Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.

The novel proangiogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide is dependent on Akt phosphorylation. (1/100)

OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been reported to be a gasotransmitter which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. The present study aims to examine the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide is able to promote angiogenesis. METHODS: Angiogenesis was assessed using in vitro parameters (i.e. endothelial cell proliferation, adhesion, transwell migration assay, scratched wound healing and formation of tube-like structure) and in vivo by assessing neovascularization in mice. Phosphorylation of Akt was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Exogenously administered NaHS (H(2)S donor) concentration-dependently (10-20 micromol/l) increased cell growth, migration, scratched wound healing and tube-like structure formation in cultured endothelial cells. These effects of NaHS on endothelial wound healing and tube-like structure formation were prevented by either the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002 (5 micromol/l) or transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of Akt. NaHS increased Akt phosphorylation and this effect was also blocked by either LY 294002 or wortmannin (25 nmol/l). NaHS did not significantly alter the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor and angiopoietin-1, or nitric oxide metabolites. NaHS treatment (10 and 50 micromol kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly promoted neovascularization in vivo in mice. CONCLUSION: The present study reports a novel proangiogenic role of H(2)S which is dependent on activation of Akt.  (+info)

A rapid screening method for population-specific neuronal motogens, substrates and associated signaling pathways. (2/100)

We developed and characterized an assay that allows for rapid examination of migration of specific neuronal populations within a mixed population using the Boyden chamber principle. Migration of cerebellar interneurons and granule cells was examined using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(65)) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) promoters, respectively. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was used as the prototypic motogen for both populations. Fluorescent light-blocking inserts (FluoroBlok) with different pore sizes and densities were compared in a two-compartment assay. Immunodetection of polarity markers and nuclear staining indicated that dendrites and somata are preferentially extended through the pores in response to BDNF. Inserts coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were used to examine interactions between BDNF and the ECM during migration. ECM proteins alone stimulated migration when the lower side of the insert was coated, however coating of both sides of the insert slowed migration when compared to poly-D-lysine. Addition of a PI 3-kinase inhibitor to the lower compartment blocked BDNF-stimulated migration of both populations while a Src inhibitor reduced laminin-stimulated migration of interneurons, but not granule cells. We also examined use of neurons cultured from GAD(65)-eGFP mice as a reporter system for promoter activity. GAD(65)-eGFP mice may also be useful as a model for promoter regulation and the potential confounding effects of eGFP induction by the stimuli are also addressed. This assay allows for rapid analysis of motogens, substrates and signaling pathways that regulate migration of selected neuronal populations.  (+info)

Toll-like receptors on human mesenchymal stem cells drive their migration and immunomodulating responses. (3/100)

Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration, and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was initially established by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB, AKT, and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay, and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines, and chemokines measured identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSC migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSC migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies.  (+info)

Contribution of lung fibroblast migration in the fibrotic process of airway remodeling in asthma. (4/100)


Immunologic activation of human syncytiotrophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum. (5/100)


Altered chemotactic response of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C: role of alpha interferon. (6/100)


Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression. (7/100)


Lipopolysaccharide induces macrophage migration via prostaglandin D(2) and prostaglandin E(2). (8/100)


1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.

The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.

The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:

1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.

To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:

1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.

Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

... out time lapse live cell imaging to examine the temporal change of the distribution and the number of cells in scratch assay ... We provide an example of scratch assay by using CQ1. We carried ... Figure 3. Scratch assay. A Cell-free gap are created by making ... the cell cycle proceeded and the number of cells both in G1 phase and cells in S/G2/M phase increased in the cell-free gap with ... We performed scratch assay by using CQ1 and were able to capture the process of infiltration of the cells into the cell-free ...
Essential Oil of Bursera morelensis Promotes Cell Migration on Fibroblasts: In Vitro Assays. ... The results also showed that this EO promotes cell migration four hours after stimulation, and the formation of cell ... Essential Oil of ,i,Bursera morelensis,/i, Promotes Cell Migration on Fibroblasts: In Vitr ... since no decrease in cell viability or changes in cell proliferation were found. ...
... as a critical direct target of SOX11 and SOX4 regulating cell migration. Our study identifies the reactivated embryonic gene ... Here, the authors show that Sox11/Sox4 expression in the leading edge of wounds converts murine epidermal cells to an embryonic ... Wounding induces changes in cell identity but the mechanisms regulating this are unclear. ... Here, we show that upon damage in a mouse model, epidermal cells at the wound edge convert to an embryonic-like state, altering ...
To establish a cell migration assay with adherent cells, micropatterned elastomers (PDMS) were modified in terms of the surface ... Cell migration assay on topographically modified substrates Contact angle on PDMS before and after plasma treatment and ... Development of a Lab-on-a-Chip for the Application of Electric Fields to Cells ... Development of a Lab-on-a-Chip for the Application of Electric Fields to Cells ...
With live imaging random motility, average speed, vectorial distance and maximum distance of migration of cells were reduced ... With live imaging random motility, average speed, vectorial distance and maximum distance of migration of cells were reduced ... On the other hand, PACAP administration decreased the migration of melanoma cell lines towards fibronectin chemoattractant in ... On the other hand, PACAP administration decreased the migration of melanoma cell lines towards fibronectin chemoattractant in ...
CAFs and cancer cells co-migration in 3D spheroid invasion assay. Authors list. Sefora Conti Takuya Kato Danielle Park Erik ... we present a simple spheroid invasion assay to assess the role of CAFs in the collective migration of epithelial tumor cells. ... In many solid tumors, collective cell invasion prevails over single-cell dissemination strategies. Collective modes of invasion ... cellular movements which require tight mechanical crosstalk through specific combinations of cell-cell interactions and cell- ...
However, only few cell function-based tests have been used for comparative screening, and thus experience is scarce on how to ... We addressed these questions for the neural crest cell mig … ... 7:. Cell tracking as follow-up assay. Cells (plated at standard ... a transwell migration assay was used as a different type of migration assay; (3) cells were traced to assess cell speed. Some ... 8:. Transwell migration assay as follow-up assay. (A) Schematic indicating the assay principle: cells were plated into ...
... the transition from a neuroendocrine state to a more neuronal state endows these cancer cells with increased migration and ... metastatic potential of these cells. Protrusions were detected in mouse SCLC cell lines in migration assays and in vivo, in PDX ... and neuronal migration also reduced cell migration (Figure 3B). Quantification of cell migration showed that inhibition of ... SCLC cells can form long cellular protrusions in culture and in vivo. To investigate SCLC migration, we developed an assay in ...
Collective migration in scratch assays. In a second scenario, we use the trajectories to investigate collective migration. ... Single Cell Tracking for Migration Analyses. To investigate the migration behavior of cells, we have developed a method that ... One scenario is the application of growth factors next to a cell population. Assuming that cell migration is a stochastic ... Single Cell Tracking in Phase-Contrast Microscopy EMBL Symposium 2015 - Seeing is Believing - Imaging the Processes of Life, ...
... assay insert was used for chemotaxis/cell migration.. *Immune cells were added into Transwell™ assay inserts and allowed those ... Cell culture and cell differentiation *All cells were obtained from ATCC.. *Enhanced differentiated THP-1 macrophages were ... Migrated immune cells were quantified by using CyQUANT GR proliferation assay according to manufacturers instructions. ... Chemotaxis assays and quantification of migrated cells *3 mm pore size Transwell™ ...
To understand the coupling between leading cell migration and laminin 5 deposition, we developed a novel migration assay using ... The role of integrins α2β1 and α3β1 in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion of human epidermal cells. J. Cell Biol. ... after which cell-cell interactions dominated and migration declined. We therefore analyzed the migration of cells at low ... Processive migration was observed in greater than 60% of the cells on laminin 5 but in less than 20% of the cells on collagen ( ...
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. ... In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF- ...
In this study, exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells to 100 microg/ml of SS welding fumes for 24 h using the RadiusTM Migration assay ... Cell cultures; Embryology; Cell migration; Bioassays; Hydroxyl groups; Cytokines; Immune reaction; Scanning electron microscopy ... Our data shows that SS appears to have the most damaging effect on placental cells, which could be due to the presence of ... Results from a multiplex cytokine kit (Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC) show that exposure of cells to SS causes a pro-inflammatory ...
T cell adhesion assay and transendothelial migration assay. Phenotyping and enumeration of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) ... T-cell adhesion and transendothelial migration assays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from normal ... CXCL10 promoted T-cell migration across TEC in vitro, was frequently expressed by melanoma cells, and was upregulated in a ... T-cell transendothelial migration was assessed using Transwell Inserts. TEC (1 × 105 cells in 300 μL EMG-2) were added onto ...
Phase 1 - Neural Crest Cell Migration Assay. * Human (Cell Lines): IMR-90 ... Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening Assay Chemical List - Phase 1 * Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening Assay Chemical List ... Phase 2 - Neural Crest Cell Migration Assay. * Human (Cell Lines): IMR-90 ...
Cell migration and invasion assays. Cell migration assays were performed in Boyden chambers using 8 μm pore size ... such as increased cell adhesion and migration to exposed ECM [18], increased tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells and ... migration and invasion. 67LR mediates high affinity interaction between cells and LM, thus increasing cell migration and ... were requested and tested in a cell-based assay.. Human 37LRP cDNA transfection in HEK-293 cells results in cell surface ...
MeSH Terms: Adult; Blood Circulation/drug effects*; Cell Migration Assays; Cells, Cultured/drug effects*; Drinking Water/ ... Trophoblast migration and invasion were assessed using a modified scratch assay in the absence or presence of Matrigel, ... PFAS alter invasion of other cell types, but their impact on trophoblasts is not understood. We therefore assessed the effects ... Inhibition of chemokine receptors with pertussis toxin (10 ng/ml), a G-protein inhibitor, inhibited trophoblast migration ...
Cell migration and invasion assays.. Valster A; Tran NL; Nakada M; Berens ME; Chan AY; Symons M. Methods; 2005 Oct; 37(2):208- ... The role of FoxJ2 in the migration of human glioma cells.. Qiu X; Ji B; Yang L; Huang Q; Shi W; Ding Z; He X; Ban N; Fan S; ... 9. Expression of cortactin in human gliomas and its effect on migration and invasion of glioma cells.. Wang L; Zhao K; Ren B; ... 8. Involvement of ROS-alpha v beta 3 integrin-FAK/Pyk2 in the inhibitory effect of melatonin on U251 glioma cell migration and ...
Neural progenitors or neuroblasts are produced by precursor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the ... NCI CPTAC Assay Portal Full text links [x]. Elsevier Science Free PMC article ... Effect of olfactory activity on the speed of cell migration from the SVZ along the RMS into the OB. A) Experimental design. B) ... Magnetic resonance imaging of odorant activity-dependent migration of neural precursor cells and olfactory bulb growth Nikorn ...
Inferred from Direct Assay. more info. PubMed involved_in cell migration ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. ... involved_in negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in negative regulation of cell cycle G1/S phase transition IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ...
falsifying endothelial cell migration assays by reusing and falsely labeling one image as two different experiments: ... falsifying endothelial cell migration assays by reusing and falsely labeling one image as two different experiments: ... falsifying endothelial cell migration assays by reusing and falsely labeling one image as two different experiments: ... falsifying endothelial cell migration assays by reusing and falsely labeling one image as three different experiments: ...
In vitro migration assay showed that alcohol significantly increases mast cell-mediated tumor migration in vitro. Our data show ... The effect of alcohol on mast cell-mediated tumor migration was also assessed using an in vitro migration assay. Results: ... Similarly, treatment of liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, colon cancer cell line RKO, and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 ... mast cell-mediated tumor migration in vitro. Both our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that mast cell-mediated inflammation ...
... cell differentiation and assembly which finally lead to the formation of a capillary network. ... The uptake of these growth factors by capillaries initiates a sequence of events such as cell migration, ... A major process during angiogenesis is cell migration. We devised a quantitative assay to study cell motility along collagen ... We also conducted experiments with vascular endothelial cells, and found that cell orientation and migration are well- ...
Transwell migration assay and used the zebrafish model to access the role of ERp44 on the malignant phenotype in NPC cells. ... In vitro, the downregulation of ERp44 in NPC cells (CNE2, 5-8F) could suppress cells proliferation and migration. After that, ... The promotion of ERp44 on cell migration could be inhibited when ACLY was knocked down. More importantly, we also observed that ... Lastly, we found ERp44 was positively correlated with the expression of ACLY and could promote NPC cells growth in nude mice. ...
The cell migration assay [1] is based on a modified Phagokinetic tracks procedure, in which motile cells leave their tracks ... Phago Kinetic Tracks Analysis Tool WIS-PhagoTracker is a software application for quantitative analysis of high throughput cell ... The cell migration assay [1] is based on a modified Phagokinetic tracks procedure, in which motile cells "leave their tracks" ... WIS-PhagoTracker is a software application for quantitative analysis of high throughput cell migration assay. ...
involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IGI Inferred from Genetic Interaction. more info ... involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... involved_in regulation of cell migration IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Figure 3. Mutant ADAMTS18 is essential for melanoma cell migration possibly through modulating cell adhesion (A) Adhesion assay ... Melanoma cells expressing mutant ADAMTS18 had reduced cell migration after short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of ADAMTS18, ... Figure 3. Mutant ADAMTS18 is essential for melanoma cell migration possibly through modulating cell adhesion ... Migration ability of the cells was assessed and plotted. Representative images of migrated cells are shown in v and vi. ...
PDE models for cell migration assays 17 May 2022 2:00pm-3:00pm ... the power of machine learning to identify genes and cell ...
Cell Migration Assays [E05.242.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.242.335.500] * Cell Migration Assays, Macrophage [ ... Cell Culture Techniques [E01.370.225.500.223] * Cell Migration Assays [E01.370.225.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte ... Cell Culture Techniques [E05.200.500.265] * Cell Migration Assays [E05.200.500.335] * Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte [E05.200 ... Cell Migration Assays Preferred Concept UI. M0504912. Scope Note. Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are ...
... a biomarker of renal cell carcinoma associated with enhanced tumor cell proliferation and migration.. ... In addition, functional assays were done in generated transfectants.. The ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) was ... a biomarker of renal cell carcinoma associated with enhanced tumor cell proliferation and migration. ... Gain-of-function transfectants exhibited a significant higher proliferation and migration rate than UCHL1-negative RCC cells. ...
  • PAC1 receptor was identified in melanocytes in vivo and in vitro and in melanoma cell lines as well as in melanoma lesions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell-cell contacts ( via E-cadherin) between melanocytes and keratinocytes play a key role in regulation of melanocyte proliferation and behaviour with soluble factors being less important, a phenomenon that has been investigated both in vivo and in vitro ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • IL1α and TNFα induced expression of E-selectin, CXCL1, and VCAM1 on melanoma tumor-associated endothelial cells (TEC) in vitro and promoted adhesion of activated T cells onto TEC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Differentially Inhibit Placental Trophoblast Migration and Invasion In Vitro. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore assessed the effects of PFAS on trophoblast migration, invasion, and gene expression in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro , gelsolin deficiency did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation of adult neural progenitors cells (NPCs) but resulted in retarded migration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caruntu C, Boda D, Constantin C, Caruntu A and Neagu M: Catecholamines increase in vitro proliferation of murine B16F10 melanoma cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In vitro experiments demonstrated that over-expression of CLCA4 could inhibit cell migration and invasion by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via PI3K/ATK signaling and change the expression patterns of EMT markers in CLCA4-gain-of-function cell models. (medscimonit.com)
  • Immunosuppression mediated by MICCop was investigated in vivo by daily assessment of clinical signs of paralysis and in in vitro restimulation assays of peripheral immune cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The number and inhibitory activity of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were analysed by histology, flow cytometry and in vitro mixed lymphocyte cultures. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Humoral and cellular immune responses were then determined by ELISA and in vitro antigen restimulation assay. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In vitro angiogenesis assays: migration, proliferation and differentiation into tube-like structures in Matrigel™ ™ assays, have been used in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). (bl.uk)
  • In vitro cell migration assays mainly assess chemokine-triggered random migration (chemokinesis). (nih.gov)
  • Using our in vitro tube formation assay by the human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), we have tested the inhibitory effect of catechins on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF} signaling during angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Down-regulates macrophage migration in wound-healing assays (in vitro) (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • WIS-PhagoTracker is a software application for quantitative analysis of high throughput cell migration assay. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We describe a fluorescence-based phenotypic assay in a 1536-well plate format for high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors of chemotaxis/migration within complex libraries of thousands of compounds. (nih.gov)
  • My laboratory will design and characterize molecular motor variants using a rapid testing cycle that relies on new instrumentation for high throughput single molecule tracking and manipulation assays. (nih.gov)
  • This invention includes a novel high-throughput assay to identify orthosteric inhibitors blocking the Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells to 100 microg/ml of SS welding fumes for 24 h using the RadiusTM Migration assay showed significant inhibition of cellular migratory ability, whereas cells exposed to MS were not affected. (cdc.gov)
  • They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of anti-IL-8 antibody resulted in the inhibition of FAK expression, its downstream signaling, and the invasive potential of the OS cells, resulting in decrease in metastatic lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furtherly, miR-940-downregulated expression was also found in HCC patients, and importantly, miR-940 inhibition reversed circACTG1 expression in 97H cells with circACTG1 knockdown. (hindawi.com)
  • Catechins can contribute to cancer prevention not only by the reduction of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion, but also by the inhibition of angiogenesis, an obligatory process for tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Boyden Chamber Assay to Study of Cell Migration Induced by Metalloprotease Cleaved-CD95L. (nih.gov)
  • Boyden chamber assay was used for migration/invasion studies. (ku.edu)
  • Here, we show that upon damage in a mouse model, epidermal cells at the wound edge convert to an embryonic-like state, altering particularly the cytoskeletal/extracellular matrix (ECM) components and differentiation program. (nature.com)
  • Correspondingly, postnatal induction of SOX11 represses epidermal terminal differentiation while deficiency of Sox11 and Sox4 accelerates differentiation and dramatically impairs cell motility and re-epithelialization. (nature.com)
  • Dendritic cell differentiation was prepared using undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes cultured in serum-free RPMI-1640 culture medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml rhGM-CSF, 10 ng/ml rhTNF-α, and 200 ng/ml ionomycin for 3 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Neutrophil differentiation was prepared using HL-60 cells cultured in complete RPMI-1640 media containing 1.5% DMSO for 7 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Eosinophil differentiation was prepared using HL-60_C15 cells cultured in complete RPMI-1640 media containing 0.5 mM butyric acid for 7 days. (cdc.gov)
  • The uptake of these growth factors by capillaries initiates a sequence of events such as cell migration, cell differentiation and assembly which finally lead to the formation of a capillary network. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells contribute to systemic lupus erythaematosus by regulating differentiation of Th17 cells and Tregs. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Human embryonic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate pathologic changes of MRL/Lpr mice by regulating Th7 cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Design: Previous findings in our lab suggests, calcitriol act as differentiation agent in human osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and SaOS-2. (ku.edu)
  • Required for normal differentiation and migration of neuronal cells during brain corticogenesis and for normal embryonic brain development. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein associated with cell apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • PDCD10 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma by inhibiting apoptosis and activating EMT pathway. (nih.gov)
  • A hypoxia induced apoptosis assay was performed by seeding hCMEC/D3 on to glass coverslips in serum poor medium. (bl.uk)
  • Moreover, citicoline treatment showed a decrease in number of apoptotic cells (positive PI staining) in hypoxia induced apoptosis compared to untreated cells. (bl.uk)
  • Objective: Our primary objective is to investigate effects of calcitriol in combination with cisplatin on the osteosarcoma cell apoptosis, invasion and migration. (ku.edu)
  • The cover features an invading spheroid in the 3D invasion assay of their study for U87MG cells transfected with si-GALNT2 1. (portlandpress.com)
  • Before beginning the assay, coat the plate for the invasion assay with 50 microliters of extracellular matrix gel, diluted in ice-cold cell culture medium, to a 100 microgram per milliliter concentration. (jove.com)
  • SUMMARY: Findings of research misconduct have been made against Dr. Sudhakar Yakkanti (Respondent) (formerly named Sudhakar Akulapalli), [1] former staff scientist and Director of the Cell Signaling, Retinal & Tumor Angiogenesis Laboratory, Boys Town National Research Hospital (BTNRH). (nih.gov)
  • A major process during angiogenesis is cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • CLCA4 inhibits migration and invasion by suppressing EMT via PI3K/ATK signaling and predicts favorable prognosis of CRC which may help to distinguish potential risk of lymph node metastasis in CRC. (medscimonit.com)
  • My group is interested in the regulatory pathways that control the proliferation and migration of normal cells and the events that disrupt this control in tumourigenesis and metastasis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cancer cell mobility is crucial for the initiation of metastasis. (jove.com)
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive metastatic potential via communication by humoral factors between OS cells and hMSCs will be important for the identification of new targets for prevention of metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemotaxis and cell migration also play pivotal roles in normal physiological processes such as embryogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing, as well as in pathological processes including chronic inflammatory disease and cancer metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • The easily removable underdrain and unique plate design are ideal for assays such as Elispot, PAMPA, cell screening (migration, invasion or chemotaxis) or for topcount detection users. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently, time-lapse imaging has allowed accurate analyses of chemokinesis as well as directed tumor cell migration in a chemokine gradient (chemotaxis). (nih.gov)
  • We established conditions to study chemokinesis and chemotaxis in invasive, lung colony forming breast cancer cells (MCF10CA1a) and analyzed their migratory response to EGF, LPA-, and TGF-beta1. (nih.gov)
  • In EZTaxiscan chemotaxis assays, EGF mainly induced chemokinesis of MCF10CA1a cells, while LPA and TGF-beta1 gave rise to robust chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent fashion. (nih.gov)
  • Aspects of innate immunity derive from characteristics inherent to phagocytes, including chemotaxis toward and engulfment of unicellular organisms or cell debris. (nih.gov)
  • Novel chemotaxis/migration inhibitors are, thus, desirable for developing effective therapeutics and probing molecular mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Although the assay utilizes the unique cellular response properties of Dictyostelium , the compounds identified are able to inhibit chemotaxis of mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • This novel compound screening approach enables rapid identification of novel lead compounds that inhibit chemotaxis in human and other cells for drug development and research tools. (nih.gov)
  • Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were carried out to access the cell migration and invasion ability. (medscimonit.com)
  • Here we show that mouse and human SCLC cells in culture and in vivo can grow cellular protrusions that resemble axons. (elifesciences.org)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • During embryogenesis and placentation, cellular migration is a highly orchestrated and multi-step process that plays an integral role in providing the foundation for a successful pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • To study the network formation of endothelial cells (EC) in an Extra-Cellular-Matrix (ECM) environment, we have devised an EC aggregation-type model based on a diffusion-limited-cluster-aggregation model (DLCA), where clusters of particles diffuse and stick together upon contact. (nih.gov)
  • Cells grown on filter plates differentiate better than those grown on traditional plastic substrates, resulting in more in vivo-like results This filter plate/tray combination can be used for a variety of cellular assays, including, transport, toxicity and screening assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This method can provide insight into cancer cell invasion, through the extra-cellular matrix, and can be applied to other cell types. (jove.com)
  • We developed a new co-culture model, using OS cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without cellular contact, and found that both cell types expressed IL-8 at a high level, and FAK in OS cells was phosphorylated leading to an increase in the metastatic potential of the tumor in the co-culture condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we investigate the effect of long-term exposure to high aspect ratio CNTs on the aggressive behaviors of human pleural mesothelial cells, the primary cellular target of human lung mesothelioma. (cdc.gov)
  • Our laboratory group studies signaling cascades essential for eukaryotic growth and development, using molecular, genetic, cellular, and biochemical techniques, and the model eukaryote Dictyostelium, which grow as individual phagocytic cells in enriched media, but develop multicellularly upon nutrient depletion. (nih.gov)
  • Trophoblast migration and invasion were assessed using a modified scratch assay in the absence or presence of Matrigel, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • I used IncuCyte to perform scratch migration assays and it really made my life easier comp. (selectscience.net)
  • To achieve an optimal scratch time, ensure that the seeding density has been optimized and do not prolong the incubation period once the cell monolayer has reached 100 percent confluence. (jove.com)
  • Specific areas of expertise include RNA sequencing and ChIP sequencing and related bioinformatics, protein-DNA interactions, cell migration and cell invasion assays, and the analysis of signal transduction pathways. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We have defined cell autonomous and non-autonomous signal transduction pathways that drive transitional decisions to promote growth and/or regulate development. (nih.gov)
  • This laboratory also investigates molecular processes required for establishing a terminally differentiated organism from a homogeneous population of totipotent cells and is defining signal transduction pathways that specify developmental cell fates and pattern formation. (nih.gov)
  • Results: MICCop cells were able to inhibit the harmful autoreactive T-cell response and prevented mice from further relapses without affecting general immune responses. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • We devised a quantitative assay to study cell motility along collagen fibrils. (nih.gov)
  • The circACTG1 expression in collected HCC cells was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, we have developed a real-time, quantitative assay for phagocytosis of live gram positive and gram negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Our current focus is the Proline Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hhex), an oligomeric transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and cell migration in multiple contexts. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Our previous work showed that PRH directly regulates transcription of a TGFbeta co-receptor and that this is important for the regulation of prostate cell migration by PRH. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, circACTG1 potentially regulates HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration via miR-940/RIF1/AKT/mTOR pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway. (ibidi.com)
  • Regulates the migration of cerebellar granule cells in the developing brain. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of PNN with the desmosome is correlated to highly organized, perpendicular bundles of keratin filaments, and primarily stabilizes the desmosome-IF association and reinforces the epithelial cells adhesion [ 8 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Epithelial cells growing on a patterned adhesive surface with the shape of the Weizmann Institute tree. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 1) During Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cells begin to express different cell adhesion proteins and they start to become more migratory. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Melanoblasts, early precursors of melanocytes, originate from neural crest and exhibit intense motility and migration ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Inflammatory and immune cells in subtype B displayed a more modest level of activation (Wilcoxon test P (bvsalud.org)
  • These phenotypes are likely driven by changes in gene expression and epigenetic programs that allow cancer cells to overcome the many hurdles that normally constrain the metastatic process. (elifesciences.org)
  • TaqMan gene expression assays were obtained from ThermoFisher Scientific. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression is central to understanding cell proliferation, cell migration, and tumourigenesis and work in this area has laid the foundations for targeted cancer therapies. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • There are open questions concerning which form of VEGF actually guides chemotactic migration of cells to form a capillary network, and the roles of the extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). (nih.gov)
  • Amongst the embryonic genes reactivated at the wound edge, we identify fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1) as a critical direct target of SOX11 and SOX4 regulating cell migration. (nature.com)
  • Injuries disrupting the skin barrier elicit responses from multiple cell types, inducing epidermal cells to migrate to the wound site and regenerate a new epidermis 2 . (nature.com)
  • Download the whole "Wound Healing and Migration Assays" Application Guide as a PDF here . (ibidi.com)
  • Ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase 1: a biomarker of renal cell carcinoma associated with enhanced tumor cell proliferation and migration. (nih.gov)
  • Gain-of-function transfectants exhibited a significant higher proliferation and migration rate than UCHL1-negative RCC cells. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, PACAP administration decreased the migration of melanoma cell lines towards fibronectin chemoattractant in the Boyden chamber. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our work investigated the DNA binding specificity of the HPV E2 proteins and their effects on gene regulation and cell survival. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the presence of the neuropeptide inhibited the invasion capability of melanoma cell lines in Matrigel chambers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibitor of Her2 (GW2974) was used to investigate the angiogenic signalling pathway by western blotting and Matrigel™ assay in hCMEC/D3 in the presence or absence of citicoline. (bl.uk)
  • Calcitriol sensitization inhibits the migration of 143B-P cells in matrigel whereas no significant difference was observed in control and calcitriol treated 143B-MM cells. (ku.edu)
  • The formation of these protrusions is controlled by multiple neuronal factors implicated in axonogenesis, axon guidance, and neuroblast migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • Plays a role in axon guidance, invasive growth and cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Members of the B class of plexins, such as PLXNB2 are transmembrane receptors that participate in axon guidance and cell migration in response to semaphorins (Perrot et al. (nih.gov)
  • However, tumor cell migration during malignant progression is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Stainless steel welding fumes adversely affect migratory ability of first trimester human placental cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Uniform stimulation of MCF10CA1a cells with EGF increased migratory speed of cells and decreased directional movement, while LPA did not influence migratory speed but increased directionality. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokine profiling was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Disruption of these axon-like protrusions impairs cell migration in culture and inhibits metastatic ability in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • On the basis of this concept, we developed a co-culture model of the human OS cell line MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • VEGFA inhibited TNFα-induced expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 and T-cell adhesion, which was blocked by bevacizumab. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The results demonstrated that the co-culture induced high expression of IL-8 in both cell lines, and that IL-8 functioned as a ligand leading to the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and activation of motility of OS cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Millipore's new MultiScreen HTS+ Hi flow filter plate design lessens non-specific binding and reduces variability in both background and signal intensities specifically for biochemical screening assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated the toxicity of the retronecine-type PAs with different structures to cell lines derived from mammalian tissues, including primary mouse hepatocytes, human hepatocytes (HepD), mouse hepatoma-22 (H 22 ) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. (nih.gov)
  • circACTG1 was overexpressed in HCC cells and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • During malignant progression, epithelial tumor cells invade surrounding tissues and migrate to metastatic sites. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the effort and enthusiasm for xenotrans- rently, the largest breeding colony of baboons is at plantation has centred on pig cells and tissues for the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, use in humans. (who.int)
  • In addition of classical immunostaining, we have labeled microtubules in living cell by incorporation of a GFP- -tubulin fusion protein into microtubules which leave them highly motile. (nih.gov)
  • The amount of fluorescent protein expressed by the cells is measured by this device. (selectscience.net)
  • Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) rendered suppressive by treatment with mitomycin C and loaded with the autoantigen myelin basic protein demonstrated earlier their ability to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This provides an approach for prophylactic vaccination against autoimmune diseases. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFbeta) is up-regulated in many tumours and this protein can induce EMT and increase cell migration. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • 2) Our recent work has shown that the PRH protein is important in bile duct cells and in bile duct cancer. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A2058 and WM35 melanoma cell lines, representing two different stages of melanoma progression, were used to investigate the effects of PACAP. (frontiersin.org)
  • We further found that the paracrine factor IL-8 formed a signaling loop between OS cells and hMSCs, leading to the tumor progression and metastatic spread. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Programmed Cell Death 10 Mediated CXCL2-CXCR2 Signaling in Regulating Tumor-Associated Microglia/Macrophages Recruitment in Glioblastoma. (nih.gov)
  • Whole genome microarray analysis further indicated the importance of MMP-2 in the invasion gene signaling network of the exposed cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Additive/competitive assays indicate that intracellular signaling-networks for multiple ligands utilize independent upstream adaptive mechanisms, but common downstream targets, thus amplifying detection at low signal propagation, but strengthening discrimination of multiple inputs. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface receptor for SEMA4C, SEMA4D and SEMA4G that plays an important role in cell-cell signaling. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Effect of nonmyeloablative unrelated fetal and neonatal murine peripheral blood mononuclear cell infusion on MRL/lpr mice. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: We replaced DCs by peripheral mononuclear cells and myelin autoantigens by glatiramer acetate (Copaxone ®), a drug approved for the treatment of MS. Spleen cells were loaded with Copaxone®, incubated with mitomycin C (MICCop) and injected into mice after the first bout of relapsing-remitting EAE. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most lethal and most metastatic cancer types. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the present study, we hypothesized that humoral factors might be involved in more efficient modification, by OS cells, of the microenvironment and/or even the condition of the distal metastatic destination favorably for the tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We will now study chemoattraction and chemokinesis in response to different ligands in a series of increasingly malignant breast cancer cells (MCF10A series) with the goal to identify key targets that control invasive and metastatic tumor disease. (nih.gov)
  • SCLC cells normally express neuroendocrine and neuronal gene programs but accumulating evidence indicates that these cancer cells become relatively more neuronal and less neuroendocrine as they gain the ability to metastasize. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cutaneous melanocytes are pigment producing dendritic cells that are found in hair follicles and in the stratum basale of the epidermis in human skin. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3. The naturally processed CD95L elicits a c-yes/calcium/PI3K-driven cell migration pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The current protocol describes an integrated method investigating cancer cell migration and invasion on a single platform in real-time, providing an easily reproducible and time-efficient option to study cell mobility and morphology. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, investigation of cell movement and invasive capacity of tumor cells is of great interest. (jove.com)
  • The dose response of cisplatin with and without calcitriol (100nM) pretreatment was studied in osteosarcoma cell lines 143B-MM, 143-P and control murine osteoblast MC3T3-E1. (ku.edu)
  • CK2 abrogates the inhibitory effects of PRH/HHEX on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion and acts through PRH to control cell proliferation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In cell migration assay, treatment with citicoline significantly increased cells migration in hCMEC/D3 compared to untreated cells on hypoxia conditions. (bl.uk)
  • Decreased actin turnover and rigidity of cytoskeletal structures have been associated with aging and cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our current work is looking at the genes and pathways that are regulated by PRH in bile duct cells and bile duct cancer cells. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Subtype A exhibited a marked activation of inflammatory cells and pathways, while subtype C was characterized by the presence of specific innate lymphocytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • A new tumor model, combining human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and tumor cells, develops abundant human vessels. (nih.gov)
  • Modulation of Chemotactic and Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (ibidi.com)
  • To investigate the migration behavior of cells, we have developed a method that tracks single cells in phase-contrast microscopy. (zib.de)
  • however, cells on top of this film have the same behavior as in a complex 3-dimensional in vivo matrix. (nih.gov)
  • Effective and efficient, it also provides real-time data on the behavior of cells in cultu. (selectscience.net)
  • Treatment with perfluorooctanoic sulfate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and GenX (1000 ng/ml) each decreased trophoblast migration over 24 h. (nih.gov)
  • Using human placental trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo) from the first trimester, we aimed to identify the mechanisms of toxicity associated with stainless steel (SS) and mild steel (MS) welding rods. (cdc.gov)
  • PFAS alter invasion of other cell types, but their impact on trophoblasts is not understood. (nih.gov)
  • Our hypothesis is pretreatment of OS cells with calcitriol would sensitize them for cisplatin therapy leading to decrease in concentration for IC50. (ku.edu)
  • Calcitriol pretreatment does modulate MMP-1expression in 143B-P OS cells. (ku.edu)
  • Secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on migration and invasion of OS cell lines, and the role of matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) in migration/invasion. (ku.edu)
  • If successful, this will create a murine tumor model that nearly completely reproduces the human tumor microenvironment with human tumor stroma, vessels and tumor stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • This is consistent with findings that the production of MMPs by cells near the parent capillary is necessary to initiate the formation of new vasculature. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of apoptotic cells by flow cytometry showed inconclusive results in both treated and untreated hCMEC/D3. (bl.uk)
  • Expression of PACAP receptors was examined in human skin samples, melanoma lesions and in a primary melanocyte cell culture. (frontiersin.org)
  • PACAP administration did not alter viability but decreased proliferation of melanoma cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, we provide evidence that PACAP receptors are expressed in melanocytes and in melanoma cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to explore the functional role of CLCA4, gain-of-function cell models were constructed in SW620 and LoVo cells. (medscimonit.com)
  • In addition, functional assays were done in generated transfectants. (nih.gov)
  • The ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) was found to be differentially expressed in both RCC lesions and RCC cell lines and immunoreactive using patients' sera. (nih.gov)
  • Using polarized cells, we showed oriented thin collagen film induces natural migration along the fibrils without using any sort of attractor. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic exposure to carbon nanotubes induces invasion of human mesothelial cells through matrix metalloproteinase-2. (cdc.gov)
  • After arrival to the epidermis, melanoblasts differentiate to (epidermal or hair follicle) melanocytes or to melanocyte stem cells ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor vascular cells are critical for the growth of tumor stem cells, which reside within the vascular niche. (nih.gov)
  • One challenge with characterizing tumor stem cells has been finding appropriate conditions for in vivo growth. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore propose (3) to isolate ovarian tumor stem cells and grow them in vivo using the ESC ovarian cancer model. (nih.gov)

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