Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.

The novel proangiogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide is dependent on Akt phosphorylation. (1/100)

OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been reported to be a gasotransmitter which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. The present study aims to examine the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide is able to promote angiogenesis. METHODS: Angiogenesis was assessed using in vitro parameters (i.e. endothelial cell proliferation, adhesion, transwell migration assay, scratched wound healing and formation of tube-like structure) and in vivo by assessing neovascularization in mice. Phosphorylation of Akt was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Exogenously administered NaHS (H(2)S donor) concentration-dependently (10-20 micromol/l) increased cell growth, migration, scratched wound healing and tube-like structure formation in cultured endothelial cells. These effects of NaHS on endothelial wound healing and tube-like structure formation were prevented by either the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002 (5 micromol/l) or transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of Akt. NaHS increased Akt phosphorylation and this effect was also blocked by either LY 294002 or wortmannin (25 nmol/l). NaHS did not significantly alter the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor and angiopoietin-1, or nitric oxide metabolites. NaHS treatment (10 and 50 micromol kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly promoted neovascularization in vivo in mice. CONCLUSION: The present study reports a novel proangiogenic role of H(2)S which is dependent on activation of Akt.  (+info)

A rapid screening method for population-specific neuronal motogens, substrates and associated signaling pathways. (2/100)

We developed and characterized an assay that allows for rapid examination of migration of specific neuronal populations within a mixed population using the Boyden chamber principle. Migration of cerebellar interneurons and granule cells was examined using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(65)) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) promoters, respectively. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was used as the prototypic motogen for both populations. Fluorescent light-blocking inserts (FluoroBlok) with different pore sizes and densities were compared in a two-compartment assay. Immunodetection of polarity markers and nuclear staining indicated that dendrites and somata are preferentially extended through the pores in response to BDNF. Inserts coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were used to examine interactions between BDNF and the ECM during migration. ECM proteins alone stimulated migration when the lower side of the insert was coated, however coating of both sides of the insert slowed migration when compared to poly-D-lysine. Addition of a PI 3-kinase inhibitor to the lower compartment blocked BDNF-stimulated migration of both populations while a Src inhibitor reduced laminin-stimulated migration of interneurons, but not granule cells. We also examined use of neurons cultured from GAD(65)-eGFP mice as a reporter system for promoter activity. GAD(65)-eGFP mice may also be useful as a model for promoter regulation and the potential confounding effects of eGFP induction by the stimuli are also addressed. This assay allows for rapid analysis of motogens, substrates and signaling pathways that regulate migration of selected neuronal populations.  (+info)

Toll-like receptors on human mesenchymal stem cells drive their migration and immunomodulating responses. (3/100)

Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration, and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was initially established by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB, AKT, and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay, and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines, and chemokines measured identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSC migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSC migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies.  (+info)

Contribution of lung fibroblast migration in the fibrotic process of airway remodeling in asthma. (4/100)


Immunologic activation of human syncytiotrophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum. (5/100)


Altered chemotactic response of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C: role of alpha interferon. (6/100)


Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression. (7/100)


Lipopolysaccharide induces macrophage migration via prostaglandin D(2) and prostaglandin E(2). (8/100)


Alterations in cell migration are a hallmark of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. Here we describe an easy and cost-effective in vitro assay for cell migration employing cloning rings to create gaps in the cell monolayer (
Product Manual Radius 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Laminin Coated) Catalog Number CBA-125-LN 24 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Cell migration is a highly
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Due to the high mortality caused by frequent relapse and metastasis in patients with ovarian cancer, advances in treatment remain necessary. In this study, we developed a chromatographical process which converted native protein human serum albumin (HSA) into a water-soluble nano-fibrillar protein structure and aimed to explore the potential inhibitory effect of fibrillar HSA (F-HSA) on ovarian tumor metastasis. Transwell migration assay, western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the effects of F-HSA in vitro. Its effects in vivo were evaluated in orthotopic and metastatic xenograft mouse models established using an SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line that stably expressed green fluorescent protein and luciferase. The fibrillar structure of converted HSA was verified by transmission electron microscopy and Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay. Treatment with F-HSA decreased the viability, migration and invasion of several ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. F-HSA bound to β1 ...
Cell Migration Assays from Platypus Technologies utilize exclusion-zone technology to give you high-quality results in every experiment.
Red kidney bean coat (RKBC) extract incorporates bioactive compounds which are identified to exhibit anti-melanoma exercise in vitro. However, data on antitumor element and mechanism of RKBC extract has not been totally clarified. Here, RKBC extract was portioned with completely different solvent sequentially, and based on the cell viability assay, cell migration assay, AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining … Read more. ...
The migration assay (also known as the Boyden Chamber Assay) is a commonly used test to study the migratory response of endothelial cells.
The standard Oris™ assay protocol was followed with 30,000 ECFC cells per well. These slow-adhering cells were allowed to attach overnight, then stoppers were removed and culture medium containing Dasatinib to the indicated concentrations was added. Cells were incubated for 24 hours and migration was quantified by measuring the percent area closure. Percent inhibition was then calculated as [(area of cell migration in controls - area of migration in drug treated cells) / (area of cell migration in controls - area of cell migration in samples treated with maximum concentration of drug)]. Standard deviations are for averages of four data points per drug concentration for Oris™ and eight per drug for scratch. Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference).. Oris™ assays generate more robust data to:. ...
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. METHODS: TR146 cancer cells were seeded in Petri dishes with microfabricated wells for cell migration assays. Total 54 cell islands were used of various shape and size and experimental media type. Cell migration assays were analyzed in six group media: Dulbeccos modified medium (DMEM); DMEM with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 239) expressing hBD-3 via transfected cloned pcDNA3 as CM/hBD-3; CM/hBD-3+ VEGF; conditioned medium from non-transfected HEK 239 (not expressing hBD-3) as control (CM); and the last group was CM + VEGF ...
Hypoxia has been implicated as a crucial microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis. :AK058003″}}AK058003 is frequently upregulated in GC samples and promotes GC migration and invasion and and and Migration and Invasion Assays For transwell migration assays 5 cells in serum-free RPMI 1640 medium were added to the upper chamber of each insert (BD Biosciences Franklin Lakes NJ). For invasion assays the chamber inserts were coated with 50 mg/l Matrigel (BD Biosciences San Jose CA). After 4 to 5 hours of incubation at 37°C 1 cells in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium were added to the upper chamber. In both assays medium supplemented with serum was used as a chemoattractant in the lower chamber. After incubation in a normoxia (37°C and 5% CO2) or hypoxia (37°C 1 O2 5 CO2 and 94% N2) chamber for 24 or 48 hours the cells on the upper surface were removed and the cells on the lower surface of the membrane were fixed in 100% methanol for 15 minutes air dried stained with 0.1% crystal ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate invasion and metastasis related genes in gastric cancer. The transwell migration assay was used to select a highly invasive sub-line from minimally invasive parent gastric cancer cells, and gene expression was compared using a microarray. MMP28 upregulation was confirmed using qRT-PCR. MMP28 immunohistochemistry was performed in normal and gastric cancer specimens. Invasiveness and tumor formation of stable cells overexpressing MMP28 were tested in vitro and in vivo. MMP28 was overexpressed in the highly invasive sub-cell line. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP28 expression was markedly increased in gastric carcinoma relative to normal epithelia, and was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer overall survival. Ectopic expression of MMP28 indicated MMP28 promoted tumor cell invasion in vitro and increased gastric carcinoma metastasis in vivo. This study indicates MMP28 is frequently overexpressed during
Cell migration is a highly integrated, multi-step process that plays an important role in the progression of various diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and arthritis. There are various types and definitions of cell migration. Cell invasion is related to, and encompasses, cell migration, except that cells do more than migrate. Invasive cells move through the extracellular matrix into neighboring tissues in a process that involves ECM degradation and proteolysis. We offer cell migration assays in two formats: Boyden Chamber Assays consist of a cell culture insert nested in the well of cell culture plate. Cells are seeded into the insert and migrate through the pores of the membrane at the bottom of the insert. Gap Closure Assays create a defined area across which cells migrate. Cell migration can be monitored in real time by microscopy. These assays include our new proprietary Radius™ technology which uses a biocompatible hydrogel to create a circular area across which cells can
Red kidney bean coat (RKBC) extract incorporates bioactive compounds which are identified to exhibit anti-melanoma exercise in vitro. However, data on antitumor element and mechanism of RKBC extract has not been totally clarified. Here, RKBC extract was portioned with completely different solvent sequentially, and based on the cell viability assay, cell migration assay, AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining … Read more. ...
Silicone inserts with a defined cell-free gap | For wound healing assays, migration assays, 2D invasion assays and co-cultivation of cells
Nifedipine is widely used while a calcium mineral route blocker (CCB) to deal with hypertension and angina,blace it is controversial with respect the risk of arousal of malignancies. was determined by the absorbance percentage of the nifedipine-treated group to the control group. Cell migration assays For transwell migration assays, collected cells (1105 cells) health supplement with 100ud of serum-free moderate had been replated onto the top holding chamber (a 6.5-mm polycarbonate membrane with 8.0-m pores; Corning, Ny og brugervenlig) and the holding chamber was positioned in full moderate with 10% FBS and nifedipine. After 24hours, cells had been set with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS. Non-migrated cells on the top part of the filtration system had been eliminated with a natural cotton swab. Cells on the underside of the filtration system had been discolored with 0.1% crystal clear violet for 20 minutes and then were eluted by 33% glacial acetic acidity. OD ideals had been examine by Multiskan ...
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the major types of lung cancer, which is a prevalent human disease all over the world. LncRNA LINC01503 is a super-enhancer-driven long non-coding RNA that is dysregulated in several types of human cancer. However, its role in NSCLC remains unknown. Thirty NSCLC patients were recruited between April 2012 and April 2016. Luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell migration assay, RNA pull-down assay, western blotting, 5-ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays, and flow cytometry were utilized to characterize the roles and relationships among LINC01503, miR-342-3p, and LASP1 in NSCLC. The transplanted mouse model was built to examine their biological functions in vivo. We demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA LINC01503 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP1) were upregulated and miR-342-3p was downregulated in NSCLC samples and cell lines. Functional experiments revealed that inhibiting the expression of LINC01503 or over
Chemotaxis is the primary mechanism by which cell movements are directed within multicellular organisms, and it is a major component of embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. Chemotaxis involves a complex cascade of events--formation of signaling complexes, receptor polarization, adhesion molecule activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. We describe a unique chemotactic assay that can incorporate multiple chemotactic gradients in different spatial and temporal combinations. In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. With its relative simplicity, flexibility, and precision, this method is a key tool for the study of cellular chemotactic responses and the signaling processes underlying them. ...
Monocytes are widely involved in the bodys defense response, and abnormally regulated monocyte subsets are closely related to the pathogenesis of various diseases. It is unclear whether Treponema pallidum (Tp) dysregulates monocyte subsets and impacts the functions of monocytes. This study aims to analyze the distribution of monocyte subsets in syphilis patients and the effect of Tp on monocyte functions to explore the pathogenesis of syphilis. Flow cytometry was employed to detect monocyte subsets. With or without pre-treatment with rapamycin, THP-1 cell migration stimulated by Tp was investigated by a Transwell migration assay, and THP-1 cell phagocytosis was studied using fluorescent microspheres. IL-1β and TNF-α expression was quantified by PCR and flow cytometry, while LC3 and mTOR were investigated in Tp-exposed THP-1 cells using western blotting. Tp infection led to an increase in the proportion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes and a decrease in the proportion of CD14++CD16- monocytes. In addition, Tp
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
BACKGROUND. The human bone marrow (BM) niche contains a population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that provide physical support and regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. β-Thalassemia (BT) is a hereditary disorder characterized by altered hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis amenable to allogeneic HSC transplantation and HSC gene therapy. Iron overload (IO) is a common complication in BT patients affecting several organs. However, data on the BM stromal compartment are scarce. METHODS. MSCs were isolated and characterized from BM aspirates of healthy donors (HDs) and BT patients. The state of IO was assessed and correlated with the presence of primitive MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Hematopoietic supportive capacity of MSCs was evaluated by transwell migration assay and 2D coculture of MSCs with human CD34+ HSCs. In vivo, the ability of MSCs to facilitate HSC engraftment was tested in a xenogenic transplant model, whereas the capacity to sustain human hematopoiesis was evaluated in ...
Miniproteins against the COVID-19 Spike protein may be therapeutic Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, PhD Computer-designed proteins may protect against coronavirus At a Glance Researchers designed
This unit describes methods for isolating mouse monocytes and neutrophils, as well as in vitro protocols for measuring cell migration and polarization
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Desk S1. cells had been treated using the particular exosomes, with or without miR-9 overexpression, and cell migration was assessed using Transwell migration assay. (C) Pursuing miR-9-overexpressing exosomes treatment, tubule development of HUVECs was analyzed by in vitro pipe development assay and quantified for tubule duration. **, em P /em ? ?0.01. (TIF 411?kb) 13046_2018_814_MOESM3_ESM.tif (411K) GUID:?BD60D84B-C09B-40D1-BE06-D934B111805F Extra file 4: Amount S3. MDK was bad in exosomes derived from 5-8F/con, 5-8F/miR-9, CNE1/con and CNE1/miR-9 cells. The protein level of MDK in exosomes derived from 5-8F/con, 5-8F/miR-9, CNE1/con and CNE1/miR-9 cells respectively measured by immunoblot. The intensity of each band was normalized by GAPDH. (TIF 1654?kb) 13046_2018_814_MOESM4_ESM.tif (1.6M) GUID:?C61D3434-EAAB-4D25-BD81-48199FBBDC7E Additional file 5: Figure S4. MDK manifestation was significantly downregulated after siMDK transfection in HUVEC ...
Methods: Sera from 952 patients with different rheumatic diseases were analyzed for the presence of ten different anti-GPCR ab by ELISAs. For deeper ab phenotyping, ab levels against 30 different autoantigens including GPCR, growth factors, and growth factor receptors were studied in sera from 491 healthy controls (HC), 84 patients with systemic sclerosis, 91 with Alzheimers disease, and 207 with ovarian cancer by ELISAs. Spearmans rank correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analyses, network mapping and target interactions using STRING and gene ontology (GO) analyses were performed as well as transwell migration assays ...
There has been a growing interest in the use of B cells for cancer vaccines, since they have yielded promising results in preclinical animal models. Contrary to dendritic cells (DCs), we know little about the migration behavior of B cells in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the interactions between CD40-activated B (CD40B) cells and cytotoxic T cells in vitro and the migration behavior of CD40B cells in vivo. Dynamic interactions of human antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells were observed by time-lapse video microscopy. The migratory and chemoattractant potential of CD40B cells was analyzed in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry, standard transwell migration assays, and imaging of fluorescently labeled murine CD40B cells. Murine CD40B cells show migratory features similar to human CD40B cells. They express important lymph node homing receptors which were functional and induced chemotaxis of T cells in vitro. Striking differences were observed with regard to interactions of human APCs ...
The discovery of anti-metastatic agents that inhibit cancer cell motility has been hindered by a dearth of high‐throughput screening (HTS) -compatible cell motility assays. The Oris™ Pro 384 well cell migration assay, developed by Platypus Technologies, is an innovative cell motility assay designed to enable HTS of potential anti-cancer compounds and wound healing agents on adherent tumor and endothelial cell lines. The assay utilizes a centrally located, non-toxic, biocompatible gel (BCG) to form a uniformly sized, cell-free detection zone into which cells migrate. The assay is logistically simple and does not require any mechanical processing steps, such as cell wounding or removal of physical barriers. The assay is fully compatible with laboratory automation, including robotic liquid handlers, plate washers, and high-content screening (HCS) readers.. A formal investigation of the accuracy, robustness, and HTS performance of the assay was conducted following guidelines in place at the ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Emerging evidence suggests that miR-124 performs important biological functions in neural stem cells (NSCs); it regulates NSC behavior and promotes the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unknown. And also, the role of miR-124 during spinal cord injury regeneration is unclear. In order to explore the function of miR-124 in neural differentiation, the molecular markers (Tuj1, Map2, and GFAP) correlated with the differentiation of NSCs were detected by immunofluorescence staining both in cultured mouse spinal cord progenitor cells (SC-NPCs) and in spinal cord injury (SCI) animal models. The migration ability and apoptosis of cultured SC-NPCs were also evaluated by Transwell migration assay and TUNEL assay. In addition, the relative expression of lnRNA Neat1- and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related genes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. In this study, we revealed that lncRNA Neat1 is involved in regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is activated by
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol, has been previously reported to possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the effects of this antiangiogenic steroid can be readily assayed in live zebrafish, introducing a convenient and robust new model system as a screening tool for both single cell and collective cell migration assays. Using the in vitro mammalian endothelial cell line EA.hy926, we first show that cell migration and angiogenesis, as estimated by wound assay and tube formation respectively, are antagonized by 2ME. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, dose-dependent exposure to 2ME diminishes (1) larval angiogenesis, (2) leukocyte recruitment to damaged lateral line neuromasts and (3) retards the lateral line primordium in its migration along the body. Our results indicate that 2ME has an effect on collective cell migration in vivo as well as previously reported anti-tumorigenic activity and suggests that the molecular mechanisms
In cell migration assays, spheroids are seeded on an astrocyte monolayer culture, so the glioma cells do not penetrate the astrocyte culture and the migration is two-dimensional. This is the reason why we considered two layers in the model: one layer is the astrocyte on top of which lies the tumour cell layer. Thus, glioma cells and astrocytes can occupy the same position but on different planes. For all practical purposes, astrocytes in a confluent monolayer culture could be considered as non-motile cells. Time-lapse experiments registered only chaotic non-directional movements of negligible magnitude 1.24±0.36 μm in 5 h.. The rules of motion inside the layer of glioma cells are exactly the same as described before, for migration on a passive substrate: in the control situation we have p+=1, whereas in the treated situation we take p−=0.5. For the sake of coherency, we model the heterotype GJ communication as we did for homotype communication, i.e. with a parameter q which quantifies the ...
The migratory responses of four human melanoma cell lines (A-2058, DEMEL, HTB-63, and HTB-72), using chemotaxis (CTX) and haptotaxis (HPTX) assays, were studied. The attractants were three...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common type of cancer worldwide. New anti-cancer agents are needed for treating late stage colorectal cancer as most of the deaths occur due to cancer metastasis. A recently developed compound, 3c has shown to have potent antitumor effect; however the mechanism underlying the antitumor effect remains unknown. 3c-induced inhibition of proliferation was measured in the absence and presence NAC using MTT in HT-29 and SW620 cells and xCELLigence RTCA DP instrument. 3c-induced apoptotic studies were performed using flow cytometry. 3c-induced redox alterations were measured by ROS production using fluorescence plate reader and flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry; NADPH and GSH levels were determined by colorimetric assays. Bcl2 family protein expression and cytochrome c release and PARP activation was done by western blotting. Caspase activation was measured by ELISA. Cell migration assay was done using the real time xCELLigence RTCA DP
Vol 10: Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Examples of collective cell migration. First column: schematic representation of different migratory types. The regions where cells are interacting are depicted
BioAssay record AID 297157 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CXCL8-induced cell migration in human PMN cells at 0.01 uM by chemotaxis assay.
komakino fanzine - Lykanthea - Migration: Lakshmi Ramgopal, aka Lykanthea, this debut release of her is dated 2014, yet, I found it only a few days ago, and I am stunned - where was I in ...
sundoc Migration; Titel: Untersuchungen zum Organika - Abbaupotiential aquatischer Hyphomyceten, Verfasser: Augustin, Torsten, 2003 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
sundoc Migration; Titel: Kardiomyopathien im Kindesalter, Verfasser: Friedrich, Christiane, 2002 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
China Pure 98% Peony Bark Extract Paeonol, Find details about China Paeonol, Peony Bark Extract from Pure 98% Peony Bark Extract Paeonol - Nanjing Zelang Medical Technology Co., Ltd.
The migration of multiple cells as a cooperativeunit known as collective cell migration is a common phenomenon in development, cancer and healing
Cell migration & Invasion Assays are important investigate for different cell types and disease states. Read more in this Article.
4 well silicone insert with 4 defined cell-free gaps, suitable for wound healing, migration assays, 2D invasion assays, and co-cultivation of cells Complete ...
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating cell migration and invasion Dr Maria Dolores ..
Johns Hopkins researchers have found a way to directly observe cell migration -- in real time and in living tissue. In a report in the June 5 issue of Developmental Cell , the scientists say their advance could lead to strategies for controlling both normal growth and the spread of cancer, processes that depend on the programmed, organized movement of cells across space.
Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for Gαi signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Curcumin longa L. There is growing body of data showing the antitumor effect of curcumin in different cancers; however, the molecular mechanism underlying of this inhibition in breast cancer is still remained to be elucidated. Here we investigated the antitumor activity of curcumin alone or in combination with paclitaxel or doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells in monolayer cell cultures and spheroids models. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of three different forms of curcumin (phytosomal), phospholipidated curcumin, amorphous curcumin and turmeric oleoresin were evaluated, compared to unformulated curcumin. ...
Collective cell movement depends on intracellular biological mechanisms as well as environmental cues due to the extracellular matrix (1⇓⇓⇓-5), mainly composed of collagen which is organized in hierarchical structures, such as fibrils and fibers. The mechanical properties of collagen fibril networks are essential to offer little resistance and high sensitivity to small deformations, allowing easy local remodeling and strong strain stiffening needed to ensure cell and tissue integrity (6). Wound healing is a typical biological assay to study collective migration of cells under controlled conditions in vitro and is a prototypical experimental method to study active matter (7⇓⇓-10). Experiments performed on soluble collagen (11) or other gels (12), micropatterned (13, 14) and deformable substrates (1) show that cell migration is guided by the substrate structure and stiffness (5, 15, 16).. It has been argued that collective migration properties arise from stresses transmitted between ...
Some cells migrate and find their way as solitary entities. However, during development of multicellular animals and possibly during tumor dissemination, cells often move as groups, associated tightly or loosely. Recent advances in live imaging have aided examination of such multicellular cell biol …
Drug discovery startup FogPharma raised $66 million in series B financing as it looks to bring its first product to the clinic by the end of next year. The startup was established in 2016 by Harvard professor and entrepreneur Gregory Verdine, whose lab invented cell-penetrating miniproteins.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Veit Flockerzi is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Scratch Migration Assay and Dorsal Skinfold Chamber for In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of Wound Healing
Migration Assays - Science Exchange Lets You Compare Quotes From Over 50 Leading Service Providers. ...
  • In this workshop, you will get hands-on experience on cell migration and invasion assays in two formats: Boyden Chamber Assay (aka Transwell invasion assay) and Wound Healing migration assay. (csulb.edu)
  • Our ever-evolving portfolio of migration and invasion assay solutions is also moving beyond the Boyden chamber technique to analyzing the dynamics of extracellular matrix degradation and wound healing. (merckmillipore.com)
  • CBA-110: CytoSelect 24-Well Cell Invasion Assay (Boyden Chamber Assay, Colorimetric) 5. (docplayer.net)
  • For instance, if your cell type requires a lengthy adhesion period. (platypustech.com)
  • Use Oris™ if your cells require a long adhesion period. (platypustech.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer cell lines, BxPC3, PANC-1, AsPC1, and MIAPaCa-2, were analyzed for adhesion as well as migration towards LPA by TAXIScan using parameters such as velocity and directionality or for the number of migrated cells by the Boyden chamber methods. (springermedizin.de)
  • Scaffold coating was necessary for the adhesion of pancreatic cancer cells, and collagen I and Matrigel were found to be good scaffolds. (springermedizin.de)
  • The VASP-profilin1 (Pfn1) interaction is critical for efficient cell migration and is regulated by cell-substrate adhesion in a PKA-dependent manner. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Cell migration and adhesion are critical for immune system function and involve many proteins, which must be continuously transported and recycled in the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell migration and cell adhesion are critical processes in cells of the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • These phenomena require cell adhesion and cell migration. (frontiersin.org)
  • During migration, the adhesion proteins function as traction points that drive the formation and stabilization of membrane projections, thus allowing the movement of cells ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and tissue extravasation is a multistep process controlled by different adhesion molecules (homing receptors) expressed on lymphocytes and their respective ligands (addressions) displayed on endothelial cells (1 2). (nih.gov)
  • Even though the function of these adhesion receptors can be partially studied ex vivo, the ultimate test for their physiological relevance is to assess their role during in vivo lymphocyte adhesion and migration. (nih.gov)
  • Although IVM has been essential to define the precise contribution of specific adhesion receptors during the adhesion cascade in real time and in different tissues, IVM is time consuming and labor intensive, it often requires the development of sophisticated surgical techniques, it needs prior isolation of homogeneous cell populations and it permits the analysis of only one tissue/organ at any given time. (nih.gov)
  • In either case, these protrusions are driven by actin polymerization and can be stabilized by extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion or cell-cell interactions (via transmembrane receptors). (docplayer.net)
  • Within the currently accepted scenario for leukocyte trafficking during the inflammatory reaction, α M β 2 is thought to play a pivotal role in the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium and in the subsequent transmigration of the adherent cells to sites of inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Fg also has been shown to bridge α M β 2 -bearing leukocytes to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on endothelial cells ( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Most studies of Fg-α M β 2 interactions have centered on the engagement of the molecule with the receptor leading to cell adhesion ( 17 )( 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • Assay Protocol (Must be under sterile conditions) Note: Cell seeding density and firm adhesion to the pre-coated Laminin Radius Plate are critical for best results. (docplayer.net)
  • Integrins are transmembrane receptors involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and cancer metastasis ( 1 - 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several major classes of molecules regulate cellular development and function, including growth and differentiation factors, cell adhesion molecules, and the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). (corning.com)
  • A biochemical screen identifies 14-3-3ζ as a specific substrate for YSK1 that localizes to the Golgi apparatus, and potentially links YSK1 signaling at the Golgi apparatus with protein transport events, cell adhesion, and polarity complexes important for cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesion play crucial roles in endothelial cell (EC) migration in angiogenesis and the repair of injuries along the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Actin polymerisation drives the formation of protrusions at the leading edge of a migrating cell, and adhesion of protrusions coupled with retraction and disassembly of adhesions at the rear of the cell enable continued migration. (biologists.org)
  • Angiogenesis depends on growth factors and vascular cell adhesion events. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of MEK also blocked growth factor induced migration but not adhesion of endothelial cells in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • In vitro, both cell adhesion events and growth factors induce a rapid yet transient (5-60 min) activation of MAP kinase. (rupress.org)
  • The CHEMICON® QCM™ 24-well Migration Assay provides a quick and efficient system for quantitative determination of various factors on cell migration, including screening of pharmacological agents, evaluation of integrins or other adhesion receptors responsible for cell migration, or analysis of gene function in transfected cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • PMN production of ROS (L-012/dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation), degranulation (release of elastase), and PMN rolling, adhesion, and migration to/across human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed in the presence or absence of CORM-3 (1-100 μM). (physiology.org)
  • The CORM-3-induced decrease in cell surface levels of elastase was followed by decreased PMN rolling/adhesion to HUVECs and complete prevention of PMN migration across HUVECs. (physiology.org)
  • 7-10 Several studies have indicated that u-PA binding activates several signalling molecules implicated in the control of cell migration, such as focal adhesion kinase, 11 protein kinase C (PKC), 8 extracellular signal regulated kinase, 11 12 Janus associated kinases, 13 14 src family tyrosine kinases, 15 and G proteins. (bmj.com)
  • For example, u-PAR regulates cellular adhesion and migration by modifying the adhesive properties of integrins, 20 and by binding to the extracellular matrix component, vitronectin. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, SDF-1α induced activation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as the migration of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also observed significant reduction in focal adhesion complex, which plays an important role in migration, upon treatment with both JWH-015 and Win55,212-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a previous study, we have demonstrated that the upregulation of cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1) in neural cells increased the expressions of sialic acid and fucose on the cell surface, which subsequently, enhanced cell survival [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Fucosylation of glycoproteins modulates the biological functions of adhesion molecules and plays an important role in cell survival and metastasis [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • L1 is a type of transmembrane cell adhesion glycoprotein which belongs to a large immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and mediates interactions between cells [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • To understand precisely β3's role in regulating integrin adhesion complexes in endothelial cells, we characterised, by mass spectrometry, the β3‐dependent adhesome. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, ERK1/2 signaling may play an important role in HGF-mediated SMC migration by contributing to focal adhesion redistribution and FAK and Pyk2 activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric molecules responsible for cell adhesion to the ECM. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5-7 Cytoskeletal proteins, including paxillin and vinculin, and the signaling molecules focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) are recruited to focal adhesion complexes during cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Nonmigrating cells establish areas of focal contact throughout the cell to maintain stable adhesion to the ECM. (ahajournals.org)
  • When a migratory stimulus is introduced, there is turnover of focal contacts with disassembly of areas of cell-matrix interaction and reestablishment of focal adhesion complexes at the leading edge of cells to allow for cell movement and resistance to contractile forces during migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • FAK, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is recruited to focal adhesion complexes and is postulated to integrate growth factor and integrin signals involved in cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we report on the use of the ImageXpress Velos System-DL™ (Blueshift Biotechnologies Inc.) laser scanning platform combined with the Oris™ Cell Migration Assay kit (Platypus Technologies). (moleculardevices.com)
  • This study focuses upon the feasibility of using the SpectraMax ® MiniMax™ 300 Imaging Cytometer, an optional upgrade for the SpectraMax ® i3 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader, to visualize and analyze cell migration using the Oris™ Pro Cell Migration Assay from Platypus Technologies. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The Oris™ Pro 384 well cell migration assay, developed by Platypus Technologies, is an innovative cell motility assay designed to enable HTS of potential anti-cancer compounds and wound healing agents on adherent tumor and endothelial cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell Migration Assays by Platypus Technologies use exclusion-zone technology to ensure you obtain high-quality results that are ready for publication. (platypustech.com)
  • For researchers in academia and pharmaceutical companies, the Cell Migration Assays by Platypus Technologies are powerful tools to advance studies in drug discovery, wound healing, or cancer research. (platypustech.com)
  • We present an ex vivo cell migration assay that allows precise quantification of enteric neural crest cell migration potential in the presence of various growth factors. (jove.com)
  • While this type of model is slightly more difficult in set-up and analysis compared to simple scratch assays, it may reflect better the in vivo situation where solid tumors develop within three-dimensional tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Merck's portfolio of migration, invasion, chemotactic and haptotactic Boyden Chamber cell-based assays enable researchers to simulate the barriers invaded by and conditions encountered by normal and metastatic cells in vivo. (merckmillipore.com)
  • While these assays have advantages either in ease of performance (scratch assay) or in mimicking in vivo chemoattractant gradients for cell migration (Boyden assay), they also have many disadvantages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These GSC are characterized by their ability to self-renew in vitro (neurosphere formation) and in vivo, by a high expression of neural stem cell markers (i.e. (nature.com)
  • Endpoint analysis included circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts, lung metastatic burden analysis by qPCR, and ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. (springer.com)
  • Although in vitro assays of single cell types can provide information regarding cell autonomous mechanisms contributing to metastasis, the in vivo microenvironment entails a network of interactions between cells which is also important. (elsevier.com)
  • Insight into the mechanisms underlying tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis in vivo has been aided by development of multiphoton microscopy and in vivo assays, which we will review here. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhou, ZN, Boimel, PJ & Segall, JE 2011, ' Tumor-stroma: In vivo assays and intravital imaging to study cell migration and metastasis ', Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models , vol. 8, no. 2-3, pp. 95-102. (elsevier.com)
  • To create physiologically relevant in vitro models that support normal cell growth and function, the components of the in vivo environment must be incorporated. (corning.com)
  • Using ECM proteins as a coating for tissue culture surfaces permits the development of cell type-specific model systems that closely mimic in vivo conditions. (corning.com)
  • This technical report supports the use of Matrigel matrix for such in vivo applications as angiogenesis and human tumor cell implantation in mice. (corning.com)
  • Despite multiple effects of tenascin-C on cell behaviour in culture, no structural abnormalities of the CNS and other organs have been found in adult tenascin-C-null mice, raising the question of whether this glycoprotein has a significant role in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Upregulation of Mena, a member of the evolutionarily conserved Ena/VASP family of actin cytoskeletal regulators, promotes metastasis and invasive motility of breast cancer cells in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Recent studies using rat breast carcinoma cells revealed that elevated levels of Mena increase cell motility in vivo and also metastasis to the lungs. (biologists.org)
  • However, despite stimulating protrusion and lamellipodial dynamics in a similar fashion to that seen in fibroblasts, we find that Ena overexpression increases haemocyte migration speed, resembling the effect of Mena overexpression in cancer cells in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • We show evidence that a three-dimensional (3D) constraint in vivo prevents loss of protrusions as membrane ruffles, allowing a more concerted migration, which might also underlie the enhancement of cancer cell motility and metastasis upon Mena overexpression in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • b ), little is known regarding which signaling pathways initiate or maintain the angiogenic phenotype of vascular cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • In fact, recent evidence has implicated various mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK) in cell survival in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we used transgenic pmel-1 T cells, which recognize gp100 in the context of H-2Db, that were transduced with luciferase gene to monitor the migration of transferred T cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, phenotype-driven screens have shown a much stronger success rate, which is why we developed an in vivo assay using transgenic zebrafish with a GFP-marked migrating posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) to identify compounds that influence collective cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • We identified 165 compounds that interfere with primordium migration without overt toxicity in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • We then proved the screen to be successful in identifying anti-metastatic compounds active in vivo by performing orthotopic tumor implantation assays in mice. (biologists.org)
  • This quantification is often hampered by low signal to noise ratio, in particular when complex substrates are employed to emulate in vivo cell migration in geometrically complex environments. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • In vivo MSC/Fluc migration in mice having thyroid or breast cancer xenografts was evaluated after systemic injection. (medsci.org)
  • In this study, we confirmed the migration of MSCs to tumor sites in cancer xenograft models using both in vivo and ex vivo BLI imaging. (medsci.org)
  • Recent studies from several laboratories have shown that Akt/PKB isoforms have opposing functions at modulating invasive migration of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo (reviewed in ref. 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Brugge laboratory also showed that whereas Akt1 attenuates cell migration in two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, the Akt2 isoform promotes migration in a growth factor-dependent manner ( 6 ), consistent with earlier studies in vivo ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recently, several independent studies have confirmed the distinct functions of Akt/PKB isoforms in modulating cancer cell invasion in vivo using both Akt/PKB-null mice and activated transgenes ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The compounds were also shown to inhibit migration of two human cancer cell lines in monolayer scratch assays. (nih.gov)
  • There are numerous methods for performing these assays including scratch assays performed on a monolayer of cells adhered to plasticware (microplates or culture inserts) or using 3D cell culture models. (biotek.com)
  • In a first example, the closure of a so-called wound or scratch in a confluent monolayer of cancer cells was monitored with the CytoSMART™ Device. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An advantage of this assay over the conventional scratch assay is that the cells move over an unaltered and virgin surface, and thus the effect of matrix components on cell migration can be studied. (eur.nl)
  • Z-factors were 0.7 for Oris™ vs 0.2 for scratch assays (see reference). (platypustech.com)
  • Many assays have been developed to examine cell migration, such as the wound healing or scratch assay, Boyden Chamber or transwell assay, and the method we will describe here, single cell migration assay. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The scratch assay or wound healing assay is a commonly used technique to evaluate directed cell migration (Cory, 2011). (bio-protocol.org)
  • While simple to perform, cell proliferation may bias the readout of this assay as that can influence scratch closure. (bio-protocol.org)
  • As with the scratch assay, migration in this assay is defined. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In vitro assays commonly used to study cell migration, including the scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, and newly developed advanced systems with microfluidics, each have several disadvantages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, scratch wound healing assay is not applicable to every type of cancer cell as some monolayers remain hard for scratching and cells may be damaged during the wounding, while Boyden chamber assay is difficult to reproduce as it is dependent on the number of cells seeded and only provides endpoint data of cell migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A quantitative, facile, and high-throughput image-based cell migration method is a robust alternative to the scratch assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Also available: Cell Comb™ Scratch Assay! (emdmillipore.com)
  • Get biochemical data from a scratch assay! (emdmillipore.com)
  • Methods and Results- Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), human microvascular ECs (HMECs), or bovine aortic ECs (BAECs) were subjected to either LS (15 dyn/cm 2 ) or OS (±5 dyn/cm 2 ) for 24 hours and used in Matrigel tubule formation or scratch migration assays. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we used scratch-wound healing and transwell migration models to examine the effect of hypoxia in cultured renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, HIF-1α-null and wild-type cells healed similarly after scratch wounding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cell's proliferation and migration were evaluated by MTT and scratch healing assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell migration plays an important role in both physiological and pathological processes ranging from embryonic development to angiogenesis and tumor metastasis (Le Clainche and Carlier, 2008). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Overexpression of TGF-β and high autocrine TGF-β signaling in tumor cells has been implicated in promoting immune suppression, tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in many cancers, including carcinoma of the breast [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The metastatic cascade is a complex, multistep process that involves the growth of the primary tumor and angiogenesis, invasion into the local environment, intravasation into the vasculature, tumor cell survival in the circulation, extravasation from the vasculature and sustained growth at secondary organ sites to form metastases. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective- Growth factor-induced angiogenesis involves migration of endothelial cells (ECs) into perivascular areas and requires active remodeling of the endothelial F-actin cytoskeleton. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- VEGF-induced cytoskeletal changes in ECs require RhoA and Rho kinase, and activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling is involved in the VEGF-induced in vitro EC migration and angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • VEGF induces endothelial permeability, 4 migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis 5 by multiple mechanisms, including alteration of the F-actin cytoskeleton 6 and induction of gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Integrins and growth factors are capable of activating the ras/MAP kinase pathway in vitro, yet how these signals influence endothelial cells during angiogenesis is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Upon initiation of angiogenesis with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), endothelial cell mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK) activity was detected as early as 5 min yet was sustained for at least 20 h. (rupress.org)
  • 1 The induction of angiogenesis is characterized by vascular cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, which depends on contacts with the ECM. (rupress.org)
  • These findings suggest that during angiogenesis integrin αvβ3 and the receptor for bFGF cooperate to promote signaling events necessary for vascular cell survival, thereby facilitating the induction and/or maintenance of the angiogenic phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • Laminar shear stress (LS) promotes endothelial cell (EC) quiescence, whereas oscillatory shear stress (OS) promotes EC turnover and dysfunction, which could lead to pathological angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that LS inhibits EC migration and tubule formation, 2 functions important in angiogenesis, by inhibiting the secretion of proangiogenic factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Our data suggests that Ang2 produced by OS in ECs plays a critical role in migration and tubule formation, and may play an important role in diseases with disturbed flow and angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although hypoxia induces angiogenesis for tissue remodeling during wound healing, it may also affect the healing response of parenchymal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • VCE-004.8 upregulates the expression of HIF-dependent genes such as erythropoietin and VEGFA, induces angiogenesis, and enhances migration of oligodendrocytes. (springer.com)
  • For instance, tumor cells undergo a transformation where they metastasize to another area of the body by invading different tissues. (bmglabtech.com)
  • We have compared the capillary tube assay for migration inhibition studies with our modification of the agarose microdroplet technique, using several sources of factors with inhibitory activity (lymphokines, bacterial factors) and a variety of cell types (inflammatory exudate cells, tumor cells). (nih.gov)
  • Tumor cells were embedded in a cancer-relevant matrix and their invasion into the 3D matrix was documented with the CytoSMART™ Device. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metastasis is the cumulative result of multiple changes in tumor cells and their microenvironment that enable cells to migrate or invade into healthy host tissue. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The presence of chemo/radioresistant tumor cells could be responsible for these aggressive recurrences. (nature.com)
  • Acquisition of the ability of tumor cells to migrate represents a defining characteristic of cancer metastasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the body to defend and fight against cancer, immune cells must recognize, engage, destroy and ultimately remove unwanted tumor cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that SDF-1α expression is consistently higher in primary breast tumor cells than in normal breast epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, SDF-1α induced blood vessel instability, through increased vascular permeability, resulting in the penetration of breast tumor cells through the human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consequently, there is a need for alternate therapy in which other receptors specifically expressed on tumor cells can be targeted to abrogate EGFR-mediated signaling events directly or indirectly. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, CB1 and CB2 have been shown to be overexpressed on tumor cells compared with normal cells in various types of cancers, such as breast ( 11 ) and liver cancers ( 12 ), and therefore could be used as novel targets for cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mice bearing MC38/gp100 tumor cells treated with CXCR2/luciferase-transduced pmel-1 T cells showed enhanced tumor regression and survival compared with mice receiving control luciferase-transduced pmel-1 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of AGR2 has also been described to be associated with a positive estrogen receptor status of tumor cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A separate but equally important phenotype in carcinoma progression is invasive migration, a process that eventually leads to metastatic dissemination of tumor cells to distant organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, collagen was a general promoter of cell migration for all five cancer cell lines, without affecting cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that Gstm1 is a novel regulator of VSMC proliferation and migration through its role in handling reactive oxygen species. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, inhibitory effects of high BSA-AGE concentration on cell proliferation and migration were reduced by the addition of MC extracts, which reversed the BSA-AGE anti-angiogenic effect on tube formation. (rsc.org)
  • Using a transgenic approach, we have demonstrated that tenascin-C regulates both cell proliferation and migration in oligodendrocyte precursors during development. (biologists.org)
  • oscillatory sheared ECs are proproliferative, promigratory, prothrombotic, and secrete growth factors that stimulate smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we used Hela and SiHa cell lines to evaluate the effects of CD73 on cervical cancer cells proliferation and migration, and further explore the potential regulating mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data showed that CD73 overexpression significantly promoted cervical cancer cells proliferation and migration, and this promotive effect was not reverted by blocking CD73 enzymatic activity, both in Hela and SiHa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, our data also showed that high concentration of adenosine inhibited Hela and SiHa cells proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results demonstrated that the promotive effect of CD73 on cervical cancer cells proliferation and migration in vitro was independent from its enzymatic activity (i.e. production of adenosine). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggested that CD73 might promote proliferation and migration via potentiating EGFR/Akt and VEGF/Akt pathway, which was independent of CD73 enzyme activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of CD73 overexpression on cervical cancer cells proliferation and migration, and further explored its underlying regulatory mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data demonstrated that CD73 overexpression promoted Hela and SiHa cells proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 Kip1 against atherosclerosis and restenosis, two disorders characterized by abundant proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • These therapeutic effects might result from p27 Kip1 -dependent suppression of both cell proliferation and migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Importantly, a p27 Kip1 mutant lacking CDK inhibitory activity failed to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell and fibroblast proliferation and migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, a constitutively active mutant of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) insensitive to CDK-dependent hyperphosphorylation inhibited both cell proliferation and migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Collectively, these results suggest that cellular proliferation and migration are regulated in a coordinated manner by the p27 Kip1 /CDK/pRb pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and adventitial fibroblasts play an important role in the pathobiology of vascular occlusive disease (eg, atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, transplant vasculopathy, and vessel bypass graft failure). (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we aim to investigate the types and contents of cytokines in ASC-CM and the effects of some kinds of common cytokines in ASC-CM, such as EGF, PDGF-AA, VEGF, and bFGF, on dermal fibroblasts proliferation and migration in wound healing process. (hindawi.com)
  • Results showed that these four cytokines had high concentrations in ASC-CM. The migration of skin fibroblasts could be significantly stimulated by VEGF, bFGF, and PDGF-AA, and the proliferation could be significantly stimulated by bFGF and EGF in ASC-CM. Additionally, ASC-CM had more obvious promoting effect on fibroblasts proliferation and migration than single cytokine. (hindawi.com)
  • These observations suggested that ASC-CM played an important role in the cutaneous injury partly by the synergistic actions of several cytokines in promoting dermal fibroblasts proliferation and migration, and ASC-CM was more adaptive than each single cytokine to be applied in promoting the wound healing. (hindawi.com)
  • The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway controls a variety of biological functions including cell survival, proliferation, and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additional file 7: The modified Boyden chamber assay. (springermedizin.de)
  • A) Schematic diagram (sagittal section) of one well of the modified Boyden chamber assay (Transwell). (springermedizin.de)
  • CBA-100: CytoSelect 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Boyden Chamber Assay, Colorimetric) 2. (docplayer.net)
  • CBA-101: CytoSelect 24-Well Cell Migration Assay (Boyden Chamber Assay, Fluorometric) 3. (docplayer.net)
  • CBA-106: CytoSelect 96-Well Cell Migration Assay (Boyden Chamber Assay, Fluorometric) 4. (docplayer.net)
  • The Radius™ Cell Migration Assay provides a unique alternative to conventional cell migration assays using the Boyden chamber. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • Unlike Boyden chamber assays which may only be analyzed at endpoint, the Radius™ assay uses a proprietary cell culture plate containing a carefully-defined biocompatible hydrogel (Radius™ gel) spot centralized at the bottom of each well. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • The 8 μm pore size of this assay's Boyden chambers is not appropriate for the study of lymphocyte migration. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The most widely accepted of which is the Boyden Chamber assay. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The CHEMICON® QCM™ 24-well Cell Migration Assay is performed in a Migration Chamber, based on the Boyden chamber principle. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The effects of gene silencing on cell migration and cell proliferation were analyzed using a modified Boyden chamber and with a wound healing assay, respectively. (molvis.org)
  • Assay Genie's Cell Migration/Chemotaxis Assay Kit utilizes a Boyden chamber, where the cells migrate through a semipermeable membrane under different stimuli. (assaygenie.com)
  • 1) A Boyden Chamber is used to investigate cell migration and chemotaxis. (assaygenie.com)
  • Analyzing the motility of cells in appropriate cell culture models is therefore an important tool for cancer researchers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CytoSMART™ Device is an easy-to-use, small and affordable live cell monitoring system suitable for the label-free analysis of cell motility within a standard cell culture incubator. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Compounds that are expected to reduce cell motility and therefore reduce the metastasis potential of cancer cells can be easily tested. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery of anti-metastatic agents that inhibit cancer cell motility has been hindered by a dearth of high‐throughput screening (HTS) -compatible cell motility assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Screening of a test cassette of 1280 compounds with known biological activities identified several agents with mechanisms associated with cell motility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results validate the Oris™ Pro 384 cell migration assay as a logistically simple and information-rich cell motility analysis platform that meets the demands of large scale compound screening. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The assay was used to quantitate innate differences in cell motility and the effect of various extracellular matrix proteins on migration of five cancer cell lines: U87 and U251N glioma cells, MDA-MB-231and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and HeLa cervical cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, evaluating cancer cell motility is a critical step in studying mechanism of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We tested five cancer cell lines of different tissue origin to verify the assay's ability to distinguish differences in cancer cell motility and to analyze the effect of various extracellular matrix proteins on cancer cell migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of cells to generate polarized distributions of several molecules enables numerous biological process including asymmetric cell division, cell motility, and formation of the immunological synapse. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also show that KU-60019 inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion in vitro , suggesting that glioma growth and motility might be controlled by ATM via AKT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 14 Indeed, it was found that Rho-like small GTPases regulate cell motility 15 in a variety of cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, whereas Ena overexpression in fibroblasts reduces migration speeds, overexpressing Ena in haemocytes leads to a dramatic increase in migration speeds, more closely resembling the increased motility of breast cancer cells that overexpress Mena. (biologists.org)
  • Cell motility is observed in unicellular organisms, and is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. (assaygenie.com)
  • Cell motility is observed in. (assaygenie.com)
  • Cell motility is. (assaygenie.com)
  • Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with a majority of NSCLC and has been implicated in the process of malignant transformation by promoting cell proliferation, cell survival, and motility ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a mesenchymal-derived protein that regulates the growth and motility of various cell types, is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques, colocalizing with SMCs, microvascular endothelial cells, and monocytes/macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies have shown that Akt1 (PKBα) can attenuate breast cancer cell motility, whereas Akt2 (PKBβ) enhances this phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of neural crest cell movement patterns in situ and cell motility in culture shows an overall delay in the migration of Ate1 knockout cells that is likely regulated by intracellular mechanisms rather than extracellular signaling events. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we present a protocol to evaluate the effect of peptides on the migration of bronchial epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • TGF-β can inhibit breast cancer development by inducing cell cycle arrest in both, cancer cells and, as part of a senescence program in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). (mdpi.com)
  • Among these, triple-negative breast carcinomas (estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, Her2/Neu negative), which often have a poor prognosis, display a basal-like gene expression profile similar to that of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). (mdpi.com)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their orientation and cell-cell contacts, and acquire the migratory and invasive properties of mesenchymal cells. (plos.org)
  • Moreover, ectopic overexpression of NEDD9 in mammary epithelial cells led to a string of events including the trigger of EMT, activation of ERK signaling, increase of several EMT-inducing transcription factors and promotion of their interactions with the E-cadherin promoter. (plos.org)
  • Weinberg and colleagues found that expression of FOXC2 was induced in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and FOXC2 was correlated with the highly aggressive basal-like subtype of human breast cancers [10] . (plos.org)
  • A number of studies suggest that carcinoma cells often activate a trans-differentiation program termed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to acquire the ability to execute the multiple steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade [12] , [13] . (plos.org)
  • The QCM Haptotaxis Cell Migration Assay, 24-well plate -Collagen 1, Colorimetric is ideal for the study of epithelial & fibroblast cell haptotaxis. (emdmillipore.com)
  • We demonstrate that epithelial-derived breast cancer cells, which undergo a TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), engage signaling molecules that normally facilitate cellular migration and invasion of mesenchymal cells. (biologists.org)
  • There are reports of differentiation into neural cells, 3 , 4 cardiac muscle cells, 5 endocrine cells, 6 hepatocytes, 7 hepatocytic cells 8 and epithelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • BACKGROUND Migration of colonic epithelial cells is important for mucosal repair following injury. (bmj.com)
  • AIM To examine the role of u-PA and its receptor (u-PAR) in colonic epithelial cell migration. (bmj.com)
  • 3 4 The catalytic activity of u-PA is known to regulate the metastasis of cancer cells (reviewed by Andreason and colleagues 5 ) and migration of normal corneal epithelial cells over their native matrix in vitro. (bmj.com)
  • Expression of SDF-1α, the ligand of CXCR4, was about 2-fold higher in microdissected human breast epithelial cancer cells as compared with normal epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCL20 expression is induced in gastric epithelial cells in a cag type IV secretion system dependent manner. (bmj.com)
  • Proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), are secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to H pylori infection, leading to immune cell recruitment. (bmj.com)
  • Upon removal of the stoppers, cells may migrate into the center where they can be stained and measured. (bmglabtech.com)
  • The assay utilizes a centrally located, non-toxic, biocompatible gel (BCG) to form a uniformly sized, cell-free detection zone into which cells migrate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cell-free zone is then monitored as adjacent cells migrate to close the gap. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2011). In this assay, cells are placed on one side of a porous membrane and allowed to migrate through the pores to the other side. (bio-protocol.org)
  • During wound healing and in cancer invasion, cells migrate collectively driven by active internal forces and invade the available space. (pnas.org)
  • After removal of Radius™ Gel, cells were allowed to migrate for the various times shown. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • After removal of Radius™ Gel, cells were allowed to migrate for 24 hours in the presence of various concentrations of Cytochalasin D. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • The hallmark of metastatic cells is their ability to invade through the basement membrane and migrate to other parts of the body. (corning.com)
  • For cells to migrate, they must form new lamellipodia, adhere to the substratum at the front of the cell, detach from the substratum at the tail of the cell, and retract their tail. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells often migrate in response to specific external stimuli, including chemical & mechanical signals. (assaygenie.com)
  • 3) Migratory cells move through the porous membrane while cells that do not migrate remain in the well insert. (assaygenie.com)
  • Through chemotaxis, cells that express appropriate chemokine receptors can migrate along a chemokine gradient to localize to specific tissues or sites of infection ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Before CD8 T cells can participate in the eradication of local infections, microbial antigen must get from the site of infection to secondary lymphoid tissue, cognate antigen-specific T cells must undergo activation and expansion, and then CD8 T cells must migrate to the site of infection to effect pathogen clearance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In spinal cord injury, Schwann cells also migrate to lesion sites and assist in sustaining axons ( Blesch and Tuszynski, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Coordinated cell migration during development is crucial for morphogenesis and largely relies on cells of the neural crest lineage that migrate over long distances to give rise to organs and tissues throughout the body. (prolekare.cz)
  • Neural crest cells are of mesenchymal morphology and migrate from the trunk into different areas of the developing embryo. (prolekare.cz)
  • Previous assay methods were limited in several ways that reduced users' abilities to obtain quantitative data or to control conditions precisely. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conventional methods for evaluating cell culturing techniques and assay design consist of manual inspection of a small subset of the cell population at random locations and time points. (biotek.com)
  • Several methods have been developed to examine cell migration and can be separated into 2D and 3D assays. (bio-protocol.org)
  • We will provide a brief description of some of the other methods for cell migration. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Established and novel methods of interrogating two-dimensional cell migration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Cell Migration: Developmental Methods and Protocols, researchers describe in step-by-step detail their most successful techniques for studying the macromolecular machinery of cell movement. (springer.com)
  • These readily reproducible protocols include a wide range of novel and state-of-the-art methodologies, as well as many classic methods, for use in cultured cells, different model organisms, and specialized cells in both normal development and disease. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and highly practical, Cell Migration: Developmental Methods and Protocols offers researchers easy access to many readily reproducible techniques for the optimally productive investigation of cell migration in today's interdisciplinary experimental environment. (springer.com)
  • Current methods for studying immune/tumor cell interactions are often end point, require cell lifting or measure indirect readouts meaning valuable data may be overlooked or compromised. (news-medical.net)
  • Various Detection Methods with Radius™ Cell Migration Assay. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • Methods and Results- VEGF induced the activation of RhoA and recruited RhoA to the cell membrane of human ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, current methods of analysis are time-consuming and tedious, involving cotton swabbing of non-migrated cells on the top side of insert, manual staining and counting. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Design and Methods In vitro invasion and transendothelial migration assays were performed. (haematologica.org)
  • METHODS Migration was assessed over 24 hours in circular wounds made in confluent monolayers of LIM1215 and Caco-2 human colon cancer cells. (bmj.com)
  • Research into the diverse aspects of virology are made possible by a broad range of applications and assay formats, from relatively simple methods for viral detection to those designed to elucidate complex immune responses and pathological processes. (biotek.tw)
  • A High-Throughput, Multi-Cell Phenotype Assay for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Chemotaxis/Migration. (nih.gov)
  • To identify novel chemotaxis inhibitors as probes for mechanistic studies and leads for development of new therapeutics, we developed a unique, unbiased phenotypic chemotaxis-dependent Dictyostelium aggregation assay for high-throughput screening using rapid, laser-scanning cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • This test screen demonstrated that the miniaturized assay is extremely suited for high-throughput screening of very large libraries of small molecules to identify novel classes of chemotaxis/migratory inhibitors for drug development and research tools for targeting chemotactic pathways universal to humans and other systems. (nih.gov)
  • We've found that the Oris™ Pro Cell Migration plates are best the option for HTS [High-Throughput Screening] applications in a variety of cell types due to convenience, consistency and reliability. (platypustech.com)
  • SUMMARY Automated image processing has allowed cell migration research to evolve to a high-throughput research field. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After completing an MSci in Biochemistry and Biological Chemistry at the University of Nottingham, Tim started his career developing in vitro cell-based assays to support high throughput screening and compound profiling drug discovery campaigns at GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer. (news-medical.net)
  • Our assay is easy to use, sensitive and adaptable to high-throughput systems. (assaygenie.com)
  • We then conducted a high-throughput screen using a compound library of 2160 annotated bioactive synthetic compounds and 800 natural products to identify molecules that block normal PLLp migration. (biologists.org)
  • This approach demonstrates that the migrating PLLp in zebrafish can be used for large-scale, high-throughput screening for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration and, potentially, anti-metastatic compounds. (biologists.org)
  • Cells of interest are seeded around this barrier, and after the formation of a peripheral monolayer the barrier is removed and migration into the cell-free area is monitored. (eur.nl)
  • In this assay, cells are plated to form a confluent monolayer and a stratch is introduced in the monolayer. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here we describe an easy assay for cell migration, based on the principles of the cell exclusion assay, and which we have termed "ring cell migration assay" as it uses a cloning ring to establish the gap between two parts of a monolayer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TScratch: a novel and simple software tool for automated analysis of monolayer wound healing assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Invasive cells move through the extracellular matrix (ECM) into neighboring tissues in a process that involves ECM degradation and proteolysis. (csulb.edu)
  • Assays for measuring extracellular GABA levels and cell migration rate in acute slices. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate, by using RT-PCR, photoaffinity labeling, and Western blot analysis, that the type I neurotensin receptor-3 was the only known neurotensin receptor expressed in these microglial cells and that its activation led to the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulating kinases 1/2 and Akt. (jneurosci.org)
  • While tomatidine significantly decreased the phosphorylation of c-Raf, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK), and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 in U2OS cells, no obvious influences on p-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and Akt, including their phosphorylation, were observed. (mdpi.com)
  • MC extracts or low concentrations of bovine serum albumin-derived AGEs (BSA-AGEs) stimulated proliferation, migration (using wound-healing assay) and tube formation (using Matrigel™-embedded 3D culture) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) together with increases in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, the key angiogenic signaling cytoplasmic protein. (rsc.org)
  • The effects on cell proliferation are mediated via the αvβ3 integrin and an interaction with the platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated mitogenic pathway, emphasising the importance of both CNS extracellular matrix and integrin growth factor interactions in the regulation of neural precursor behaviour. (biologists.org)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their integrin cell surface receptors are important regulators of these aspects of cell behaviour, and genetic studies using naturally occurring mutants or transgenic mice have revealed essential roles in development for some of the ECM glycoproteins and integrins expressed in the CNS. (biologists.org)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that MMP-9 activates extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt in Schwann cells in culture. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cell migration involves the integrated function of cell-signaling factors, integrins, proteins that regulate dynamic actin assembly, and proteinases that model extracellular matrix (ECM) ( Lauffenberger and Horwitz, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This process is regulated by multiple factors, including growth factors, and involves changes in the interaction of SMCs with the extracellular matrix and in intracellular signaling cascades that regulate cell movement. (ahajournals.org)
  • Migration levels were significantly reduced by cotreatment of SMCs with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor, UO126, the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, or the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, LY294002. (ahajournals.org)
  • Distinct mechanisms were reported to explain the distinct functions of Akt/PKB isoforms in the regulation of invasive migration, including differential regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway ( 6 ) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that mediate interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (embopress.org)
  • The third and fourth vertical rows of cells have 0.38% DMSO, as positive signal controls ( i . e . without any inhibition). (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of HeLa Cell Migration by Cytochalasin D. HeLa cells were seeded at 100,000 cells/well overnight. (cellbiolabs.com)
  • ATM is believed to regulate double-strand break repair directly or indirectly through cell cycle checkpoint control, and inhibition or absence of ATM increases radiosensitivity ( 7 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • by the loss/inhibition of the cell response due to the impediment of the receptor oligomerization at high ligand concentrations. (rsc.org)
  • Inhibition of Rho kinase prevented the VEGF-enhanced EC migration in response to mechanical wounding but had no effect on basal EC migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3β resulted in β-catenin expression, accompanied by the suppression of wound healing and transwell cell migration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Conversely, inhibition of β-catenin via dominant negative mutants or short hairpin RNA improved wound healing and transwell migration in hypoxic cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Basal migration and the motogenic effects of butyrate, epidermal growth factor, and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate were suppressed by the u-PAR antisense oligonucleotide (40-60%) but were at best minimally affected following inhibition of u-PA expression and binding. (bmj.com)
  • However, recent experimental evidence suggests that cancer cells may escape from growth inhibition by alternative growth pathways or by constitutive activation of downstream signaling effectors in the presence of direct EGFR inhibitors ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The inhibition by non-cytoxic doses of GLY of VSMCs migration was through its negative regulatory effects on phosphorylated ERK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and FAK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data showed that GLY can inhibit the migration of VSMCs cells, and might block injury-induced neointima hyperplasia via the inhibition of VSMCs migration, without inducing apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of β 1 or β 3 integrin resulted in a significant decrease in migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of GSK-3β using short hairpin RNA or a selective inhibitor potently blocks breast cancer cell migration concomitant with a reduction in NFAT activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Experiments using GSK-3β mutants, which are unresponsive to Akt/PKB, reveal that inhibition of cell migration by Akt/PKB is mediated by GSK-3β. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our studies show that activation of Akt/PKB leads to inactivation of the effector GSK-3β and the outcome of this signaling event is degradation of NFAT by the proteasome and subsequent inhibition of cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Diverse assay formats and reagents have been developed that measure specific aspects of cell viability corresponding to particular cellular response pathways and mechanisms of injury. (biotek.com)
  • We used two in vitro assays, a wound-healing model and a chemotaxis assay, to show that the neuropeptide neurotensin elicited the migration of the human microglial cell line C13NJ by a mechanism dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • The molecular pathways underpinning invasion in melanoma are now just beginning to be elucidated, but a clear understanding of the transition from non-invasive to invasive melanoma cells remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cooperation between TGFβ and ErbB2 signaling pathways has been investigated in multiple cell-based models. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we have characterized the signaling pathways mediated by CXCR4 in breast cancer cells and its role in breast cancer cell invasion and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study focuses on novel interactions between highly relevant signaling pathways in breast cancer cells and brain microvascular endothelial cells and may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of CXCR4/SDF-1α-mediated breast cancer metastasis to the brain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study aimed at identifying new molecular pathways controlling melanoma cell malignancy. (springer.com)
  • The most representative cells were also characterized by spheroid formation assay, gene- and protein- expression profiling as well as cytokines secretion and the most relevant pathways identified through bioinformatic analysis were tested by in silico transcriptomic validation on datasets generated from biopsies specimens of melanoma patients. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we show that L1 affected cell migration and survival in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell line by modulation of sialylation and fucosylation at the cell surface via the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Erk (extracellularsignal-regulated kinase) signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • Inhibitors of sialylation and fucosylation blocked L1-induced cell migration and survival, while decreasing FUT9 and ST6Gal1 expressions via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • L1 modulated cell migration and survival by regulation of cell surface sialylation and fucosylation via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • 4 Inflammatory signalling pathways are activated directly by CagA or through NOD1-recognition of cell wall components. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Thus, cross talk between growth factor receptor and integrin signaling pathways can regulate the cellular machinery necessary for directed cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Integrins transmit signals across the plasma membrane, and engagement of integrins with the ECM activates numerous signalling pathways that influence a range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis ( Schwartz and Baron, 1999 ). (embopress.org)
  • We are a global provider of human and animal biospecimens: including frozen & FFPE tissue, DNA, RNA, total proteins, blood products and primary cells. (amsbio.com)
  • Importantly, cell migration is a rate-limiting event during the wound-healing process to re-establish the integrity and normal function of tissue layers after injury. (jove.com)
  • whereas invasion describes cells actively invading surrounding tissue. (biotek.com)
  • Additionally, the immune system is a critical consideration for vaccine development and cell, tissue and organ transplants. (biotek.com)
  • As proliferating neoplastic cells attempt to escape the primary tumor site, local invasion of the surrounding tissue (interstitial stroma) must occur. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is mostly unknown how various ECM proteins affect cell migration of different tissue-specific cancer cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using tissue microarrays, we found that tumor cell OSM was expressed at the highest levels in ductal carcinoma in situ. (springer.com)
  • For example, during inflammation, leukocytes are recruited by activated endothelial cells followed by transmigration, and their establishment in the injured tissue ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We chose to illustrate the migratory properties of gut-tropic versus non gut-tropic T cells, because the intestinal mucosa is the largest body surface in contact with the external environment and it is also the extra-lymphoid tissue with the best-defined migratory requirements. (nih.gov)
  • 2 Introduction Cell migration is a highly integrated, multistep process that orchestrates embryonic morphogenesis, tissue repair and regeneration. (docplayer.net)
  • Radius 24-well Cell Migration Plate (Part No ): One 24-well, tissue culture treated plate with each well containing one Radius non-toxic, biocompatible hydrogel spot (24 gel spots total per plate) 2. (docplayer.net)
  • 3. Tissue culture growth medium appropriate for subject cells, such as DMEM containing 5% FBS. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The functional involvement in MSC migration was assessed using neutralizing anti-MMP-2 antibody, MMP-2 short interfering RNA or recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-3). (haematologica.org)
  • One important limiting factor for ACT is the inefficient migration of T cells into tumor tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, mice lacking CXCR6, the receptor for CXCL16, displayed reduced recruitment of activated effector T cells in breast tumor tissue and impaired tumor regression ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Affymetrix gene expression analysis of metastatic melanoma specimens has shown that the presence of T cells in tumor tissue is associated with high expression of many chemokines ( 8 , 9 ), suggesting that their migration to tumors may be regulated by chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Migration to intestinal mucosa putatively depends on local activation because gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue induces expression of intestinal homing molecules, whereas skin-draining lymph nodes do not. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data explain why systemic immunization routes induce local cell-mediated immunity within the intestine and indicate that this tissue must be seeded with memory T cell precursors shortly after activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These observations support the hypothesis that local infection and subsequent priming within gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is required for dissemination of CD8 T cells into the small intestine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During the last decade, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been gaining increasing attention in tissue repair therapeutic application since they were first isolated from adipose tissues in 2001 [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ASCs are a population of multipotent mesenchymal cells, with similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which are classical cell source for tissue regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Bio-Plex Pro Magnetic Cell Signaling Assays are multiplexed immunoassays for the detection of intracellular phosphoproteins and total target proteins in cell and tissue lysates. (selectscience.net)
  • Coordinated cell migration during development is crucial for tissue and organ morphogenesis from early gastrulation to adulthood. (prolekare.cz)
  • The Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC) is an institution engaged in basic and applied research in bioengineering and nanomedicine, with experts working on tissue regeneration, biomechanics, molecular dynamics, biomimetics, drug delivery, organs 'on-a-chip', cell migration, stem cells, artificial olfaction and microbial biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The biology of cell migration involves complex protein signaling mechanisms leading to changes in the cells cytoskeleton and ultimately to critical biological functions. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Have greater customization of the Oris™ Cell Assay by using your own protein matrices. (platypustech.com)
  • The LPA dependent migration was further confirmed by mRNA and protein expression of LPA receptors as well as phosphorylation of signaling molecules. (springermedizin.de)
  • In quiescent cells, these PASs are generally silenced by U1 snRNP (U1), vertebrates' most abundant non-coding small nuclear RNP, which is necessary for production of full-length RNA polymerase II transcripts from protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs 7 . (nature.com)
  • These sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains (lipid rafts) recruit several protein components and compartmentalize cellular processes associated with cell signaling and membrane trafficking ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The high levels of IL-17 produced by these cells is associated with the upregulation of regulator of G-protein signaling ( Rgs ) 13 and Rgs16 and the migration arrest of B cells in response to FO- and GC-oriented chemokines, CXCL12 and CXCL13, enabling them to form stable T-B cell conjugates and facilitate GC formation in the spleens of BXD2 mice ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • PMN accumulation in the lung (myeloperoxidase assay), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung vascular permeability (protein content in BAL fluid) were assessed 6 h later. (physiology.org)
  • Finally, we have determined that the interaction between LPP and α-actinin, an actin cross-linking protein, is necessary for TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ARPE-19 cells treated with EGF and with or without fisetin. (molvis.org)
  • CD73 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein, also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT, EC (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cannabinoids bind to 2 different cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), CB1 and CB2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene-expression and protein expression data were collected for SK-MEL-28 and A375 cells by Illumina-, multiplex x-MAP-and mass-spectrometry technology. (springer.com)
  • Activated L1 upregulated the protein expressions of ST6Gal1 (β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1) and FUT9 (Fucosyltransferase 9) in CHO cells. (medsci.org)
  • Recently, we have demonstrated that L1 upregulated the protein expressions of ST3Gal4 and FUT9 via activation of the PLCɣ (Phospholipase Cγ) pathway, which increased cell surface sialylation and fucosylation [ 14 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) is an endocytic receptor for diverse proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and a cell-signaling receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • MMP-9-induced cell signaling and migration were blocked by inhibiting MMP-9-binding to LRP-1 with receptor-associated protein (RAP) or by LRP-1 gene silencing. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, a novel glutathione- S -transferase fusion protein (MMP-9-PEX), which includes only the hemopexin domain of MMP-9, replicated the activities of intact MMP-9, activating Schwann cell signaling and migration by an LRP-1-dependent pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1 The cag PAI encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers the effector protein CagA and soluble bacterial cell wall components into host cells. (bmj.com)
  • A major effector of the PI3K signal in all cells types is the serine/threonine kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB). (aacrjournals.org)
  • animalis induced CCL20 protein expression in colorectal cancer cells and monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies of protein arginylation implicated this poorly understood posttranslational modification in the functioning of actin cytoskeleton and in cell migration in culture. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that the cell-lethal phenotype of ADAR1 deletion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells is rescued by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of the RNASEL gene or by expression of the RNase L antagonist, murine coronavirus NS2 accessory protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • A 'barrier' is inserted in the culture chamber, which prevents cells from entering a defined area. (eur.nl)
  • Cells in the chemotaxis buffer are located in the upper chamber and the chemoattractant the chemotaxis buffer is added to the lower chamber. (springermedizin.de)
  • 2) Cells are added to the well insert and either control migration inducers or chemoattractants added to the bottom chamber. (assaygenie.com)
  • This assay utilizes a non-toxic biocompatible gel that dissolves and creates a cell-free detection zone in the center of each well, allowing for the study of the cell migration mechanisms involved as cells move into the detection zone. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The Radius Cell Migration Assay Kit utilizes a proprietary 24-well plate to monitor the migratory properties of cells. (docplayer.net)
  • The CHEMICON® QCM™ 24-well Migration Assay utilizes an 8 mm pore size, as this is appropriate for most cell types. (emdmillipore.com)
  • each insert utilizes an 8 mm pore size polycarbonate membrane, as this is appropriate for most cell types. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Chemotaxis and cell migration are fundamental, universal eukaryotic processes essential for biological functions such as embryogenesis, immunity, cell renewal, and wound healing, as well as for pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer metastasis and chronic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Cell migration is a fundamental cellular process that plays a crucial role in many physioglogical and pathological processes such as wound healing or cancer metastasis. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In vitro studies further supported the hypothesis that OSM promotes preintravasation aspects of cancer metastasis, because OSM induced both 4T1.2 tumor cell detachment and migration. (springer.com)
  • Effects of fisetin on EGF-induced cell viability and migration were examined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and in vitro migration assays. (molvis.org)
  • Further in vitro migration assays were performed to confirm cancer cells conditioned medium dependent MSC and doxorubicin (DOX) treated MSC migration. (medsci.org)
  • In vitro analysis revealed increased cell migration and reduced cell apoptosis/necrosis. (physiology.org)
  • highlight the role of SPZ1-Bim axis in cancer cell apoptosis and provide a possible prognostic marker or therapeutic target for cancer treatment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Upon further elucidation into the molecular mechanism, we observed that both CB1 and CB2 agonists inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, a key signaling molecule controlling cell survival, migration, and apoptosis, and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of SW403 cells were compared between ZJW and GR127935 treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell apoptosis was pronounced, and cell migration and invasion were suppressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NPY-induced MSC gene expression, cell migration, tube formation, and endothelial cell differentiation were analyzed. (physiology.org)
  • Tim O'Callaghan is Product Manager at Essen Bioscience where he works on the development of new and enabling live-cell analysis instruments, applications and reagents for oncology, immunology and neuroscience researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • Save time and resources normally spent qualifying reagents by creating a culture environment for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) consisting of both a serum-free, defined medium and cell culture surface specifically qualified for hESCs cells. (corning.com)
  • From cell culture reagents such as Matrigel high concentration to membrane insert systems, like Falcon® permeable supports , discover how Corning cell culture products can help you gain greater insights into tumor cell growth, morphology, and migration. (corning.com)
  • We conclude that both PS-1 derived from U2OS and HOS cells and the c-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway contribute to cellular invasion and migration and tomatidine could inhibit the phenomenons. (mdpi.com)
  • These cells suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses, and inhibit the activity of T-helper cells. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, the effect of neurotensin on cell migration was preceded by a profound modification of the F-actin cytoskeleton, particularly by the rapid formation of numerous cell filopodia. (jneurosci.org)
  • This format provides a robust in vitro system to measure 2-D cell migration, screen potential inhibitors and study cytoskeleton reorganization events. (docplayer.net)
  • 10,11 Both FAK and Pyk2 have been shown to be involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and intracellular signaling during cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell health and viability measurements provide essential insight into a broad range of biological processes and treatment responses. (biotek.com)
  • Cell migration, the movement of cells from one location to another, is a critical component of both normal and abnormal biological processes. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The importance of cell migration in diverse biological processes has led to the development of systems for studying the mechanisms responsible in an effort to identify therapeutic components capable of either promoting (wound healing) or inhibiting (tumor formation) cell migration. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Cell migration is a key feature of virtually every biological process, and it can be studied in a variety of ways. (eur.nl)
  • Central to the better understanding of both molecular mechanisms and disease, cell migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological processes and is now the subject of intense study using an array of powerful new technologies. (springer.com)
  • After the knockdown of PS-1, U2OS and HOS cells' biological behaviors of cellular invasion and migratory potential were significantly reduced. (mdpi.com)
  • These real-time, live-cell assays provide deeper biological insight into the full time course of events. (news-medical.net)
  • Sialic acid occupies the terminal end on oligosaccharide chains in these glycoproteins and influences the biological behavior of cells [ 16 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Automated screening using in vitro or cultured cell assays have yielded thousands of candidate drugs for a variety of biological targets, but these approaches have not resulted in an increase in drug discovery despite major increases in expenditures. (biologists.org)
  • The present study aimed at investigating effect of ZJW extracts on the biological function of CRC cells, the expression of 5-HTR1D, and molecules of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once in circulation, these cells can form metastatic colonies at secondary locations. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Here, we tested the hypothesis that tomatidine suppresses migration and invasion, features that are associated with metastatic process in human osteosarcoma cells and also investigate its underlying pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly metastatic lung cancer that accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases, is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ten metastatic melanoma cell lines were characterized by their proliferation, migration and invasion capabilities. (springer.com)
  • Metastatic cancer cells usually express high density of sialic acid-rich glycoproteins on cell surfaces and help cancer cells enter the circulatory system [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In particular, adoptive cell transfer (ACT) combined with lymphodepletion has resulted in clinical responses in ∼50% to 70% of patients with metastatic melanoma ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrated that the Src inhibitor SU6656, identified in our screen, can be used to suppress the metastatic capacity of a highly aggressive mammary tumor cell line. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were seeded on Engelbreth-Holm Swarm Sarcoma derived Basement Membrane Extract (BME). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), bovine aortic ECs (BAECs), and human microvascular EC line (HMEC-1) were grown to confluence and exposed to unidirectional LS (5 or 15 dyn/cm 2 ), OS (±5 or ±15 dyn/cm 2 at 1 Hz frequency), or static control (ST) for 24 hours using a cone-and-plate device as described by us. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cellular metabolism comprises a number of biochemical reactions that occur in concert within the cells of living organisms. (biotek.com)
  • The multiparametric nature of the HCS assay permitted correlation of antimigratory activity with cellular toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This method provides a quick way to examine effect of cellular manipulation on cell migration before proceeding to perform more complex assays. (bio-protocol.org)
  • These tumors are characterized by abundant vascularization and significant cellular heterogeneity including GBM stem-like cells (GSC) which contribute to tumor aggressiveness, resistance, and recurrence. (nature.com)
  • Leukocyte migration is the hallmark of inflammation, and integrin α M β 2 and its ligand fibrinogen (Fg) are key participants in this cellular response. (rupress.org)
  • Overexpression of Twist led to dramatic changes in cellular morphology, proliferation, migratory/invasive capability, and expression of EMT-related biomarkers in breast cancer cells. (plos.org)
  • At the cellular level, A-T cells are extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation, have impaired G 1 -S, intra-S, and G 2 -M checkpoints, and show elevated levels of chromosomal instability ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer cells exhibit altered cellular functions compared to the normal functioning, non-malignant cells from which they are derived. (corning.com)
  • 4-6 High concentration of AGEs affect tissues and cause various adverse cellular events, including increased free radical activity, which can damage cell membranes and promote mutations, alterations in enzymatic activity, cross-linking and impaired degradation of proteins. (rsc.org)
  • This raises the question of which cellular processes require coordination of signaling at the cell surface and the various functions associated with the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Cellular consequences of eEOC treatment were evaluated using different in vitro assays. (physiology.org)
  • We show here that p27 Kip1 inhibits cellular changes that normally occur during cell locomotion (eg, lamellipodia formation and reorganization of actin filaments and focal adhesions). (ahajournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308 and Ser473) and p42/44MAPK in BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells was observed after LPA stimulation, which was clearly inhibited by pre-treatment with a compound Ki16425. (springermedizin.de)
  • The phosphorylation of 39 different molecules in BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells was evaluated using the PathScan array. (springermedizin.de)
  • Rac1b depletion in MDA-MB-231 cells also increased TGF-β-induced p21 WAF1 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (mdpi.com)
  • KU-60019 is 10-fold more effective than KU-55933 at blocking radiation-induced phosphorylation of key ATM targets in human glioma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In line with this finding, the effect of KU-60019 on AKT phosphorylation was countered by low levels of okadaic acid, a phosphatase inhibitor, and A-T cells were impaired in S473 AKT phosphorylation in response to radiation and insulin and unresponsive to KU-60019. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Altogether, KU-60019 inhibits the DNA damage response, reduces AKT phosphorylation and prosurvival signaling, inhibits migration and invasion, and effectively radiosensitizes human glioma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCL12) stimulation of breast cancer cells resulted in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activation, AKT phosphorylation, and activation of the FKHRL1 transcription factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An advantage of this assay is it allows for chemotaxis and works for both adherent and non-adherent cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • When adherent cells are seeded in the Radius Cell Migration well, they attach outside of the Radius Gel coated area. (docplayer.net)
  • Adherent migratory cell lines and culture medium 2. (docplayer.net)
  • They were first described by Friedenstein 1 as fibroblast-like, adherent cells that can be expanded in vitro after selection through plastic adherence. (haematologica.org)
  • Advances in wound-healing assays for probing collective cell migration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell image velocimetry (CIV): boosting the automated quantification of cell migration in wound healing assays. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • Cell migration is commonly quantified by tracking the speed of the cell layer interface in wound healing assays. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • We introduce Cell Image Velocimetry (CIV), a combination of cell layer segmentation and image velocimetry algorithms, to drastically enhance the quantification of cell migration by wound healing assays. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • The modular design and parametrization of CIV is not restricted to wound healing assays and allows for the exploration and quantification of flow phenomena in any optical microscopy dataset. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of CIV in wound healing assays over topographically engineered surfaces and quantify the relative merits of differently aligned gratings on cell migration. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • Abstract 3799: HTS performance and high-content analysis of antimigratory compound phenotypes using the Oris Pro 384 cell migration assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additional techniques such as electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the identity of cells as neuronal precursors and characterized the expression of GABA receptors and transporters. (nih.gov)
  • ALiCE® is a radically different approach to cell-free expression and a kit unlike any others. (amsbio.com)
  • To confirm that the migration was initiated by LPA, the expression of LPA receptors and activation of intracellular signal transductions were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase reaction and western blotting. (springermedizin.de)
  • Here we show that low U1 AMO doses increase cancer cells' migration and invasion in vitro by up to 500%, whereas U1 over-expression has the opposite effect. (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigated if low U1 AMO and U1 over-expression could also modulate cell phenotype. (nature.com)
  • Tomatidine, up to 100 μM, without cytotoxicity, inhibited the invasion and migration capabilities of human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells and repressed presenilin 1 (PS-1) expression of U2OS cells. (mdpi.com)
  • One prediction is that independent and opposing roles for MITF and PAX3 in melanoma would be expected, and we present empirical evidence supporting this: in melanoma tissues PAX3 expression occurs independently of MITF, and PAX3 does not play a key role in melanoma cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, recent studies suggest that melanoma cells revert to an embryonic program of gene expression involved in neural crest cell migration to support developmental plasticity and metastasis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We showed that expression of NEDD9 was frequently upregulated in TNBC cell lines, and in aggressive breast tumors, especially in TNBC subtype. (plos.org)
  • IFN-α, generated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, induced the expression of CD69 and suppressed the sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced chemotactic response, promoting FO-oriented Ag transport by MZ-P B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We found that BXD2 mice spontaneously form GCs in the spleens and that the expression of the gene encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase ( Aicda ) in the GC B cells can be stimulated by activated CD4 + T cells from BXD2 mice ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It also influences the pattern of gene expression of the cells in which it is in contact. (corning.com)
  • These expression patterns suggest important roles for TN-C in the modulation of cell behaviour during periods of active CNS modelling and plasticity. (biologists.org)
  • The substance 8-O-cAMP enhanced membrane expression of β1-integrins, followed by increased cell homing. (physiology.org)
  • To further extend the finding, we determined whether HuR expression affects β-actin gene expression and in turn affects corneal fibroblast migration and wound healing. (molvis.org)
  • Migration of cells cultured at high or low confluence was compared and differential gene expression in these conditions was analyzed with microarray and real-time RT-PCR. (haematologica.org)
  • Fisetin combined with LY294002 (an inhibitor of AKT) prevented the EGF-induced migration involved in downregulation of Sp1 and MMP-9 expression. (molvis.org)
  • Ectopic expression of β-catenin in normoxic cells could also suppress wound healing, mimicking the effect of hypoxia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CD73 was overexpressed by pcDNA-NT5E expression vector transfection in Hela and SiHa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of CXCR4 was observed in T lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils ( 11 ), which mediates the chemotactic response to SDF1 by these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of CXCR4 was also found in human neurons, cultured rodent neurons, glial cells ( 17 , 18 ), microglial cells ( 19 ), and endothelial cells ( 20 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CDK-dependent pRb hyperphosphorylation releases E2F transcription factors, thus contributing to the expression of several growth and cell cycle-regulatory genes with functional E2F-binding sites in their promoters. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effect of VCE-004.8 on macrophage polarization and arginase 1 expression was analyzed in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. (springer.com)
  • CHO cell line was derived from the Chinese hamster ovary and can provide a high expression of recombinant glycoproteins which are equipped with a glycosylation mechanism very similar to that found in humans [ 15 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Forced expression of AGR2 in 2774 cells enhanced the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CUL4A expression vectors were introduced in cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, the effect of ZJW extracts on 5-HTR1D expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were investigated and contrasted with GR127935 (GR), a known 5-HTR1D antagonist, using the CRC cell line SW403. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SW403 cells showed a dose-dependently decreased expression of 5-HTR1D, meanwhile, β-catenin level was significantly decreased in nucleus of cells cultured with GR127935. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report that whereas ADAR1 single gene KO A549 cells were not viable, it was possible to rescue ADAR1 deficient cells by knockout (KO) of either RNASEL or MAVS or by expression of a viral antagonist of the OAS/RNase L system ( Silverman and Weiss, 2014 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Detect and quantify fluorescently tagged cells or molecules both above and below the insert membrane without further cell separation, washing, or harvesting. (egeneralmedical.com)
  • Well chambers with a membrane are placed into a 96 well microplate and fluorescently labeled cells are seeded on top of the membrane. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Measurements are taken from the microplate bottom to measure how quickly the fluorescently labeled cells invade through the membrane. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Prior to penetrating the blood vessel endothelium and gaining access to the blood stream (intravasation), cancer cells must invade local tissues by degrading ECM components and ultimately, transverse the basement membrane. (merckmillipore.com)
  • C) Photographs of the lower side of the membrane after the assay. (springermedizin.de)
  • Furthermore, the extramembrane was essential for cell expansion and remodeling of the plasma membrane topology. (frontiersin.org)
  • 8,9 ⇓ A prominent group of these F-actin cables are the stress fibers (SFs), which are linked to the cell membrane at focal adhesions (FAs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Malignant GMs enhance the levels of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) as well as their localization at the plasma membrane to remove intracellular lactate out of cells for the maintenance of continuous glycolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • 14. (Optional) Graduated ocular (calibrated), or automated method for counting stained cells on a membrane. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Microporous membrane inserts are widely used for cell migration and invasion assays. (emdmillipore.com)
  • In the CHEMICON® QCM™ 24-well Migration Assay, invaded cells on the bottom of the insert membrane are dissociated from the membrane when incubated with Cell Detachment Buffer. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The latter effects, however, were accompanied by an inability of PMNs to mobilize elastase to the cell surface (plasma membrane), an event required for efficient PMN transendothelial migration. (physiology.org)
  • Results We demonstrated that MSC can invade reconstituted basement membrane and that bone marrow endothelial cells stimulate this process. (haematologica.org)
  • Furthermore, suppression of endogenous PKD1 levels by RNAi, or overexpression of catalytically inactive PKD1 inhibited PDGF‐dependent recycling of αvβ3 from early endosomes to the plasma membrane and blocked recruitment of αvβ3 to newly formed focal adhesions during cell spreading. (embopress.org)
  • Assays that measure cell migration enable a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved and are important for drug and therapeutic discovery efforts. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The immune system relies on diverse mechanisms working in concert to defend the host from infection and to identify and remove aberrant or damaged cells. (biotek.com)
  • Only upon clear delineation of the mechanisms associated with progression and invasion of melanoma cells will successful treatments for invasive melanoma be developed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fisetin is a naturally occurring compound that has been reported to have antitumor effects, but its effects on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell migration and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (molvis.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In an in vitro model of wounded colonic epithelium, u-PAR promotes cell migration through mechanisms that are not exclusively dependent on u-PA binding. (bmj.com)
  • 1,2 Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control hyperplastic growth and the locomotion of vascular cells should aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce neointimal thickening. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study was designed to explore the anti-proliferative and -migration effects of GLY on vascular smooth muscle cells and to evaluate its molecular mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although HGF has been shown to promote SMC migration, the mechanisms involved in this process have not been characterized fully. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subsequent experiments were performed to characterize additional biochemical mechanisms involved in HGF-mediated migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Remarkably, all these phenotypes resemble the phenotypes seen in the mouse models with knockouts of various genes implicated in cell migration, leading to the hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying cell migration may be the primary targets for regulation by arginylation (see [10] for review). (prolekare.cz)
  • We applied the assay to screen 1,280 known compounds in a 1536-well plate format and identified two chemotaxis inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • The chemotaxis inhibitory activities of both compounds were confirmed in both Dictyostelium and in human neutrophils in a directed EZ-TAXIscan chemotaxis assay. (nih.gov)
  • Labeled cells or compounds can be quantified directly and in real time. (egeneralmedical.com)
  • Measure cell migration in response to stimuli.Screen, study, or characterize compounds that influence chemotaxis/cell migration. (assaygenie.com)
  • Selected compounds were confirmed in their migration-blocking activity by using additional assays for cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • Blockade of the CXCR4/SDF1 signaling pathway with anti-CXCR4 antibody also decreased transendothelial breast cancer cell migration as well as vascular permeability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After the stoppers are removed, cell migration into the previously blocked area is measured using the live cell fluorophore calcein-AM (Invitrogen) to label the cells for fluorescence detection. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The MiniMax cytometer was used to acquire transmitted light images of each well for later analysis using Molecular Devices StainFree™ Cell Detection Technology. (moleculardevices.com)
  • After images were acquired, a fluorescence endpoint read (excitation 472 nm, emission 526 nm) was taken to determine whether the fluorescence detection mode of the SpectraMax ® i3 reader could be used to detect cell migration. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The amount of cell migration in each well of the microplate was analyzed by specifying a region of interest in the acquired images that corresponded to the detection zone created by the dissolved biocompatible gel. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Oris™ Migration Assays use a physical "stopper" barrier to create a cell-free detection zone in the center of each well of a 96-well plate. (platypustech.com)
  • To use plate readers to quantify assays, stain cells then clip the patented Oris™ Detection Mask to the bottom of the plate. (platypustech.com)
  • Product Number: CMA.MM Replacement Pack of five (5) Oris TM Detection Masks for use with the Oris TM Cell Migration Assays. (platypustech.com)
  • The assay uses a 24-well plate with an 8 micron pore size, with fluorescent detection. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Thus, AGR2 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of mucinous ovarian cancer and an ELISA assay may facilitate the early detection of mucinous ovarian cancer using patient serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The neurotransmitter GABA and inhibitors of GABA receptors or transporters can be bath applied to determine the function of endogenous GABA on the direction and speed of cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitors of MEK and AKT did not further radiosensitize cells treated with KU-60019, supporting the idea that KU-60019 interferes with prosurvival signaling separate from its radiosensitizing properties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, these small genes are enriched in functions related to cell survival and acute cell stress response 7 . (nature.com)
  • Correct development of the central nervous system (CNS) requires the migration, proliferation and survival of precursor cells for neurones and glia. (biologists.org)
  • Cell recognition molecule L1 (L1) plays an important role in cancer cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival, but its mechanism remains unclear. (medsci.org)
  • Our previous study has demonstrated that L1 enhanced cell survival and migration in neural cells by regulating cell surface glycosylation. (medsci.org)
  • Furthermore, activated L1 promoted CHO cells migration and survival as shown by transwell assay and MTT assay. (medsci.org)
  • L1 promotes cell survival, migration and axon guidance in the nervous system [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • A similar enhancement in tumor regression and survival was observed when CXCR2-transduced pmel-1 T cells were transferred into mice bearing CXCL1-transduced B16 tumors compared with mice treated with control pmel-1 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we report our success in enhancing the migratory ability of T cell to tumors, further improving the antitumor immune response and survival in tumor-bearing mice in two distinct tumor models, by transduction of tumor-specific T cells with the gene encoding CXCR2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the level of cell growth, much is known about the function of Akt/PKB in mediating cell proliferation through regulation of cell cycle progression and cell survival through regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic transcription factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our result demonstrate that ablation of RNase L activity promotes survival of ADAR1 deficient cells even in the presence of MDA5 and MAVS, suggesting that the RNase L system is the primary sensor pathway for endogenous dsRNA that leads to cell death. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, this assay is easily adapted for live-cell imaging and fluorescent microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Single cells before aggregation (bright field microscopy) do not express the cotB / GFP reporter. (nih.gov)
  • The described techniques can be used to identify the endogenous factors that regulate cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Knockdown of endogenous NEDD9 reduced the migration, invasion and proliferation of TNBC cells. (plos.org)
  • Our results suggest that the RNase L activation is the primary mode of cell death induced by either endogenous or exogenous dsRNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • The aim of this work is to show a novel method to evaluate the ability of some immunomodulatory molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), to stimulate cell migration. (jove.com)
  • In particular, malignant glioma cells (GMs) release tremendous number of exosomes, nanovesicles of 30 to 200 nm in size, promoting tumor progression by the transport of pro-oncogenic molecules to neighboring cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Consequently, malignant glioma cells (GMs) increase glucose consumption and lactate production through rapid glycolysis to meet the high demand of energy substrates, biosynthetic precursors, and signaling molecules, by which their growth and migration are promoted ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This method allows for the rapid and highly reproducible obtainment of quantitative data on the speed of cell migration and wound closure. (jove.com)
  • This assay is highly reproducible and convenient to perform, and it allows the deduction of several parameters of migration, including total and effective migration, velocity and cell polarization. (eur.nl)
  • Oris™ exclusion zone technology ensures consistent cell-free regions for accurate, reproducible quantification of cell movement across the plate surface. (platypustech.com)
  • The Oris™ Cell Migration Assembly Kit - FLEX is a reproducible, sensitive, and flexible assay that can be used to monitor cell migration, wound healing, and cell invasion. (selectscience.net)
  • The therapeutic use of MSC would benefit from a selection of culture conditions that allow optimal extravasation of these cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Numerous factors are involved in the differentiation of melanocytes, and also in the control of cell migration. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ECM is composed of a number of different macromolecules that influence such cell behaviors as adherence, spreading, differentiation, and migration. (corning.com)
  • Discover how these can be incorporated into your cell culture systems to support advanced cell growth and cell differentiation applications. (corning.com)
  • Because of their wide differentiation potential and accessibility many research groups are investigating the therapeutic potential of these stem cells. (haematologica.org)
  • NPY also induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into cardiomyocytes following transplantation into infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • To determine the role of Gstm1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we isolated VSMCs from mouse aortas. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypoxia in wounded tissues is caused in part by the vascular damage and decreased blood supply, but also, in a large part, by the O 2 consumption of the cells in the wound that are metabolically activated for migration, proliferation, and wound healing ( Tandara and Mustoe, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study was to explore the effects of Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY) on the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by fetal bovine serum and on neointima formation in a rat model of carotid artery balloon injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the media into the neointima and their subsequent proliferation is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration, regulated by proatherogenic factors located within the vessel wall, is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is the main cause of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. (ahajournals.org)
  • The urokinase (u-PA) system regulates migration in other cell types. (bmj.com)
  • β3‐integrin regulates microtubule stability in endothelial cells through Rcc2/Anxa2‐driven control of active Rac1 localisation. (embopress.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that arginylation regulates cell migration during morphogenesis, we produced Wnt1 -Cre Ate1 conditional knockout mice (Wnt1-Ate1), with Ate1 deletion in the neural crest cells driven by Wnt1 promoter. (prolekare.cz)
  • Furthermore, we show that knockdown of PAX3 inhibits cell migration in a group of "lower MITF" melanoma cell lines, while knockdown of MITF promotes cell migration in a complementary "higher MITF" group of melanoma cell lines. (frontiersin.org)
  • MMP-9 also promotes Schwann cell migration. (jneurosci.org)
  • A ) Principle of the screening assay. (nih.gov)
  • Imaging GFP reporter-based Dictyostelium chemotaxis-dependent aggregation assay for chemotaxis inhibitor screening. (nih.gov)
  • BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells clearly migrated towards the concentration gradient formed by injecting 1 μL LPA, which was abrogated by pre-treatment with LPA inhibitor, Ki16425 (IC 50 for the directionality ≈ 1.86 μM). (springermedizin.de)
  • Recently, a specific inhibitor of the ATM kinase, KU-55933, was shown to radiosensitize human cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of the small GTPase RhoA, Aepfelbacher et al 16 showed that Rho is involved in wound-induced formation of SFs and endothelial migration in an in vitro wound-healing assay. (ahajournals.org)
  • High culture confluence was found to increase production of the natural MMP-inhibitor TIMP-3 and decrease transendothelial migration of MSC. (haematologica.org)
  • Notably, the migration of breast cancer cells was inhibited by the PI-3K inhibitor, Wortmannin, and the Ca 2+ inhibitor BAPTA/AM, indicating that transendothelial breast cancer cell migration induced by SDF-1α is mediated by activation of the PI-3K/AKT pathway and Ca 2+ -mediated signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent reports have shown that adult cardiac myocytes can be induced to reenter into cell cycle with periostin ( 17 ), p38 MAP kinase inhibitor ( 8 ), cyclin D1/CDK4 ( 27 ), cyclin A2 ( 3 ), and transforming growth factor-β ( 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • Automated imaging tools can provide valuable information for improving routine cell culturing techniques and increasing the effectiveness and reproducibility of downstream cell-based assays. (biotek.com)
  • Thus, an easy, convenient and cost-effective assay with a high level of reproducibility is required for rapid assessment of cell migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BioTek instruments provide versatile platforms for conducting viral research, with optimized imaging- and plate reader-based solutions, as well as liquid handling and automation tools for increased assay throughput and reproducibility. (biotek.tw)
  • HT1080 cells were seeded into either 96-well (20,000 cells/well) or 384-well (8,000 cells/well) Corning black, clearbottom plates provided with the Oris Pro Cell Migration Assay. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Use Oris™ Pro for simplest assay setup and full automation. (platypustech.com)
  • The Lin laboratory (Genentech) has demonstrated that cell migration in the PC-3 cell line is inhibited by specific drug and shRNA gene knockdown treatment. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Because melanomas specifically express the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 that are known to facilitate the CXCR2-dependent migration by monocytes, our aim is to evaluate whether introduction of the CXCR2 gene into tumor-specific T cells could further improve the effectiveness of ACT by enhancing T-cell migration to tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 5/6-nephrectomized animals, percentages of anti-smooth muscle actin+/CD31+ cells increased, indicating endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). (physiology.org)
  • Thus, our data reveal that LPP, which is normally operative in cells of mesenchymal origin, can be co-opted by breast cancer cells during an EMT to promote their migration and invasion. (biologists.org)
  • Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells that can be expanded many fold in vitro and have the therapeutic potential to restore the bone marrow microenvironment and support hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, adult stem cells predominantly residing in the stromal compartment of hematopoietic bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • However, its role in proliferation of cardiomyocyte derived from NPY-pretreated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and its therapeutic potential in stem cell-mediated therapy for MI has not been explored to date. (physiology.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show therapeutic effects in various types of diseases. (medsci.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewing progenitor cells that can differentiate into multiple mesoderm lineages. (medsci.org)
  • The QCM 24-well Migration Assay is ideal for the study of chemotaxis cell migration. (emdmillipore.com)
  • PAX3 is expressed in melanoma tissues and cell lines, melanocyte cell lines ( 3 , 4 ), and circulating melanoma cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • By contrast, competitive homing experiments allow the direct and simultaneous comparison in the migration of two (or even more) cell subsets in the same mouse and they also permit the analysis of many tissues and of a high number of cells in the same experiment. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe the classical competitive homing protocol used to determine the advantage/disadvantage of a given cell type to home to specific tissues as compared to a control cell population. (nih.gov)
  • Whether and how wound healing is affected by hypoxia in kidney cells and tissues is currently unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results suggest that GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may contribute to defective wound healing in hypoxic renal cells and tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We further demonstrate that memory T cells within small intestine epithelium do not routinely recirculate with memory T cells in other tissues, and we provide evidence that homing is similarly dynamic in humans after subcutaneous live yellow fever vaccine immunization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • that is, they exert their effect by secreting cytokines and growth factors acting on neighboring cells to repair damaged tissues [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 5-HTR1D, among the subtypes, is highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that arginylation plays a general role in the migration of the neural crest cells in development by regulating the molecular machinery that underlies cell migration through tissues and organs during morphogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Using MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, the assay was optimized for migration kinetics, cell seeding density, and DMSO tolerance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two glioma cell lines U87 and U251N, two breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and HeLa cervical cancer cells were obtained from American Type Cell Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, VA) and routinely maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented with 100 μg/ml of penicillin-streptomycin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of Rac1b or Rac1 and Rac1b in MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells by RNA interference enhanced or suppressed, respectively, TGF-β1-induced migration/invasion. (mdpi.com)
  • We identify lipoma preferred partner (LPP) as an indispensable regulator of TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • Involvement of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Its Ligand Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α in Breast Cancer Cell Migration Through Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells 1 1NIH grant NS39558 (S. Avraham), the Susan G. Komen Fellowship (S. Avraham), the Milheim Foundation (S. Avraham), CA97153 (H. Avraham), and K18 PAR-02-069 (H. Avraham). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells (CAL62) were transduced with lentiviral particles, to express the Renilla luciferase and mCherry (mCherry-Rluc) reporter genes. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we have evaluated the mechanism by which Akt1 blocks the migration of breast cancer cells through the transcription factor NFAT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our own studies revealed that Akt1 attenuates the activity of the transcription factor NFAT ( 5 ), which we showed previously to function as a promigratory and proinvasive transcription factor in breast cancer cells ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Migration of cells is an initial step during metastasis of cancer. (bmglabtech.com)