Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.

*Tomatine

The membrane permeability of frog embryos increased by 600% when exposed with tomatine. In frog skin, the sodium-active ... This membrane disruption causes cell death by cell leakage. Also, the disrupted membrane has an influence on sodium transport, ... Such binding results in the disruption of cell membranes, leakage of cell components and finally cell death. Tomatidine is a ... which may cause disruption of cell membrane and changes in membrane permeability. Research has proven that tomatine is only ...

*Spike potential

It occurs when the permeability of the cell membrane to sodium increases past a threshold. In the resting state, the interior ... In the human gut they occur automatically when the resting membrane potential of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle becomes ... more positive than about -40 millivolts (the normal resting membrane potential in the smooth muscle fibers of the gut is ...

*Enterotoxin

The action of enterotoxins leads to increased chloride ion permeability of the apical membrane of intestinal mucosal cells. ... Increased chloride permeability leads to leakage into the lumen followed by sodium and water movement. This leads to a ... Enterotoxins are frequently cytotoxic and kill cells by altering the apical membrane permeability of the mucosal (epithelial) ... These membrane pores are activated either by increased cAMP or by increased calcium ion concentration intracellularly. The pore ...

*Tris

... is used to increase permeability of cell membranes. Tris (usually known as THAM in this context) is used as alternative to ... Hoste, EA; Colpaert, K; Vanholder, RC; Lameire, NH; De Waele, JJ; Blot, SI; Colardyn, FA (2005). "Sodium bicarbonate versus ... aminomethane Buffer Modification of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Permeability". J. Bacteriol. 145 (3): 1397-1403. Kallet, RH ... "Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis". Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303-307. ISSN 1121 ...

*T wave

... potassium ions flow out of the cell due to increased cell membrane permeability to those ions. This high permeability ... In skeletal muscle cells, repolarization is simple. Sodium ions flowed into the cell earlier to depolarize it and cause ... While potassium quickly flows out of the cell, calcium slowly flows into the cell. This causes the repolarization to occur more ... The T wave is representative of the repolarization of the membrane. In an EKG reading, the T wave is notable because it must be ...

*Batrachotoxin

... in the PNS produces increased permeability (selective and irreversible) of the resting cell membrane to sodium ... depends on depolarization of nerve and muscle fibres due to increased sodium ion permeability of the excitable cell membrane. ... This influx of sodium depolarizes the formerly polarized cell membrane. Batrachotoxin also alters the ion selectivity of the ... In other words, the toxin binds to the sodium channel and keeps the membrane permeable to sodium ions in an all or none manner ...

*Molecular virology

These cells have a short lifespan compared to other cells. Increase in Membrane permeability: Viruses can increase the membrane ... permeability which allows many extracellular ions( e.g. iodine and sodium ions) to enter the cell. There are five different ... cell walls, plants and fungal cells get infected differently than animal cells. Often, a cell wall trauma is required for the ... Membrane fusion: The adjacent cells' membranes fuse together and produce a mass called syncytium, in which the cytoplasm ...

*Acid-sensing ion channel

Activation of the channel causes increased permeability of sodium ions which depolarizes the cell and induces the firing of an ... The only variant is ASIC1a which also has a low permeability to calcium ions. The influx of these cations results in membrane ... In ASIC1a, Ca2+ increase inside the cell is a result of calcium influx directly through the channel. Once activated the ASIC ... In the peripheral nervous system, ASICs are located within the cell bodies of postsynaptic membranes and sensory nerve ...

*Mitochondrial membrane transport protein

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore and its role in cell death. Biochemical Journal. Volume 341, Pages 233-249. PMID ... calcium uniporter which transports calcium from the cytosol of the cell into the mitochondrial matrix The mitochondrial sodium/ ... which opens in response to increased mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) load and oxidative stress The mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to ...

*Sodium in biology

Some potent neurotoxins, such as batrachotoxin, increase the sodium ion permeability of the cell membranes in nerves and ... which depends on sodium ion motion across the nerve cell membrane, in all nerves. Sodium is thus important in neuron function ... Note: Table 11-1 seems to clarify that 500mg refers to sodium, not sodium chloride] "Sodium and Potassium Quick Health Facts". ... "Chapter 3 Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis in the Cell". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life ...

*Cardiac pacemaker

... sodium permeability into the cell is decreased. These ion concentration changes slowly repolarize the cell to resting membrane ... The funny current also increases). Calcium enters the cell via voltage-sensitive calcium channels that open when the threshold ... The sodium/potassium pump restores ion concentrations of sodium and potassium ions by pumping sodium out of the cell and ... the inside membrane potential (voltage) of the cell, giving these cells their pacemaker potential. When the membrane potential ...

*Ventricular fibrillation

... a decreased intracellular concentration of sodium ions Na+, increased permeability to Na+, or a decreased permeability to K+. ... cardiac myocardial cells with an associated increased propensity to arrhythmia development have an associated loss of membrane ... Myocardial cells are exposed to different environments. Normal cells may be exposed to hyperkalaemia; abnormal cells may be ... the increased external K+ concentration, norepinephrine release and acidosis. When myocardial cell are exposed to hyperkaliemia ...

*Environmental effects of laundry wastewater

... leading to leakage of low molecular mass compounds by increasing the permeability of membranes and vesicles. This may result in ... In builders, sodium triphosphate, zeolite A, sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) are the most important substances. Bleach-active ... serious damage in cells or even cell death. -LAS and its biodegradation Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) with the formula of ... Cationic surfactant can bind to the inner membrane of bacteria, and by this way disorganize the bacteria through their long ...

*Lomerizine

In this case, increased membrane depolarization, in conjunction with the inability of the sodium-calcium exchanger to function ... Lomerizine treatment of 5-HT2A expressing cells led to the inhibition of Ca2+ release in response to 5-HT, while Ca2+ release ... Decreased intracellular calcium also prevents necrosis by decreasing permeability, and apoptotic death is reduced through the ... In guinea pig and dog aortic membranes, the drug displaced the binding of calcium agonist 3H-Nitrendipine with an IC50 of 86 nM ...

*Aconitine

In neurons, aconitine increases the permeability of the membrane for sodium ions, resulting in a huge sodium influx in the axon ... These proteins are highly selective for sodium ions. They open very fast to depolarize the cell membrane potential, causing the ... Aconitine can interact with the voltage-dependent sodium-ion channels, which are proteins in the cell membranes of excitable ... Due to the strong depolarization, the permeability of the membrane for potassium ions increases fast, resulting in a potassium ...

*Diabetes insipidus

These transcribed channels allow water into the collecting duct cells. The increase in permeability allows for reabsorption of ... This decreases plasma volume, thus lowering the glomerular filtration rate and enhancing the absorption of sodium and water in ... the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts into the apical membrane ... ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules; specifically, it acts on ...

*Neonatal diabetes mellitus

This occurs because change in permeability and migration of sodium ions inside the cell. The voltage gated channels then open, ... that leads to depolarization of the Beta-cell membrane. Depolarization is the lost of the difference in charge between the ... Resulting,in an increased expression of the imprinted gene by UPD or inherited duplication that leads to the onset of diabetes ... programmed cell death) and cell cycle arrest (cell division and duplication of DNA stops when the cell detects cell damage or ...

*Vasopressin

... thus increasing the total number of aquaporin-2 molecules in collecting duct cells.[citation needed] Increasing permeability of ... Acute increase of sodium absorption across the ascending loop of henle. This adds to the countercurrent multiplication which ... This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) into the apical membrane of ... Vasopressin also increases the concentration of calcium in the collecting duct cells, by episodic release from intracellular ...

*Burgundy mixture

... negatively charged portions of the cellular membranes of the fungi promote an altered shape and increased membrane permeability ... Sodium carbonate is generally added in higher quantities and at a dissolved ratio of 1:1.5. Over time, the sodium carbonate ... which alters the homeostasis of the cell and can lead to insufficient uptake and storage of essential nutrients and ions.Use ... Burgundy mixture is made by combining dissolved copper sulphate and dissolved sodium carbonate. Dissolved copper sulphate ...

*Urinary system

Reabsorption of sodium results in retention of water, which increases blood pressure and blood volume. Antidiuretic hormone ( ... However larger molecules such as proteins and blood cells are prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. The ... Vasopressin increases water permeability of the kidney's collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule by inducing translocation ... It acts on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron and increases reabsorption of sodium from the glomerular ...

*American flamingo

Aquaporins increase the membrane permeability to water, as well as causes less water to move from the blood and into the kidney ... The ATPase uses energy from ATP to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell. The potassium ... These cells are similar to the mitochondria rich cells found in teleost fish. These cells within the salt gland employ several ... triangular shaped cells which have only a few mitochondria. The second specialized cells are the principal cells which are ...

*Calcium chloride

Aqueous calcium chloride is used in genetic transformation of cells by increasing the cell membrane permeability, inducing ... The extremely salty taste of calcium chloride is used to flavor pickles without increasing the food's sodium content. Calcium ... As a de-icing agent, it is much more effective at lower temperatures than sodium chloride. When distributed for this use, it ... In the oil industry, calcium chloride is used to increase the density of solids-free brines. It is also used to provide ...

*Mast cell

Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries are a result of both H1 and H2 receptor types. Stimulation of histamine ... In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE already coated upon the cell. Other membrane ... Alm PE (April 1983). "Sodium fluoride evoked histamine release from mast cells. A study of cyclic AMP levels and effects of ... Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ...

*Gramicidin

... 's bactericidal activity is a result of increasing the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane, allowing ... Like valinomycin and nonactin, the gramicidin channel is selective for potassium over sodium, but only slightly so. It has a ... Since the exterior epidermis is composed of dead cells, applying it to the surface of the skin will not cause harm. It is used ... The helix itself is not long enough to span the membrane, but it dimerizes to form the elongated channel needed to span the ...

*Na-K-Cl cotransporter

The energy required to move solutes across the cell membrane is provided by the electrochemical gradient of sodium. Sodium's ... Impaired sodium reabsorption increases diuresis by three mechanisms: Increases the amount of active osmolytes in urine by ... This outward movement of sodium and the lack of water permeability in the thick ascending limb, creates a more diluted urine. ... In cells of these organs, NKCC1 is commonly found in the basolateral membrane, the part of the cell membrane closest to the ...

*Cell theory

This was difficult to explain with the membrane barrier theory, so the sodium pump was proposed to continually remove Na+. as ... In 1956, Afanasy S. Troshin published a book, The Problems of Cell Permeability, in Russian (1958 in German, 1961 in Chinese, ... based on observations such as the ability of some cells to swell and increase their surface area by a factor of 1000. A lipid ... 3. All cells arise only from pre-existing cells However, the idea that all cells come from pre-existing cells had in fact ...

*Glomerulus (kidney)

If a substance has passed through the glomerular capillary endothelial cells, glomerular basement membrane, and podocytes, then ... Therefore, the concentration of these proteins tends to increase as the glomerular capillaries filtrate plasma, increasing the ... For instance, small ions such as sodium and potassium pass freely, while larger proteins, such as hemoglobin and albumin have ... Because large and negatively charged proteins have a low permeability, they cannot filtrate easily to the Bowman's capsule. ...
Introduction. Investigating the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability To investigate the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability, I am going to use beetroot due to its pigment properties. The pigment is a strong colour, which means that I can easily measure, using a colorimeter, how much pigment is released at certain temperatures. During this practical, I will need to apply controls and a variable. The variable being temperature, and the controls being: * Disc thickness * The amount of water used when heating * The measure of solution put into the cuvette * The time temperature is maintained If these factors were not controlled, results would be likely to produce false reading, due to too many variables. Apparatus Cuvette Colorimeter Beetroot disc Water bath Beaker Tripod Bunsen burner Boiling tube Cork borer ...
ABSTRACT: Increased ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are reported to be an important cause of decline in submersed macrophytes in eutrophic lakes. In this study, a subacute experiment was conducted to examine the effects of various NH4+ concentrations on growth and membrane permeability of 2 submersed macrophytes, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. Apical shoots of the plants were incubated in modified Hoagland solution with 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg l-1 NH4+-N for 4 d. The plants were then collected for examination of cell membrane permeability and the solutions were used to determine the concentrations of NH4+, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+). The results indicate that high NH4+ concentrations had significant adverse effects (e.g. reduced growth and leaf chlorosis) on the macrophytes and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform. AU - Mitchell, Claire A.. AU - Kalies, Stefan. AU - Cizmár, Tomás. AU - Heisterkamp, Alexander. AU - Torrance, Lesley. AU - Roberts, Alison G.. AU - Gunn-Moore, Frank J.. AU - Dholakia, Kishan. PY - 2013/11/14. Y1 - 2013/11/14. N2 - A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the ...
Abstract. This study investigated the suppressive effect and the inactivation mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on . The experiment compared different inhibition effects with SAEW and two antibiotics, gentamicin and norfloxacin. The conditions of pH of 6.5, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 890 mV, available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 28 mg L-1 of SAEW, and volume ratios of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were used. Using exposure times of 5 and 10 min to analyze the inactivation mechanism of SAEW from the perspectives of cell membrane permeability, cell nuclear morphology, cell fluorescence staining, and other aspects, the anti-infection effects of SAEW were tested using tilapia () culture experiments. SAEW had a stronger bacteriostasis effect than the antibiotics used. SAEW can inhibit the ability to reproduce, causing abnormal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these ...
Tanacetum polycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip (Mokhaleseh) has been traditionally used in the treatment of headaches, migraines, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The present study aimed to evaluate its anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action using MCF7 as an in vitro model. T. polycephalum leaves were extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol solvents and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Detection of the early apoptotic cells was investigated using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. An Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker for apoptotic cells. High content screening was applied to analyze the cell membrane permeability, nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis was ...
Miltefosine is an orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony ...
Unlike high power lasers that use heat to cut or cauterize tissue, LED and low energy cold lasers enhance biochemical reactions in the targeted tissue. In somewhat simple terms, visible light is directed to a specific area. The light energy passes through the skin, and is received within the cell membrane by special energy photon acceptors. The increase in intra-cellular energy results in altered cell membrane permeability, and physiological changes occur through an enzyme cascade to affect several biological processes.. Within the injured musculoskeletal tissue, low-level light starts an increase in microcirculation and enhanced tissue regeneration, leading to decreased pain and inflammation, and increased mobility.. ...
Trimecaine (systematic name (2,4,6-trimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)diethylammonium chloride, chemical formula C15H25ClN2O) is an organic compound used as a local anesthetic and cardial antiarrhythmic. It is white crystalline powder readily soluble in water and ethanol. It is an active ingredient in products available under trademarks Mesdicain, Mesocain, Mesokain and others. Trimecaine is probably a Czech discovery (in light of complex pharmacological and clinical evaluation and practical deployment) although its preparation was published by Löfgren in 1946. Like other local anesthetics belonging in the amide group trimecaine decreases the cell membrane permeability, causes depolarization and shortens the action potential. Anesthetic effect starts in 15 minutes and remains 60-90 minutes. Its biological half-life is ca. 90 minutes. 10% of trimecaine is excreted unchanged (90% as its metabolites). It passes through the ...
It seems that in recent years, salt has gotten a very bad reputation - yet, the human body cannot live without salt. In fact, our bodies rely on it to help fight fungus, bacteria, and viruses. Its important in the regulation of blood pressure, the proper functioning of the nervous system and brain cells, metabolism, digestion, adrenal function, and cell membrane permeability. Its necessary to produce hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion, reduces aldosterone (hormone released by adrenal glands to help regulate blood pressure) secretion in our endocrine (hormones that regulate bodys growth, metabolism, and sexual function) system, and it helps our body eliminate toxic substances by keeping them in solution. Theres so much more! However, not everyone realizes that there are different "types" of salt (refined and unrefined), and these differences will directly affect your health.. ...
Al, hamdani M.; Atkinson, M E.; and Mayhew, T M., "Changes in the plasma membrane surface of lymphocytes stimulated in vivo with dncb." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2522 ...
Results: 49. Adhesive Remover (Model 6197) Adhesive Remover, model 6197, is designed to dissolve skin cement and adhesives. It allows removal of appliances without irritating the skin. SIZE: Eight ounce can.. Adhesive Strips (Models 6590 & 150525) Adhesive Strips are catheter supplies designed for use with bulk pack male external catheters. Available 10 per box. Model 6590: Crixiline adhesive strip - 6 x 7/8 inch. Model 150525: Two-sided adhesive strip - 6 x 3/4 inch.. Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing The Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing is designed for use by individuals who have ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic skin ulcers, first and second degree burns, post-surgical incisions with dehiscence, cuts, and abrasions. The dressing decreases cell membrane permeability and balances the mix of proteins in the wound site. Proliferates proteins to the wound site and promotes the development of new granulation tissue growth. ...
Antifungals (Systemic) Action: Antifungals act by increasing cell membrane permeability in susceptible organisms by binding sterols and decreasing potassium, sodium, and nutrients in the cell. Uses: Antifungals are used for infection of histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, phycomycosis, candidiasis, sporotrichosis causing severe meningitis, septicemia, and skin infection. Side effects / Adverse reactions: The most serious …. ...
Developed in 2011. Atlantic Sea Scallop Dredge Design Challenge (Grades 9 & 10). The Cell Cycle and Mitosis (Grades 8 & 9). Conducting Action Research on the Impact of Environmental Issues on Community Health (Grades 9 & 10). Genetic Mutations (Grades (9 & 10). Kidney Dissection (Grades 9 & 10). Lifesaver Protein Modeling (Grades 9 - 12). Developed in 2010. Genetic Variation (Grades 9 & 10). Investigating Factors That Affect Rate of Enzyme Action (Grades 9 & 10). Micropipette and the Metric System (Grades 9 & 10). Interactive Meiosis (Grades 9 & 10). Modeling Protein Structure. Thinking Like a Scientist (Grades 9 & 10). Understanding Kidney Disease (Grades 3-5). Whose Brain is THAT?!. Developed in 2009. Bacterial Transformation. Blood Analysis. Blood, I Presume?. Concept Mapping. DNA Extraction From Living Things. Investigating Factors That Affect Cell Membrane Permeability. Lets Grow Some ...
youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usy3S7lN_0k[/youtube] Cell Phone Towers Dangers Part 1. http://www.emfnews.org/headset.html. Protection Against Cell Phone Radiation. Cell Phone Radiation Protection. Radiation Protection Products. Available materials show that the radiation emitted from these towers could cause health hazards.. Points out Raman K R, a scientist who has done research on the subject, "There are two effects in such cases-thermal and non-thermal. A person will fall prey to a thermal effect due to radiation only if he is close to the tower.". Being exposed to the thermal effect could cause fatigue, cataracts and reduced mental concentration. This largely occurs to the amount of heat that is generated due to radiation.. Then there is the non-thermal effect, which affects people who are at a distance from the tower. The ill-effects of a non-thermal effect are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of cytoskeletal support is not sufficient for anoxic plasma membrane disruption in renal cells. AU - Chen, Jing. AU - Dai, Jianwu. AU - Grant, Roberta L.. AU - Doctor, R. Brian. AU - Sheetz, Michael. AU - Mandel, Lazaro J.. PY - 1997/5/21. Y1 - 1997/5/21. N2 - The goal of this study was to determine whether anoxic membrane disruption is initiated by loss of cytoskeletal support in rabbit renal proximal tubules (PT). We specifically tested 1) whether cytoskeletal perturbation affects membrane integrity under normoxia, 2) whether cytoskeletal perturbation potentiates anoxic membrane damage, and 3) whether the membrane protection by glycine depends on cytoskeletal integrity. Cytoskeletal perturbation was achieved with 10 μM cytochalasin D (CD) because it selectively disturbs F-actin ...
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential. In HeLa cells, at low concentrations, the CPP nona-arginine (R9) enters cells by endocytosis. Direct membrane penetration occurs only at high ...
BackgroundIngestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma ...
1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral ...
A memory device is provided with a structure for improved transmission line operation on integrated circuits. The structure for transmission line operation includes a first layer of electrically conductive material on a substrate. A first layer of insulating material is formed on the first layer of the electrically conductive material. A number of high permeability metal lines are formed on the first layer of insulating material. The number of high permeability metal lines includes composite hexaferrite films. A number of transmission lines is formed on the first layer of insulating material and between and parallel with the number of high permeability metal lines. A second layer of insulating material is formed on the transmission lines and the high permeability metal lines. The structure for transmission line operation includes a second layer of electrically conductive material on the second layer of insulating material.
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the ...
Cell-free studies have demonstrated how collective action of actin-associated proteins can organize actin filaments into dynamic patterns, such as vortices, asters and stars. Using complementary microscopic techniques, we here show evidence of such self-organization of the actin cortex in living HeLa cells. During cell adhesion, an active multistage process naturally leads to pattern transitions from actin vortices over stars into asters. This process is primarily driven by Arp2/3 complex nucleation, but not by myosin motors, which is in contrast to what has been theoretically predicted and observed in vitro. Concomitant measurements of mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity demonstrate that changes in actin patterning alter membrane architecture but occur functionally independent of macroscopic cortex elasticity. Consequently, tuning the ...
Thionins are a family of plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which participate in plant defense system against pathogens. Here we describe some aspects of the CaThi thionin-like action mechanism, previously isolated from Capsicum annuum fruits. Thionin-like peptide was submitted to antimicrobial activity assays against Candida species for IC50 determination and synergism with fluconazole evaluation. Viability and plasma membrane permeabilization assays, induction of intracellular ROS production analysis and CaThi localization in yeast cells were also investigated. CaThi had strong antimicrobial activity against six tested pathogenic Candida species, with IC50 ranging from 10 to 40 μg.mL−1. CaThi antimicrobial activity on Candida species was candidacidal. Moreover, CaThi caused plasma membrane permeabilization in all yeasts tested and induces ...
Plasma membrane-derived vesicles (PMVs) are released into circulation in response to normal and stress/pathogenic conditions. They are of tremendous significance for the prediction, diagnosis, and observation of the therapeutic success of many diseases. Knowledge of their molecular characteristics and therefore functional properties would contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms leading to various diseases in which their levels are raised. The review aims at outlining and discussing the molecular characteristics of PMVs in order to bring to the fore some aspects/characteristics of PMVs that will assist the scientific community to properly understand the role of PMVs in various physiological and pathological processes. The review covers PMVs characterisation and discusses how distinct they are from exosomes and endosomes. Also, methods of PMVs analysis, importance of proper PMV level estimation/characterisation, PMVs and their constituents as well ...
New mass spectrometric methodology was employed to characterise the molecular raft lipid composition of TCR signalling plasma membrane domains. These T cell plasma membrane domains were immunoisolated as native (not detergent-treated) plasma membrane fragments [49] using TCR-activating magnetic beads which were conjugated to Jurkat T leukemic cells. These conjugates were homogenised mechanically and native Jurkat plasma membrane fragments bound to the magnetic beads were isolated. The molecular lipid composition of these T cell plasma membrane fragments was quantitatively charted using a mass spectrometry program developed for comprehensive characterisation of membrane lipidomes [50, 51]. Comparison of the ...
Plasma membrane-derived vesicles (PMVs) are released into circulation in response to normal and stress/pathogenic conditions. They are of tremendous significance for the prediction, diagnosis, and observation of the therapeutic success of many diseases. Knowledge of their molecular characteristics and therefore
TY - PAT. T1 - Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Paracellular Permeability across Epithelial and Endothelial Barriers. AU - Thakker,Dhiren R.. AU - Ward,Peter D.. N1 - Status: published applicationnumber: 09/974,519 usclass: 514/75 ; 514/642; 514/76; 514/946 applicationnumber: 09/974,519. PY - 1800. Y1 - 1800. N2 - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method includes: (a) administering an effective amount of a phospholipase C inhibitor to a subject at a time in which enhanced paracellular permeability is desired; and (b) enhancing paracellular permeability in the subject at the absorption site through the administering of the effective amount of the phospholipase C inhibitor. The disclosed compositions and methods provide ...
Conjunctiva occupies most of the ocular surface area, and conjunctival permeability affects ocular and systemic drug absorption of topical ocular medications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain a computational in silico model for structure-based prediction of conjunctival drug permeability. This was done by employing cassette dosing and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach. Permeability studies were performed ex vivo across fresh porcine conjunctiva and simultaneous dosing of a cassette mixture composed of 32 clinically relevant drug molecules with wide chemical space. The apparent permeability values were obtained using drug concentrations that were quantified with liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The experimental data were utilized for building a QSPR model for conjunctival permeability predictions. The conjunctival permeability values presented a 17-fold ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide- binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. AU - Piers, K. L.. AU - Brown, M. H.. AU - Hancock, Robert. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter ...
Recommended Review Article:. Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2008. How do BCL-2 proteins induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization? TRENDS IN CELL BIOLOGY 18(4): 157-164. Recommended Articles:. Aslan JE, Thomas G. 2009. Death by Committee: Organellar Trafficking and Communication in Apoptosis. TRAFFIC 10(10): 1390-1404. Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2009. PUMA cooperates with direct activator proteins to promote mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. CELL CYCLE 8(17): 2692-2696. Chipuk JE, Bouchier-Hayes L, Green DR. 2006. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization during apoptosis: the innocent bystander scenario. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION 13(8): 1396-1402 Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2006. Dissecting p53-dependent apoptosis. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION ...
The following investigation focuses on the impact of capillary pressure on estimation of two phases relative permeability curves. Accurate relative permeability is a crucial parameter for evaluating reservoir performance. The unsteady state core flooding tests, which is considered in this study, is mostly used to measure oil-water relative permeabilities. The Johnson ,Bossler and Neumann (JBN) method is the conventional method for estimating relative permeabilities from field core. The limitations in the JBN method create an error in relative permeability curves and make it unrepresentative of a typical core flooding test results. There are always capillary pressure effects taking place during core flood tests. Ignoring of capillary pressure by JBN method will influence the calculation of relative permeability curves and final saturation levels. One dimensional numerical model with uniform initial saturation has been implemented in this ...
Mercurials are known to induce morphological and functional modifications in kidney mitochondria. In this work we studied in vitro and in vivo the protective effect of captopril on the deleterious effect of Hg(++)-induced nonspecific membrane permeability changes to Ca++ and membrane de-energization. In vivo the administration of captopril prevented the toxic effects of mercury poisoning on membrane permeability, oxidative phosphorylation and Ca++ homeostasis. Moreover, captopril preserves kidney tissue morphology from Hg(++)-induced damage. The protective effect of captopril is most likely related to the existence of a sulfhydryl group in the drug. ...
OBJECTIVES--To study the effect of bis (tributyl tin) oxide (TBTO) on permeability of the blood-brain barrier. METHODS--Electron microscopy and an x ray microanalyser with lanthanum chloride as a tracer were used, and blood tin concentrations were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Adult male wistar rats received 0.05 ml/kg body weight of TBTO orally. RESULTS--A transient increase in paracellular permeability at the blood-brain barrier was found 2 h after the dose of TBTO. Electron dense lanthanum deposits penetrated tight junctions of the endothelia and permeated the subendothelial space. The x ray microprobe data showed an accumulation of TBTO at the tight junctions at 2 h. Leakage of tracer did not occur at 4 h, but oedematous changes in the surrounding glial cells were prominent between 4 and 8 h and had almost returned to normal by 24 h. By atomic absorption analysis, it was seen ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial permeability transition from in vitro artifact to disease target. AU - Bernardi, Paolo. AU - Krauskopf, Alexandra. AU - Basso, Emy. AU - Petronilli, Valeria. AU - Blalchy-Dyson, Elizabeth. AU - Di Lisa, Fabio. AU - Forte, Michael. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a high conductance channel whose opening leads to an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to ≈1500 Da. In this review we trace the rise of the permeability transition pore from the status of in vitro artifact to that of effector mechanism of cell death. We then cover recent results based on genetic inactivation of putative permeability transition pore components, and discuss their meaning for our understanding of pore structure. Finally, we discuss evidence ...
NsPEF induce plasma membrane poration at lower electric fields than that required for loss of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), indicating that nsPEFs affect plasma membranes more readily that intracellular membranes or organelles. High frequency components of nsPEFs (frequency in Hz=1/time in sec) are most effective to dissipate the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), but are less important for plasma membrane permeabilization using Ca2+ influx as a marker. Thus, the pulse waveform appears to selectively affect ΔΨm and possibly other intracellular components. Cell death is closely correlated with loss of ΔΨm; high intracellular Ca2+ is necessary, but not ...
To clarify sotalol′s classification in the BCS versus BDDCS systems through cellular, rat everted sac and PAMPA permeability studies.. Studies were carried out in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDR1-transfected MDCK (MDCK-MDR1) cell lines, rat everted gut sacs and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) system. Three-hour transport studies were conducted in MDCK cell lines (with apical pH changes) and MDCK-MDR1 cells (with and without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor GG918); male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 similar to 350 g) were used to prepare everted sacs. In the PAMPA studies, drug solutions at different pH′s were dosed in each well and incubated for 5 h. Samples were measured by LC-MS/MS, or liquid scintillation counting and apparent permeability (P-app) was ...
with R2 = 0.96 (Figure 1). Light compensation point (Ic), light saturation point (Is), net photosynthesis rate (A), photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ) and net respiration (R) for both species are presented in Table 1.. For M. leucoxyla, transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) were ranged from 0.07 µg/cm s-1 to 4.89 g/cm s-1, and from 0.02 cm s-1to 0.5 cm s-1, respectively. Leaf water potential (Ψw) varied between -0.025 MPa and -1.05 MPa, with a marked drop towards midday (Figure 2). Predawn Ψw (04:00h) was -0.1 MPa and minimum Ψw (12:00h) was -0.550 MPa.. For A. parviflora, E ranged from 0.47 µg/cm s-1 to 12.27 µg/cm s-1, and gs from 0.17 cm s-1to 1.42 cm s-1. Ψw was between -0.05 MPa and -0.3 MPa (Figure 2). Predawn Ψw was -0.075 MPa and at 12:00 hΨw was -0.275MPa.. For A. parviflora protein values ranged between 0.020 and 0.397 mg protein / g of fresh plant material (data not shown). POD activity was higher in PAR peak hours (10:00 - 14:00 h) (Figure 3).. On the other hand, M. ...
In vivo and ex vivo studies with whole vessels demonstrated that the endothelium comprises the major permeability barrier in the blood vessel wall. As a lining between the blood and the underlying tissue, the endothelium is exposed to biochemical components of the blood and wall shear stress. The endothelium responds to these biochemical and mechanical agonists both metabolically and morphologically. Using a model system consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a permeable polycarbonate membrane, the permeability barrier function of endothelial monolayers was characterized quantitatively by determination of permeability coefficients. The effect of biochemical agonists and wall shear stress on permeability was assessed by the extent to which the agonists modulated the baseline permeability coefficient. Permeability ...
Lipidic nanovesicles (so called liposomes) were one the earliest forms of nanovectors. One of their limits was our lack of knowledge on the delivery pathway of their content to the target cell cytoplasm. The present communication describes an efficient way to enhance the delivery. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known since the early 80s to mediate a fusogenic state of plasma membranes when applied to a cell suspension or a tissue. Polykaryons are detected when PEF are applied on cells in contact during or after the pulses. Heterofusion can be obtained when a cell mixture is pulsed. When lipidic nanovesicles, either small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), are electrostatically brought in contact with electropermeabilized cells by a salt bridge, their content is delivered into ...
The Caco-2 permeability assay provides a measure of the permeability of a test compound across the intestinal barrier and its potential for interactions with drug transporters. We provide permeability assays for small molecule formulations such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and consumer products.
Using a genetic selection for mutations which allow large maltodextrins to cross the outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the absence of the LamB maltoporin, we have obtained and characterized two mutations that define a new locus of E. coli. We have designated this locus imp for increased membrane permeability. Mapping studies show that the imp gene resides at approximately 1.2 min on the E. coli chromosome. The mutations alter the permeability of the outer membrane resulting in increased sensitivity to detergents, antibiotics and dyes. The mutations are nonreverting and codominant. Genetic analysis of the mutations suggest that the imp gene is an essential gene. We describe a general cloning strategy that can be used to clone both dominant and recessive alleles. Using this technique, we have cloned the wild-type and mutant imp alleles onto a low copy number plasmid. ...
The identification of the role of ADAM-10 in VE-cadherin shedding poses several challenging questions. An important question is whether the observed effects on endothelial adhesion molecules and cell permeability are unique to ADAM-10 or involve cooperative interactions with other ADAMs. For instance, shedding of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 can be mediated by ADAM-17.21 Also, binding of ADAM-28 to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 enhances P-selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.27 Additionally, ADAM-15 is an adherens junction molecule whose surface expression can be driven by VE-cadherin.28. Because ADAMs have multidomain structure, they are potentially multifunctional with multiple roles depending on their cellular localization. Also, ADAMs may function in concert with other metalloprotease superfamilies such as ADAMTS and MMPs. ...
Versaperm has launched a mass spectrometer version of its successful vapour permeability measurement system which works across every gas or group of gasses. Click to read more...
Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepithelial transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal membrane (th Na influx) and found that it is reduced when intracellular Na is increased by ouabain or by removal of external potassium. Removal of serosal sodium also reduced the influx, suggesting that the Na gradient across the serosal border rather than the cell Na ...
Phyllite clays are applied as a layer on a surface to be waterproofed and subsequently compacted. For this purpose, phyllite clays deposits can be grouped by their chemical and mineralogical characteristics, and these characteristics can be connected with their properties, mainly permeability, in order to select those deposits with the lowest permeability values. Several deposits of phyllite clays in the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain) have been studied. The results of applying a multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) to the chemical data analysed from 52 samples determined by XRF, mineralogical analysis by XRD and permeability are reported. Permeability, a characteristic physical property of phyllite clays, was calculated using the results for experimental nitrogen gas adsorption and nitrogen adsorption-desorption permeability dependence. According to the results, permeability values ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Externalization of phosphatidylserine may not be an early signal of apoptosis in neuronal cells, but only the phosphatidylserine-displaying apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by microglia. AU - Adayev, Tatyana. AU - Estephan, Rima. AU - Meserole, Susan. AU - Mazza, Bethanne. AU - Yurkow, Edward J.. AU - Banerjee, Probal. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - Earlier reports on nonneural cells have shown that the normally inner plasma membrane lipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), flip-flops out during the early stages of apoptosis, whereas DNA laddering and plasma membrane permeabilization occur during the late stages. In this study, the applicability of these parameters to CNS-derived neuronal cells was tested using hippocampal HN2-5, cells that undergo apoptosis ...
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Purpose : The cornea efficiently restricts permeability of topically administered drugs into the eye. Currently, permeability of drug candidates is tested across excised animal corneas ex vivo or using in vitro cell culture models. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial cornea for drug permeability screening in early drug development that more adequately resembles the human cornea. Methods : Several modifications of artificial corneas were prepared using different hydrogel cross-linking and coating techniques. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of standard reference molecules across artificial corneas were tested using Navicyte vertical diffusion chambers. Permeability characteristics (tightness, dynamic range) of the artificial cornea was assessed, and the Papp values across artificial cornea were correlated with those of ex vivo rabbit corneas and in vitro ...
Increases in transepithelial solute permeability were elicited in the frog skin with external hypertonic urea, theophylline, and vasopressin (ADH). In external hypertonic urea, which is known to increase the permeability of the extracellular (paracellular) pathway, the unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of Na (passive), K, Cl, and urea increased substantially while preserving a linear relationship to each other. The same linear relationship was also observed for the passive Na and urea fluxes in regular Ringer and under stimulation with ADH or 10 mM theophylline, indicating that their permeation pathway was extracellular. A linear relationship between Cl and urea fluxes could be demonstrated if the skins were separated according to their open circuit potentials; parallel lines were obtained with increasing intercepts on the Cl axis as the open circuit ...
Filter permeability is a significant term used to measure the endothelial permeability to fluid. There exist permeable sheath in the walls of the filter that allows the fluid (oil, fuel, water) to get in and out. Amongst the numerous methods of measuring micro vascular permeability to fluids infiltration, filter permeability aces.. What Is The Need For Filter Permeability?. In simple language, filtering the solid particles and microorganisms from the fluid by depositing them on the filters septum is what filter permeability does. A study of the correlation of the air permeability of the filter paper and rate of filtration is studied to get the active relationship and speed of the filtration. Through filter permeability process, the resistance is understood. Lower the permeability represents a high resistance and higher the permeability ...
Moderate lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an important inducer of apoptosis. Macrophages are professional scavengers and are rich in hydrolytic enzymes and iron. In the present study, we found that LMP by lysosomotropic detergent MSDH resulted in early up-regulation of lysosomal cathepsins, oxidative stress and ferritin up-regulation, and cell death. Lysosomotropic base NH(4)Cl reduced the ferritin induction and oxidative stress in apoptotic cells induced by MSDH. Cysteine cathepsin inhibitors significantly protected cell death and oxidative stress, but had less effect on ferritin induction. We conclude that oxidative stress induced by lysosomal rupture causes ferritin induction with concomitant mitochondrial damage, which are the potential target for prevention of cellular oxidative stress and ...
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used in the treatment of several fungal infections. The drug is used orally and intravenously. Fluconazole widely distributes into body tissues, nails and fluids including saliva, sputum, vaginal secretions. Fluconazole does not undergo first pass metabolism and is excreted mostly in the urine and some in the feces. This drug can also be used in the pediatric population.. Mechanism: Fluconazole works by altering the fungal cell membrane. It exerts its fungistatic effect by selectively inhibiting 14-alpha demethylase. This is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that is necessary for synthesizing ergosterol, which is an important component of the fungal cell membrane. 14-alpha demethylase converts lanosterol to ergosterol. Without ergosterol, 14 alpha-methyl sterols increase which subsequently causes the fungal ...
Purpose: : The pathogenesis of many vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy involves increased vascular permeability. The present study aimed at (i) establishing a robust in vitro model of the retinal vascular endothelium constituting the inner blood-retinal barrier and (ii) assessing the molecular consequences of exposing these cells to various vasoactive and vasoprotective agents. Particular emphasis was put on changes in cell signaling, adherens and tight junctional architecture, as well as paracellular permeability. Methods: : Primary microvascular endothelial cell cultures were established from rat retinae (pRMVEC) or brain (pBMVEC). Subcellular localization of junctional proteins was determined using indirect immunofluorescence. Intracellular protein levels and ...
Mitochondrial carriers transport nucleotides, co-factors and metabolic intermediates across the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability barrier. They belong to a family of transporters unique to eukaryotes and they differ in structure and transport mechanism from other secondary transporters. The main structural fold consists of a barrel of six transmembrane alpha-helices closed at the matrix side by a salt-bridge network at the bottom of the cavity. The significant sequence conservation in the mitochondrial carrier family suggests that specific recognition of substrates is coupled to a common mechanism of transport. We have identified a common substrate binding site comprising residues that are highly conserved and, as demonstrated by mutagenesis, are essential for function. The binding site explains substrate selectivity, ion coupling and the effects of the membrane potential on ...
This paper addresses the achievements in understanding the hydrogeological conditions in the low permeability claystone formation of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The synthesis work consisted of (i) an assessment of clay-specific artifacts which may affect the interpretation of hydraulic tests, (ii) a survey of hydraulic rock properties such as hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient, and (iii) an assessment of the governing flow laws and definition of hydrogeological units and flow boundaries on the site scale. Drawing on the broad hydrogeological data base, confidence is gained in the hydraulic barrier function of the Opalinus Clay, which effectively prevents groundwater flow between the over- and underlying aquifer systems ...
AbstractParasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH level showed significantly (P<0.01) high release into extracellular medium in vitro after exposure of hemocytes to parasitoid larval tissue protein compared with control revealing membrane permeability and loss of cell ...
Al Tabbaa, A and Waterfall, PW and Chitambira, B (2001) Geoenvironmental applications of low permeability soil-shredded tyre mixtures. In: The International Symposium on the Recycling and Reuse of Used Tyres, 2001-3-19 to 2001-3-20 pp. 175-186... Full text not available from this repository ...
Scott Richard Fidler (1998). Spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic response in fractured, low permeability sediments. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/240 ...
MEMOIRES: Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability. Shlomo P. Neuman and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Aguilera, R.. Relative Permeability Concepts for Predicting the Performance of Naturally Fractured. Reservoirs. JCan PetT,.22,41, (1982). Amaefule, J.O. and Handy, L.I., The Effect oflnterfacial Tensions on Relative Oil/Water Permeabilities of Consolidated Porous Media. Soc Pet E J, 371, (1982). Bardon, C. and Longeron, D., Influence of Very Low Interfacial Tensions on Relative Permeability. Soc Pet EJ, 20, 391,(1980). Batycky, J.P., Mirkin, M.I., Besserer, G.J., Jackson, C.H., Miscible and Immiscible Displacement Studies on Carbonate Reservoir Cores. JCanPetT,2L, 104,(1981A). Batycky, J.P., McCaffery, F.G., Hodgins, P.K., Fisher, D.B., Interpreting Relative Permeability and. Wettability from Unsteady-State Displacement Measurements. Soc Pet E J, 21, 296, (198IB). Bemsten, R.G., Using Parameter Estimation Techniques to Convert Centrifuge Data into a Capillary. Pressure Curve. SPE paper 5026 presented at the SPE-AIME 49th Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, (Oct. ...
Infusion of menadione at two different doses [2.7 mg and 5.5 mg in 100 microliters of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)] into perfused rat livers for 30 min caused no or a 6-fold increase respectively in junctional permeability to horseradish peroxidase as compared with controls receiving 100 microliters of DMSO alone. The total glutathione (GSH) contents in these livers measured at the end of the experiments were 115% and 53%, compared with the controls. The free-radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (final concn. 5 microM) protected against the GSH depletion caused by the higher dose of menadione and partially decreased the menadione-induced increase in junctional permeability. Verapamil, a Ca2(+)-channel blocker which was added into the perfusion medium (final concn. 40 microM) 10 min before the infusion of 5.5 mg of menadione, completely abolished the effect of menadione on junctional permeability. Menadione exposure therefore ...
Hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells in unconventional reservoirs has become the dominant type of well completion performed in the United States. In very low permeability reservoirs (~.00001-.0001 mD), the wellbore is aligned with the minimum horizontal stress, and the completion includes multiple transverse fractures. These fractures may be placed with either open hole sleeve type completion systems (OHMS), or cased hole plug and perf systems (P-n-P). In slightly higher permeability reservoirs (1 to 10 mD) multiple longitudinal fractures have been found to be preferred to completions with transverse fractures. This study presents an evaluation of gas well productivity for both transverse and longitudinal fractured horizontal wells using CFD simulations. The first part of the work includes an evaluation of one and two transverse fractures, over reservoir permeability of 1, 10 and 100 mD. Results, given as fold of increase, are compared to the single ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen causing a variety of diseases by versatile expression of a large set of virulence factors that most prominently features the cytotoxic and hemolytic pore-forming alpha-toxin. Expression of alpha-toxin is regulated by an intricate network of transcription factors. These include two-component systems sensing quorum and environmental signals as well as regulators reacting to the nutritional status of the pathogen. We previously identified the repressor of surface proteins (Rsp) as a virulence regulator. Acute cytotoxicity and hemolysis are strongly decreased in rsp mutants, which are characterized by decreased transcription of toxin genes as well as loss of transcription of a 1,232- nucleotide (nt)-long noncoding RNA (ncRNA), SSR42. Here, we show that SSR42 is the effector of Rsp in transcription regulation of the alpha-toxin gene, hla. SSR42 transcription is enhanced after exposure of S. aureus to subinhibitory concentrations of oxacillin which thus leads ...
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Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate all cargo traffic across the nuclear envelope. The transport conduit of NPCs is highly enriched in disordered phenylalanine/glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups), which form a permeability barrier of still elusive and highly debated molecular structure. Here we present a microfluidic device that triggered liquid-to-liquid phase separation of FG-Nups, which yielded droplets that showed typical properties of a liquid state. On the microfluidic chip, droplets were perfused with different transport-competent or -incompetent cargo complexes, and then the permeability barrier properties of the droplets were optically interrogated. We show that the liquid state mimics permeability barrier properties of the physiological nuclear transport pathway in intact NPCs in cells: that is, inert cargoes ranging from small proteins to large capsids were excluded from liquid FG-Nup droplets, but functional ...
Read "Influence of Cys-130 S. aureus Alpha-toxin on Planar Lipid Bilayer and Erythrocyte Membranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The objective of this research is to develop and test a new concept for predicting permeability from routine rock properties. First, we develop a model predicting permeability as a function of capillary pressure. Our model, which is based on the work by Purcell, Burdine and Wyllie and Gardner models, is given by: (Equation 1 - See PDF) Combining the previous equation and the Brooks and Corey model for capillary pressure, we obtain: (Equation 2 - See PDF) The correlation given by this equation could yield permeability from capillary pressure (and vice-versa). This model also has potential extensions to relative permeability (i.e., the Brooks and Corey relative permeability functions) - which should make correlations based on porosity, permeability, and irreducible saturation general tools for reservoir engineering problems where relative permeability data are ...
Recommended Review Article:. Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2008. How do BCL-2 proteins induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization? TRENDS IN CELL BIOLOGY 18(4): 157-164. Recommended Articles:. Aslan JE, Thomas G. 2009. Death by Committee: Organellar Trafficking and Communication in Apoptosis. TRAFFIC 10(10): 1390-1404. Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2009. PUMA cooperates with direct activator proteins to promote mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. CELL CYCLE 8(17): 2692-2696. Chipuk JE, Bouchier-Hayes L, Green DR. 2006. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization during apoptosis: the innocent bystander scenario. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION 13(8): 1396-1402 Chipuk JE, Green DR. 2006. Dissecting p53-dependent apoptosis. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of ...
For further elucidation of the mechanisms involved in cholesterol crystal recognition, we inhibited phagocytosis pharmacologically with cytochalasin D or lantriculin A. We found that these agents inhibited NLRP3 activation by crystals but not by the AIM2 activator poly(dA-dT)·poly(dT-dA) (Fig. 3a and Supplementary Fig. 6a, c, d). To follow the fate of the internalized particles, we analysed macrophages incubated with cholesterol crystals by combined confocal reflection and fluorescence microscopy. Cholesterol crystals induced profound swelling in a fraction of cells (Fig. 3b), as observed for other aggregated materials3, 14. Phagolysosomal membranes contain lipid raft components15, which allowed us to stain the surface of cells with the raft marker choleratoxin B labelled with one fluorescent colour and also to label internal phagolysosomal membranes after ...
Epithelial damage caused by intestinal permeation enhancers is a source of debate over their safety. The medium chain fatty acid, sodium caprate (C10), causes reversible membrane perturbation at high dose levels required for efficacy in vivo, so the aim was to model it in vitro. Exposure of Caco-2 monolayers to 8.5mM C10 for 60min followed by incubation in fresh buffer led to (i) recovery in epithelial permeability (i.e. transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [(14)C]-mannitol), (ii) recovery of cell viability parameters (monolayer morphology, plasma membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular calcium) and (iii) reduction in mRNA expression associated with inflammation (IL-8). Pre-incubation of monolayers with a ...
Knowledge of reservoir porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure is essential to exploration and production of hydrocarbons. Although porosity can be interpreted fairly accurately from well logs, permeability and capillary pressure must be measured from core. Estimating permeability and capillary pressure from well logs would be valuable where cores are unavailable. This study is to correlate permeability with porosity to predict permeability and capillary pressures. Relationships between permeability to porosity can be complicated by diagenetic processes like compaction, cementation, dissolution, and occurrence of clay minerals. These diagenetic alterations can reduce total porosity, and more importantly, reduce effective porosity available for fluid flow. To better predict permeability, effective porosity needs to be estimated. A general equation is proposed to estimate effective ...
Sand, Sverre L.; Haug, Trude M; Nissen-Meyer, Jon & Sand, Olav (2006). Clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH4 cells) are permeabilized by plantaricin A, a peptide pheromone produced by Lactobacillus plantarum. SFN Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Vis sammendrag Antimicrobial peptides and proteins, generally referred to as bacteriocins, are produced by numerous strains of bacteria. Plantaricin A (PlnA) is a 26-mer peptide pheromone that induces bacteriocin production in the strain from which it is released, Lactobacillus plantarum C11. Although pheromone activity is the prime biological function of PlnA, the peptide also has membrane-permeabilizing strain-specific antibacterial activity. The pheromone activity of PlnA depends on its binding to specific receptors, preceded by a non-chiral interaction with the target cell membrane. The ...
Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease, collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are major causes of lifetime morbidity. Although these diseases are often differentiated clinically on the basis of disease distribution and morphology, they share many characteristics. Each disease clearly involves an abnormal mucosal inflammatory response, and data from various sources suggest that luminal stimuli and epithelial cell dysfunction can also contribute to disease pathogenesis or progression. Defective epithelial barrier function, which can be measured as increased intestinal permeability, has been implicated in IBD1 and can predict relapse during clinical remission.2,3 Increased permeability is also present in a subset of unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with Crohns disease.4,5 As a result of these observations, the mechanisms of barrier function and permeability defects are thought to have a great ...
Equal. Combining them we get a simple expression for the resting potential: (E E -m L , K + E (1 + N a . 4) K /gtd this is a simphhed torm ot the more complex Goldman constant field equation (which takes account of chloride and calcium currents too), but it suffices for our purpose here, which is to highlight the importance of the ratio of sodium permeability to potassium permeability in setting the membrane potential. The expression tells us that the resting potential is a potassium equilibrium potential ( - 9 4 m V ) modified by a fraction of the sodium equilibrium potential ( + 4 1 mV). 1910) Physiology the Servant of Medicine, Hodder & Stoughton) The Times newspaper of July 9, 1909 reported that Mr Ellis Griffith (MP for Anglesey) questioned the Secretary of State in Parliament over Wallers public experiment on a dog with a leather strap with sharp nails secured around the neck, his feet being immersed ...
Hey guys, this weeks article is an important one because it shows that both hybrid strains and ancient stains of wheat are toxic to not only those with celiac disease but to those with non-celiac gluten sensitivity as well. Here are some direct points the article made: * Increased intestinal permeability after gliadin exposure occurs in all individuals. Following gliadin exposure, both patients with gluten sensitivity and those with active celiac disease demonstrate a greater increase in intestinal permeability than celiacs in disease remission. A higher concentration of IL-10 was measured in the media exposed to control explants compared to celiac disease in remission or gluten sensitivity.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previously, the endothelium was considered as a passive exchange barrier of lipoproteins between plasma and extravascular tissues. This dogma is challenged by recent findings on a dual relationship between lipoproteins and endothelial permeability. RECENT FINDINGS: LDL and HDL as well as apolipoprotein A-I pass the intact endothelium through transcytosis by processes, which involve caveolin-1, the LDL-receptor, ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 or scavenger receptor BI. Moreover, HDL help the endothelium to maintain structural integrity and hence selective permeability for biomolecules by keeping interendothelial junctions closed, by inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis and by stimulating endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation as well as the recruitment and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells in damaged parts of the endothelium. Both apolipoprotein ...
Mercury intrusion porosimetry is a valuable method for characterizing relative pore space dimensions. This dynamic technique is based on the intrusion of mercury into a porous structure under stringently controlled pressures. Mercury intrusion porosimetry permits the calculation of numerous sample properties such as pore size distributions, total pore volume, total pore surface area, median pore throat diameter, and sample densities (bulk and skeletal).. Capillary behavior and permeability are critical to reservoir behavior. Porosimetry is among the few techniques capable of probing the fine connected pore space of shales. This method is particularly useful in evaluation reservoir quality variations within a shale play and in petrotyping shale (Kale et al., 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineer).Various empirical transforms can be applied to estimate permeability from mercury intrusion data. While not quantitative, these estimates can provide a relative assessment of the ...
1. The relationship between osmolal clearance (Cosm) and the reabsorption of solute free water (Tch2o) was examined during mannitol and hypertonic saline diureses in both normocalcaemic and hypercalcaemic rabbits.. 2. At high values for Cosm (2-4 ml/min) in normocalcaemic rabbits Tch2o during saline diuresis exceeded that during mannitol diuresis as previously shown.. 3. Prolonged hypercalcaemia (72-96 h) reduced Tch2o in both mannitol and saline diureses.. 4. Brief hypercalcaemia (18-24 h) abolished the increment in Tch2o normally seen during saline, as compared with mannitol diuresis. This impairment of Tch2o during saline diuresis occurred at a time after the start of hypercalcaemia when Tch2o during mannitol diuresis was still unaffected.. 5. The results cannot be attributed to an effect of hypercalcaemia on membrane permeability to water, and are best explained by a reversible limitation of sodium transport in Henles loop. This ...
This monograph constitutes a comprehensive overview of BBB permeability changes and related damaging sequelae associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Despite improvements in the surgical and clinical management patients still experience an unacceptably high morbidity and mortality linked to the presence of subarachnoid blood. In this monograph, the authors have reviewed the historical basis of this problem, the anatomical substrates of the BBB, the occurrence and adverse consequences of barrier disruption following SAH, the related sequelae of oedema formation, ICP alteration and vasospasm discussed from both the basic science and clinical perspective, with the consideration of multiple clinical and laboratory investigative tools, including all aspects of modern imaging. The text is supplemented by presenting key research publications in the field, focusing on the damaging consequences of subarachnoid blood, while attempting to explain the hierarchy of events in those progressive changes ...
Abstract - We report finite-element simulations of gas-liquid two-phase flows through a model porous medium made of corrugated tubes. By resolving the pore-scale fluid dynamics and interfacial morphology, we compute the relative permeability of the porous medium by averaging over a pore-size-distribution of a real porous medium. A constant pressure gradient is applied on both fluids to simulate a pressure-driven creeping flow, and a diffuse-interface model is used to compute the interfacial evolution and the contact line motion. We observe a number of flow regimes in the micropores, depending on the pore size, imposed pressure gradient and other geometric and physical parameters. The flow rates vary nonlinearly with the pressure gradient, and the extended Darcys law does not hold in general. The interaction between the two phases, known as viscous coupling, is a prominent feature of the process. As a result, the relative permeability depends not only on saturation, but also ...
This is the simulation discussed in Koley D, Bard AJ (2010) Triton X-100 concentration effects on membrane permeability of a single HeLa cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:16783-7 (www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1011614107). A redox mediator in solution undergoes a simple one-electron transfer. The SECM tip is held at diffusion-controlled potential to avoid any kinetics complications. Ficks second law of diffusion in cylindrical coordinates with axial symmetry simulates the transport of redox species toward and away from the electrode surface, driven by concentration gradients. The 2-D simulation is solved by the finite element method, where the mesh is increased in exponential grid fashion at the regions where sharp change in the concentration gradients were noticed. The simulation was originally performed with Comsol ...
Graphene oxide membranes were recently suggested for applications in separation of ethanol from water using a vapor permeation method. Using isotope contrast, neutron reflectivity was applied to evaluate the amounts of solvents intercalated into a membrane from pure and binary vapors and to evaluate the selectivity of the membrane permeation. Particularly, the effect of D2O, ethanol and D2O-ethanol vapours on graphene oxide (GO) thin films (similar to 25 nm) was studied. The interlayer spacing of GO and the amount of intercalated solvents were evaluated simultaneously as a function of vapour exposure duration. The significant difference in neutron scattering length density between D2O and ethanol allows distinguishing insertion of each component of the binary mixture into the GO structure. The amount of intercalated solvent at saturation corresponds to 1.4 molecules per formula unit for pure D2O (similar to ...
Background Endothelial cell junctions control blood vessel permeability. morpholinos, resulted in permeability defects closely linked to vascular wall fragility. The ultrastructural analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction A 83-01 of junction complexes and the presence of immature AJs in zmorphants but not in control embryos. Conclusions/Significance Here we show the first evidence of a potentially crucial role played by Ve-ptp in AJ A 83-01 maturation, an important event for permeability modulation and for the development of a functional vascular system. Introduction The vascular endothelium plays a physiological role as a selective barrier between blood and extravascular tissues and it is involved in the formation and in the maintenance of vascular structures. The performing of these important functions is usually closely related to the regulation of endothelial ...
We measured the change in permeability of two selected sandstones (Berea, Fonteinebleau) due to injection of CO2-saturated ("live") brine, unsaturated ("dead") brine or supercritical (sc) CO2 at reservoir conditions. We found that the permeability did not significantly change in a clean sandstone consisting of pure quartz (Fonteinemebleau) due to live or dead brine injection, although permeability changed due to scCO2 injection by ~23%. The permeability in the Berea sandstone, however, changed due to live or dead brine injection, by up to 35%; this permeability reduction in Berea sandstone was likely caused by fines release and subsequent pore throat plugging as the damage was more significant at higher injection rates. We expect that this phenomenon - i.e. rock permeability reduction due to CO2 injection into the formation - can have a significant and detrimental influence on CO2 injectivity, which would be ...
The SHERP genes are found as a tandem pair within the differentially regulated LmcDNA16 locus of Leishmania major. The SHERP gene product (Small Hydrophilic Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein) is unusual in its small size (6.2kDa), its acidic pI (4.6) and its exclusive, high-level expression ( 100000 copies per cell) in infective non-replicative parasite stages. No homologues have been found to date. Secondary-structure predictions suggest that SHERP contains an amphiphilic a-helix that is presumably involved in protein-protein interactions. SHERP has been localized to the endoplasmic reticulum as well as to the outer mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and over-expressing parasites. Given the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence, transmembrane-spanning domains or detectable post-translational modifications, it is likely that this hydrophilic molecule is a peripheral ...
Learning outcomes:. By the completion of this course, the student should be able to (i) Explain the principles of the scientific method and its application, (ii) Demonstrate essential understanding and basic skills needed in studying plant functions and enzyme action, a series of generic and disciplinary skills listed in the Lab Manual BOTA 21022 and (iii) Skills in writing a scientific report.. Please visit the BOTA 21022 too for details.. Course contents:. Using the scientific method in laboratory experiments. Determination of water potential and solute potential, Measurement of transpiration, Stomatal movement. Separation of photosynthetic pigments, The Hill reaction. Acid accumulation of CAM plants. Differentiation between C3 and C4 plants by detection of starch. Studies on membrane permeability. Mineral deficiency symptoms in plants. Hormonal action. Seed viability and germination tests. Description of data using statistics. Enzyme action and kinetics. ...
Our lab is cross-disciplinary, bringing together computational biology, protein design, and molecular biology approaches. We assess the structural bioinformatics of OMPs (outer membrane proteins) and apply the results to de novo OMP protein design and to native OMP manipulation.. OMPs are a ripe target for cancer therapeutics. Mitochondria have recently become a focus of cancer therapies due to the fact that mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization leads to apoptosis or necrosis. We explore mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through manipulation of the OMP pores that already exist in the mitochondrial outer membrane. This may have pharmaceutical consequences because tumorigenic mitochondrial membranes can be selectively targeted in themselves as they have been shown to accumulate lipophilic cations.. Beyond this mechanistic ...
The effect of the polycation polyethyleneimine (PEI) on the permeability properties of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane was investigated using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium as target organisms. At concentrations of less than 20 μg ml-1, PEI increased the bacterial uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine, which is a hydrophobic probe whose quantum yield is greatly increased in a lipid environment, indicating increased hydrophobic permeation of the outer membrane by PEI. The effect of PEI was comparable to that brought about by the well-known permeabilizer EDTA. Permeabilization by PEI was retarded but not completely inhibited by millimolar concentrations of MgCl2. PEI also increased the susceptibility of the test species to the hydrophobic antibiotics clindamycin, erythromycin, fucidin, novobiocin and rifampicin, without being directly bactericidal. PEI sensitized the bacteria to the ...
Recent studies have demonstrated elevated plasma levels of ADM in vertebrates with a systemic inflammatory response.15-19⇓⇓⇓⇓ However, the role of ADM in the complex and dynamic disease process of sepsis is still largely undefined. On the one hand, the high ADM plasma levels observed in septic humans may contribute to hypotension and hyperdynamic circulatory response in sepsis, thereby contributing to disease progress.18 On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing ADM in their vasculature turned out to be resistant against lipopolysaccharide-induced shock, suggesting a rather beneficial effect of elevated ADM levels in sepsis.26. Considering that endothelial hyperpermeability is the hallmark of an inflammatory reaction1,2⇓ and that mice lacking a functional ADM gene displayed an extreme hydrops fetalis,27 we tested the hypothesis that elevated ADM levels stabilized endothelial barrier function, thereby acting as a "protective" peptide in the systemic inflammatory response. Our ...
China Excellent Water Permeability PP Non-Woven Geotextile, Find details about China Geotextile, Geotextiles from Excellent Water Permeability PP Non-Woven Geotextile - Great Point Industrial Co., Limited
Introduction. Transport across plasma membranes In this essay I will discuss and explain the transport across plasma membranes, to do this, I shall refer to osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport and finally, exocytosis and endocytosis. Like all other cellular membranes, the plasma membrane consists of both lipids and proteins. The fundamental structure of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments. In the case of the plasma membrane, these compartments are the inside and the outside of the cell. Proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer carry out the specific functions of the plasma membrane, including selective ...
Abstract. "The intestinal epithelium, the largest interface between the host and environment, regulates fluxes of ions and nutrients and limits host contact with the massive load of luminal antigens. Local protective and tolerogenic immune responses toward luminal content depend on antigen sampling by the gut epithelial layer. Whether, and how exaggerated, the entrance of antigenic macromolecules across the gut epithelium might initiate and/or perpetuate chronic inflammation as well as the respective contribution of paracellular and transcellular permeability remains a matter of debate. To this extent, experimental studies involving the in vivo assessment of intestinal permeability using small inert molecules do not necessarily correlate with the uptake of larger dietary antigens. This review analyzes both the structural and functional aspects of intestinal permeability with special emphasis ...
The BBB is formed by endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and the vascular basement membrane. Its main functions are to form a tight barrier that regulates the entry of selected molecules from the blood into the CNS and to prevent the passage of potentially harmful substances into the brain (40, 41). Changes in BBB permeability are a normal physiological response to events such as variations in pH, blood pressure, and the supply of oxygen and nutrients. However, an excessive and sustained increase in vascular permeability may produce an abnormal and enduring opening of the BBB, leading to the extravasation and accumulation of fluids in the perivascular space, resulting in vasogenic edema (17, 18).. The causes of the pathologic opening of the BBB are not known, but previous studies have suggested that in the case of cerebral ischemia it is the upregulation of MMP-9 and its subsequent proteolytic ...
Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new ...
1.Previous studies have indicated that the permeability of polyethyleneglycol across the human intestine is anomalously high in comparison with the permeability of sugars with similar molecular mass. In consequence it has been proposed that two or more distinct mechanisms must exist for the translocation of these classes of molecule or, alternatively, that the molecular parameter determining rate of penetration is each molecules minimum molecular dimension.. 2.The notional hydrogen-bonding capacity of a molecule correlates well with oil-water partition coefficient and also, in a variety of experimental systems, with rate of passive diffusion across biological membranes. A molecules hydrogen-bonding capacity is calculated by inspecting the structural formula and summing the individual theory-derived hydrogen-bonding capacities of the molecules functional groups.. 3.A classic set of intestinal permeability data that includes ...
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were treated with either colchicine at 1.0mg/kg or saline intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to phosgene at 0.5 parts per million for 60 minutes and air. Lavage surfactant
Polylactic acid (PLA) is becoming an increasingly important biopolymer for packaging applications. PLA brittleness limits its applicability. This study evaluated PLA properties with increasing amounts of added polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of cast films was determined using the newly available Dynamic Accumulation (DA) method. Arrhenius temperature sensitivity of OTR and polymer Permeability was also determined. Permeability of neat PLA is 4.848 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa; hence, 4.84 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa, 4.07 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa and 5.42 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa by adding PEG 1 %, 5% and 10% respectively. The main conclusion from this work is increasing PEG will enhance the PLA permeability number but excess PEG in PLA film will decrease the permeability number.
A coated substrate and a method of forming a diffusion barrier coating system between a substrate and a MCrAl coating, including a diffusion barrier coating deposited onto at least a portion of a substrate surface, wherein the diffusion barrier coating comprises a nitride, oxide or carbide of one or more transition metals and/or metalloids and a MCrAl coating, wherein M includes a transition metal or a metalloid, deposited on at least a portion of the diffusion barrier coating, wherein the diffusion barrier coating restricts the inward diffusion of aluminum of the MCrAl coating into the substrate.
Cell Membrane Worksheet Answers 12 Cool Photos Of Coloring Cell Membrane Worksheet Answers Worksheet cell membrane images worksheet answers biology corner plasma membrane structure worksheet answers cell membrane & tonicity worksheet answers cell membrane & tonicity worksheet answer key cell membrane and transport graphic worksheet answers Each Math topic has many unique of worksheets to insure many sorts of you might to on. At this time you can finish a topic as soon as your students have mastered it not when you use up your entire own problems. There are many topics ...

Inter Research » AB » v19 » n1 » p55-64Inter Research » AB » v19 » n1 » p55-64

... demersum had higher membrane permeability, which might enhance NH4+ transportation across the membrane and thus increase its ... The plants were then collected for examination of cell membrane permeability and the solutions were used to determine the ... concentrations of NH4+, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+). The results indicate that high NH4+ ... Significant increases in the membrane permeability of M. spicatum and C. demersum were observed in the treatments with external ...
more infohttp://www.int-res.com/abstracts/ab/v19/n1/p55-64/

Drug Classifications | BlgrDrug Classifications | Blgr

Antifungals (Systemic) Action: Antifungals act by increasing cell membrane permeability in susceptible organisms by binding ... sterols and decreasing potassium, sodium, and nutrients in the cell. Uses: Antifungals are used for infection of histoplasmosis ...
more infohttps://blgr.info/category/drug-classifications/

Tomatine - WikipediaTomatine - Wikipedia

The membrane permeability of frog embryos increased by 600% when exposed with tomatine. In frog skin, the sodium-active ... This membrane disruption causes cell death by cell leakage. Also, the disrupted membrane has an influence on sodium transport, ... Such binding results in the disruption of cell membranes, leakage of cell components and finally cell death. Tomatidine is a ... which may cause disruption of cell membrane and changes in membrane permeability. Research has proven that tomatine is only ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomatine

77-86-1 - Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, ACS, 99.8-100.1% (Assay, dried basis) - 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol -...77-86-1 - Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, ACS, 99.8-100.1% (Assay, dried basis) - 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol -...

It finds application in cell membranes to increase permeability. As an alternative to sodium bicarbonate, it used in the ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/fr/catalog/031801/

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

OmpU induces target animal cell death after it inserts into host mitochondrial membranes (Gupta et al. 2015). The high ... The effective pore radus is 0.55 nm which increases with acidic pH but decreases with increasing ionic strength (Duret and ... OmpU porin (cation-selective; PK/PCl = 14; bile salt inducible) (low permeability to bile) (Simonet et al., 2003). OmpU ... influences sensitivities to β-lactam antibiotics and sodium deoxycholate induction of biofilm formation and growth on large ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=1.B.1.1.15

CorneaSclera2 Flashcards by Kristen Phifer | BrainscapeCorneaSclera2 Flashcards by Kristen Phifer | Brainscape

responds to increases to endothelial permeability human corneas with guttata have pump site densities of 6 x 106 sites per cell ... The directionality is helped by density of sodium ions in Descemets membrane ... Sodium ions is transported by Sodium Pottassium ATPase is pumped into channels between endothelial cells. Na ions being pushed ... cell density does NOT change. CV increases. Hexagonal cells drop to 50% expect high astig or high myopia ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/corneasclera2-2707547/packs/4640492

Go Direct® EKG Sensor User Manual | Vernier		Go Direct® EKG Sensor User Manual | Vernier

However, stimulation of a muscle cell causes an increase in its permeability to sodium. Sodium ions migrate into the cell ... This means the cells have slightly unequal concentrations of ions across their cell membranes. An excess of positive sodium ... less than the outside of the cell membrane. The 90 mV difference is called the resting potential. The typical cell membrane is ... This change in cell potential from negative to positive and back is a voltage pulse called an action potential. In muscle cells ...
more infohttps://www.vernier.com/manuals/gdx-ekg/

Spike potential - WikipediaSpike potential - Wikipedia

It occurs when the permeability of the cell membrane to sodium increases past a threshold. In the resting state, the interior ... In the human gut they occur automatically when the resting membrane potential of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle becomes ... more positive than about -40 millivolts (the normal resting membrane potential in the smooth muscle fibers of the gut is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spike_potential

Frontiers | Preparation and Characterization of Loperamide-Loaded Dynasan 114 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Increased Oral...Frontiers | Preparation and Characterization of Loperamide-Loaded Dynasan 114 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Increased Oral...

In this work, glyceryl trimyristate (Dynasan 114) nanoparticles containing the drug LPM and sodium cholate as a stabilizer were ... In conclusion, LPM-SLN-1 significantly improved the oral bioavailability of LPM, while LPM-SLN-2 having the same swift action ... In this work, glyceryl trimyristate (Dynasan 114) nanoparticles containing the drug LPM and sodium cholate as a stabilizer were ... and might improve the intestinal epithelial permeability by interrupting the cell membrane (Zhuang et al., 2010). Sodium ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00332/full

Postmortem Vitreous Analyses: Overview, Vitreous Procurement and Pretreatment, Performable Postmortem Vitreous AnalysesPostmortem Vitreous Analyses: Overview, Vitreous Procurement and Pretreatment, Performable Postmortem Vitreous Analyses

... cell membranes become permeable. Active and selective membrane transport stops, and the loss of selective membrane permeability ... Potassium immediately begins to diffuse out of these cells into the vitreous, and the level of potassium increases linearly. ... Sodium, chloride, creatinine, and urea nitrogen are more reflective of the premortem blood levels at the time of death and can ... Magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium in post-mortem vitreous humour from humans. Forensic Sci Int. 1985 Jan. 27(1):1-13. [ ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1966150-overview

4. What could make those products dangerous to swallow? - European Commission4. What could make those products dangerous to swallow? - European Commission

... concentrations by increasing cell membrane permeability. However, as a rule of thumb, the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) of ... Corrosive substances such as acetic acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium bisulphate, sodium hypochlorite, sodium ... 2009). Sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, alcohols and hydrogen peroxide were often cited in poisonings. Individually, ... This may be due to the strongly irritating effect which cationic surfactants exhibit on the mucous membrane of the ...
more infohttp://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/products-resembling-food/en/l-3/4-products-dangerous-swallow.htm

Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on ouabain-induced oedematous brain | SpringerLinkUltrastructural and biochemical studies on ouabain-induced oedematous brain | SpringerLink

... a specific inhibitor of active cation transport across cell membrane, was applied topically to brain surface of cats. The ... to detect the sodium ion revealed that the increased sodium in the cortex accumulated in the swollen neuronal cell processes. ... No evidence of increased vascular permeability was noted in the cortex, morphologically or biochemically. Electron microscopic ... Post, R. L.: Relationship of an ATPase in human erythrocyte membranes to the active transport of sodium and potassium. Fed. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00692054

Tris - WikipediaTris - Wikipedia

Tris is used to increase permeability of cell membranes. Tris (usually known as THAM in this context) is used as alternative to ... Hoste, EA; Colpaert, K; Vanholder, RC; Lameire, NH; De Waele, JJ; Blot, SI; Colardyn, FA (2005). "Sodium bicarbonate versus ... aminomethane Buffer Modification of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Permeability". J. Bacteriol. 145 (3): 1397-1403. Kallet, RH ... "Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis". Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303-307. ISSN 1121 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tris

Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced...Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced...

This increase in production might be due to increase in cell membrane permeability [33] and/or modification (swelling) of ... Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme ... The inhibitory effect of glucose on α-amylase synthesis increased with the increase of glucose concentration in the medium. ... production level was found to increase with increase in size of inoculum and found to be optimal at 2% (v/v) (Table 1). Further ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/859805/

Sodium caprate as an enhancer of macromolecule permeation across tricellular tight junctions of intestinal cells.  - PubMed -...Sodium caprate as an enhancer of macromolecule permeation across tricellular tight junctions of intestinal cells. - PubMed -...

... suggest that caprates known enhancing effect on intestinal drug uptake is based on increased permeability in tricellular cell ... across the cell membranes) and paracellular (across the tight junction) pathways. Sodium caprate (10 mm) caused a rapid and ... Sodium caprate as an enhancer of macromolecule permeation across tricellular tight junctions of intestinal cells.. Krug SM1, ... Visualization of the translocation site of the cell membrane-impermeable marker molecule sulpho-NHS-SS-biotin (607 Da) ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23069717

Covonia Sore Throat 0.2/0.05%w/v Oromucosal Spray Lemon Flavour - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (eMC)Covonia Sore Throat 0.2/0.05%w/v Oromucosal Spray Lemon Flavour - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (eMC)

This results from blocking of the large transient increase in permeability of the cell membrane to sodium ions that follows ... initial depolarisation of the membrane. Lidocaine also reduces the permeability of the resting axon to potassium and to sodium ... Chlorhexidine is poorly absorbed from mucous membranes, intact skin and the gastrointestinal tract. It is only minimally ... Lidocaine is readily absorbed from oral mucous membranes, the gastrointestinal tract and through damaged skin. Absorption ...
more infohttps://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/9176/smpc

Lipids And Radiation BurnsLipids And Radiation Burns

... corollary of the abnormal penetration of sodium into the cells which partly results from the increase in membrane permeability. ... We have seen that the changes induced by fatty acids upon cell metabolism are in large part due to an increase in cell membrane ... A similar change of cell membrane permeability could be recognized among the effects of radiation. Following radiation, it ... an increase of potassium in serum, a retention of chlorides and water, and particularly, an increase in the sulfhydryl index ...
more infohttps://chestofbooks.com/health/disease/cancer/Emanuel-Revici-Research-Physiopathology/Lipids-And-Radiation-Burns.html

Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells |...Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells |...

Key message Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory ... effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of... ... Britto DT, Ebrahimi-Ardebili S, Hamam AM, Coskun D, Kronzucker HJ (2010) 42K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in ... Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00299-018-2269-6

THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTROLYTES AND OF WATER IN SURVIVING TISSUE OF THE LIVER | JEMTHE MOVEMENT OF ELECTROLYTES AND OF WATER IN SURVIVING TISSUE OF THE LIVER | JEM

With continued entrance permeability to both electrolyte and water increases and in case of sodium become evident after 15 or ... The plasma membrane of the liver cell is semipermeable to electrolytes but its semipermeability is imperfect, may be impaired, ... solutions sodium enters slowly and swelling proceeds rapidly but with increasing concentration entrance of sodium increases and ... Less sodium enters and less potassium is lost from liver cells at 0°C. than at 38° and 0°C. swelling is greater. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/112/3/491

SearchSearch

... produced a greater increase in water permeability than those in the sodium form (NaA). Furthermore, AgA-TFN membranes exhibited ... which appeared to inhibit adhesion of bacteria cells onto the membranes. The AgA nanocrystals exhibited significant ... Both TFN membranes exhibited higher water permeability, while maintaining similar salt rejection to pure polyamide thin film ... Effect of mobile cation on zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite membranes * Mary Laura Lind, Byeong-Heon Jeong, Arun ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/search?filters%5BauthorTerms%5D=Mary%20Laura%20Lind&eventCode=SE-AU

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Potassium (HMDB0000586)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Potassium (HMDB0000586)

... and vice versa when adenosine triphosphate increases the permeability of the cell membrane. It is mainly replaced inside or ... outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). The movement of potassium into or out of the cells is linked to certain body ... 9. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3. General function:. Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2. General function:. Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000586

Update on Brain Tumor Imaging: From Anatomy to Physiology | American Journal of NeuroradiologyUpdate on Brain Tumor Imaging: From Anatomy to Physiology | American Journal of Neuroradiology

... the chief mechanism is related to intracellular swelling due to sodium influx after energy pump failure at the cell membrane ... In vasogenic edema, however, there is increase in extracellular space volume, because of disturbance of vascular permeability, ... DCE T1-Weighted Permeability Imaging. Endothelial permeability of vessels in brain tumors provides valuable information about ... As the grade of fibrillary astrocytoma increases, the maximal tumor rCBV tends to increase (Fig 5). Astrocytoma grading by ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/27/3/475.full

Membrane Ion Transport in Bartters Syndrome | HypertensionMembrane Ion Transport in Bartter's Syndrome | Hypertension

Since hyperaldosteronism may cause increased cell permeability for sodium per se,13 it is possible that at least part of the ... Increased permeability of the cell membranes for Na+, usually measured in red blood cells, is a well-known phenomenon in ... Increased membrane permeability for sodium is a common finding in patients with Bartters syndrome, and is described in kidneys ... permeability was moderately increased, and up to 60% of sodium permeability was represented by cAMP-activated fraction ( ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/30/6/1338

3- Resting Potential and action potential Flashcards by Imy pat | Brainscape3- Resting Potential and action potential Flashcards by Imy pat | Brainscape

Increase in the permeability of the membrane to sodium. Sodium moves down the electrochemical gradient and membrane potential ... More VGKCs open - permeability to potassium increases. More K+ leaves the cell and the membrane potential moves in the ... Depolarisation causes opening of voltage-gated sodium channel allowing sodium into the cell. This means that the membrane ... It is the PERMEABILITY OF THE MEMBRANE to all the ions that governs the overall membrane potential. • POTASSIUM is the main ion ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/3-resting-potential-and-action-potential-6519961/packs/10292314
  • The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. (springer.com)
  • b) Destabilization of junction position, probably through increased membrane fluidity, augmented tension-induced movement of strands, resulting in fragmentation of the junction belt. (rupress.org)
  • Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of active cation transport across cell membrane, was applied topically to brain surface of cats. (springer.com)
  • It is mainly replaced inside or outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). (hmdb.ca)
  • Cation transport numbers for four of these electrolytes were measured in Franz cells by the electromotive force method. (cdc.gov)
  • Results for skin showed the expected increase in cation permselectivity for monovalent cations and a 40-110-fold reduction in effective diffusivities with respect to those in solution. (cdc.gov)
  • The results were consistent with a mechanism of lysis involving the formation of cation-selective pores in the membranes of target cells. (asm.org)
  • It is proposed that the selective cation permeability produced by this compound depends primarily on steric factors, particularly the relationship between the diameter of the ring and the effective diameter of the ion. (rupress.org)
  • Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • The most effective 5-day protocol utilized Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), salts, and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and was determined by modifying detergent concentration and perfusion duration and testing an alternative ionic detergent. (ufl.edu)
  • In the present work, this setup was further employed to compare three common PEs-sodium caprate (C 10 ), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and lauroyl carnitine. (mdpi.com)
  • Although not yet linked to modulating transcription of eukaryotic genes, the cytolysin of E. faecalis, which serves as an autoinducer of expression of the enterococcal cyl operon, also has toxic effects on erythrocytes, retinal tissues, intestinal epithelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages (11). (biology-online.org)
  • Lopez-Posadas R, Neurath MF, Atreya I (2017) Molecular pathways driving disease-specific alterations of intestinal epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • In this work, glyceryl trimyristate (Dynasan 114) nanoparticles containing the drug LPM and sodium cholate as a stabilizer were prepared using a modified solvent evaporation technique. (frontiersin.org)
  • Magnesium has profound effects on solute and water transport in various cells, and intracellular Mg 2 is known to interact with several channels. (mgwater.com)
  • The action of magnesium depends on the cell membrane category. (mgwater.com)
  • In this review, the interactions between magnesium and the sodium and potassium pathways in cell membranes are examined. (mgwater.com)
  • One would not normally think that Magnesium (Mg) deficiency can paradoxically increase the risk of, or protect against cancer yet we will find that just as severe dehydration or asphyxiation can cause death magnesium deficiency can directly lead to cancer. (bodysoulspiritexpo.com)
  • Magnesium deficiency poses a direct threat to the health of our cells. (bodysoulspiritexpo.com)
  • It is known that carcinogenesis induces magnesium distribution disturbances, which cause magnesium mobilization through blood cells and magnesium depletion in non-neoplastic tissues. (bodysoulspiritexpo.com)
  • Magnesium in general is essential for the survival of our cells but takes on further importance in the age of toxicity where our bodies are being bombarded on a daily basis with heavy metals. (bodysoulspiritexpo.com)
  • According to Dr. Russell Blaylock, low magnesium is associated with dramatic increases in free radical generation as well as glutathione depletion and this is vital since glutathione is one of the few antioxidant molecules known to neutralize mercury. (bodysoulspiritexpo.com)
  • In the body of an adult with a mass of 70 kilograms, 20 to 30 grams of magnesium are concentrated: 60% in the bones of the skeleton, 40% in cells and tissues, 1% in the intercellular space. (for-healths.com)
  • its functions include regulation of cell membrane excitability, regulation of repetitive low frequency firing in some neurons, and recovery of the nerve fiber membrane at the end of the action potential . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, the facilitative effects of low-intensity ultrasound on histone acetylation and interleukin 6 (IL-6) regulation by sodium butyrate were investigated in this study. (ovid.com)
  • To address these issues, we have investigated sodium-induced pump regulation in adult rat dissociated thalamic neurons. (mcmaster.ca)
  • 2009). Sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, alcohols and hydrogen peroxide were often cited in poisonings. (europa.eu)
  • Sulfuric acid and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide may be added to adjust pH (4.0 - 6.2). (drugs.com)
  • Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. (bionity.com)
  • The reaction with water produces very caustic sodium hydroxide and highly flammable hydrogen gas. (bionity.com)
  • Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4- D ) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans -zeatin ( t Z) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). (springer.com)
  • Britto DT, Ebrahimi-Ardebili S, Hamam AM, Coskun D, Kronzucker HJ (2010) 42K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance. (springer.com)
  • When you read about aldosterone action in a student's textbook of medical physiology, you usually get the following information: the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone is synthesized in the suprarenal gland and, after release into the bloodstream, acts on target cells of the renal collecting duct. (physiology.org)
  • Cells delivered into the renal artery showed initial glomerular localization with subsequent expansion into adjacent vasculature, interstitium, and tubules. (ufl.edu)
  • With improved surgical techniques and immunosuppressive medications, outcomes after renal and extrarenal (liver, pancreas, lung, heart) transplantation have continued to improve. (medscape.com)
  • Sulfinpyrazone is deemed to the same way as part of renal cell growth fac- tor binding. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has several therapeutic actions, including anti-inflammation. (ovid.com)
  • These results suggest that low-intensity ultrasound treatment promotes the physiologic actions of sodium butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. (ovid.com)
  • P blood significantly increased in the presence of the P-gP inhibitor, verapamil. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, a combined proteolysis and Caco-2 cell permeation setup was developed to investigate the effect of soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) in the MCs. (mdpi.com)
  • Other particles diffuse across membranes through specific carriers, by a process called facilitated diffusion. (glowm.com)
  • Visualization of the translocation site of the cell membrane-impermeable marker molecule sulpho-NHS-SS-biotin (607 Da) indicated the tricellular tight junction to be the predominant pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2 +/+ and CerS2 −/− mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC. (springer.com)
  • Cummins, J., Hydén, H.: Adenosine triphosphate levels and adenosine triphosphatases in neurons, glia and neuronal membranes of the vestibular nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Neurons, or nerve cells, serve as primary receptors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium mediates the generation of excitatory synaptic potential and propagation of action potential in mammalian central neurons. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Despite large variations in neuronal excitatory activities associated with multiple routes of sodium entry, most central neurons are capable of maintaining a physiological level of internal sodium. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Density of phosphorylated (active) form of Na,K-ATPase on cytoplasmic membrane of alive neurons was assessed using a fluorescent derivative of ouabain, 9-anthroylouabain. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Four-hour viability surveillance of acutely dissociated neurons attested their good health without any significant increase in internal sodium. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Fig. 3: Confocal scanning of neurons stained with fluorescent antibody revealed significant increase in the density of alpha-3 subunit. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Fig. 4: Increase in the membrane density of phosphorylated (active) pump molecules after exposure to veratridine (50 M). Fluorescent images, and 3D intensity profiles of two representitative neurons - control (top) and exposed to veratridine (bottom). (mcmaster.ca)
  • Sodium is retained in the body and potassium is excreted, which is the classic response of aldosterone in kidney. (physiology.org)
  • Another fast cellular response of aldosterone, detected more than 16 years ago in amphibian kidney cells ( 11 ), is the activation of plasma membrane Na + /H + exchange. (physiology.org)
  • When potassium intake is high, secretion of K+ , and essentially no K+ by the colon as well as the kidney is increased to eliminate the excess potassium. (yudu.com)
  • Cytokeratin is an epithelial cell marker and Pax-2 is necessary for kidney development. (ufl.edu)
  • These cells are usually derived from organs such as the kidney where they are immobile and implanted into connective tissue. (ukessays.com)
  • Finally, water permeation across cell membranes is vital for replacement of water lost from the periciliary fluid by evaporation. (illinois.edu)
  • Combining a permeation enhancer (PE) with unidirectionally releasing microcontainers (MCs) has previously been shown to increase insulin permeation across Caco-2 cell monolayers. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, we conclude that GLP-1 increases the cAMP level via activation of adenylate cyclase, which augments the membrane Na+ permeability through PKA-dependent and PKA-independent mechanisms, thereby increasing the [Ca2+]i and promoting insulin secretion from hamster islet cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • From hypotonic solutions sodium enters slowly and swelling proceeds rapidly but with increasing concentration entrance of sodium increases and swelling diminishes in accord with the osmotic relations between tissue and the medium. (rupress.org)
  • The reasons for interest in this route of drug administration because of its high vascularity, porous endothelial basement membrane and a high total blood flow per volume of tissue. (scribd.com)
  • This damage (called a mutation) can affect the ability of your cells to produce energy, can cause your cells to die early resulting in compromised tissue or inflammation, and can even show up years later as cancer. (whfoods.com)
  • The apical sodium channels allow sodium absorption from the apical side to the basal side of the tissue. (illinois.edu)
  • Deletion of CerS2 strongly reduced very long-chain ceramides (Cer24:0, 24:1) but concomitantly increased long-chain ceramides and sphinganine in plasma and colon tissue. (springer.com)
  • Several muscular tissue based actuators have been described and devices with cultured heart cells have also been reported to produce electrical outputs. (nanowerk.com)
  • Primary cell cultures are cultures that grow and maintain cells dissociated from their parental tissue via mechanical or enzymatic methods. (ukessays.com)
  • There was a marked increase in sodium with a slight increase of water in the most severely affected lesions. (springer.com)
  • There was a marked increase in sodium with a slight increase of water in the cortex treated with 10 −3 M ouabain. (springer.com)
  • Other systemic effects of intensive radiotherapy were seen to include an increase in urinary excretion of surface active substances, an increase of potassium in serum, a retention of chlorides and water , and particularly, an increase in the sulfhydryl index indicating an exaggerated excretion of this group. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Both TFN membranes exhibited higher water permeability, while maintaining similar salt rejection to pure polyamide thin film composite membranes. (cambridge.org)
  • Sodium quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as kerosene. (bionity.com)
  • Compared with other alkali metals, sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium, in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Sodium reacts exothermically with water: small pea-sized pieces will bounce across the surface of the water until they are consumed by it, whereas large pieces will explode. (bionity.com)
  • While sodium reacts with water at room temperature, the sodium piece melts with the heat of the reaction to form a sphere, if the reacting sodium piece is large enough. (bionity.com)
  • The stability of the membrane to chemical and water permeability depends on the integrity of the lipid bilayer and on tight control of temperature, pH, and osmolarity. (medscape.com)
  • Electron accumulation also interferes with the activity of the sodium- potassium pump, allowing potassium to flood into extra cellular spaces and sodium and water to enter the cell, in turn causing cellular edema and possible rupture. (wisegeek.com)
  • The current revision of drinking water guidelines shows that nothing has improved in the WHO as regards fluoride. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • In the perfused rat intestinal model, permeability coefficients based on CTS disappearance from the luminal perfusate ( P lumen ) were 6.7- to 10.3-fold higher than permeability coefficients based on drug appearance in venous blood ( P blood ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neural junction at which neurotransmitter molecules released from a presynaptic cell induce changes in a postsynaptic cell. (studyblue.com)
  • b] A fundamental property of QS is that the greater the density of bacteria, the greater the density of signaling molecules and the greater the opportunity for cell-to-cell communication. (biology-online.org)
  • Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the most important changes seen in the presence of deranged potassium are cardiac, smooth muscle is also affected with increasing muscle weakness, a feature of both hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia. (hmdb.ca)
  • In cardiac cells they produce phase 0 of the action potential. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The movement of potassium into or out of the cells is linked to certain body hormones and also to certain physiological states. (hmdb.ca)
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FOOD AND CULTURE though nearly all of the dietary K+ intestine, there is normally some net secretion of K+ is absorbed in the small in in the plasma, and this immediately stimulates physiological mechanisms to promote rapid entry of K+ into cells so that a rapid rise in the plasma K+ tration is prevented. (yudu.com)
  • Effects of Platelet activating factor on various physiological parameters of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages, and alveolar type II cells. (cdc.gov)
  • 4) Na-K-Cl cotransport increasing Mg o concentration stimulates this system in red cells and human amnion, and the bumetadine-sensitive K + transport is sensitive to Mg i (5) KCl cotransport - The increase in Mg i inhibits this cotransport. (mgwater.com)
  • Sodium caprate is a promising candidate for inducing drug absorption enhancement. (nih.gov)