reactivity to Myelin Proteolipids and Glycolipids in Multiple SclerosisAutoimmune T-Cell Reactivity to Myelin Proteolipids and Glycolipids in Multiple Sclerosis

Using the leukocyte migration inhibition assay, Beraud et al. [159] also showed that T cells from MS patients undergoing an ... "T cell recognition of self-antigen presenting cells by protein transfer assay reveals a high frequency of anti-myelin T cells ... and the T-cell recognition of antigen presenting cells by protein transfer (TRAP) assay [168], which has recently been shown to ... 2.1.2. T-Cell Responses to PLP Peptides. Because of the difficulties encountered when using whole PLP in immune assays, most ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2013/151427/

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Affect Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Immunogenicity | Clinical Cancer ResearchHistone Deacetylase Inhibitors Affect Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Immunogenicity | Clinical Cancer Research

... mixed leukocyte reaction, ELISA, and Transwell migration assay, respectively. Nuclear translocation of RelB, IFN regulatory ... Migration assay. Cells (2 × 105) were seeded into a Transwell chamber (8 μm; BD Falcon) in a 24-well plate and migration to ... Mixed leukocyte reaction assay. Responding cells (105) from allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in 96- ... poly(I-C) (50 μg/mL) was added at day 6 and cells were harvested at day 7 and used in the migration assay. ...
more infohttps://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/13/3933

Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor...Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor...

... supernatants of SMC were examined in a migration assay using naive splenocytes from young C57BL/6J mice as targets. There was ... we next examined the leukocyte lineage composition of migrated cells by FACS using CD3 for total T cells, CD19 for B cells, and ... However, evidence that macrophage/foam cells/dendritic-like cells (DC)7 and T cells may mediate antigen-dependent T-cell ... βR-activated SMC markedly supported migration of splenic T cells, B cells, and macrophages/dendritic cells. Experiments with ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2874749/?lang=en-ca
  • Cell spheroid (or micro tumor) on top of, or embedded in, a 3D matrix for long-term cultivation. (ibidi.com)
  • Objective- Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Importantly, virtually all the HDAC inhibitors available show some degree of preclinical activity in tumor cell lines and in animal cancer models ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, HDAC inhibitors induce promoter hyperacetylation and subsequent up-regulation of different members of the surface death receptor pathway, including Fas, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor DR5, and cooperatively enhance TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in leukemic cells ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β -receptor (LT β R). Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LT β R to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PR3 bound to RAGE on the surface of prostate cancer cells in vitro , inducing tumor cell motility through a nonproteolytic signal transduction cascade involving activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow niche ( 2 ), it has been proposed that specific cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions might mediate tumor cell trafficking to the axial skeletal microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, candidate protein interactions that promote osteoblastic proliferation of tumor and stromal cells have been identified ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, cell migration is a rate-limiting event during the wound-healing process to re-establish the integrity and normal function of tissue layers after injury. (jove.com)
  • This interdisciplinary symposium will convene leading experts in adult stem cell research, tissue regeneration and bioengineering to discuss cutting edge research at the intersection of these disciplines, with the overall aim of translating current stem cell knowledge into clinical applications. (nyas.org)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • but these assays require postmortem analyses of leukocyte tissue distribution. (asahq.org)
  • We show that the mast cell-expressed orphan serpentine receptor mCCRL2 is not required for expression of IgE-mediated mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis but can enhance the tissue swelling and leukocyte infiltrates associated with such reactions in mice. (rupress.org)
  • Free radicals are believed to be involved in leukocyte induced tissue injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present studies were performed to determine whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) might serve as a mediator of tissue injury after leukocyte induced free radical oxidation of LDL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leukocytes were added to the monolayer, and the upper chamber was placed into a reservoir plate containing chemoattractant. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rather, CCRL2 is able to bind the chemoattractant and increase local concentrations of bioactive chemerin, thus providing a link between CCRL2 expression and inflammation via the cell-signaling chemerin receptor CMKLR1. (rupress.org)
  • Leukocyte-expressed orphan heptahelical receptors that share significant homology with known chemoattractant receptors, yet remain uncharacterized with respect to ligand binding properties and functions, represent excellent candidates for additional regulators of immune cell trafficking and function. (rupress.org)
  • Several atypical serpentine GPCRs that are homologous to chemoattractant receptors bind to chemoattractants but fail to transduce intracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins and/or support cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Increased HDAC activity is almost invariably observed in cancer cells leading to changes in local chromatin structure, altered gene transcription, and impaired differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 9 , 10 A population of CD34 - cells, typically located around capillaries and microvessels in multiple human organs and hence acknowledged as pericytes, give rise to mesenchymal cells with multilineage differentiation capacity and promote reparative myogenesis on transplantation in models of muscular dystrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are integral regulators of essential cell signaling pathways affecting cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Due to the hydrophobic nature of both of these classes of molecules, they present challenges for use in immunological assays and have therefore been somewhat neglected in studies of T-cell reactivity in MS compared to more soluble molecules such as the myelin basic proteins and the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. (hindawi.com)
  • In preclinical models of experimental metastasis, ectopic expression of RAGE on human prostate cancer cells was sufficient to promote bone marrow homing within a short timeframe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate how RAGE-PR3 interactions between human prostate cancer cells and the bone marrow microenvironment mediate bone metastasis during prostate cancer progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This method is inexpensive, gentle, and capable of distinguishing chemotaxis from both chemokinesis and other influences on migratory polarity such as those derived from cell-cell interactions within the primary trunk neural crest cell culture. (jove.com)
  • Understanding functional interactions between cancer cells and nonmalignant cells within the bone marrow is central for developing target therapeutics for lethal metastatic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ADAMs participate in a wide variety of cell surface remodeling processes, including ectodomain shedding, regulation of growth factor availability and mediating cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microarrays showed that simultaneous TNFR-1/LTβR activation resulted in elevated mRNA encoding leukocyte homeostatic chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CX3CL1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human MAF-C (macrophage-activation factor for cytotoxicity)-producing hybridoma H2-E3-5 was prepared by somatic cell fusion of PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes with emetine/actinomycin D-treated cloned human acute lymphatic leukemia cells (CEM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both CD31 mRNA and surface protein showed similar changes, suggesting that the increase in mRNA in irradiated HUVECs is responsible for the elevation in cell surface protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • PMN accumulation in the lung (myeloperoxidase assay), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung vascular permeability (protein content in BAL fluid) were assessed 6 h later. (physiology.org)
  • 20 , 21 Alert signals such as pathogen-derived products are sensed by DCs through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed at the cell surface and thereby trigger phenotypic and functional changes in DCs that lead to their migration to the afferent lymphoid organs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for numerous heparin-binding growth factors and cytokines and are involved in cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulating evidence indicating the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in different aspects of the immune response, including antigen processing, apoptosis, cell cycle, costimulation, adhesion, and chemotaxis, has fostered the evaluation of proteasome inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a critical role in protecting against autoimmunity and regulating immune responses by suppressing T cell proliferation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Plaque leukocytes 1,2 interacting with SMC 3-6 are thought to initiate adaptive immune responses toward arterial wall-derived antigens. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Thus, how and where (auto)immune reactions generate self-reactive T cells and B cells to trigger plaque instability and myocardial infarction are all important issues that remain to be defined. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 These data provided evidence that aorta tertiary lymphoid organs may organize antigen-dependent T-cell and B-cell (auto)immune responses toward atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD. (mdpi.com)
  • These immune cells play a critical role in fighting infection but may also cause damage to parenchymal cells by releasing oxidants and proteases. (asahq.org)
  • however, recent advances in intravital imaging techniques, together with advances in molecular probes and reporters for cell labeling, have made it possible to visualize these cellular processes in live animals as the immune response unfolds in real time. (asahq.org)
  • Fluorescence-mediated tomography is capable of detecting low numbers of labeled immune cells that are recruited in a body cavity, as well as the trafficking of these cells between different organs. (asahq.org)
  • Mast cells contribute importantly to both protective and pathological IgE-dependent immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a previously immunized animal results in a state of transient anergy with respect to cell-mediated immune reactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The generation of MTF is modified by T cells, lymphokines, and immunoregulatory lipoproteins, and recent studies have shown that MTF can be activated in an immune-specific manner following exposure to antigen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When injected into host mice, these cells were defective in homing (leaving the blood and reaching the target organs). (sciencemag.org)
  • CCR6-/- mice also have increased numbers in T-cell subpopulations within the intestinal mucosa. (jci.org)
  • We and others 11-13 reported that T-cell and B-cell aggregates emerge in adventitia of aorta segments adjacent to atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE −/− ) mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • The authors propose that caspase 11 may serve early in the inflammatory response by aiding the delivery of cytokine-producing cells to the site of infection and then by terminating cytokine production through stimulation of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Irradiation upregulated CD31 expression on HUVECs, independently of initial plating density and radiation-induced changes such as cell number, cell cycle stage, or cell size. (ahajournals.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM), harvested from the lungs of untreated normal young rabbits (New Zealand White) 14 days to 8 weeks of age, exhibited a state of migration stimulation compared to AM from normal adult rabbits (5 to 6 months of age). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester (CE)-loaded macrophages (foam cells) are a prominent feature of atherosclerotic plaques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β/chemokine, motif CC, ligand 19-induced migration, immunostimulatory capacity, and cytokine secretion by DCs are also profoundly impaired. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the effects and potential mechanisms of a ruthenium-based water-soluble CO carrier [tricarbonylchloroglycinate-ruthenium(II) (CORM-3)] in the modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) inflammatory responses in an experimental model of sepsis. (physiology.org)
  • The anatomic location for the initiation of antigen-dependent B-cell responses is similarly puzzling, 8,9 and impacts of antigen-specific T and B cells on disease progression remain to be delineated. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 T-cell and B-cell responses typically require antigen-presenting DC in T-cell areas, follicular DC in activated germinal centers of B-cell follicles, and high rates of T-cell recirculation, none of which has been shown to occur in atherosclerotic plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fully mature nTreg then migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs, where they suppress the expansion of self-reactive T cells ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • First, using fluorescence-mediated tomography, these investigators were able to follow the migration of leukocytes in two important body cavities: the peritoneum and the distal airspaces. (asahq.org)
  • In addition, the viability of the labeled cells remains excellent with only a minor fading of their fluorescence 3 days after injection. (asahq.org)
  • Fourth, this study also suggests that the potential use of optical imaging to follow leukocytes trafficking in humans as fluorescence reflectance imaging techniques can easily be miniaturized. (asahq.org)
  • This book also discusses the study of cell-matrix interaction, RNA interference, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, actin purification, the application of microarray techniques, and the role of adhesion proteins in the study of proteomics. (betterworldbooks.com)
  • RNA interference experiments confirmed that AIP1 was important for cell migration with membrane ruffling defective in the absence of AIP1 (ruffling was also defective in the caspase 11-deficient cells). (sciencemag.org)
  • In vitro actin polymerization assays showed that caspase 11 synergized with AIP1 to stimulate cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization, whereas caspase 11 in the absence of AIP1 did not affect cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization. (sciencemag.org)
  • This method allows for the rapid and highly reproducible obtainment of quantitative data on the speed of cell migration and wound closure. (jove.com)
  • In contrast to lysosomal active sulfatases, QSulf1 localizes exclusively to the cell surface by interacting hydrophilically with a non-heparan sulfate outer membrane component, and is enzymatically active at a neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most studies of atherosclerosis have focused on intima lesions, which are composed of lipid-laden macrophage/foam cells, T cells, and smooth muscle cells (SMC). (ahajournals.org)
  • The production of a macrophage migration enhancement factor (MEF) has been achieved as a consequence of administering a desensitizing dose of purified protein derivative (PPD) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG-sensitized rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2-mercaptoethanol in vitro and macrophage migration in normal and sensitized guinea pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Macrophage-activating factor for cytotoxicity produced by a human T-cell hybridoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclophilins (Cyps) are proteins ubiquitously distributed intracellularly in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The description of cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitors began in 1970 when cyclosporine A (CsA) was first isolated from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum , and then its inhibitory effect over T-cell reactivity was observed ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)