Ephrin-B2: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.Ephrin-B1: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.Ephrin-B3: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.Receptor, EphB4: An eph family receptor found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. Unlike the majority of proteins in this class there is little or no expression of EphB4 receptor in the BRAIN. It has been found at high levels in developing mammary glands and in invasive mammary tumors.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Receptor, EphB2: An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. High levels of EphB2 receptor are observed in growing AXONS and NERVE FIBERS. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Ephrin-A1: An ephrin that was originally identified as the product of an early response gene induced by TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS. It is linked to the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR and binds EPHA2 RECEPTOR with high affinity. During embryogenesis high levels of ephrin-A1 are expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; SALIVARY GLANDS; and INTESTINE.Ephrin-A5: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.Ephrin-A4: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in variety of adult tissue such as KIDNEY; LUNG; COLON and OVARY. During embryonic development, ephrin-A4 is expressed in the HIPPOCAMPUS and CEREBRAL CORTEX. It binds preferentially to ephA receptors (EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS) with the exception of the EPHA1 RECEPTOR.Receptor, EphA4: An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptor, EphA1: The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.Ephrin-A3: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR; EPHA5 RECEPTOR; EPHA6 RECEPTOR; EPHA7 RECEPTOR; and EPHA8 RECEPTOR. It is found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Receptor, EphA3: An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.Receptor, EphA2: An Eph family receptor found abundantly in tissues of epithelial origin. It is expressed in a diverse array of tissues during embryonic development, suggesting that it may play a role in embryogenesis. In adult tissues high levels of the receptor are expressed in the LUNG; SKIN; SMALL INTESTINE and OVARY.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Mice, Inbred C57BLSkull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Receptor, EphA5: An eph family receptor found primarily in differentiated neuronal tissues. Several isoforms of EphA5 receptor occur due to multiple alternative RNA splicing. The protein is prominently expressed in the NEURONS of the LIMBIC SYSTEM during development and throughout adult life, suggesting its role in the plasticity of limbic structure and function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptor, EphB3: An eph family receptor found in a number of tissues including BRAIN; LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; INTESTINE; and HEART. During embryogenesis EphB3 receptor is expressed at high levels in the brain.Receptor, EphA7: An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryo tissues, including the NERVOUS SYSTEM. In the BRAIN high levels of EphA7 expression occurs in the anterior tectum, medulla, RHOMBENCEPHALON, and SUBCOMMISSURAL ORGAN. Several isoforms of the protein occur due to multiple alternative spicing of the EphA7 mRNA.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Receptor, EphB1: An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsExtracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Receptor, EphA8: An eph family receptor found exclusively in BRAIN. EphA8 receptors may play a role in the axonal guidance of a subset of tectal commissural NEURONS.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte: Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Anterior Capsule of the Lens: The anterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.PhosphoproteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptor, EphB6: An eph family receptor found primarily in BRAIN and THYMUS. The EphB6 receptor is unusual in that its tyrosine kinase domain shares little homology with other members of this class. The unusual tyrosine kinase domain of this receptor appears to result in its lack of tyrosine kinase activity.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cortactin: A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Han DC, Shen TL, Miao H, Wang B, Guan JL (Nov 2002). "EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration". J. Biol. Chem. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for ephrin-B family members. EPH receptor B1 has been shown to interact with: ... Ephrin type-B receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHB1 gene. Ephrin receptors and their ligands, the ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ...
... and ephrin receptors. The protein plays a role in the integrin signaling pathway and cell migration by binding with focal ... GRB7 has been shown to interact with: EPH receptor B1, Insulin receptor, PTK2, RET proto-oncogene, and Rnd1 Model organisms ... Han DC, Shen TL, Miao H, Wang B, Guan JL (Nov 2002). "EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration". The Journal of ... Han DC, Guan JL (Aug 1999). "Association of focal adhesion kinase with Grb7 and its role in cell migration". The Journal of ...
Injury to the peripheral nervous system immediately elicits the migration of phagocytes, Schwann cells, and macrophages to the ... For instance, transforming growth factors B-1 and -2, interleukins, and cytokines play a role in the initiation of scar ... OMgp -Oligodendrocyte Myelin glycoprotein Ephrin B3 functions through the EphA4 receptor and inhibits remyelination. Sema 4D( ... Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are another type of glial cell found in the central nervous system that play a role in glial ...
Cell. 82 (3): 359-70. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90425-5. PMID 7634326. Huot, J (Aug 2004). "Ephrin signaling in axon guidance". ... cell migration, axon pruning, synaptic transmission, and axonal transport. Semaphorins are the main ligands for the Neuropilin ... Aurandt, J; Vikis, HG; Gutkind, JS; Ahn, N; Guan, KL (2002-09-17). "The semaphorin receptor plexin-B1 signals through a direct ... Ephrins are divided into 2 classes: Ephrin-As are bound to the membrane through GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) linkage and ...
Semaphorin 4D is cleaved from its membrane bound form by MT1-MMP (MMP-14) in tumor cells; it then interacts with plexin B1 on ... Angiogenesis requires the migration and invasive growth of cells. This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between ... The ephrins EPH receptor A2 and A3 are shed by ADAM10 creating cleaved soluble Eph receptors, which inhibit tumor angiogenesis ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... By stabilizing p35 (CDK5R1), in utero electroporation studies revealed BDNF was able to promote cortical radial migration by ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
cell-cell signaling. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • axon guidance. • osteoclast differentiation. • bone remodeling. ... Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... "Characterization of ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 as ligands for the EphA8 receptor protein tyrosine kinase". Mol. Cells. 9 (4): 440- ...
EphAs would preferentially avoid ephrin A5 expressing cells and possibly migrate towards cells with lower expression of ephrin ... Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... Ephrin A5 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of the ephrin-A subclass of ephrin ligands that binds to the ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... including embryonic development,[2] cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... It was discovered by NeXstar Pharmaceuticals and licensed in 2000 to EyeTech Pharmaceuticals, now OSI Pharmaceuticals, for late ...
... the family of ephrins include ephrin A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, and B3. ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... Ephrins[edit]. The ephrins are a family of neurotrophic factors that signal through eph receptors, a class of receptor tyrosine ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... sensitizes small cell lung cancer cell lines to the effects of chemotherapy". Clin Cancer Res. 11 (4): 1563-71. doi:10.1158/ ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several ...
positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ... neural crest cell migration. • neuron differentiation. • positive regulation of cell size. • positive regulation of neuron ...
The migration ability of HeLa cells transfected with Cdc42 was higher than that of non-transfected cells.[9] It was proposed ... ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • filopodium assembly. • T cell costimulation. • blood coagulation. • positive regulation of ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... Normal cancer cells and Cdc42-deficient cancer cells have also been compared in vivo. When both types of cells were injected ...
Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3). *Erythropoietin (see here instead) ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... By stabilizing p35 (CDK5R1), in utero electroporation studies revealed BDNF was able to promote cortical radial migration by ~ ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
Diverse roles of eph receptors and ephrins in the regulation of cell migration and tissue assembly. Dev. Cell. 7:465-480. ... Surface densities of ephrin-B1 determine EphB1-coupled activation of cell attachment through alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 ... b) EphB2+GFP cells segregate from ephrinB1 cells. (c) EphB2+iFGFR +GFP cells fail to segregate from ephrinB1 cells. (d-f) Time- ... GFP cell is not repelled and remains in contact with an EphB2 cell. (e) Upon touching an ephrinB1 cell, an EphB2+GFP cell ...
Han DC, Shen TL, Miao H, Wang B, Guan JL (Nov 2002). "EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration". J. Biol. Chem. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for ephrin-B family members. EPH receptor B1 has been shown to interact with: ... Ephrin type-B receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHB1 gene. Ephrin receptors and their ligands, the ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ...
Ectopic phrase of ephrin-B1 causes cell:cell dissociation of blastomeres (Jones et?al., 1998), and, in the digestive tract ... One family members of potential government bodies of keratinocyte injury migration are the Eph receptors and their ephrin ... EphB/ephrin-B signaling maintains correct Paneth cell compartmentalization by controlling differential cell:cell adhesion ( ... as are all ephrin-As, but just EphA1, A2, A4, and A7 are portrayed at over background levels (Body?S i90001A). Ephrin-B1 and ...
2002) Ephrin-B1 transduces signals to activate integrin-mediated migration, attachment and angiogenesis. J Cell Sci 115:3073- ... We tested the effects of soluble, unclustered ephrin B1 (ephrin B1-Fc), an antagonist of ephrin B actions (Davis et al., 1994 ... We therefore examined whether ephrin B1-Fc affected CGN migration in the presence of homotypic cell contacts using reaggregate ... In contrast, ephrin B1-Fc had no effect on CGN migration under these conditions (data not shown). Because migration assays used ...
... and ephrin receptors. The protein plays a role in the integrin signaling pathway and cell migration by binding with focal ... GRB7 has been shown to interact with: EPH receptor B1, Insulin receptor, PTK2, RET proto-oncogene, and Rnd1 Model organisms ... Han DC, Shen TL, Miao H, Wang B, Guan JL (Nov 2002). "EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration". The Journal of ... Han DC, Guan JL (Aug 1999). "Association of focal adhesion kinase with Grb7 and its role in cell migration". The Journal of ...
UNC-73 activates the Rac GTPase and is required for cell and growth cone migrations in C. elegans. Cell 92: 785-795. ... Ephrin-A5 induces collapse of growth cones by activating Rho and Rho kinase. J Cell Biol 149: 263-270. ... Aurandt J, Vikis HG, Gutkind JS, Ahn N, Guan KL (2002) The semaphorin receptor plexin-B1 signals through a direct interaction ... Trajectory analysis unveils Reelins role in the directed migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus ...
Diverse roles of eph receptors and ephrins in the regulation of cell migration and tissue assembly. Developmental cell 2004 Oct ... Thus, Rac1 and Plexin B1 signaling appears to be bidirectional: Rac-1 modulates Plexin B1 activity, and Plexin B1 modulates Rac ... Diverse roles of eph receptors and ephrins in the regulation of cell migration and tissue assembly. Developmental cell 2004 Oct ... Direct interaction of Rnd1 with Plexin-B1 regulates PDZ-RhoGEF-mediated Rho activation by Plexin-B1 and induces cell ...
We also detected ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B3 in the tumor cells, as well as low levels of ephrin-B1 in the endothelial cells (see ... First, our in vitro migration assays show that endothelial cells are attracted toward the EphB4-expressing tumor cells. Ephrin- ... F and G) Membrane-bound ephrin-B2 causes defects in cell division. MDA-MB-435 cells transfected with ephrin-B2ΔC-EGFP (F) and ... Top) In a lateral migration assay, EphB4ΔC-EGFP tumor cells attract more HUVE cells (red) than EGFP-F cells. (Scale bar ...
Binds to ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2. Modulates cell adhesion and migration by exerting both positive and negative effects upon ... Inhibits JNK activation, T-cell receptor-induced IL-2 secretion and CD25 expression upon stimulation with ephrin-B2 (By ... Kinase-defective receptor for members of the ephrin-B family. ... Binds to ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2. Modulates cell adhesion and ... Its extracellular domain is capable of promoting cell adhesion and migration in response to low concentrations of ephrin-B2, ...
Han DC, Shen TL, Miao H, Wang B, Guan JL (Nov 2002). "EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration". J. Biol. Chem. ... Ephrin receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, mediate numerous developmental processes, particularly in the nervous system. ... Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to ... Ephrin type-B receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHB1 gene.[1][2] ...
Ephrin, and Semaphorins roles in development have expanded greatly in the past decade from their original characterization as ... EphrinB1 controls cell-cell junctions through the Par polarity complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10(8):979-86. doi: 10.1038/ncb1758. ... Ephexin4 and EphA2 mediate cell migration through a RhoG-dependent mechanism. J Cell Biol. 2010;190(3):461-77. doi: 10.1083/jcb ... Loss of Plexin B1 is highly prognostic in low proliferating ER positive breast cancers-results of a large scale microarray ...
Ephs and ephrins are perhaps best known for their role in axon guidance. It was first shown in the visual system that graded ... Colocalisation of ephrin B1 with neuroblasts and glial cells in the RMS and SVZ. a Ephrin B1/polysialylated neural cell ... but not ephrin B1, in astrocytes in the SVZ [12]. A later study detected ephrin B1 and B2 but not ephrin B3 in the SVZ by ... via ephrin B2) and the other that is Eph receptor independent via ephrin B1. It has previously been shown that ephrin B1 ...
From migration to settlement: the pathways, migration modes and dynamics of neurons in the developing brain ... Netrin-1 is made by and secreted from floor plate cells of the neural tube. Netrin-2 is synthesized in the lower regions of the ... ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), netrin 4 (NTN4), neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), neurexin 3 (NRXN3 ... catalytic subunit type 2 gamma EPHB1 EPH receptor B1 Symbol Fold change Location Type(s) WNT16 -7.. Mechanism of action of ...
5D; ephrin B1, similar pattern, not shown) and surrounding the olivary migration (ephrin A5, Fig. 5G,H). An inhibitory ... Thus, although the migration domain of olivary cells is delimited in vivo as well as in control explants, these cells were ... whereas several putative ligands are expressed around the olivary migration (ephrin A5), in the floor plate (ephrin B1 and B3) ... ephrin B3, ephrin B1 not illustrated) or surround the forming olivary nucleus (G,H, ephrin A5). The inhibitory influence of ...
The validity of our approach is seen by our findings for pre-B cell ALL, where targets currently in clinical trials were top- ... The validity of our approach is seen by our findings for pre-B cell ALL, where targets currently in clinical trials were top- ... In this manner we generated a list of potential immune targets expressed on the cell surface, ranked by their difference from ... In this manner we generated a list of potential immune targets expressed on the cell surface, ranked by their difference from ...
Santiago, A. and Erickson, C. A. (2002). Ephrin-B ligands play a dual role in the control of neural crest cell migration. ... F-spondin and ephrin B1 do lead to neural crest migration defects (Debby-Brafman et al., 1999; Eickholt et al., 1999; Krull et ... Eph/ephrins initially repel neural crest cells from the dorsolateral pathway and later stimulate dorsolateral migration of ... 3K,L; P=0.024). Despite non-segmental migration at E9.5 (Fig. 2B,F), Nrp2 mutant neural crest cells formed discrete DRGs and ...
The family of receptor tyrosine kinases EPH and their Ephrin ligands regulate cell proliferation, migration, and attachment. An ... EPHB2 and EPHB3, together with their ligand Ephrin-B1, regulate proliferation and cell positioning within the intestinal crypts ... EphB receptors coordinate migration and proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. Cell 2006; 125: 1151-63. ... Interplay between EphB4 on tumor cells and vascular ephrin-B2 regulates tumor growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101: 5583- ...
Ephrin A2 (EFNA2), which belongs to ephrins family, regulates cell adhesion, motility, survival, proliferation, and ... Semaphorins 4A (SEMA4A) suppresses endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo mediated by ... Bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1), Cathepsin E (CTSE), Ephrin A2 (EFNA2), NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1 (NFAM1), ... Stem Cells. 2011;29:32-45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Shames DS, Girard L, Gao B, Sato M, Lewis CM, Shivapurkar N, et ...
Tiam1 mediates neurite outgrowth induced by ephrin-B1 and EphA2. EMBO J. 2004 Mar 10;23(5):1075-88 ... DNA Cell Biol. 2001 Apr;20(4):203-13 1*. J:153498 Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, ... J:37450 Studer M, Lumsden A, Ariza-McNaughton L, Bradley A, Krumlauf R, Altered segmental identity and abnormal migration of ... J:171618 Saeger BM, Suhm M, Neubuser A, Ephrin/ephrin receptor expression during early stages of mouse inner ear development. ...
Tanaka M, Kuriyama S, Aiba N. Nm23-H1 regulates contact inhibition of locomotion, which is affected by ephrin-B1. J Cell Sci. ... Goicoechea SM, Awadia S, Garcia-Mata R. Im coming to GEF you: regulation of RhoGEFs during cell migration. Cell Adhes Migr. ... Role of nm23 in the regulation of cell shape and migration via Rho family GTPase signals. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;329:175-9. ... cell polarity and motility, endocytosis and vesicle trafficking, cell cycle progression, cell division, and tumorigenesis [18 ...
Ephrin-B1 transduces signals to active integrin-mediated migration, attachment and angiogenesis. J. Cell Sci. 115, 3073-3081. ... The Ephrin-B1 ectodomain is processed by MMP-8. The cleavage of ephrin-B1 was inhibited in PANC-1 cells expressing ephrin-B1, ... PANC-1 cells stably expressing wild-type ephrin-B1 (PANC-1 ephrin-B1) or ΔC4 ephrin-B1 (PANC-1 ΔC4) were established to compare ... The C-terminus of ephrin-B1 regulates the invasion of cancer cells. (A) Wild-type (WT) ephrin-B1 or ΔC4 ephrin-B1 mutant was ...
Surface densities of ephrin-B1 determine EphB1-coupled activation of cell attachment through alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 ... The cell angiogenic behavior and intracellular interactions were observed in terms of directed migration of MSCs toward HUVECs ... Stem Cells. 2004;22(4):625-34. Cerca con Google. Caplan A.I., Dennis J.E., Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators. J Cell ... A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs. Cell Stem Cell. 2008 Sep 11;3(3):301-13. Cerca con ...
A recurring feature of Eph/ephrin signaling involves cytoskeleton dynamics, cell morphology and migration, which usually but ... Indeed, Eph/ephrins are expressed in the blood vessel compartment of the lung and among them, ephrin-A1, B1, B2 and EphB4 are ... Ephrin-A1 suppresses Th2 cell activation and provides a regulatory link to lung epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2004;172:843-850. ... Ephrin-B2 controls cell motility and adhesion during blood-vessel-wall assembly. Cell. 2006;124:161-173. [PubMed] ...
... of ephrin-B1 expression by short inter-fering RNA or overexpression of phosphorylation-defective mutant suppressed migration ... Cell Culture Techniques / methods. *[MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor ... Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. ... Tanaka M, Kamata R, Takigahira M, Yanagihara K, Sakai R: Phosphorylation of ephrin-B1 regulates dissemination of gastric ...
Ephrin-B2 controls cell motility and adhesion during blood-vessel-wall assembly. Cell 124 : 161- 173, 2006. ... CCN2 stimulates mesangial cell migration through integrated dissolution of focal adhesion complexes and activation of cell ... Its constituents are type IV collagen (but only the α1 and α2 chains); type V collagen; laminin A, B1, and B2; and considerable ... Cell-cell signaling between intrinsic glomerular cells. A cross-talk between different types of intrinsic glomerular cells has ...
  • Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage, and the ephrin-B (EFNB) class, which are transmembrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFI regulation of axon extension was observed under conditions of homotypic cell contact, implicating cell surface proteins as downstream mediators of its actions in CGNs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The A-ephrins are GPI-linked and preferentially bind EphA receptors and the B-ephrins are transmembrane proteins and preferentially bind EphB receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Perhaps unsurprisingly, the role of these proteins in regulating cell-cell interactions also has an impact on cell mobility, with evidence that Eph-ephrin interactions segregate cell populations based on contact-mediated attraction or repulsion. (karger.com)
  • Ephrins are membrane-bound proteins which are expressed in many regions of the developing brain. (karger.com)
  • In HeLa cells, however, the concentration of NTPs, including GTP, remained virtually unchanged upon inactivation of NME1 and NME2 by siRNA [ 9 ], indicating that the influence of NME proteins on GTPase proteins does not have to be mediated by the regulation of bulk GTP concentration, or that the amounts of NME that are still expressed after the siRNA silencing are sufficient. (nature.com)
  • In addition, ephrin-B proteins can transduce signals as well as the receptor, resulting in bi-directional signalling. (130.88.97)
  • In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. (drugbank.ca)
  • We are trying to understand how the signals are transmitted across the cellular membrane and how the receptor's intracellular domains interact with the cytoplasmic proteins that regulate cell migration. (case.edu)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are proteins expressed on cells, including CSCs, which respond to the aforementioned cytokines in a deleterious manner. (blogspot.com)
  • Although scaffold proteins are present in all cell types, the nervous system contains them in the largest amount. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caskin proteins are typically present in neuronal cells, particularly, in the synapses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A few years later, the first differentially expressed proteins in lung cancer were identified in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), including ^-tubulin, heat-shock proteins 73 and 90, lamin B, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (americorpshealth.biz)
  • As identified from green maps, the early pathway, invalid host, and Second world activation with the O cholestasis of the 4-hydroxylated scaffold and the serum proteins suggest exposed into the heterodimeric tRNA as Fragment is( Liu and Spremulli 2000). (erik-mill.de)
  • In this review, we discuss how TF interacts with other cell-surface proteins, which affect biological functions such as cell migration and cell survival. (diva-portal.org)
  • Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles, containing proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which are secreted by various cells, and they play an important role in the development of lung cancer by controlling a wide range of pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ubiquitin cell account L3MBTL1 is TP53 renal at translocation K382 by SETD8( SET8) and, widely through inactivating corresponding perilipin family, creates lipid of TP53 proteins( such et al. (evakoch.com)
  • The result showed that positive reactivity of phosphorylated proteins was clearly observed in cytoplasmic principle cells, nuclei of apical & basal cells and sperm mass surrounded with epididymal fluids. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, we provide mechanistic evidence showing that promoter methylation regulates EPHB4 transcription and functional evidence that EPHB4 can regulate the long-term clonogenic potential of colorectal tumor cells, revealing EPHB4 as a potential new tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is the key protease that cleaves ephrin-B1, and the C-terminus of ephrin-B1 regulates activation of the extracellular release of MMP-8 without requirement of de novo protein synthesis. (biologists.org)
  • One possible mechanism by which ephrin-B1 regulates the exocytosis of MMP-8 is the activation of Arf1 GTPase, a critical regulator of membrane trafficking. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we show that the C-terminus of ephrin-B1 regulates the exocytosis of MMP-8, a key protease of ephrin-B1 cleavage, in response to the interaction with its receptor EphB2. (biologists.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that hnRNPR interacted with SOX2, a key transcription factor in that regulates stemness of cells [ 18 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Our findings suggest that ephrin-B is a genuine substrate for γ-secretase and regulates the cytoskeletal dynamics through intramembrane proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the fact that FHL2 regulates the susceptibility of mice to infection and inflammation ( 25 - 28 ), its role in immune cell function has hardly been studied. (immunohorizons.org)
  • Another pathway involved in embryogenesis, the Hedgehog pathway also regulates normal stem cell activity. (blogspot.com)
  • PDGFR β signaling regulates mural cell plasticity and inhibits fat development. (mssm.edu)
  • In neuroscience, Ephs and ephrins are perhaps best known for their role in axon guidance. (karger.com)
  • We discuss the challenge involved in understanding how cells determine whether they respond to signals by migration or axon guidance. (karger.com)
  • For example, events such as axon guidance, antigen presentation, and generation of apical-basal polarity can involve two or more cells that directly interact through membrane-tethered receptors to exchange signaling information ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Nck family of adaptors comprising of SH2 and SH3 domains are implicated in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, cell movement, and axon guidance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the undetectable EphB4 activation in the tumor cells, dominant negative effects of EphB4ΔC-EGFP are unlikely to explain the increased tumor growth. (pnas.org)
  • However, with the advent of antibody-based therapies, cell-surface antigens on tumor cells can be targeted without first requiring processing and presentation by the MHC. (frontiersin.org)
  • When these cells are activated, Sema4D is cleaved proteolytically, generating a biologically active 120-kDa fragment (soluble Sema4D) capable of targeting receptors on platelets, B-cells, endothelial cells and tumor cells. (plos.org)
  • Importantly, they imply that in tumor cells coexpressing different Ephs, functional mutations in one subtype may cause phenotypes that are a result of altered signaling from heterotypic rather from homotypic Eph clusters. (rupress.org)
  • Curcumin has been found to suppress tumor cells along the Notch pathway. (blogspot.com)
  • However, after FGFR1 activation, the induction of Sprouty genes inhibits the MAPK pathway downstream of EphB2 and decreases cell repulsion and segregation. (rupress.org)
  • Nuclear factor I (NFI) consists of a family of four genes ( Nfia , Nfib , Nfic , and Nfix ) that each gives rise to multiple isoforms via alternative splicing ( Gronostajski, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • J:162837 Islam S, Loizides AM, Fialkovich JJ, Grand RJ, Montgomery RK, Developmental expression of Eph and ephrin family genes in mammalian small intestine. (jax.org)
  • Unfortunately, mesangial cell-specific gene knockouts are not yet available because of the lack of genes whose expression is restricted to mesangial cells only. (asnjournals.org)
  • Drivas GT, Shih A, Coutavas E, Rush MG, D'Eustachio P: Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line. (drugbank.ca)
  • Both cells called in the genes. (erik-mill.de)
  • In pediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), for example, the most common molecular abnormalities are presented by mutations or silencing of the cdkn2a/2b genes that block expression of the p15INK4 and p16INK4 cell cycle suppressors ( 3 - 5 ) and prevent production of the p14 ARF activator of p53 ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Signaling through ephrin-B2 in endothelial cells, for example, is critical for vascular development in the embryo ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • While it is known that endothelial and mural vascular cells are integral to the formation of stable blood vessels, the specific cell type and optimal conditions for engineered vascular networks have to be determined. (unipd.it)
  • The cell angiogenic behavior and intracellular interactions were observed in terms of directed migration of MSCs toward HUVECs and the creation of stable vascular network. (unipd.it)
  • They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, podocyte-specific knockout systems establish a role for podocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for glomerular endothelial cell survival and function. (asnjournals.org)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for producing a medical device such as a stent, a stent graft, a synthetic vascular graft, heart valves, coated with a biocompatible matrix which incorporates antibodies, antibody fragments, or small molecules, which recognize, bind to and/or interact with a progenitor cell surface antigen to immobilize the cells at the surface of the device. (google.ca)
  • Ephrins and their receptors have been implicated in many developmental processes, including neuronal network formation, the patterning of the neural tube and the paraxial mesoderm, the guidance of cell migration and vascular formation. (130.88.97)
  • The generation of blood vessels is a highly synchronized process requiring the coordinated efforts of several vascular and nonvascular cell populations as well as a stringent orchestration by the tissue being vascularized. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The regulation of tumor growth, like other tissues, relies on cell-cell paracrine and endocrine signaling systems that coordinate tumor and vascular growth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of NFI transactivation also disrupted extension and fasciculation of parallel fibers as well as CGN migration to the internal granule cell layer in cerebellar slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • Functional inhibition of ephrin B1 or N-cadherin interfered with CGN axon extension and guidance, migration, and dendritogenesis in cell culture as well as in situ . (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) binds to cell surface glyco-conjugates GD1a, GT1b and Nogo receptors to form signaling complexes that inhibit axon outgrowth, whereas inhibition of Rho kinase reverses this process in a number of nerve cell types ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Akt proved to be crucial for the prosurvival response, because inhibition of Akt, but not of other molecules central to T cell biology, including Src kinases, MEK1 and MEK2, blocked the antiapoptotic effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was suggested that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurred in the early stage of carcinogenesis and inhibited DNA-PK activity. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Alternatively, among lymphoid malignancies, cutaneous T cell lymphomas are characterized by frequent mutations in the nav3 gene ( 12 ), by the constitutive activation of STAT3 ( 13 ), by the overexpression of the CCR10 receptor ( 14 ), of JunB ( 15 ), and of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • MTT assay revealed that TP53TG1 -induced decrease of IC50 of cisplatin was strikingly recovered by miR-18a overexpression in A549/DDP cells (Fig. 4c), while si-TP53TG1-triggered increase of IC50 of cisplatin was remarkably abrogated by miR-18a downregulation (Fig. 4d). (mirbase.org)
  • Rho6 promotes the interaction between Plexin B1 and PDZ-RhoGEF and thereby potentiates the PDZ-RhoGEF -induced RhoA activation [ 19 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Through their interaction with Eph receptors, they guide cells and their processes to form highly organised brain regions and projections [ 14 , 15 ]. (karger.com)
  • We describe a method that combines an optimized titanium dioxide protocol and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography to simultaneously enrich, identify and quantify phosphopeptides and formerly N -linked sialylated glycopeptides to monitor changes associated with cell signaling during mouse brain development. (mcponline.org)
  • TP53TG1 suppressed miR-18a expression in NSCLC cells by direct interaction. (mirbase.org)
  • For these factors we decided to investigate the changing phrase single profiles of ephrins and Ephs pursuing epidermis wounding, since tissues harm sparks extremely dramatic migratory replies by many cell lineages as component of the recovery procedure. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Because a close relationship exists between Ephs/ephrins and BP, particularly between EPHA6 and BP [ 18 ], specific EPHA6 SNP genotypes in humans could be associated with BP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Rho family of small GTPases may serve as "molecular switches" to regulate the cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in many forms of cell motility ( Etienne-Manneville and Hall, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 2002). Activations of ERK1/2 and JNK by transforming growth factor beta negatively regulate Smad3-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in mouse osteoblastic cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • The key cellular and molecular events that mediate migration are reviewed elsewhere [ 1 ] and will not be described here in detail. (karger.com)
  • Therefore, the precebellar system permits the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • 4 Cellular & Molecular Logic Team, Section of Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London SW3 6JB, UK. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the cellular response is dependent upon the extent of ephrin-receptor binding and that the actin cytoskeleton is a primary target of the ephrin signal transduction pathway . (130.88.97)
  • The cellular redox homeostasis was maintained and cells were defended from damage by a strong modulation of the nuclear E2-related factor (Nrf2) pathway and redox-sensitive p53 signaling. (thno.org)
  • These cell lines were characterised at the cellular and molecular level to define the craniosynostotic phenotype. (core.ac.uk)
  • It is feasible to suggest that the cell-specific data from interacting cell types, such as astrocytes and retinal ganglion cells, will allow us to analyze differences in trans-cellular crosstalk that are implicated in glaucoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. (sdbonline.org)
  • GRB7 thought to be involved in migration[citation needed], is well known to be over-expressed in testicular germ cell tumors, esophageal cancers, and gastric cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination of the tumors revealed that ephrin-B2 is primarily expressed in the vasculature and that the EphB4ΔC-EGFP tumors have a higher blood content than control tumors, concomitant with increased size of blood vessels. (pnas.org)
  • High expression of B-type ephrin is associated with high invasion potential of tumors, however, the mechanism by which ephrin-B promotes cancer cell invasion is poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • Additionally, qRT-PCR assay displayed that TP53TG1 and PTEN mRNA levels were upregulated , while miR-18a expression was downregulated in tumors derived from lenti-TP53TG1 -transfected A549/DDP cells with or without cisplatin treatment (Fig. 6c). (mirbase.org)
  • Ephrin guidance cues bind to Eph receptors). (case.edu)
  • To further decide no matter whether AP-1 elements really bind to the predicted cis-performing aspects present in the Irak-m promoter location, an EMSA was executed with the nuclear extracts isolated from RAW264.7 cells stimulated with CpG DNA and a radio-labeled ODN probe made up of the predicted AP-1 cisacting factor (2820/2815) current in the Irak-m promoter location. (bet-bromodomain.com)
  • or by local photo-activated Ca 2+ release from a caged Ca 2+ compound ( Zheng, 2000 ) is sufficient to trigger growth cone turning, suggesting that Ca 2+ indeed can mediate the guidance signal. (jneurosci.org)
  • A major role of ephrins and their receptors is to mediate cell-contact-dependent repulsion. (130.88.97)
  • The cells were used for experiments 14 h after plating at room temperature (20-22°C). To assay growth cone turning, the pipette tip (1 μm opening) was placed 100 μm away from the center of the growth cone of an isolated neuron and at an angle of 45° with respect to the initial direction of neurites (indicated by the last 10 μm segment of the neurite). (jneurosci.org)
  • 17 ] Plexin B1 directly interacts with exchange factors PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG to regulate RhoA and the growth cone morphology [ 18 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • The floor plate is a complex ventral midline structure involved in neural tube patterning and in the guidance of both growth cone and cell body migration. (biologists.org)
  • This process of guidance, e.g. through the migration of a growth cone, is in part responsible for 'wiring up' the nervous and the cardiovascular systems. (case.edu)