Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage: Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte: Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred C57BLFocal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mice, Inbred BALB CStress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.

The novel proangiogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide is dependent on Akt phosphorylation. (1/100)

OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been reported to be a gasotransmitter which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. The present study aims to examine the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide is able to promote angiogenesis. METHODS: Angiogenesis was assessed using in vitro parameters (i.e. endothelial cell proliferation, adhesion, transwell migration assay, scratched wound healing and formation of tube-like structure) and in vivo by assessing neovascularization in mice. Phosphorylation of Akt was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Exogenously administered NaHS (H(2)S donor) concentration-dependently (10-20 micromol/l) increased cell growth, migration, scratched wound healing and tube-like structure formation in cultured endothelial cells. These effects of NaHS on endothelial wound healing and tube-like structure formation were prevented by either the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002 (5 micromol/l) or transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of Akt. NaHS increased Akt phosphorylation and this effect was also blocked by either LY 294002 or wortmannin (25 nmol/l). NaHS did not significantly alter the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor and angiopoietin-1, or nitric oxide metabolites. NaHS treatment (10 and 50 micromol kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly promoted neovascularization in vivo in mice. CONCLUSION: The present study reports a novel proangiogenic role of H(2)S which is dependent on activation of Akt.  (+info)

A rapid screening method for population-specific neuronal motogens, substrates and associated signaling pathways. (2/100)

We developed and characterized an assay that allows for rapid examination of migration of specific neuronal populations within a mixed population using the Boyden chamber principle. Migration of cerebellar interneurons and granule cells was examined using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(65)) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) promoters, respectively. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was used as the prototypic motogen for both populations. Fluorescent light-blocking inserts (FluoroBlok) with different pore sizes and densities were compared in a two-compartment assay. Immunodetection of polarity markers and nuclear staining indicated that dendrites and somata are preferentially extended through the pores in response to BDNF. Inserts coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were used to examine interactions between BDNF and the ECM during migration. ECM proteins alone stimulated migration when the lower side of the insert was coated, however coating of both sides of the insert slowed migration when compared to poly-D-lysine. Addition of a PI 3-kinase inhibitor to the lower compartment blocked BDNF-stimulated migration of both populations while a Src inhibitor reduced laminin-stimulated migration of interneurons, but not granule cells. We also examined use of neurons cultured from GAD(65)-eGFP mice as a reporter system for promoter activity. GAD(65)-eGFP mice may also be useful as a model for promoter regulation and the potential confounding effects of eGFP induction by the stimuli are also addressed. This assay allows for rapid analysis of motogens, substrates and signaling pathways that regulate migration of selected neuronal populations.  (+info)

Toll-like receptors on human mesenchymal stem cells drive their migration and immunomodulating responses. (3/100)

Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration, and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was initially established by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB, AKT, and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay, and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines, and chemokines measured identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSC migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSC migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies.  (+info)

Contribution of lung fibroblast migration in the fibrotic process of airway remodeling in asthma. (4/100)


Immunologic activation of human syncytiotrophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum. (5/100)


Altered chemotactic response of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C: role of alpha interferon. (6/100)


Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression. (7/100)


Lipopolysaccharide induces macrophage migration via prostaglandin D(2) and prostaglandin E(2). (8/100)


Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
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Due to the high mortality caused by frequent relapse and metastasis in patients with ovarian cancer, advances in treatment remain necessary. In this study, we developed a chromatographical process which converted native protein human serum albumin (HSA) into a water-soluble nano-fibrillar protein structure and aimed to explore the potential inhibitory effect of fibrillar HSA (F-HSA) on ovarian tumor metastasis. Transwell migration assay, western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the effects of F-HSA in vitro. Its effects in vivo were evaluated in orthotopic and metastatic xenograft mouse models established using an SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line that stably expressed green fluorescent protein and luciferase. The fibrillar structure of converted HSA was verified by transmission electron microscopy and Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay. Treatment with F-HSA decreased the viability, migration and invasion of several ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. F-HSA bound to β1 ...
... Assays from Platypus Technologies utilize exclusion-zone technology to give you high-quality results in every experiment.
The migration assay (also known as the Boyden Chamber Assay) is a commonly used test to study the migratory response of endothelial cells.
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. METHODS: TR146 cancer cells were seeded in Petri dishes with microfabricated wells for cell migration assays. Total 54 cell islands were used of various shape and size and experimental media type. Cell migration assays were analyzed in six group media: Dulbeccos modified medium (DMEM); DMEM with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 239) expressing hBD-3 via transfected cloned pcDNA3 as CM/hBD-3; CM/hBD-3+ VEGF; conditioned medium from non-transfected HEK 239 (not expressing hBD-3) as control (CM); and the last group was CM + VEGF ...
Hypoxia has been implicated as a crucial microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis. :"AK058003″}}AK058003 is frequently upregulated in GC samples and promotes GC migration and invasion and and and Migration and Invasion Assays For transwell migration assays 5 cells in serum-free RPMI 1640 medium were added to the upper chamber of each insert (BD Biosciences Franklin Lakes NJ). For invasion assays the chamber inserts were coated with 50 mg/l Matrigel (BD Biosciences San Jose CA). After 4 to 5 hours of incubation at 37°C 1 cells in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium were added to the upper chamber. In both assays medium supplemented with serum was used as a chemoattractant in the lower chamber. After incubation in a normoxia (37°C and 5% CO2) or hypoxia (37°C 1 O2 5 CO2 and 94% N2) chamber for 24 or 48 hours the cells on the upper surface were removed and the cells on the lower surface of the membrane were fixed in 100% methanol for 15 minutes air dried stained with 0.1% crystal ...
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
This unit describes methods for isolating mouse monocytes and neutrophils, as well as in vitro protocols for measuring cell migration and polarization
The discovery of anti-metastatic agents that inhibit cancer cell motility has been hindered by a dearth of high‐throughput screening (HTS) -compatible cell motility assays. The Oris™ Pro 384 well cell migration assay, developed by Platypus Technologies, is an innovative cell motility assay designed to enable HTS of potential anti-cancer compounds and wound healing agents on adherent tumor and endothelial cell lines. The assay utilizes a centrally located, non-toxic, biocompatible gel (BCG) to form a uniformly sized, cell-free detection zone into which cells migrate. The assay is logistically simple and does not require any mechanical processing steps, such as cell wounding or removal of physical barriers. The assay is fully compatible with laboratory automation, including robotic liquid handlers, plate washers, and high-content screening (HCS) readers.. A formal investigation of the accuracy, robustness, and HTS performance of the assay was conducted following guidelines in place at the ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Hello everyone! My name is Stephane Methot and I am interested in persuing my education with a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering. I am looking for a Ph.D. project related to the field of Tissue Engineering. Heres a quick look at my background: MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.S.) Biomedical Engineering, Specialized in Tissue Engineering Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Biomedical Eng.Institute RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC DIRECTOR AWARD, BEST MASTER THESIS 95-96 Thesis Title: Optimization of the mechanical stimulation of ACL fibroblasts for better healing and regeneration of ligaments in vitro (French). Direction: LHocine Yahia, Ph.D. (Ecole Polytechnique) Codirection: Charles-Hilaire Rivard, M.D. (Ste-Justine Hospital) BACHELOR IN ENGINEERING (B.ENG.) Mechanical Engineering, Specialized in Design and Manufacturing Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal Since my master degree, I have completed a one year contract as a research assistant for a new Montreal researd and development company named: BIO SYNTECH LTD. Project: ...
LASP1 expression was suppressed by miR-218 transfection of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. (a) LASP1 mRNA expression 72 h after transfection with miR-218. GUSB exp
Cell culture inserts were seeded with 1x105 cells in 250 uL of medium with 0. 1% FBS. Un coated inserts had been utilised for migration assays whereas inserts
Emerging evidence suggests that miR-124 performs important biological functions in neural stem cells (NSCs); it regulates NSC behavior and promotes the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unknown. And also, the role of miR-124 during spinal cord injury regeneration is unclear. In order to explore the function of miR-124 in neural differentiation, the molecular markers (Tuj1, Map2, and GFAP) correlated with the differentiation of NSCs were detected by immunofluorescence staining both in cultured mouse spinal cord progenitor cells (SC-NPCs) and in spinal cord injury (SCI) animal models. The migration ability and apoptosis of cultured SC-NPCs were also evaluated by Transwell migration assay and TUNEL assay. In addition, the relative expression of lnRNA Neat1- and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related genes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. In this study, we revealed that lncRNA Neat1 is involved in regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is activated by
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol, has been previously reported to possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the effects of this antiangiogenic steroid can be readily assayed in live zebrafish, introducing a convenient and robust new model system as a screening tool for both single cell and collective cell migration assays. Using the in vitro mammalian endothelial cell line EA.hy926, we first show that cell migration and angiogenesis, as estimated by wound assay and tube formation respectively, are antagonized by 2ME. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, dose-dependent exposure to 2ME diminishes (1) larval angiogenesis, (2) leukocyte recruitment to damaged lateral line neuromasts and (3) retards the lateral line primordium in its migration along the body. Our results indicate that 2ME has an effect on collective cell migration in vivo as well as previously reported anti-tumorigenic activity and suggests that the molecular mechanisms
In cell migration assays, spheroids are seeded on an astrocyte monolayer culture, so the glioma cells do not penetrate the astrocyte culture and the migration is two-dimensional. This is the reason why we considered two layers in the model: one layer is the astrocyte on top of which lies the tumour cell layer. Thus, glioma cells and astrocytes can occupy the same position but on different planes. For all practical purposes, astrocytes in a confluent monolayer culture could be considered as non-motile cells. Time-lapse experiments registered only chaotic non-directional movements of negligible magnitude 1.24±0.36 μm in 5 h.. The rules of motion inside the layer of glioma cells are exactly the same as described before, for migration on a passive substrate: in the control situation we have p+=1, whereas in the treated situation we take p−=0.5. For the sake of coherency, we model the heterotype GJ communication as we did for homotype communication, i.e. with a parameter q which quantifies the ...
The migratory responses of four human melanoma cell lines (A-2058, DEMEL, HTB-63, and HTB-72), using chemotaxis (CTX) and haptotaxis (HPTX) assays, were studied. The attractants were three...
A bacterial collagen-like proteins Scl2 continues to be developed like a recombinant collagen magic size program to host human being collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the purpose of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. at the best testable concentrations, the build was struggling to promote DDR autophosphorylation. The recombinant collagen indicated in will not consist of hydroxyproline (Hyp), and complementary artificial peptide studies demonstrated that alternative of Hyp by Pro in the important Gly-Val-Met-Gly-Phe-Hyp position reduced the DDR-binding affinity and therefore required an increased focus for the induction of receptor activation. The power from the recombinant bacterial collagen to bind the DDRs without inducing kinase activation recommended it could hinder the relationships between pet collagen as well as the DDRs, and this inhibitory part was verified and with a cell migration assay. This study illustrates that recombinant collagen can complement ...
The paucity of detectable apoptotic cells in tissues where many cells undergo apoptosis demonstrates the efficiency of cell-clearance mechanisms. Apoptotic cells are thought to release factors that signal their presence to scavenger cells such as macrophages, but the nature of these signals is unclear (see commentary by Gregory). Elliott et al. found that supernatant from thymocytes in which apoptosis was induced recruited more monocytes in a migration assay than did supernatant from live cells. Similarly, supernatant from apoptotic cells introduced into a subcutaneous air pouch in mice recruited more macrophages than did supernatant from live cells. Treatment of the supernatant from the apoptotic cells with apyrase, which hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates, blocked the recruitment of macrophages to the air pouch. Of various nucleotides tested, ATP and UTP were the most efficient at recruiting monocytes in in vitro migration assays, and both nucleotides were detectable in the ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common type of cancer worldwide. New anti-cancer agents are needed for treating late stage colorectal cancer as most of the deaths occur due to cancer metastasis. A recently developed compound, 3c has shown to have potent antitumor effect; however the mechanism underlying the antitumor effect remains unknown. 3c-induced inhibition of proliferation was measured in the absence and presence NAC using MTT in HT-29 and SW620 cells and xCELLigence RTCA DP instrument. 3c-induced apoptotic studies were performed using flow cytometry. 3c-induced redox alterations were measured by ROS production using fluorescence plate reader and flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry; NADPH and GSH levels were determined by colorimetric assays. Bcl2 family protein expression and cytochrome c release and PARP activation was done by western blotting. Caspase activation was measured by ELISA. Cell migration assay was done using the real time xCELLigence RTCA DP
Vol 10: Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Examples of collective cell migration. First column: schematic representation of different migratory types. The regions where cells are interacting are depicted
BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
... : Lakshmi Ramgopal, aka Lykanthea, this debut release of her is dated 2014, yet, I found it only a few days ago, and I am stunned - where was I in ...
sundoc Migration; Titel: Untersuchungen zum Organika - Abbaupotiential aquatischer Hyphomyceten, Verfasser: Augustin, Torsten, 2003 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
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The migration of multiple cells as a cooperativeunit known as collective cell migration is a common phenomenon in development, cancer and healing
Cell migration & Invasion Assays are important investigate for different cell types and disease states. Read more in this Article.
4 well silicone insert with 4 defined cell-free gaps, suitable for wound healing, migration assays, 2D invasion assays, and co-cultivation of cells Complete ...
3 well silicone insert with two defined cell-free gaps, suitable for wound healing, migration assays, 2D invasion assays, and co-cultivation of cells Complet...
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating cell migration and invasion Dr Maria Dolores ..
Johns Hopkins researchers have found a way to directly observe cell migration -- in real time and in living tissue. In a report in the June 5 issue of Developmental Cell , the scientists say their advance could lead to strategies for controlling both normal growth and the spread of cancer, processes that depend on the programmed, organized movement of cells across space.
sundoc Migration; Titel: Immunhistochemische Untersuchungen apoptose- und proliferationsassoziierter Proteine beim klarzelligen Nierenzellkarzinom in Bezug auf klinisch-pathologische [...], Verfasser: Wüster, Mirja, 2004 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Curcumin longa L. There is growing body of data showing the antitumor effect of curcumin in different cancers; however, the molecular mechanism underlying of this inhibition in breast cancer is still remained to be elucidated. Here we investigated the antitumor activity of curcumin alone or in combination with paclitaxel or doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells in monolayer cell cultures and spheroids models. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of three different forms of curcumin (phytosomal), phospholipidated curcumin, amorphous curcumin and turmeric oleoresin were evaluated, compared to unformulated curcumin. ...
Drug discovery startup FogPharma raised $66 million in series B financing as it looks to bring its first product to the clinic by the end of next year. The startup was established in 2016 by Harvard professor and entrepreneur Gregory Verdine, whose lab invented cell-penetrating miniproteins.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
... a versatile and multiplex cell migration assay platform". Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 17 (21): 14159-67. doi:10.1039/ ... "Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells". Nature Communications. ... Migration of cells can be either enhanced or inhibited depending on other conditions.[13] In neurons, blebbistatin was found to ... and its recent use in cardiac muscle cell cultures has improved cell survival time.[4][5] However, its adverse characteristics ...
Migration Assays Cerebral organoids can help to study cell migration. Neural glial cells cover a wide variety of neural cells, ... The spatial location and temporal attributes of neural progenitor cells can influence if the cells form neurons or glial cells ... Cell-type specific genome assays Organoids can be used to study the crucial early stages of brain development, test drugs and, ... Cell replacement therapy Cerebral organoids can be used as a simple model to show how cell replacement therapy would work on ...
Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced vascularization in the corneal pocket assay and inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis in the ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ... The major role of endostatin is in its ability to potently inhibit endothelial cell migration and induce apoptosis. These ...
... the biophysical mechanisms underlying migration at the level of cells and tissues; biomimetic systems for cell-based assays; ... cell migration, stem cells, artificial olfaction and microbial biotechnology. The institute was created by the Government of ... About us section of IBEC website Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence MedicalXpress: Cancer cells hijack healthy cells Health ... Bioengineering for Regenerative Therapies: Molecular dynamics at the interface of cells and biomaterials; ...
Under-agarose cell migration assay may be used to measure chemotaxis and chemokinesis. A layer of agarose gel is placed between ... Agarose is often used as a support for the tri-dimensional culture of human and animal cells. Because agarose forms a non- ... However, agarose forms a stiff inert hydrogel that do not carry any biological information, thus the human and animal cells can ... In order to modify the mechanical properties of agarose to reproduce the natural environment of other human cells, agarose can ...
... endothelial cell migration, proliferation, tube information and in vitro neovascularization models; establishing the CAM assay ...
"A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image ... When used as a toxicity assay, this shrinkage varies with drug concentration and is a label-free metric of cell function that ... The cells within the printed construct interact with surrounding cells and the ECM to migrate, proliferate, and ultimately ... and poly-L-lysine which assists in adhesion to the cell membrane via electrostatic interactions. In this system, cells are ...
Along with AHNAK, eIF4E and S100A11, SEPT9 has been shown to be essential for pseudopod protrusion, tumor cell migration and ... Using highly sensitive real time PCR assays, methylated SEPT9 was detected in the blood of colorectal cancer patients. This ... Nagata K, Asano T, Nozawa Y, Inagaki M (Dec 2004). "Biochemical and cell biological analyses of a mammalian septin complex, ... "Sensitive detection of colorectal cancer in peripheral blood by septin 9 DNA methylation assay". PLoS ONE. 3 (11): e3759. doi: ...
Another setup commonly used for measuring chemotaxis and chemokinesis utilizes the under-agarose cell migration assay, whereby ... A common identification assay involves culturing a sample of the organism deep within a block of nutrient agar. Cells will ... Motility assays[edit]. As a gel, an agar or agarose medium is porous and therefore can be used to measure microorganism ... Agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, and which is released on boiling. These ...
... polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture assay Madin- ... cell migration, cell-cell signalling and fertilization. Cell polarity is an example of the self-organization property that all ... Many cell types are capable of migration, such as leukocytes and fibroblasts, and in order for these cells to move in one ... Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to ...
In vitro assays on apoptosis in MM cells have been shown, when treated with thalidomide and its analogs, to upregulate the ... bFGF and IL-6 appear to be required for endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. Thalidomide and its analogs are ... In contrast, in vitro assay demonstrated that TNF-α is actually enhanced in T-cell activation, where CD4+ and CD8+ T ... They have also been shown to cause dose dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines where the analogs showed 100 ...
... and for measuring cell volume changes. Calcein is commonly used for cell tracing and in studies of endocytosis, cell migration ... February 2001). "Calcein assay for multidrug resistance reliably predicts therapy response and survival rate in acute myeloid ... As dead cells lack active esterases, only live cells are labeled and counted by flow cytometry. Calcein is now rarely used as a ... which makes it useful for testing of cell viability and for short-term labeling of cells. Alternatively, Fura-2 , Furaptra , ...
... cells increased the cleavage and shedding of PTPkappa ectodomain and increased migration of WiDr cells in transwell assays. As ... In these cells, adhesion to matrigel, transwell migration, and cell growth were all increased following the reduction of PTPRK ... Expression of wild-type PTPkappa in U87-MG and U251-MG cells resulted in a reduction in cell proliferation, migration and ... Expression of ful-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells that normally lack its expression results in reduced cell migration and ...
... cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction, and/or cell migration, but the available assays are not optimized for 3D cell culturing. The ... Cell culture Cell lines Cell culture assay Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell line Hydrogel Fey, Stephen; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof ( ... In living tissue, cells exist in 3D microenvironments with intricate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and complex ... The spheroids are thus improved models for cell migration, differentiation, survival, and growth. Furthermore, 3D cell cultures ...
The long-term stimulation of keratinocytes with Sandalore positively affected cell proliferation and migration, and ... regeneration of keratinocyte monolayers in an in vitro wound scratch assay (i.e., sandalore stimulation also enhanced epidermal ...
Another setup commonly used for measuring chemotaxis and chemokinesis utilizes the under-agarose cell migration assay, whereby ... A common identification assay involves culturing a sample of the organism deep within a block of nutrient agar. Cells will ... Agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, and which is released on boiling. These ... The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily ...
... gradient detected responses are the results of active migration of cells Despite the fact that an ideal chemotaxis assay is ... Although migration of cells was detected from the early days of the development of microscopy by Leeuwenhoek, a Caltech lecture ... Chemotaxis refers to the directional migration of cells in response to chemical gradients; several variations of chemical- ... Chemotaxis Neutrophil Chemotaxis Cell Migration Gateway Downloadable Matlab chemotaxis simulator Bacterial Chemotaxis ...
... cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450.495.160 --- cytotoxicity tests, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.160.155 --- complement ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH E01.370 ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH ... radioligand assay MeSH E01.370.374.750 --- thyroid function tests MeSH E01.370.374.750.100 --- basal metabolism MeSH E01.370. ...
A wound healing assay is a laboratory technique used to study cell migration and cell-cell interaction. This is also called a ... "An introduction to the wound healing assay using live-cell microscopy". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 8 (5): 440-451. doi:10.4161/ ... scratch assay because it is done by making a scratch on a cell monolayer and capturing images at regular intervals by time ...
Grada A (February 2017). "Analysis of Collective Cell Migration Using the Wound Healing Assay". J Invest Dermatol. 137 (2): e11 ... Collective cell migration describes the movements of group of cells and the emergence of collective behavior from cell- ... While single-cell migration has been extensively studied, collective cell migration is a relatively new field with applications ... Collective cell migration is studied over many model species. Border cells in flies (Drosophila melanogaster): the border cells ...
Movafagh S, Hobson JP, Spiegel S, Kleinman HK, Zukowska Z (Sep 2006). "Neuropeptide Y induces migration, proliferation, and ... tube formation of endothelial cells bimodally via Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors". FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1924-6. doi:10.1096/fj.05- ... characterization of human neuropeptide Y receptor subtype five specific antagonists using a luciferase reporter gene assay". ...
Cell fractionation or Immunoprecipitation Migration assays, Chemotaxis assay Secretion assays Apoptosis assays such as the DNA ... MTT assay Cell Counting Kit-8 (WST-8 based cell viability assay) SRB (Sulforhodamine B) assay CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell ... BCA assay) Bradford protein assay Lowry protein assay Secretion assay Nuclear run-on Ribosome profiling A cell-counting assay ... Many cell assays have been developed to assess specific parameters or response of cells (biomarkers, cell physiology). ...
Chemotaxis Cell Migration Gateway Cytometric chemotaxis and cell migration assay Free tool based on ImageJ to analyse ... mt-dehydrogenase detection with MTT assay) are used. Labelled (e.g. fluorochromes) cells are also used, in some assays cells ... Counting of cells: positive responder cells could be counted from the front of migrating cells, after staining or in native ... In general, the most important requisite is to calibrate the incubation time of the assay both to the model cell and the ligand ...
... and heterozygous mice survive with delayed neuronal migration confirmed by in vitro and in vivo cell migration assays. Most ... decreases cerebellar granule cell migration in vitro. Addition of PAF to hippocampal cells have shown growth cone collapse and ... are all the results of abnormal cell migration. The abnormal migration is typically associated with a disorganized cellular ... Migration arrested toward the latter part of development usually restricts the abnormal cell position to the cortex level. ...
Zebrafish kodecytes have been used to determine real time in vivo cell migration. Kodecytes have been used to create influenza ... "An improved Fc function assay utilising CMV antigen coated red blood cells generated with synthetic Function-Spacer-Lipid ... In fixed cells or inactive cells (e.g. red cells) stored in serum free media the constructs are retained normally. Liposomes ... "Fluorescent Function-Spacer-Lipid construct labelling allows for real-time in vivo imaging of cell migration and behaviour in ...
Cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migrationEdit. The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and ... When assayed in the human, the observed variability of the SP concentrations are large, and in some cases the assay methodology ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
Must have basic cell culture knowledge and experience. ... CSULB Home BUILD Home Cell Migration Assay Workshop. Cell ... In this workshop, you will get hands-on experience on cell migration and invasion assays in two formats: Boyden Chamber Assay ( ... Must have basic cell culture knowledge and experience.. Cell migration is a highly integrated, multi-step process that plays an ... There are various types and definitions of cell migration which will be discussed as part of this workshop. Invasive cells move ...
To facilitate the investigation of cell migration in the SVZ and RMS, an inexpensive migration assay was developed for use in ... Assays for measuring extracellular GABA levels and cell migration rate in acute slices.. Bolteus AJ1, Garganta C, Bordey A. ... Time-lapse movies were acquired to identify the direction and measure the speed of cell migration. The neurotransmitter GABA ... The described techniques can be used to identify the endogenous factors that regulate cell migration. Identifying such factors ...
Measuring Chemotaxis and Chemokinesis: The Under-Agarose Cell Migration Assay Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, ... Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control ... Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major ...
By allowing the identification of cell migration inhibitors and cell migration promotors, the Oris™ Cell Migration Assay is a ... Oris™ Cell Migration Assays. The superior alternative to scratch assays. Migration is an essential property of live cells and ... AMSBIO supplies Oris™ Cell Migration Assays, a range of migration assays which utilize a unique exclusion zone technology to ... Cell Migration Assays?. The scratch assays wound the monolayers causing release of factors from the dead and dying cells. The ...
We describe a cell migration assay that uses a barrier device to separate the cells. The assay enables quantification of the ... Thus, the barrier cell migration assay is a useful tool for exploring matrix-dependent migration of adherent cells. ... Analysis of Matrix-Dependent Cell Migration with a Barrier Migration Assay Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Removable plastic barriers allow quantification of cell migration without damaging either the surface proteins or the cells. ...
A High-Throughput, Multi-Cell Phenotype Assay for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Chemotaxis/Migration.. Liao XH1,2, ... The compounds were also shown to inhibit migration of two human cancer cell lines in monolayer scratch assays. This test screen ... Validation of inhibitory effects of compounds PD 169316 and SB 525334 on migration of human cells in monolayer scratch assays. ... Inhibition of cell viability was assayed by loss of cellular ATP and inhibition of aggregation was assayed by loss relative GFP ...
... we present a protocol to evaluate the effect of peptides on the migration of bronchial epithelial cells. This method allows for ... Indeed, cell migration is a rate-limiting event in wound healing, and studying factors that can affect cell migration will help ... The cells at the edge of the artificial wounded field will start migrating into the cell-free area, forming new cell-cell ... 1c in terms of cell migration activity induced on bronchial epithelial cells expressing the functional CFTR. In this assay, ...
... trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, gentle,... ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells ( ... A Quantitative Cell Migration Assay for Murine Enteric Neural ... Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay. Christopher C. Walheim1, Juan Pablo Zanin ... An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells (trunk neural crest cells) is described. This method is inexpensive, ...
Migration, and Invasion Assays : Permit real-time analysis of cell culture compo ... BD Falcon FluoroBlok Cell Culture Inserts for Compound Permeability, ... Migration, and Invasion Assays : Permit real-time analysis of cell culture compound permeability (1um), cell migration (3um or ... Home » Bd Falcon Fluoroblok Cell Culture Inserts For Compound Permeability, Migration, And Invasion Assays. ...
Invasion Assays are important investigate for different cell types and disease states. Read more in this Article. ... Another way to measure cell migration is to use the Platypus® OrisTM Cell Migration Assay. Here a plug is placed in the center ... Therefore, assays that can measure cell migration and cell invasion are important tools to have for a microplate reader. ... Review this application note to learn more: Analysis of migration using the Oris(TM) Cell Migration Assay-TriCoated kit on the ...
... and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). In … ... We have compared the capillary tube assay for migration inhibition studies with our modification of the agarose microdroplet ... Correlation between agarose microdroplet and capillary tube procedures as assays for migration inhibition of target cells J ... and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). In all circumstances both procedures gave quantitatively ...
... can be used to visualize and analyze cell migration using the Oris Pro Cell Migration Assay from Platypus Technologies. ... the movement of cells from one location to another, is a critical component of both normal and abnormal biological processes. ... to visualize and analyze cell migration using the Oris™ Pro Cell Migration Assay from Platypus Technologies. This assay ... Cell migration analysis with Oris Pro assay on the SpectraMax MiniMax cytometer *Accurately measure cell migration from a ...
MCF10CA1a cells. Karmanos Research Institute. N/A. cells used for assay. mouse collagen IV. BD Biosciences. 354233. used to ... Control of cell-cell forces and collective cell dynamics by the intercellular adhesome. Nat Cell Biol. 17, (4), 409-420 (2015). ... Hulkower, K. I., Herber, R. L. Cell migration and invasion assays as tools for drug discovery. Pharmaceutics. 3, (1), 107-124 ( ... Stuelten, C. H. Using the Dot Assay to Analyze Migration of Cell Sheets. J. Vis. Exp. (130), e56451, doi:10.3791/56451 (2017). ...
Determining the migration speed of the cells by measuring the speed of wound closure is a simple assay to determine the ... Abstract 822: Simple and easy monitoring of tube formation and migration assays with the CytoSMARTTM Live Cell Imaging System. ... Simple and easy monitoring of tube formation and migration assays with the CytoSMARTTM Live Cell Imaging System [abstract]. In ... Abstract 822: Simple and easy monitoring of tube formation and migration assays with the CytoSMARTTM Live Cell Imaging System ...
Datta, D., Vasudevan, A. Migration, Chemo-Attraction, and Co-Culture Assays for Human Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells and ... Datta, D., Vasudevan, A. Migration, Chemo-Attraction, and Co-Culture Assays for Human Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells and ... Datta, D., Vasudevan, A. Migration, Chemo-Attraction, and Co-Culture Assays for Human Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells and ... Guan, J. L. In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro. Nature ...
Migration of cells is an initial step during metastasis of cancer. The Oris™ TriCoated Cell Migration Assay measures migration ... Analysis of migration using the Oris cell migration assay TriCoated kit. Iman van den Bout Paterson Institute for Cancer ... The osteosarcoma cell line U2OS was silenced in different genes known to control cell migration by siRNAs. Cells were kept in ... to allow for monitoring of cell migration. Fluorescence measurements after stopper-removal on a BMG LABTECH microplate reader ...
The Oris™ Pro 384 well cell migration assay, developed by Platypus Technologies, is an innovative cell motility assay designed ... Our results validate the Oris™ Pro 384 cell migration assay as a logistically simple and information-rich cell motility ... Using MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, the assay was optimized for migration kinetics, cell seeding density, and DMSO ... HTS performance and high-content analysis of antimigratory compound phenotypes using the Oris Pro 384 cell migration assay. [ ...
... cell invasion antibodies and assays are developed to help measure and study the mechanisms of both cell invasion and metastasis ... Mercks portfolio of migration, invasion, chemotactic and haptotactic Boyden Chamber cell-based assays enable researchers to ... Cell Migration, Cell Invasion. Scratch Assay. Cell Migration, Wound Healing. ECM Degradation. Cell Migration, Invasion, ... Our ever-evolving portfolio of migration and invasion assay solutions is also moving beyond the Boyden chamber technique to ...
A ring barrier-based migration assay to assess cell migration in vitro. Publication. Publication. Nature Protocols , Volume 10 ... A ring barrier-based migration assay to assess cell migration in vitro. Nature Protocols, 10(6), 904-915. doi:10.1038/nprot. ... velocity and cell polarization. An advantage of this assay over the conventional scratch assay is that the cells move over an ... Here we outline a protocol for the in vitro study of cell migration using a ring barrier-based assay. A barrier is inserted ...
Cell Migration Assays from Platypus Technologies utilize exclusion-zone technology to give you high-quality results in every ... Cell Migration Assays. Cell Migration Assays by Platypus Technologies use exclusion-zone technology to ensure you obtain high- ... Oris™ Pro Migration Assays use a soluble gel to create the central cell-free detection zone in the center of each well of a 96 ... Oris™ Migration Assays use a physical "stopper" barrier to create a cell-free detection zone in the center of each well of a 96 ...
An X-ray shielded irradiation assay reveals EMT transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in ... An X-ray shielded irradiation assay reveals EMT transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in ... An X-ray shielded irradiation assay reveals EMT transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in ... An X-ray shielded irradiation assay reveals EMT transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in ...
Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay. ...
Cell Migration Assay for High Throughput Screening using the BioTek Synergy™ HT Multi-Mode Microplate Reader ... Figure 1. Oris Cell Migration Assay Principle. The Oris™ Cell Migration Assay (Figure 1) is a multistep process that starts ... The Oris™ Cell Migration Assay TriCoated (Platypus Technologies, LLC) was used to assess cell migration of MDA-MB-231 breast ... Cell migration is cell line specific and thus it is highly recommended to test cell migration on the different surfaces ...
Home » Oris™ & Oris™ Pro Cell Migration & Invasion Assays » Oris™ Cell Migration Assay. ... area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of ... Oris™ Cell Migration Assay - Collagen I Coated, 1-pack:. Oris™ Collagen I Coated, 96-well plate with Oris™ Cell Seeding ... Oris™ Cell Migration Assay - Collagen I Coated, 5-pack:. Oris™ Collagen I Coated, 96-well plates with Oris™ Cell Seeding ...
Migration of cancer cells correlates with distant metastasis and local invasion. This phenomenon involves various molecules ... We established a novel pancreatic cancer cell migration assay system using TAXIScan. This assay device provides multiple ... Human skin melanocyte migration towards stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha demonstrated by optical real-time cell mobility ... of pancreatic cancer cell migration with multiple parameters in vitro by using an optical real-time cell mobility assay device ...
  • Expression of CXCR4 was also found in human neurons, cultured rodent neurons, glial cells ( 17 , 18 ), microglial cells ( 19 ), and endothelial cells ( 20 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neural glial cells cover a wide variety of neural cells, some of which move around the neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical examples of polarized cells are described below, including epithelial cells with apical-basal polarity, neurons in which signals propagate in one direction from dendrites to axons, and migrating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g., movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization) and subsequent phases of development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should neurons follow an abnormal migration during development possible cortical malformations include classical lissencephaly (as stated above) and subcortical band heterotopia with an agyria-pachygyria band spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormal migration of the neurons causes them to not reach their proper final destinations, which results in failure of the sulci and gyri to form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in reeler mutant mice show that knocking out the reeler gene results in aberrant migration as well as outside-in layering, in which younger neurons are unable to travel past the older ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein expressed by neuronal precursor cells and immature neurons in embryonic and adult cortical structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal precursor cells begin to express DCX while actively dividing, and their neuronal daughter cells continue to express DCX for 2-3 weeks as the cells mature into neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downregulation of DCX begins after 2 weeks, and occurs at the same time that these cells begin to express NeuN, a marker for mature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, X-linked lissencephaly produces a smooth brain due to lack of migration of immature neurons, which normally promote folding of the brain surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In embryonic life, the SVZ refers to a secondary proliferative zone containing neural progenitor cells, which divide to produce neurons in the process of neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actively Proliferating Cells or Transit Amplifying Progenitors (Type C): express Nestin, and form clusters interspaced among chains throughout region The SVZ is a known site of neurogenesis and self-renewing neurons in the adult brain, serving as such due to the interacting cell types, extracellular molecules, and localized epigenetic regulation promoting such cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nervous system in vertebrates is made up of two major types of cells - neuroglial cells and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transition from radial glial cells to postmitotic projection neurons occurs in three steps, each associated with one of the aforementioned transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that stop dividing (post-mitotic) and differentiate into neurons early in cortical development are important in laying the groundwork on which other developing neurons can be guided to their proper destination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successive migrations of neurons divide the preplate such that its inner cells form the cortical plate while its outer cells form the marginal zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cells are more specialized than ESCs because they generate only neural cells (neurons or glial cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurospheres can differentiate to form the specified neurons, glial cells, and oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is a neuroblast migrating towards the olfactory bulb to differentiate into periglomercular or granule neurons which have a radial migration pattern rather than a tangential one. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are greatly distributed in neurons and glial cells throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, these receptors have been implicated in integrating functional activity between neurons, glial, and vascular cells in the central nervous system, thereby mediating the effects of neural activity during development, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we showed that activation of C13NJ cells by NT led to a rapid phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase-dependent formation of filopodia as shown by F-actin labeling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cdc42 of the Rho GTPase family has been implicated in cell actin organization, proliferation, survival, and migration but its physiological role is likely cell-type specific. (plos.org)
  • Upon recognition of peptide-MHC complex on antigen-presenting cells (APC), naïve T cells undergo actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, TCR clustering, and formation of immunological synapse (IS). (plos.org)
  • Inhibition of PI3-K blocks OP-stimulated actin filament formation, and cell motility ( Chellaiah and Hruska 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • To further extend the finding, we determined whether HuR expression affects β-actin gene expression and in turn affects corneal fibroblast migration and wound healing. (molvis.org)
  • Cells were transfected with siRNA specific for β-actin or HuR. (molvis.org)
  • In cell lines expressing the same mutant of caveolin-1 , we observed that the mutant Caveolin-1 expression seemed to induce cellular transformation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway and to promote invasion-ability as well as altered actin networks in the cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, we have determined that the interaction between LPP and α-actinin, an actin cross-linking protein, is necessary for TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the rear of the cell, adhesions are disassembled and bundles of actin microfilaments, called stress fibers, contract and pull the trailing edge forward to keep up with the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein facilitates actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and couples the microtubule network to cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focal adhesions in cells lacking MACF1 associate with cables of F-actin, causing cell migration to stall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of GSK3β creates a gradient at the leading edge, allowing MACF1 to remain active and unphosphorylated, so that it can form necessary connections between microtubules and actin so migration can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another component important in the haptotaxis of tumor cells is MenaINV, which is an actin regulatory protein that becomes increasingly expressed in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This actin regulatory protein binds to fibronectin receptors and aids in the haptotactic and chemotactic processes of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that T-cadherin regulates cell migration and phenotype via activation of small G-proteins with subsequent actin reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calponin 2's regulation of cell motility is based on inhibition of actin activated myosin motor function, as fibroblasts isolated from Cnn2 knockout mice showed increased cell traction force generated by myosin II motors. (wikipedia.org)
  • He first realised that the addition of bovine fetal calf serum (FCS) to Swiss 3T3 cells increased the polymerisation of actin and assembly of stress fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, when cells are infected with TcdB, they not only lose their structural integrity, but also diminutions of F-actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-1990s Dr. Clare Waterman and colleagues developed a microscopy technique called "fluorescent speckle microscopy" (FSM), that can be used to measure the dynamics of the subunits making up macromolecular structures in living cells, such as the cytoskeletal elements f-actin and microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALiCE® is a radically different approach to cell-free expression and a kit unlike any others. (amsbio.com)
  • Here we show that low U1 AMO doses increase cancer cells' migration and invasion in vitro by up to 500%, whereas U1 over-expression has the opposite effect. (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigated if low U1 AMO and U1 over-expression could also modulate cell phenotype. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that hotspot mutant p53, p53-R273H, promotes cell scattering growth and migration via inhibiting the expression of Krupple-like factor 6 (KLF6), a Zinc finger transcription factor and a documented tumor suppressor. (nature.com)
  • Pharmacological inhibitor of AKT, MK2206, rescues KLF6 expression and suppresses p53-R273H-induced cell migration. (nature.com)
  • It has been reported that KLF6 suppresses cancer cell growth through transactivation of p21 expression in a p53-independent manner 14 . (nature.com)
  • For instance, KLF6 represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration by suppressing the expression of VAV3, a known activator of the RAC1 small GTPase 15 . (nature.com)
  • Rac1b depletion in MDA-MB-231 cells also increased TGF-β-induced p21 WAF1 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (mdpi.com)
  • In all the 5 NSCLC cell lines (NL9980, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549) tested, the expression levels of XIST were significantly elevated, as compared with those in normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. (nature.com)
  • These data show that expression of the lncRNA XIST is associated with an increased growth rate and metastatic potential in NSCLC A549 and NCI-H1299 cells partially through miR-449a, and suggest that XIST may be a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for patients with NSCLC. (nature.com)
  • First, we observed remarkably upregulated XIST expression levels in NSCLC cells. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, GC cells cultured with conditioned medium from CAFs transfected with miR-214 mimic showed increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of Vimentin, N-cadherin and Snail, indicating the suppression of EMT of GC cells. (springer.com)
  • Overexpressing ERBB4 in cultured mammary epithelial cells or adding the ERBB4 ligand neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to breast cancer cell cultures promoted the expression of genes regulated by YAP, such as CTGF . (sciencemag.org)
  • Knocking down YAP or ERBB4 prevented the induction of CTGF expression by NRG1, as did treating cells with the ERBB inhibitors lapatinib or erlotinib, which reduced ERBB4 cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, the impact of Plexin-B1 expression on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro . (springer.com)
  • Plexin-B1 expression was analyzed in normal and benign ovarian tissues and serous ovarian tumors (both borderline and malignant) by immunohistochemical staining, as well as in four human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C13*, SKOV3, and OV2008) by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, endogenous Plexin-B1 expression was suppressed by Plexin-B1 siRNA in SKOV3 cells, which overexpress Plexin-B1. (springer.com)
  • Plexin-B1 siRNA significantly suppressed phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 in SKOV3 cells, but it did not alter total AKT expression. (springer.com)
  • One prediction is that independent and opposing roles for MITF and PAX3 in melanoma would be expected, and we present empirical evidence supporting this: in melanoma tissues PAX3 expression occurs independently of MITF, and PAX3 does not play a key role in melanoma cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further analysis revealed that HCA suppressed the expression of a potential metastatic biomarker, phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), in PC3 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Firstly, we profiled its gene expression pattern by microarray analysis of HOTAIR loss in Bel-7402 HCC cell line. (mdpi.com)
  • (13) demonstrated that PAR1 expression levels are directly correlated with degree of invasiveness in both primary breast tissue specimens and established cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We showed that expression of NEDD9 was frequently upregulated in TNBC cell lines, and in aggressive breast tumors, especially in TNBC subtype. (plos.org)
  • Weinberg and colleagues found that expression of FOXC2 was induced in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and FOXC2 was correlated with the highly aggressive basal-like subtype of human breast cancers . (plos.org)
  • Interestingly, these pathological ameliorations by PlGF silencing were due to a marked reduction in the numbers of intrahepatic F4/80 + , CD68 + , and Ly6C + cell populations, which were reflected by a lower expression of these macrophage marker molecules in fibrotic livers. (frontiersin.org)
  • IFN-α, generated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, induced the expression of CD69 and suppressed the sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced chemotactic response, promoting FO-oriented Ag transport by MZ-P B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We found that BXD2 mice spontaneously form GCs in the spleens and that the expression of the gene encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase ( Aicda ) in the GC B cells can be stimulated by activated CD4 + T cells from BXD2 mice ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It also influences the pattern of gene expression of the cells in which it is in contact. (corning.com)
  • During the maturation process, DCs decrease their ability to internalize Ag, while up-regulating the expression of certain cell surface molecules and cytokines involved in immune responses as well as migration to lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • These expression patterns suggest important roles for TN-C in the modulation of cell behaviour during periods of active CNS modelling and plasticity. (biologists.org)
  • In-depth molecular analysis of MBC02 revealed suppression of E-cadherin expression, concomitant with overexpression of EMT related molecules, which manifested in the form of highly migratory and invasive cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Parental NIH3T3 cells were transfected, with the mutant or wild-type caveolin-1 genes introduced into pcDNA3 expression vector using a lipofection protocol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Caki-1, a metastatic RCC cell line, showed higher expression of molecular EMT markers, including Snail and Zeb1, but decreased activity of GSK3β. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We assessed Plk1 expression in five chemoresistant cancer cell types and found that Plk1 and its downstream phosphatase Cdc25c were selectively overexpressed in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (TAMR-MCF-7) breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To analyze the functions of synaptojanin 2 in glioma cell migration and invasion, we used RNA interference (21) to specifically inhibit synaptojanin 2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that miR149 expression severely impairs cell spreading, migration, and invasion of basal-like breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Suppression of cell spreading by miR149 could be rescued, at least in part, by expression of constitutively active Rac. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Migration of cells cultured at high or low confluence was compared and differential gene expression in these conditions was analyzed with microarray and real-time RT-PCR. (haematologica.org)
  • found umbilical cord blood-derived dendritic cells modulated for SPA17 expression induced antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity against SPA17 positive non-small cell lung cancer ( 19 ), but the role of SPA17 in cancer development, especially in breast cancer development, is still not clear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treating cancer cells with the EZH2 small molecular inhibitor, 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), restored DLC1 expression in different cancer cell lines, indicating that EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 epigenetic regulation of DLC1 was a common mechanism in human cancers. (plos.org)
  • Fisetin combined with LY294002 (an inhibitor of AKT) prevented the EGF-induced migration involved in downregulation of Sp1 and MMP-9 expression. (molvis.org)
  • Ectopic expression of β-catenin in normoxic cells could also suppress wound healing, mimicking the effect of hypoxia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CD73 was overexpressed by pcDNA-NT5E expression vector transfection in Hela and SiHa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of SDF-1α, the ligand of CXCR4, was about 2-fold higher in microdissected human breast epithelial cancer cells as compared with normal epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that SDF-1α expression is consistently higher in primary breast tumor cells than in normal breast epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of CXCR4 was observed in T lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils ( 11 ), which mediates the chemotactic response to SDF1 by these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of ful-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells that normally lack its expression results in reduced cell migration and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa expression, conversely, was demonstrated to reduce cell proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, cells grown in 3D exhibit different gene expression than those grown in 2D. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a selective subtractive differential gene display, Jing and colleagues discovered that TIG1 expression was absent from malignant prostate carcinoma cell lines but present in benign tumor lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modifications can cause different expression patterns to occur, which can result in alterations to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that this increased expression was not found on the capillary endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, variations in CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- expression is commonly used as a marker for breast CSCs and is used to sort breast cancer cells into a population enriched in cells with stem-like characteristics and has been seen as an indicator of increased survival time in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endometrial cells in women with endometriosis demonstrate increased expression of splice variants of CD44, and increased adherence to peritoneal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been demonstrated that dCas9-VPR can be used to increase expression of multiple genes within the same cell by putting multiple sgRNAs into the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cadherin expression results in LDL-induced migration of T-cadherin expressing cells compared to control. (wikipedia.org)
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of calponin 2 decreases to lower levels in quiescent adult smooth muscle cells while the expression of calponin 1 is up-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfective over-expression of calponin 2 inhibited cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that after blocking NPY expression in mouse olfactory epithelium, the amount of olfactory precursor cells decreased by half. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of EMR2 and CD97 on activated lymphocytes and myeloid cells promotes binding with their ligand chondroitin sulfate B on peripheral B cells, indicating a role in leukocyte interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, another study suggests that bcr:abl over-expression may actually increase cell adherence to cell culture plastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated neurologic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the cell type specificity of integrin expression, CYR61 acts through distinct integrins to mediate specific functions in different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, its increased expression was seen in a metastatic mammary cancer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first starts out with the expression of Pax6 in radial glial cells found primarily at the ventricular surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The miR-1 microRNA precursor is a small micro RNA that regulates its target protein's expression in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChIP assays have shown that EVI1 binds strongly to the promoters of miR-1-2 and miR-133-a-1, and expression of EVI1 is significantly correlated with the expression of miR-1-2 and miR-133-a-1 in established cell lines and in patient samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two microRNAs have been shown to downregulate the expression of the ets1 proto-oncogene in cell lines HepG2 by targeting the 3'UTR of ets1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first stage, involves cell cycle exit and the commencement of expression of certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAX3 mediates the transcription of c-Met and is responsible for the activation of MyoD expression-one of the functions of MyoD is to promote the regenerative ability of satellite cells (described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, due to their similarity in terms of phenotypic expression of keratins compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes, cord lining EpSC have the potential to be an alternative source of cells for skin repair and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies also indicated that cord lining EpSC can be differentiated biochemically to become hepatocyte-like cells (liver cells) as shown by the expression of hepatic-specific markers such as â-fetoprotein, albumin and hepatocyte-specific cytokeratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cord lining EpSC show similarities to limbal stem cells in terms of expression of ABCG2, HES1 and BMI1 in addition to p63. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, tumor cells undergo a transformation where they metastasize to another area of the body by invading different tissues. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Epithelial tissues and cell lines appear to express only JM-a, whereas neural and mesenchymal tissues express mostly JM-b or both JM-a and JM-b isoforms ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • PAX3 is expressed in melanoma tissues and cell lines, melanocyte cell lines ( 3 , 4 ), and circulating melanoma cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, the acquired increasing motility and invasiveness of cancer cells enhance the metastatic processes from the primary sites to secondary tissues [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Whether and how wound healing is affected by hypoxia in kidney cells and tissues is currently unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results suggest that GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may contribute to defective wound healing in hypoxic renal cells and tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hypoxia in wounded tissues is caused in part by the vascular damage and decreased blood supply, but also, in a large part, by the O 2 consumption of the cells in the wound that are metabolically activated for migration, proliferation, and wound healing ( Tandara and Mustoe, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cerebral organoids are synthesized tissues that contain several types of nerve cells and have anatomical features that resemble mammalian brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have the potential to grow into many different types of tissues and their fate is dependent on many factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is an image showing some of the chemical factors that can lead stem cells to differentiate into various neural tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell fate potential Cross species developmental timing Cerebral organoids provide a unique insight into the timing of development of neural tissues and can be used as a tool to study the differences across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell replacement therapy Cerebral organoids can be used as a simple model to show how cell replacement therapy would work on brain tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concepts in Active matter Active gels Dense active matter Collective motion Collective animal behavior Collective cell migration Motility induced phase separation Schooling, flocking and swarming Active matter systems Biological tissues Subcellular and cell mechanics Crowd behaviour Self-propelled particles and colloids Ramaswamy, Sriram (2010-01-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butcher and his research team study the trafficking of white blood cells (lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, etc.), including their interactions with the endothelial lining of blood vessels at sites of leukocyte extravasation, and their chemotactic responses in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These functions are necessary in cells in order to divide and regenerate tissues, and play a maintenance role in homeostatic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulatively, the CASS4 transcripts are most highly expressed in spleen and lung among normal tissues, and are highly expressed in ovarian and leukemia cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPmu is expressed in different organ tissues in the body, including the lung, heart and brain, pancreas, endothelial cells in capillaries and arteries throughout the body, and in retinal and brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired molecules, such as regulatory molecules with extracellular or intracellular components might alter the lymphocytes activity and direct several lymphocyte functions, such as migration to the adequate injured tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • these metabolites act as autocrines by feeding back to promote further aggregation of their cells of origin and as paracrines by recruiting nearby platlets into the response as well as exerting effects on other nearby tissues such as contracting blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308 and Ser473) and p42/44MAPK in BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells was observed after LPA stimulation, which was clearly inhibited by pre-treatment with a compound Ki16425. (springermedizin.de)
  • The phosphorylation of 39 different molecules in BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells was evaluated using the PathScan array. (springermedizin.de)
  • The analysis of signaling pathways revealed the synergistic phosphorylation of ERK upon LPS plus S1P treatment of HUVEC and human aortic endothelial cells and cell-type differences on p38 and NF-κB activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • KU-60019 is 10-fold more effective than KU-55933 at blocking radiation-induced phosphorylation of key ATM targets in human glioma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In line with this finding, the effect of KU-60019 on AKT phosphorylation was countered by low levels of okadaic acid, a phosphatase inhibitor, and A-T cells were impaired in S473 AKT phosphorylation in response to radiation and insulin and unresponsive to KU-60019. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that lactate could enter endothelial cells through the monocarboxylate transporter MCT-1, trigger the phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα, and then stimulate an autocrine NF-κB/IL-8 (CXCL8) pathway driving cell migration and tube formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCL12) stimulation of breast cancer cells resulted in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activation, AKT phosphorylation, and activation of the FKHRL1 transcription factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PTPkappa likely regulates T-cell development by positively regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the regulation of MEK1/2 and c-Raf phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing PDGFRα, crenolanib inhibited the phosphorylation of wild type PDGFRα at an IC50 of 10 nM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apelin activates inside the cell transduction cascades (ERKs, Akt, and p70S6kinase phosphorylation), which lead to the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels It is interesting that knockout of apelin gene is associated with a delay in the development of the retinal vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the acquisition of oncogenic H-RasG12V by NK- and T lymphocytes had important biological functions in the adopting lymphocytes: the transferred H-RasG12V induced ERK phosphorylation, increased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, and augmented NK-mediated target cell killing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test screen demonstrated that the miniaturized assay is extremely suited for high-throughput screening of very large libraries of small molecules to identify novel classes of chemotaxis/migratory inhibitors for drug development and research tools for targeting chemotactic pathways universal to humans and other systems. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this work is to show a novel method to evaluate the ability of some immunomodulatory molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), to stimulate cell migration. (jove.com)
  • WMJ-S-001's effects on LEC proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as signaling molecules activation were analyzed by immunoblotting, flow-cytometry, MTT, BrdU, migration and invasion assays. (frontiersin.org)
  • DC migration to and from sites of inflammation involves a diverse network of effector molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Other effector molecules such as proteases also play a significant role in cell trafficking. (jimmunol.org)
  • As defined above, haptotaxis is the motility of cells up a gradient of substrate bound molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of serum spreading factor was shown to influence directed migration along a gradient of substrate molecules in a few types of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By drawing attention to how proteolysis serves as an additional irreversible mechanism by which cells could achieve control over biological processes, they outlined the necessity of studying proteases for their functional relevance in processing bioactive molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test molecules that promote endothelial cell network formation are candidates for tissue regeneration therapies whereas test molecules that inhibit endothelial cell network formation are candidates for anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules are important regulators of cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • At high cell density, when PTPmu molecules bind to one another homophilically, phosphotyrosine levels are decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples, via its succinimidyl group, to intracellular molecules, notably, to intracellular lysine residues and other amine sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • First indication for the existence of this process dates back late 70s when several research groups reported on the presence of unexpected molecules such as Major Histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC) on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signalling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), bovine aortic ECs (BAECs), and human microvascular EC line (HMEC-1) were grown to confluence and exposed to unidirectional LS (5 or 15 dyn/cm 2 ), OS (±5 or ±15 dyn/cm 2 at 1 Hz frequency), or static control (ST) for 24 hours using a cone-and-plate device as described by us. (ahajournals.org)
  • Walheim, C. C., Zanin, J. P., de Bellard, M. E. Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay. (jove.com)
  • A 'barrier' is inserted in the culture chamber, which prevents cells from entering a defined area. (eur.nl)
  • Cells in the chemotaxis buffer are located in the upper chamber and the chemoattractant the chemotaxis buffer is added to the lower chamber. (springermedizin.de)
  • The motile cells are placed into the upper chamber, while fluid containing the test substance is filled into the lower one. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another setting the chambers are connected side by side horizontally (Zigmond chamber) or as concentric rings on a slide (Dunn chamber) Concentration gradient develops on a narrow connecting bridge between the chambers and the number of migrating cells is also counted on the surface of the bridge by light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some capillary techniques provide also a chamber like arrangement, however, there is no filter between the cells and the test substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Counting of cells: positive responder cells are count from the lower chamber (long incubation time) or from the filter (short incubation time). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists' expanding knowledge and understanding of stem cells is transforming the way we research human biology and medicine. (moleculardevices.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that these obstacles to clinically efficacious treatment may be mediated by a subpopulation of tumour cells that display stem cell properties. (nature.com)
  • For example, Matrigel matrix , coupled with a variety of culture media, has been widely accepted as an alternative substrate to feeder-dependent culture of hESCs, and it has been used to culture induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (corning.com)
  • Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells that can be expanded many fold in vitro and have the therapeutic potential to restore the bone marrow microenvironment and support hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, adult stem cells predominantly residing in the stromal compartment of hematopoietic bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • It has been reported that MSC can support hematopoietic recovery after co-transplantation with autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and that they also express the capacity to suppress graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic HSC grafting. (haematologica.org)
  • Cerebral organoids are created by culturing human pluripotent stem cells in a three-dimensional rotational bioreactor and develop over a course of months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar techniques are used on stem cells used to grow cerebral organoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with conditional knock-outs in MACF1 in hair follicle stem cells have defects in cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantitative trait gene latexin influences the size of the hematopoietic stem cell population in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, miR-200 silencing was also reported in cancer stem cells, implying that miR-200 deregulation is a key event in multiple levels of tumor biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-205 was found to be highly expressed in stem cell-enriched populations from the mouse mammary gland, and thus may play a function in normal mammary stem cell maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HCELL glycoform was originally discovered on human hematopoietic stem cells and leukemic blasts, and was subsequently identified on cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary neural stem cells of the brain and spinal cord, termed radial glial cells, reside in the ventricular zone (VZ) (so-called because the VZ lines the developing ventricles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone serves as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the process of adult neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997. Phagocytosis and burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes after stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In symmetric cell division, both daughter cells are also stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In asymmetric division, a stem cells produces one stem cell and one specialized cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, Sally Temple described multipotent, self-renewing progenitor and stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the mouse brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, this molecule is one of the genes widely used now to reprogram adult non-stem cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated from various areas of the adult central nervous system, including non-neurogenic areas, such as the spinal cord, and from various species including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cell proliferation declines as a consequence of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are mitogens that promote neural progenitor and stem cell growth in vitro, though other factors synthesized by the neural progenitor and stem cell populations are also required for optimal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] All HPVs are believed to be capable of establishing long-term "latent" infections in small numbers of stem cells present in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered by Singapore based CellResearch Corp in 2004, this is currently the best known source for harvesting human stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sub-amniotic region of the umbilical cord lining has been reported to be a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The amniotic layer of the umbilical cord lining has been shown to contain a large population of epithelial stem cells (EpSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cord lining EpSC exhibit classical pluripotent stem cell markers such as SSEA-4, Oct-4, SOX2 and Nanog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies on cord lining EpSC have shown that genetic modifications using the proinsulin gene allowed transplanted stem cells to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cells and Developments, 19(4), 491-502. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, we also reported the antiproliferative effect of (19 Z )-halichondramide, a trisoxazole-containing macrolide from C. corticata , on human lung cancer cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest and suppression of mTOR signaling pathway [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Blockade of the CXCR4/SDF1 signaling pathway with anti-CXCR4 antibody also decreased transendothelial breast cancer cell migration as well as vascular permeability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The assay is fully compatible with laboratory automation, including robotic liquid handlers, plate washers, and high-content screening (HCS) readers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samples for most laboratory assays should be frozen within 4 hours of collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we show that small molecule inhibitors and gene silencing of MRP1 had a significant effect on GBM cell response to temozolomide (150 μM), vincristine (100 nM), and etoposide (2 μM). (frontiersin.org)
  • If the transgene was incorporated into a gene with a signal sequence, β-gal activity would remain in the cytosol of the cell and therefore be active. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa and the THEMIS gene are both deleted in the rat Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) strain, and are both required for the CD4+ T-cell deficiency observed in this strain of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various genes targeted by promoter hypermethylation in malignant melanoma Some of the genes affected by cytosine methylation in melanoma formation INK4A INK4A, also known as p16, is a tumor suppressor gene and is found to have hypermethylated promotor regions in 10- 20% of melanoma cells and is involved in 40- 87% of gene alterations in melanoma cases (Gonzalgo et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes derived from Cnn2 gene knockout mice proliferated faster than wild type control cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later characterised as N-ras, a member of the Ras gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPR56 are a part of the B class of the GPCR family, the largest cell surface gene family in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD146+ T cells display an immunophenotype consistent with effector memory cells and have a distinct gene profile from the CD146- T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-deficient mice revealed that Gpr97 is crucial for maintaining B-cell population via constitutive CREB and NF-κB activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • To differentiate between different species, immunofluorescence assays that use mouse antisera are used, as well as DNA hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphisms, or citrate synthase gene sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Department of Systemic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Str.11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
  • 6 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, the revolution of modern cell biology and biochemistry provided a series of novel techniques that became available to investigate the migratory responder cells and subcellular fractions responsible for chemotactic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alan Hall FRS (19 May 1952 - 3 May 2015) was a British cell biologist and a biology professor at the Sloan-Kettering Institute, where he was chair of the Cell Biology program. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1993 he moved to University College London, where he helped to create a new MRC centre for molecular cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 174: 1: 277-83 Butcher EC, "Innovation: Can cell systems biology rescue drug discovery? (wikipedia.org)
  • The two best-known species of this genus are Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology, cell biology, toxicology, neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the wide breadth of Xenopus research stems from the additional fact that cell-free extracts made from Xenopus are a premier in vitro system for studies of fundamental aspects of cell and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Waterman received her bachelor's degree in biochemistry in 1989 from Mount Holyoke College and her M.S. in exercise science from the University of Massachusetts prior to obtaining her Ph.D. in cell biology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • After completing post-doctoral training at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in 1999, she joined the Department of Cell Biology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA. After obtaining tenure at Scripps as an Associate Professor, Dr. Waterman joined the NHLBI in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Biology International Reports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell migration plays a pivotal role in many biological processes and is modulated by cytokines and growth factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study we investigated the role of NT in the growth and migration of the human microglial cell line C13NJ. (jneurosci.org)
  • HCA showed potent growth inhibitory activity of the PC3 cells with an IC 50 value of 0.81 µM. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been shown that a single MSC can give rise to different mesodermal cell types such as adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes, if the appropriate stimuli are present in the growth medium. (haematologica.org)
  • 9 , 10 MSC also create the stromal environment that supports the growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Cervical cancer, a cancer arising from cervix is due to the abnormal proliferation of cells that have the ability to evade growth suppression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Plasmin is implicated in the proteolysis of cell/cell contacts, cell/matrix contacts, matrix components, and in the activation of latent matrix bound growth factors. (bmj.com)
  • SDF1 was originally described as pre-B-cell growth-stimulation factor and is implicated in lymphocyte maturation ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2D, the cells must undergo regular trypsinization in order to provide them with sufficient nutrients for normal cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). When INK4 is inactivated through hypermethylation, it causes an interruption of the CDK4 and CDK6 genes, which normally stop cell growth in the G1 phase of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of these mutations result in constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways and aberrant cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These areas are where cell growth and proliferation occur into adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The change in phenotype induces a decrease in the growth rate and leads the K562 cells to the terminal path of becoming mature erythroids, monocytes, and mature macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly in cell cultures, it has been shown to act as a signaling molecule with the capabilities of a growth factor, and in co-culture assays, it has displayed the property of a co-ligand to Nodal. (wikipedia.org)
  • If placed in cell culture, most myoblasts will proliferate if enough fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or another growth factor is present in the medium surrounding the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warts are caused by a rapid growth of cells on the outer layer of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Single cells before aggregation (bright field microscopy) do not express the cotB / GFP reporter. (nih.gov)
  • In migrating vascular cells, T-cadherin was located at the leading edge as revealed by confocal microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests for example, using animals such as mice, RNAi, Behavioral assay, Electron microscopy, CT scan, or MRI demonstrate different results that concludes an affected BFPP patient. (wikipedia.org)