Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.BooksSearch Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Book SelectionSculptureAnacardium: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE. This is the source of the familiar cashew nuts, which are heat treated to remove the irritant toxin. Cashew nut shell liquid (frequently abbreviated as CNSL) is a major source of alkenyl phenolic compounds, especially ANACARDIC ACIDS, cardol, and cardanol.ShoesMedicine in ArtErythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Methoxsalen: A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Electroosmosis: The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.

Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (1/7242)

Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels.  (+info)

Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O. (2/7242)

One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (3/7242)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (4/7242)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

Effects of inhibitors and substitutes for chloride in lumen on p-aminohippurate transport by isolated perfused rabbit renal proximal tubules. (5/7242)

The transport step for p-aminohippurate (PAH) from cell to lumen across the luminal membrane of rabbit proximal tubules has not been adequately defined. To examine this process more closely, we determined the effects of possible transport inhibitors and substitutes for chloride on PAH secretion in isolated perfused S2 segments of rabbit proximal tubules. The addition of 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic stilbene (10(-4) M) to the perfusate irreversibly inhibited PAH secretion, whereas the addition of probenecid (10(-4) M) to the perfusate reversibly inhibited PAH secretion. PAH secretion was unaffected by thiocyanate replacement of chloride in the luminal perfusate, reversibly inhibited by 15 to 20% by methyl sulfate replacement, and irreversibly inhibited by isethionate replacement. Because the luminal membrane is at least as permeable to thiocyanate as to chloride, less permeable to methyl sulfate, and much less permeable to isethionate, these data suggest that the PAH transport step from cells to lumen does not require chloride in the lumen but does require a highly permeant anion. During inhibition of PAH transport from cells to lumen, PAH uptake across the basolateral membrane was also reduced, suggesting some type of feedback inhibition. The data are compatible with PAH transport across the luminal membrane by an anion exchanger, a potential-driven uniporter, both carriers, or a carrier that can function in both modes.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (6/7242)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (7/7242)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux. (8/7242)

The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells.  (+info)

*Lactoferrin

This affects the membrane permeability and results in the cell breakdown (lysis). Although lactoferrin also has other ... Many viruses tend to bind to the lipoproteins of the cell membranes and then penetrate into the cell. Lactoferrin binds to the ... Lactoferrin not only disrupts the membrane, but even penetrates into the cell. Its binding to the bacteria wall is associated ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ...

*Cinnarizine

"Lipophilic cationic drugs increase the permeability of lysosomal membranes in a cell culture system". Journal of Cellular ... Cinnarizine inhibits the flow of calcium into red blood cells, which increases the elasticity of the cell wall, thereby ... currents that are activated by heightened hydrostatic pressure on the hair cells.[11] It is true that cinnarizine does abolish ... "Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type II vestibular hair cells by cinnarizine". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives ...

*Piracetam

... is thought to increase cell membrane permeability. Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission ... it also increases the permeability of some intermediates of the Krebs cycle through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Piracetam ... There is no evidence to support piracetam's use in sickle cell crisis prevention. Piracetam has been found to have very few ... Al Hajeri, Amani; Fedorowicz, Zbys (2016-02-12). "Piracetam for reducing the incidence of painful sickle cell disease crises". ...

*Tomatine

... which may cause disruption of cell membrane and changes in membrane permeability. Research has proven that tomatine is only ... Such binding results in the disruption of cell membranes, leakage of cell components and finally cell death. Tomatidine is a ... This membrane disruption causes cell death by cell leakage. Also, the disrupted membrane has an influence on sodium transport, ... The membrane permeability of frog embryos increased by 600% when exposed with tomatine. In frog skin, the sodium-active ...

*Saliva

Increased calcium causes vesicles within the cells to fuse with the apical cell membrane leading to secretion. ACh also causes ... acts upon blood vessels and capillaries of the salivary gland to generate vasodilation and increased capillary permeability ... Cells: possibly as many as 8 million human and 500 million bacterial cells per mL. The presence of bacterial products (small ... Human saliva comprises 99.5⁠% water plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be ...

*Lassa virus

The cleaved glycoproteins are incorporated into the virion envelope when the virus buds and release from the cell membrane.[23] ... Hemorrhagic manifestations include vascular permeability.[24] Upon entry, the Lassa virus infects almost every tissue in the ... The main targets of the virus are antigen-presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells) and endothelial cells.[25][26][27] In 2012 ... The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG),[18] a ...

*Lactoferrin

This affects the membrane permeability and results in the cell breakdown (lysis).[37] ... Many viruses tend to bind to the lipoproteins of the cell membranes and then penetrate into the cell.[50] Lactoferrin binds to ... cell surface. • specific granule. • phagocytic vesicle lumen. • extracellular exosome. • cell nucleus. • extracellular space. • ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses.[ ...

*Pneumoviridae

Suggested to alter membrane permeability and block apoptosis. G- Type II glycoprotein. Facilitates virus attachment through ... Type I glycoprotein that facilitates fusion between the virus and the host cell membrane. SH- Small hydrophobic protein. Non ... Special Issue: Cell response to viral infection. 209: 128-135. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.02.024. Graaf, Miranda de; Herfst, ... Translation of viral proteins is carried out by host cell ribosomes. Once sufficient P, N, L, and M2 proteins are available to ...

*Archaeocin

salinarum cells where it may be disrupting membrane permeability. The archaeocins produced by Sulfolobus are entirely different ... from halocins, since their activity is predominantly associated with the cells and not the supernatant. To date, the spectrum ...

*Absorption (pharmacology)

One particular cellular barrier that may prevent absorption of a given drug is the cell membrane. Cell membranes are ... Solubility favors charged species, and permeability favors neutral species. Some molecules have special exchange proteins and ... Since non-ionic species diffuse more readily through cell membranes, weak acids will have a higher absorption in the highly ... Ions cannot passively diffuse through the gastrointestinal tract because the epithelial cell membrane is made up of a ...

*Tris

... is used to increase permeability of cell membranes. Tris (usually known as THAM in this context) is used as alternative to ... aminomethane Buffer Modification of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Permeability". J. Bacteriol. 145 (3): 1397-1403. Kallet, RH ...

*Hopanoids

In many bacteria hopanoids may play roles in the adjustment of cell membrane permeability in adaptation to extreme ... a hopanoid compound found in some bacterial cell membranes, and cholesterol, a sterol compound found in eukaryotic membranes.[5 ... Hopanoids modify plasma membrane properties, like fluidity and formation of liquid ordered domains, influencing membrane ... where they are thought to minimise water loss across the membrane to the air.[6] In the actinomycete Frankia, the hopanoids in ...

*Aquaporin

Solomon and his co-workers performed pioneering work on water permeability across the cell membrane in the late 1950s. In the ... In most cells, water moves in and out by osmosis through the lipid component of cell membranes. Due to the relatively high ... The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells contain aquaporins through which water can ... They are embedded in the cell membrane. The amino and carboxyl ends face the inside of the cell. The amino and carboxyl halves ...

*Polyamine

Most eukaryotic cells have a polyamine transporter system on their cell membrane that facilitates the internalization of ... Polyamines can enhance the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. They are involved in modulating senescence of organs in ... Polyamines in cell cycle proliferation and cell death Ornithine Decarboxylase: Expression and regulation in rat brain and in ... K+ ion gradient across the cell membrane, is conserved. In addition, polyamine participate in initiating the expression of SOS ...

*Gheorghe Benga

Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". Eur J Cell Biol. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID 3019699. Kuchel PW ( ... Benga Gh; Popescu O; Borza Victoria; Pop VI; Muresan A; Mocsy I; Brain A; Wrigglesworth JM (1986). "Water permeability of human ... Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane Two years later, in 1988, Peter Agre ... Gheorghe Benga (born January 26, 1944 in Timişoara, Romania) is a professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of ...

*Diamphotoxin

... increases the permeability of cell membranes of red blood cells. Although this does not affect the normal flow of ... ions between cells, it allows all small ions to pass through cell membranes easily, which fatally disrupts the cells' ion ... on ionic permeability in nucleated cells". Toxicon. 28 (4): 435-44. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(90)90082-i. PMID 2161574. Kao, C. Y ... Bernheimer, A. W.; Rudy, B. (June 1986). "Interactions between membranes and cytolytic peptides". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ...

*Gene electrotransfer

Cell membrane permeability is increased and otherwise nonpermeant molecules enter the cell. Although the mechanisms of gene ... It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is ... into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane. Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and ... electrophoretic migration of DNA towards the cell, DNA insertion into the membrane, translocation across the membrane, ...

*Terbinafine

This is thought to change cell membrane permeability, causing fungal cell lysis. Terbinafine is sold in India as Terboderm by ... decreased red blood cell count (anemia), muscle pain (myalgia), joint pain (arthralgia) In 2015 physicians reported that a ... Decreased white blood cell counts including pancytopenia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and ...

*Vernonia amygdalina

... amygdalina Extracts Alter MCF-7 Cell Membrane Permeability and Efflux". Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 3 (2): 174-179. ... Inhibition of the growth or growth signals of cancerous cells. Suppression of metastasis of cancerous cells in the body by the ... Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy. ... "Natural Inhibitor of Extracelular Signal-Regulated Kinases and Human Breast Cancer Cells". Exp Biol & Medicine. 229: 163-169. ...

*Snake venom

... across the nerve cell membrane sends a depolarizing current towards the end of the nerve cell (cell terminus). B) When the ... Hyaluronidase increases tissue permeability to accelerate absorption of other enzymes into tissues. Some snake venoms carry ... Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and ... the new molecule attracts and binds fat and ruptures cell membranes. Snake example: Okinawan habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) ...

*Susana Agustí

"Cell viability in natural phytoplankton communities quantified by a membrane permeability probe." (2002). Marbà, Núria, Carlos ... "Picophytoplankton cell death induced by UV radiation: evidence for oceanic Atlantic communities." (2006). Agustí, Susana, and M ... and cell death and losses. She has participated in over 25 oceanographic expeditions in the Arctic and Southern (Antarctic) ...

*Transduction (genetics)

... use of an electrical field to increase cell membrane permeability. Phage therapy - therapeutic use of bacteriophages. ... When the new DNA is inserted into this recipient cell it can fall to one of three fates The DNA will be absorbed by the cell ... Viruses collected from these cells are then applied to the cells to be altered. The initial stages of these infections mimic ... Transduction does not require physical contact between the cell donating the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA (which occurs ...

*Kainate receptor

The M2 segment then begins on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane, pushes into the cell membrane about half way, and then dips ... Their permeability to Ca2+ is usually very slight but varies with subunits and RNA editing at the tip of the p loop. Kainate ... This segment then passes through the cell membrane, forming the first of three membrane-spanning regions, M1. ... Kainate receptors have a subtle role in synaptic plasticity, affecting the likelihood that the postsynaptic cell will fire in ...

*Ciclosporin

The MPTP is found in the mitochondrial membrane of cardiac muscle cells and moves calcium ions (Ca2+. ) into the mitochondria.[ ... Inappropriate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) manifests in ischemia[24] (blood flow ... In T-cells, activation of the T-cell receptor normally increases intracellular calcium, which acts via calmodulin to activate ... enters the mitochondria and causes the muscle cells (and thus the heart) to contract. If unregulated, the influx of Ca2+. can ...

*Calcium in biology

Calcium is needed to stabilize the permeability of cell membranes. Without calcium, the cell walls are unable to stabilize and ... Ca2+ ions are an essential component of plant cell walls and cell membranes, and are used as cations to balance organic anions ... They make their entrance into the cytoplasm either from outside the cell through the cell membrane via calcium channels (such ... In electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ ...

*Oral candidiasis

Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... Loose, poorly fitting dentures may also cause minor trauma to the mucosa, which is thought to increase the permeability of the ... That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ...
Introduction. Investigating the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability To investigate the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability, I am going to use beetroot due to its pigment properties. The pigment is a strong colour, which means that I can easily measure, using a colorimeter, how much pigment is released at certain temperatures. During this practical, I will need to apply controls and a variable. The variable being temperature, and the controls being: * Disc thickness * The amount of water used when heating * The measure of solution put into the cuvette * The time temperature is maintained If these factors were not controlled, results would be likely to produce false reading, due to too many variables. Apparatus Cuvette Colorimeter Beetroot disc Water bath Beaker Tripod Bunsen burner Boiling tube Cork borer Forceps Safety glasses Thermometer Stop clock Scalpel Pipette Method 1. Put on safety goggles as a safety precaution 2. Switch on colorimeter to allow it to warm ...
ABSTRACT: Increased ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are reported to be an important cause of decline in submersed macrophytes in eutrophic lakes. In this study, a subacute experiment was conducted to examine the effects of various NH4+ concentrations on growth and membrane permeability of 2 submersed macrophytes, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. Apical shoots of the plants were incubated in modified Hoagland solution with 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg l-1 NH4+-N for 4 d. The plants were then collected for examination of cell membrane permeability and the solutions were used to determine the concentrations of NH4+, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+). The results indicate that high NH4+ concentrations had significant adverse effects (e.g. reduced growth and leaf chlorosis) on the macrophytes and increased membrane permeability, leading to net leakage of NH4+ and the cations. Compared to M. spicatum, C. demersum had higher membrane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform. AU - Mitchell, Claire A.. AU - Kalies, Stefan. AU - Cizmár, Tomás. AU - Heisterkamp, Alexander. AU - Torrance, Lesley. AU - Roberts, Alison G.. AU - Gunn-Moore, Frank J.. AU - Dholakia, Kishan. PY - 2013/11/14. Y1 - 2013/11/14. N2 - A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of ...
Abstract. This study investigated the suppressive effect and the inactivation mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on . The experiment compared different inhibition effects with SAEW and two antibiotics, gentamicin and norfloxacin. The conditions of pH of 6.5, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 890 mV, available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 28 mg L-1 of SAEW, and volume ratios of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were used. Using exposure times of 5 and 10 min to analyze the inactivation mechanism of SAEW from the perspectives of cell membrane permeability, cell nuclear morphology, cell fluorescence staining, and other aspects, the anti-infection effects of SAEW were tested using tilapia () culture experiments. SAEW had a stronger bacteriostasis effect than the antibiotics used. SAEW can inhibit the ability to reproduce, causing abnormal cell morphology and cell elongation. The cell volume was increased with a change in the membrane permeability. The cell nuclear morphology was ...
Miltefosine is an orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus).
Unlike high power lasers that use heat to cut or cauterize tissue, LED and low energy cold lasers enhance biochemical reactions in the targeted tissue. In somewhat simple terms, visible light is directed to a specific area. The light energy passes through the skin, and is received within the cell membrane by special energy photon acceptors. The increase in intra-cellular energy results in altered cell membrane permeability, and physiological changes occur through an enzyme cascade to affect several biological processes.. Within the injured musculoskeletal tissue, low-level light starts an increase in microcirculation and enhanced tissue regeneration, leading to decreased pain and inflammation, and increased mobility.. ...
It seems that in recent years, salt has gotten a very bad reputation - yet, the human body cannot live without salt. In fact, our bodies rely on it to help fight fungus, bacteria, and viruses. Its important in the regulation of blood pressure, the proper functioning of the nervous system and brain cells, metabolism, digestion, adrenal function, and cell membrane permeability. Its necessary to produce hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion, reduces aldosterone (hormone released by adrenal glands to help regulate blood pressure) secretion in our endocrine (hormones that regulate bodys growth, metabolism, and sexual function) system, and it helps our body eliminate toxic substances by keeping them in solution. Theres so much more! However, not everyone realizes that there are different "types" of salt (refined and unrefined), and these differences will directly affect your health.. ...
Results: 49. Adhesive Remover (Model 6197) Adhesive Remover, model 6197, is designed to dissolve skin cement and adhesives. It allows removal of appliances without irritating the skin. SIZE: Eight ounce can.. Adhesive Strips (Models 6590 & 150525) Adhesive Strips are catheter supplies designed for use with bulk pack male external catheters. Available 10 per box. Model 6590: Crixiline adhesive strip - 6 x 7/8 inch. Model 150525: Two-sided adhesive strip - 6 x 3/4 inch.. Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing The Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing is designed for use by individuals who have ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic skin ulcers, first and second degree burns, post-surgical incisions with dehiscence, cuts, and abrasions. The dressing decreases cell membrane permeability and balances the mix of proteins in the wound site. Proliferates proteins to the wound site and promotes the development of new granulation tissue growth. The dressing also promotes wound contracture.. Atrac-Tain Atrac-Tain is ...
Antifungals (Systemic) Action: Antifungals act by increasing cell membrane permeability in susceptible organisms by binding sterols and decreasing potassium, sodium, and nutrients in the cell. Uses: Antifungals are used for infection of histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, phycomycosis, candidiasis, sporotrichosis causing severe meningitis, septicemia, and skin infection. Side effects / Adverse reactions: The most serious …. ...
Developed in 2011. Atlantic Sea Scallop Dredge Design Challenge (Grades 9 & 10). The Cell Cycle and Mitosis (Grades 8 & 9). Conducting Action Research on the Impact of Environmental Issues on Community Health (Grades 9 & 10). Genetic Mutations (Grades (9 & 10). Kidney Dissection (Grades 9 & 10). Lifesaver Protein Modeling (Grades 9 - 12). Developed in 2010. Genetic Variation (Grades 9 & 10). Investigating Factors That Affect Rate of Enzyme Action (Grades 9 & 10). Micropipette and the Metric System (Grades 9 & 10). Interactive Meiosis (Grades 9 & 10). Modeling Protein Structure. Thinking Like a Scientist (Grades 9 & 10). Understanding Kidney Disease (Grades 3-5). Whose Brain is THAT?!. Developed in 2009. Bacterial Transformation. Blood Analysis. Blood, I Presume?. Concept Mapping. DNA Extraction From Living Things. Investigating Factors That Affect Cell Membrane Permeability. Lets Grow Some Microbes!. Sheep Brain Dissection. Developed in 2008. Amino acids and protein. Amoeba this!!!! Amoeba ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Supported liquid membrane permeation for selective lactic acid recovery. AU - Kienberger, Marlene. AU - Mungma, Nuttakul. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2017/11/8. Y1 - 2017/11/8. N2 - 1. IntroductionLactic acid is handled as a future bulk chemical due the use for poly lactic acid production. State of the art production for lactic acid is fermentation followed by precipitation and hydrolysis. Much attention has been drawn to the optimization of the fermentation as well as the downstream processing, however the best solutions has not been found yet [1]. Besides the state of the art production lactic acid is present in aqueous effluent from the pulping industry [2]. Following the biorefinery approach, valuables from the black liquor in pulping process may lead to a biorefinery including the carboxylic acids formic acid and acetic acid as well as lactic acid as valuables. This approach is applied in textile fiber production since long, but is new for the cellulose production. The ...
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Looking for cell permeability? Find out information about cell permeability. The permitting or activating of the passage of substances into, out of, or through cells, or from one cell to another. These materials traverse either the... Explanation of cell permeability
Selective Permeability - What is it? Selective permeability means that the cell membrane has some control over what can cross it, so that only certain molecules either enter or leave the cell.
The introduction of peptides and other cell membrane-impermeable molecules into mammalian cells has been an invaluable biochemical approach in the study of intracellular processes. Numerous methods have been developed to introduce membrane-impermeable molecules into cells. These methods include treating cells with solvents such as toluene or dimethyl sulfoxide, hypotonic buffers, freeze/thaw techniques, electroporation, and various detergents.1 2 3 In addition, microinjection of peptides and proteins into cells has also been used.4 Two major concerns with these methodologies are that the permeabilization or microinjection itself does not compromise cellular intregrity and that a relatively high percentage of cells are permeabilized.. One method of cell permeabilization (referred to as skinning) involves the permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes by incubation of cells with detergents such as saponin. This technique has been used with smooth muscle cells5 and cells or tissue preparations ...
Principal Investigator:UCHIDA Shinichi,丸茂 文昭, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Kidney internal medicine
Physiology Test Question - At the peak of the action potential, plasma membrane permeability to Na+ (pNa) is higher than the permeability to K+ (pK).
Abnormalities of red cell membrane cation permeability are seen in several hereditary disorders. These dominantly inherited conditions are collectively called the hereditary stomatocytoses and allied disorders.
ACS Publications Biological membranes are perfect examples for a molecular filter that uses membrane channels to control the permeability of small water-soluble molecules. We started from the known mutant channel FhuA Δ1-160 in which the cork domain closing the channel had been removed to allow filtering of larger hydrophilic molecules. Here, we further expanded the pore diameter by copying the amino acid sequence of two β-strands in a stepwise manner increasing the total number of β-strands from 22 to 34. The pore size of the respective expanded channel protein was characterized by single-channel conductance analysis. Furthermore, polymer exclusion measurements were performed by analyzing single-channel conductance in the presence of differently sized polyethylene glycols of known polymer random coil radii. The conclusion from channel conductance of small channel penetrating polymers versus larger excluded ones suggested an increase in pore radii from 1.6 nm for FhuA Δ1-160 up to a maximum ...
Evaluation of cell permeability by fluorescence images of UHP treated cells under live/dead staining after pressure treatment at 3 hours. (a-e) NIH/3T3, (f
View Notes - INFLAMMATION_notes from KINS 2532 at Georgia Southern University. INFLAMMATION Nonspecific Body Defenses First line of defense: surface membrane barriers Intact skin epidermis Intact
Permeabilize Eukaryotic Membranes - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi All, we try to treat eukaryotic cells with some antibiotics. Now it seems like some of the antibiotics (aminoglycosides) arent properly in the cells, so we are looking for some stuff to permeabilize the cells. Any good ideas? Links? Thx lots for your help
Learn about Peripheral Proteins , Integral Proteins , Transmembrane Proteins , Fluid Mosaic Model , Selective Permeability , Channel Proteins , Transport Proteins , Recognition Proteins , Adhesion Proteins , Receptor Proteins .... http://cueflash.com/decks/Cliff\s_AP_Biology_Vocabulary:_Cells. Tags: ...
Goldman Sachs is doing it again. Goldman is telling the public that everything is going to be just fine, but meanwhile they are advising their top clients to
Given that Chairman/CEO Frazier gave a very thoughtful, and yet candid presentation last week, it must be more than a little disappointing that Goldman kept its non-favored stance on the Whitehouse Station company: . . . .Goldman, Sachs & Co. reiterates Neutral rating on Merck. . . So it goes.
Vanden Abeele F, Bidaux G, Gordienko D, Beck B, Panchin YV, Baranova AV, Ivanov DV, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N. Functional implications of calcium permeability of the channel formed by pannexin 1 ...
Immunofluorescence Protocol without Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
Immunofluorescence Protocol with DOTMAC Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
#GS Goldman increases tracking estimate for Q3 GDP from 2.5% to 2.6% on shrinking trade balance. Keeps December rate hike odds at 50%
In these short videos, Goldman Sachs experts bring you some of the new and emerging words and phrases that are important to know in todays economy. Stay tuned for more in the coming weeks.. ...
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential. In HeLa cells, at low concentrations, the CPP nona-arginine (R9) enters cells by endocytosis. Direct membrane penetration occurs only at high peptide concentrations through a mechanism involving activation of sphingomyelinase which converts sphingomyelin into ceramide. In HEK cells, by comparison, R9 enters the cytoplasm through direct membrane permeation already at low concentrations. This direct permeation is strongly reduced at ...
Mercurials are known to induce morphological and functional modifications in kidney mitochondria. In this work we studied in vitro and in vivo the protective effect of captopril on the deleterious effect of Hg(++)-induced nonspecific membrane permeability changes to Ca++ and membrane de-energization. In vivo the administration of captopril prevented the toxic effects of mercury poisoning on membrane permeability, oxidative phosphorylation and Ca++ homeostasis. Moreover, captopril preserves kidney tissue morphology from Hg(++)-induced damage. The protective effect of captopril is most likely related to the existence of a sulfhydryl group in the drug. ...
NsPEF induce plasma membrane poration at lower electric fields than that required for loss of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), indicating that nsPEFs affect plasma membranes more readily that intracellular membranes or organelles. High frequency components of nsPEFs (frequency in Hz=1/time in sec) are most effective to dissipate the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), but are less important for plasma membrane permeabilization using Ca2+ influx as a marker. Thus, the pulse waveform appears to selectively affect ΔΨm and possibly other intracellular components. Cell death is closely correlated with loss of ΔΨm; high intracellular Ca2+ is necessary, but not sufficient for cell death. Thus, nsPEF-induced cell death requires both influx of extracellular Ca2+ and dissipation of ΔΨm [20,21]. This is consistent with a "two hit" hypothesis for cell death [23,24]. At electric fields sufficient to induce cell death in 40-60% of cells, dissipation of ΔΨm is calcium-dependent. At ...
Lipidic nanovesicles (so called liposomes) were one the earliest forms of nanovectors. One of their limits was our lack of knowledge on the delivery pathway of their content to the target cell cytoplasm. The present communication describes an efficient way to enhance the delivery. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known since the early 80s to mediate a fusogenic state of plasma membranes when applied to a cell suspension or a tissue. Polykaryons are detected when PEF are applied on cells in contact during or after the pulses. Heterofusion can be obtained when a cell mixture is pulsed. When lipidic nanovesicles, either small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), are electrostatically brought in contact with electropermeabilized cells by a salt bridge, their content is delivered into the cytoplasm in electropermeabilized cells. The PEF parameters are selected to affect specifically the cells leaving the vesicles unaffected. It is the electropermeabilized state of the cell
Using a genetic selection for mutations which allow large maltodextrins to cross the outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the absence of the LamB maltoporin, we have obtained and characterized two mutations that define a new locus of E. coli. We have designated this locus imp for increased membrane permeability. Mapping studies show that the imp gene resides at approximately 1.2 min on the E. coli chromosome. The mutations alter the permeability of the outer membrane resulting in increased sensitivity to detergents, antibiotics and dyes. The mutations are nonreverting and codominant. Genetic analysis of the mutations suggest that the imp gene is an essential gene. We describe a general cloning strategy that can be used to clone both dominant and recessive alleles. Using this technique, we have cloned the wild-type and mutant imp alleles onto a low copy number plasmid. ...
Phyllite clays are applied as a layer on a surface to be waterproofed and subsequently compacted. For this purpose, phyllite clays deposits can be grouped by their chemical and mineralogical characteristics, and these characteristics can be connected with their properties, mainly permeability, in order to select those deposits with the lowest permeability values. Several deposits of phyllite clays in the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain) have been studied. The results of applying a multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) to the chemical data analysed from 52 samples determined by XRF, mineralogical analysis by XRD and permeability are reported. Permeability, a characteristic physical property of phyllite clays, was calculated using the results for experimental nitrogen gas adsorption and nitrogen adsorption-desorption permeability dependence. According to the results, permeability values differentiated two groups, i.e. group 1 and group 2, with two subgroups in the latter. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Externalization of phosphatidylserine may not be an early signal of apoptosis in neuronal cells, but only the phosphatidylserine-displaying apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by microglia. AU - Adayev, Tatyana. AU - Estephan, Rima. AU - Meserole, Susan. AU - Mazza, Bethanne. AU - Yurkow, Edward J.. AU - Banerjee, Probal. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - Earlier reports on nonneural cells have shown that the normally inner plasma membrane lipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), flip-flops out during the early stages of apoptosis, whereas DNA laddering and plasma membrane permeabilization occur during the late stages. In this study, the applicability of these parameters to CNS-derived neuronal cells was tested using hippocampal HN2-5, cells that undergo apoptosis under anoxia. Because such insults on unsynchronized cells, e.g., undifferentiated HN2-5 cells, result in both early and late apoptotic cells, we mechanically separated these cells into three fractions containing (a) cells that ...
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Scott Richard Fidler (1998). Spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic response in fractured, low permeability sediments. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/240 ...
MEMOIRES: Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability. Shlomo P. Neuman and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Unscramble permeability, Unscramble letters permeability, Point value for permeability, Word Decoder for permeability, Word generator using the letters permeability, Word Solver permeability, Possible Scrabble words with permeability, Anagram of permeability
increases membrane permeability to help organic acids and cinnamaldehyde to get into the bacterial cell. Cinnamaldehyde works synergistically with organic acids to maintain a balanced gut microbial population. Cinnamaldehyde plays an essential role in reducing the bacterial cell division. Organic acids in their undissociated form are able to enter the bacterial cell and exert antimicrobial effects. A wise and deliberate combination of organic acids provides greater efficacy in reducing growth of pathogenic bacteria. Sequential Release Medium (SRM) is a special inorganic carrier that ensures gradual release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract.. ...
The permeability of one of the first and second shield layers in a read head is greater than the permeability of the other of the first and second shield layers for providing a net image current field HIM which can be employed for counterbalancing other fields acting on a free layer structure in a spin valve sensor such as a sense current field HI in either a top or bottom single spin valve sensor or a net ferromagnetic coupling field HFC alone or in combination with a demagnetizing field HD in a dual spin valve sensor. Preferred high permeability materials are nickel iron or nickel iron alloys excluding cobalt and low permeability materials are cobalt based.
Durability and long-term performance of concrete exposed to deleterious ions and environmental conditions are major concerns. The rapid chloride permeability (R
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma membrane it is involved in cell volume regulation and apoptosis. It adopts an open conformation at low or zero membrane potential and a closed conformation at potentials above 30-40 mV. The open state has a weak anion selectivity whereas the closed state is cation-selective. May participate in the formation of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) responsible for the release of mitochondrial products that triggers apoptosis ...
In typical permeability experiments, a disk sample is sealed gas tight over a support tube. A gas or gas mixture is supplied to one side, and one or more species permeate to the other side, where a sweep gas and/or pump collect the gas. The modes of operation are numerous, and so are the ways to analyze the permeation, including gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). Typically, an inert gas added to the entry side gas mixture is used for monitoring the presence or absence of background leakage through seal leaks or sample cracks and porosity.. In general, a large sample area or tubular sample is preferable, as it reduces the relative effects of leakage from seal ring and general equipment. It also simplifies the considerations of sample geometry for samples where the thickness is not much smaller than the diameter so that permeation from the side is significant. However, a large sample may put higher requirements to the mechanical assembly and seal.. These articles refer to ...
Changes in permeability due to changes in the state of stress in the reservoir during depletion arise because of the strain that results from the stress changes. This influences permeability around the producing well, as well as permeability throughout the depleted reservoir that affects future wells. Various models exist for coupling stress, strain, and permeability. The simplest models relate changes in stress relative to some reference value to changes in permeability. More complex models invoke the Kozeny equation in accounting for changes in porosity, tortuosity, and surface area. Previous work formulated a model that relates changes in permeability to changes in tortuosity due to grain rearrangement during consolidation that may be applied to any stress path with appropriate stress-strain coupling. In some cases, the hoop stress concentrations around a wellbore may cause the reservoir rock to fail in shear. This can cause either an increase or a decrease in permeability depending on if the ...
Digitonin permeabilized cell import assay. Complete import assays were carried out using HeLa cells permeabilized by incubation with digitonin. Cells were incub
article{31db6abf-6718-4296-bb2f-5f87a3ec55e0, abstract = {BACKGROUND: A standardised technique using a suction-induced mini-erosion that allows serial sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (IF) for 5 to 6 days has been described. In the present study, we studied permeability changes as a function of time. METHODS: We examined IF concentrations of total protein concentration and the concentration of insulin (6.6 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDa), albumin (66 kDa), transferrin (80 kDa), IgG (150 kDa) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (720 kDa) as a function of time, using an extraction pressure of 200 mmHg below atmospheric. RESULTS: At 0 h after forming the erosion, mean total IF protein content (relative to plasma) was 26 ± 13% (SD). For the individual proteins, the relative mean concentrations were 65 ± 36% for insulin, 48 ± 12% for albumin, 30 ± 19% for transferrin, 31 ± 15%for IgG and 19.5 ± 10% for alpha-2-macroglobulin. At 24 h, the total IF protein content was higher than at 0 h (56 ± 26% vs 26 ± ...
Multidrug antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious public health problem worldwide. Thus, there is a significant and urgent need for the development of new classes of antibiotics that do not induce resistance. To develop such antimicrobial compounds, we must look toward agents with novel mechanisms of action. Membrane-permeabilizing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are good candidates because they act without high specificity toward a protein target, which reduces the likelihood of induced resistance. Understanding the mechanism of membrane permeabilization is crucial for the development of AMPs into useful antimicrobial agents. Various models, some phenomenological and others more quantitative or semimolecular, have been proposed to explain the action of AMPs. While these models explain many aspects of AMP action, none of the models captures all of the experimental observations, and significant questions remain unanswered. Here, we discuss the state of the field and pose some questions ...
The magnetic permeability characterises the permeability or magnetic conductivity of materials. The relative permeability of vacuum is 1.
From viruses to organelles, fusion of biological membranes is used by diverse biological systems to deliver macromolecules across membrane barriers. Membrane fusion is also a potentially efficient mechanism for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics to the cellular cytoplasm. However, a key shortcoming of existing fusogenic liposomal systems is that they are inefficient, requiring a high concentration of fusion-promoting lipids in order to cross cellular membrane barriers ...
Hysteresis effects in two-phase flow in porous media are important in applications such as waterflooding or gas storage in sand aquifers. In this paper, we develop a numerical scheme for such a flow where the permeability hysteresis is modeled by a family of reversible scanning curves enclosed by irreversible imbibition and drainage permeability curves. The scheme is based on associated local Riemann solutions and can be viewed as a modi. cation of the classical Godunov method. The Riemann solutions necessary for the scheme are presented, as well as the criteria that guarantee the well-posedness of the Riemann problem with respect to perturbations of left and right states. The numerical and analytical results show strong influence of the permeability hysteresis on the flow. In addition, the numerical scheme accurately reproduces the available experimental data once hysteresis is taken into account in the model.
22Na radionuclide water. Used as a tracer for sodium transport assays, sodium influx and efflux assays, and Na+ permeability studies.
The phases of electroporation, as seen in the section Example of the Electroporation Process, closely resemble the steps of electropermeabilization identified by Teissie et al.85 based on experimental observations. The induction step corresponds to the charging and pore creation phases of the model (Fig. 8), the expansion step corresponds to the pore evolution phase (Fig. 9a), the stabilization step corresponds to the postshock shrinkage of pores (Fig. 9b), and the resealing step corresponds to the resealing of small pores (Fig. 11). The only step not seen in the model is the memory effect that describes changes in the membrane and cell behavior persisting on the time scale of hours and that may be related to exchange of charged molecules between the two monolayers of the membrane.8687 Although some of the models predictions still must be confirmed experimentally, the resemblance between the models phases and steps of electroporation seen in experiments gives us reason to ...
Micro-Flow Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Low Permeability Reservoir: A Case Study of Chang 6 Reservoir of Jiyuan Area in Ordos Basin ...
News about the Goldman Sachs Group Inc. Commentary and archival information about the Goldman Sachs Group Inc. from The New York Times.
A method of treating a subterranean formation including providing a well bore that includes a filter cake on at least a portion of the well bore and contacting at least a portion of the filter cake with a filter cake degradation fluid comprising a relative permeability modifier. The method also includes allowing the relative permeability modifier to retain at least a portion of the filter cake degradation fluid in the well bore for a time sufficient to contact the filtercake and allowing the filter cake to degrade.
Specific flux. A measure of driving force required to produce a given flow of permeate per unit area of membrane surface. Measured in GFD/PSI or LMH/Bar.

Permeability declines as a membrane becomes fouled.
Manga, M., I. Beresnev, E. E. Brodsky, J. E. Elkhoury, D. Elsworth, S. E. Ingebritsen, D. C. Mays, and C.-Y. Wang (2012), Changes in permeability caused by transient stresses: Field observations, experiments, and mechanisms, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG2004, doi:10.1029/2011RG000382 ...
Goldman Sachs isnt the only trading firm facing potential losses after the bank on Tuesday flooded the U.S. stock-options market with erroneous orders. Jacob Bunge reports on The News Hub. Photo: AP.
Honest Tea founders Seth Goldman and Barry Nalebuff discuss how they created a financially sustainable company that serves a mission.
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Goldman Sachs Group Inc (GS.N) is betting it can get its money-making mojo back by pitching creative deals to big, complex clients, marking a return to its investment banking roots as trading revenue slows.
Tom Goldman is NPRs sports correspondent. His reports can be heard throughout NPRs news programming, including Morning Edition and All Things Considered, and NPR.org.
Tom Goldman is NPRs sports correspondent. His reports can be heard throughout NPRs news programming, including Morning Edition and All Things Considered, and NPR.org.
人們在19世紀末時同時使用著三個不同的電單位制,分別為:CGS靜電單位制,又稱高斯單位制,簡稱ESU;CGS電機械單位,簡稱EMU;以及用於配電系統的米-千克-秒制(國際單位制)。[24]在試圖根據因次分析用長度、質量及時間表達電單位時,科學家遇到了諸多困難──在使用ESU或EMU時,物理量會具有不同的因次。[16]1900年,喬瓦尼·吉奧爾吉(英语:Giovanni Giorgi)發表了一篇論文,提倡在當時的三個基本單位以外,再加一個基本單位,電單位不一致的問題迎刃而解。這第四個單位可以是電流、電壓和電阻中的其中一個。[25]. 19世紀後期至20世紀初期,人們採用了一系列不一致的單位制,在質量上有的用克,有的用公斤;在長度上有的用厘米,有的用米。例如有:表達功率的「Pferdestärke」(公制馬力)、[26][註 3]表達滲透性(英语:Permeability (earth ...
The investment bank highlights eight industry themes it describes as creative destruction - trends that make it necessary for companies to either adapt or die.
Tanacetum polycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip (Mokhaleseh) has been traditionally used in the treatment of headaches, migraines, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The present study aimed to evaluate its anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action using MCF7 as an in vitro model. T. polycephalum leaves were extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol solvents and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Detection of the early apoptotic cells was investigated using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. An Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker for apoptotic cells. High content screening was applied to analyze the cell membrane permeability, nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8, caspase-9 and DNA laddering assays. In addition, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and cell cycle arrest also have been investigated. MTT assay revealed significant
Trimecaine (systematic name (2,4,6-trimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)diethylammonium chloride, chemical formula C15H25ClN2O) is an organic compound used as a local anesthetic and cardial antiarrhythmic. It is white crystalline powder readily soluble in water and ethanol. It is an active ingredient in products available under trademarks Mesdicain, Mesocain, Mesokain and others. Trimecaine is probably a Czech discovery (in light of complex pharmacological and clinical evaluation and practical deployment) although its preparation was published by Löfgren in 1946. Like other local anesthetics belonging in the amide group trimecaine decreases the cell membrane permeability, causes depolarization and shortens the action potential. Anesthetic effect starts in 15 minutes and remains 60-90 minutes. Its biological half-life is ca. 90 minutes. 10% of trimecaine is excreted unchanged (90% as its metabolites). It passes through the hematoencephalic and placental barriers. Trimecaine has two main application ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and
Thionins are a family of plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which participate in plant defense system against pathogens. Here we describe some aspects of the CaThi thionin-like action mechanism, previously isolated from Capsicum annuum fruits. Thionin-like peptide was submitted to antimicrobial activity assays against Candida species for IC50 determination and synergism with fluconazole evaluation. Viability and plasma membrane permeabilization assays, induction of intracellular ROS production analysis and CaThi localization in yeast cells were also investigated. CaThi had strong antimicrobial activity against six tested pathogenic Candida species, with IC50 ranging from 10 to 40 μg.mL−1. CaThi antimicrobial activity on Candida species was candidacidal. Moreover, CaThi caused plasma membrane permeabilization in all yeasts tested and induces oxidative stresses only in Candida tropicalis. CaThi was intracellularly localized in C. albicans and C. tropicalis, however
TY - PAT. T1 - Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Paracellular Permeability across Epithelial and Endothelial Barriers. AU - Thakker,Dhiren R.. AU - Ward,Peter D.. N1 - Status: published applicationnumber: 09/974,519 usclass: 514/75 ; 514/642; 514/76; 514/946 applicationnumber: 09/974,519. PY - 1800. Y1 - 1800. N2 - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method includes: (a) administering an effective amount of a phospholipase C inhibitor to a subject at a time in which enhanced paracellular permeability is desired; and (b) enhancing paracellular permeability in the subject at the absorption site through the administering of the effective amount of the phospholipase C inhibitor. The disclosed compositions and methods provide enhanced absorption of a hydrophilic drug in a subject.. AB - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide- binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. AU - Piers, K. L.. AU - Brown, M. H.. AU - Hancock, Robert. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the ...
The following investigation focuses on the impact of capillary pressure on estimation of two phases relative permeability curves. Accurate relative permeability is a crucial parameter for evaluating reservoir performance. The unsteady state core flooding tests, which is considered in this study, is mostly used to measure oil-water relative permeabilities. The Johnson ,Bossler and Neumann (JBN) method is the conventional method for estimating relative permeabilities from field core. The limitations in the JBN method create an error in relative permeability curves and make it unrepresentative of a typical core flooding test results. There are always capillary pressure effects taking place during core flood tests. Ignoring of capillary pressure by JBN method will influence the calculation of relative permeability curves and final saturation levels. One dimensional numerical model with uniform initial saturation has been implemented in this study using Eclipse 100 software to understand the ...
In vivo and ex vivo studies with whole vessels demonstrated that the endothelium comprises the major permeability barrier in the blood vessel wall. As a lining between the blood and the underlying tissue, the endothelium is exposed to biochemical components of the blood and wall shear stress. The endothelium responds to these biochemical and mechanical agonists both metabolically and morphologically. Using a model system consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a permeable polycarbonate membrane, the permeability barrier function of endothelial monolayers was characterized quantitatively by determination of permeability coefficients. The effect of biochemical agonists and wall shear stress on permeability was assessed by the extent to which the agonists modulated the baseline permeability coefficient. Permeability increased nearly 10-fold over baseline values in the presence of 0.1 U/ml thrombin. Using altered forms of thrombin, it was shown that both proteolytic activity ...
The Caco-2 permeability assay provides a measure of the permeability of a test compound across the intestinal barrier and its potential for interactions with drug transporters. We provide permeability assays for small molecule formulations such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and consumer products.
Versaperm has launched a mass spectrometer version of its successful vapour permeability measurement system which works across every gas or group of gasses. Click to read more...
Read "A Quantitative Model for the Dependence of Solute Permeability on Peptide and Cholesterol Content in Biomembranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
• The permeability of the blood-retina barrier was tested in rats with early streptozocin-induced diabetes. Two different tracer substances were used: fluoresce
Laser-exposed plasmonic substrates permeabilize the plasma membrane of cells when in close contact to deliver cell-impermeable cargo. Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH). Calcein and WGA Alexa Fluor 488 image resolution was carried out using a 480 15 nm bandpass excitation filter and a 520 nm longpass emission filter. Propidium iodide and ER-tracker Red were excited using a (535 20)-nm filter and detected with a (610 25)-nm bandpass filter. For laser exposure, a 532-nm pulsed Nd:YAG microchip laser with a pulse period of 850 ps and repeating rate of 20.25 kHz was used. The laser spot diameter was 80 m. The sample was uncovered for fixed occasions using a mechanical shutter, and laser power was adjusted using an attenuation unit. A more detailed description of the setup can end up being discovered in [35]. Laser beam trials and image resolution with cells on substrates Cell permeabilization performance is certainly motivated by changing the laser beam fluence for substrates in three indie trials. Cells ...
Previous researches on the absorption of various aqueous solutions by the seeds of Hordeum (barley) have been directed mainly to a study of the phenomena attending the diffusion of the solvent through the semipermeable covering of the seeds. The latter, however, is permeable not only to the water but also to certain classes of solutes in solution, such as the phenols and fatty acids; in fact, the membrane behaves in their presence as a selectively permeable one rather than a semipermeable one. In the present communication we deal more particularly with the extent to which certain of these permeable solutes enter the seeds together with the water, in the hope that the results may throw some light on the physical causes governing the phenomenon of selective permeability. A preliminary investigation having given the somewhat striking result that phenol and aniline solutions enter the seeds in higher concentration than the solutions in which they are immersed, we decided to make a series of ...
In the area of controlled release of active substances, such as drugs, a strong interest in nanoparticles as carriers of active ingredients has arisen. Some of the active components are extremely hydrophobic, without cellular permeability, and susceptible to metabolic degradation, owing to which their use is limited. Such agents can be transported without any problem through physiological media by using nanoparticles. The size of particles is an important parameter because it governs the efficiency of the delivery system. For this type of application, particles that have a diameter smaller than 1 micrometer are especially useful. Polymeric nanoparticles that have diameters in the colloidal range are produced by means of polymerization processes in dispersed media. Drugs are taken up into the nanoparticles by adsorption, absorption, or "entrapment," or covalent bonding and they are delivered (released) by desorption, diffusion, polymer degradation, or a combination of these mechanisms. ...
Early age cracking of bridge decks is a national problem, and may substantially reduce service lives and increase maintenance costs. Cracking occurs when the tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete. This is a time-dependent phenomenon, since both the stress and strength change at early ages. Moisture loss increases stress (with increasing shrinkage) and impairs strength gain. Internal curing is one method that has been suggested to reduce early age bridge deck cracking, particularly of concretes with low water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratios. Many state highway agencies have implemented high performance concrete (HPC) for bridge decks. The low permeability of HPC is used to protect reinforcing steel and prevent corrosion. However, if the concrete cracks, then the protection may be greatly diminished. Transverse cracks due to concrete shrinkage allow water and corrosive chemicals to quickly reach the reinforcing steel causing corrosion and shortening the lifespan of ...
EP cores,EP kerne,ferrite EP core,EP-core,EMC Suppression Cores,gapped toroid core,high permeability ferrites,ferrite pot cores,ferrite E cores,ferrite DR core,Resistor core,
In this study, we showed that the HIEC monolayer, which differentiated from ISCs, displayed mature morphologic features consisting of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine, whereas those of Caco-2 cells were not, and the HIEC monolayer also had a high Papp for paracellularly absorbed compounds. Furthermore, the presence of the functions of P-gp and BCRP, and abundant mRNA expression of CNT3 made HIECs a valuable tool for studies on the intestinal absorption of these substrates.. Paracellular absorption refers to permeation across cell monolayers through pores in the tight junction, and the oral absorption of hydrophilic molecules generally relies on the paracellular pathway. In this study, the permeability values of paracellularly absorbed compounds (FD-4, atenolol, and terbutaline) were higher in HIECs than in Caco-2 cells (Table 2). These ...
Henquin, Jean-Claude. Opposite effects of intracellular Ca2+ and glucose on K+ permeability of pancreatic islet cells.. In: Nature, Vol. 280, no. 5717, p. 66-8 (1979 ...
This is the simulation discussed in Koley D, Bard AJ (2010) Triton X-100 concentration effects on membrane permeability of a single HeLa cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM ...
This is the simulation discussed in Koley D, Bard AJ (2010) Triton X-100 concentration effects on membrane permeability of a single HeLa cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM ...
We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay...
ABSTRACTPhenolic acids have been associated to a wide range of important health benefits underlain by a common molecular mechanism of action. Considering that significant membrane permeation is prevented by their hydrophilic character, we hypothesize that their main effects result from the interplay
Permeabilities lower than 10-17 M2 cannot be measured using classical methods. To overcome this problem, the pulse decay method may be applied. In this method the evolution of a pressure pulse applied on the upstream side of the sample at 1 = 0 is recorded. An apparatus has been constructed to measure ultra-low permeabilities of rocks under thermo-mechanical stresses; intrinsic permeabilities between 10-15 and 10-22 m2 can be measured.. Several thermo-mechanical tests, including permeability determinations have been carried out on samples from saline lithofacies of the Bresse basin (France). The initial permeabilities are more representative of the condition of the test sample than of the undisturbed state of the formation. Nevertheless, the permeability changes observed during these tests seem to be directly connected to the nature and structure of the material sustains under changes of temperature and stress. During isotropic deformation tests, the response of permeability to pressure varies ...
The action electric-potential indicated clearly the changed features and rules of the electric- potential on cell membrane and ionic permeability across the cell membranes with varying time under action of external electric sign and influences of bio-energy. The variations can be described as follows. In the resting state the cell membrane is in the polarization state, its electric - potential is about -40 - -60 mV, which is caused by the motions and the increases of permeability of K+ ions. However, the depolarization is caused by the increases of permeability of Na+ ions across the membrane under the influence of sodium pump and bio-energy released in the hydrolyses reaction of ATP molecules, which carry away Na+ ions from the inside membrane into the outside membrane, thus the electric-potential in the outside membrane is increased, its strength is larger than that in inside membrane, thus the cell membrane is in the depolarization state, in which the electric- potential is lifted as shown in ...
Designated state(s): AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR ...
Hi Is it possible to print the values of Permeability(BTI,BTJ,BTK) of aporous medium. I have modified the initial permeability values using POROS1.F
Permeability: is a measure of how easy a solid allows a liquid to flow through it. It is a flow measurement. A rock with poor porosity is likely to have low permeability. A rock may have high porosity, but poor permeability. This is because it may have a very fine particle size, but may be highly compressed with little free channelling. The size of the pores and whether they are continuous or exist only in separated bodies will affect the permeability.. The upper rock example has similar porosity to the lower. The lower rock has much better permeability as the water has a straighter path and it flows through larger channels.. The upper rock has narrow channels and a more contorted path.. ...
TNFα, the founding member of the TNF-superfamily, mediates both necroptotic and apoptotic cell death (Walczak, 2011; Micheau and Tschopp, 2003; Andrew, 2004; Wang et al., 2008; Kroemer et al., 2007; Degterev and Yuan, 2008, He et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009). Although many investigations have been conducted over the last few years the detailed mechanisms of these death signaling pathways are still not completely known. This particularly concerns our understanding about where ROS are produced intracellularly, how ROS and LMP are mechanistically linked and how both processes contribute to TNFα-induced apoptosis (Boya and Kroemer, 2008; Shen and Pervaiz, 2006; Zdolsek et al., 1993; Brunk et al., 1995). Our study here bridges these missing gaps. We identified that TNFα/CHX-induced LMP is not an apoptosis initiating, but amplifying process downstream of MOMP, and it is triggered by mitochondrial ROS generated as the result of a caspase-3-mediated cleavage of the p75 NDUFS1 subunit of complex I. ...
The BH3-only apoptosis agonists BAD and NOXA target BCL-2 and MCL-1 respectively and co-operate to induce apoptosis. On this basis, therapeutic drugs targeting BCL-2 and MCL-1 might have enhanced activity if used in combination. We identified anti-leukaemic drugs sensitising to BCL-2 antagonism and drugs sensitising to MCL-1 antagonism using the technique of dynamic BH3 profiling, whereby cells were primed with drugs to discover whether this would elicit mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation in response to BCL-2-targeting BAD-BH3 peptide or MCL-1-targeting MS1-BH3 peptide. We found that a broad range of anti-leukaemic agents-notably MCL-1 inhibitors, DNA damaging agents and FLT3 inhibitors-sensitise leukaemia cells to BAD-BH3. We further analysed the BCL-2 inhibitors ABT-199 and JQ1, the MCL-1 inhibitors pladienolide B and torin1, the FLT3 inhibitor AC220 and the DNA double-strand break inducer etoposide to correlate priming responses with co-operative induction of apoptosis. ABT-199 in ...
Includes cutting-edge methods and protocols covering a variety of permeability barrier Provides step-by-step detail essential for reproducible results
Permeability is defined as the property that governs the rate of fluid flow through a porous solid (Ref. 1). The porosity of cement paste determines the permeability of concrete (Ref. 2). The water-cement ratio is one of the largest contributors to porosity development, but, on the whole, porosity is determined through chemical interaction.
youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usy3S7lN_0k[/youtube] Cell Phone Towers Dangers Part 1. http://www.emfnews.org/headset.html. Protection Against Cell Phone Radiation. Cell Phone Radiation Protection. Radiation Protection Products. Available materials show that the radiation emitted from these towers could cause health hazards.. Points out Raman K R, a scientist who has done research on the subject, "There are two effects in such cases-thermal and non-thermal. A person will fall prey to a thermal effect due to radiation only if he is close to the tower.". Being exposed to the thermal effect could cause fatigue, cataracts and reduced mental concentration. This largely occurs to the amount of heat that is generated due to radiation.. Then there is the non-thermal effect, which affects people who are at a distance from the tower. The ill-effects of a non-thermal effect are cell membrane permeability. This, according to experts, is also caused due to the heat generated through radiation.. Of ...
To clarify sotalol′s classification in the BCS versus BDDCS systems through cellular, rat everted sac and PAMPA permeability studies.. Studies were carried out in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDR1-transfected MDCK (MDCK-MDR1) cell lines, rat everted gut sacs and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) system. Three-hour transport studies were conducted in MDCK cell lines (with apical pH changes) and MDCK-MDR1 cells (with and without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor GG918); male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 similar to 350 g) were used to prepare everted sacs. In the PAMPA studies, drug solutions at different pH′s were dosed in each well and incubated for 5 h. Samples were measured by LC-MS/MS, or liquid scintillation counting and apparent permeability (P-app) was calculated.. Sotalol showed low permeability in all of the cultured-cell lines, everted sacs and PAMPA systems. It might be a border line P-glycoprotein substrate. The PAMPA study showed that sotalol′s ...
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used in the treatment of several fungal infections. The drug is used orally and intravenously. Fluconazole widely distributes into body tissues, nails and fluids including saliva, sputum, vaginal secretions. Fluconazole does not undergo first pass metabolism and is excreted mostly in the urine and some in the feces. This drug can also be used in the pediatric population.. Mechanism: Fluconazole works by altering the fungal cell membrane. It exerts its fungistatic effect by selectively inhibiting 14-alpha demethylase. This is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that is necessary for synthesizing ergosterol, which is an important component of the fungal cell membrane. 14-alpha demethylase converts lanosterol to ergosterol. Without ergosterol, 14 alpha-methyl sterols increase which subsequently causes the fungal cell membrane to exhibit increased cellular permeability. This causes the components inside the cell to leak.. Uses: With its unique mechanisms of action, ...
Infusion of menadione at two different doses [2.7 mg and 5.5 mg in 100 microliters of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)] into perfused rat livers for 30 min caused no or a 6-fold increase respectively in junctional permeability to horseradish peroxidase as compared with controls receiving 100 microliters of DMSO alone. The total glutathione (GSH) contents in these livers measured at the end of the experiments were 115% and 53%, compared with the controls. The free-radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (final concn. 5 microM) protected against the GSH depletion caused by the higher dose of menadione and partially decreased the menadione-induced increase in junctional permeability. Verapamil, a Ca2(+)-channel blocker which was added into the perfusion medium (final concn. 40 microM) 10 min before the infusion of 5.5 mg of menadione, completely abolished the effect of menadione on junctional permeability. Menadione exposure therefore increases tight-junctional permeability in the liver; this ...
OBJECTIVES--To study the effect of bis (tributyl tin) oxide (TBTO) on permeability of the blood-brain barrier. METHODS--Electron microscopy and an x ray microanalyser with lanthanum chloride as a tracer were used, and blood tin concentrations were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Adult male wistar rats received 0.05 ml/kg body weight of TBTO orally. RESULTS--A transient increase in paracellular permeability at the blood-brain barrier was found 2 h after the dose of TBTO. Electron dense lanthanum deposits penetrated tight junctions of the endothelia and permeated the subendothelial space. The x ray microprobe data showed an accumulation of TBTO at the tight junctions at 2 h. Leakage of tracer did not occur at 4 h, but oedematous changes in the surrounding glial cells were prominent between 4 and 8 h and had almost returned to normal by 24 h. By atomic absorption analysis, it was seen that blood tin concentrations rapidly increased at 1 h and rose to a maximum peak at 8 h, ...
For further elucidation of the mechanisms involved in cholesterol crystal recognition, we inhibited phagocytosis pharmacologically with cytochalasin D or lantriculin A. We found that these agents inhibited NLRP3 activation by crystals but not by the AIM2 activator poly(dA-dT)·poly(dT-dA) (Fig. 3a and Supplementary Fig. 6a, c, d). To follow the fate of the internalized particles, we analysed macrophages incubated with cholesterol crystals by combined confocal reflection and fluorescence microscopy. Cholesterol crystals induced profound swelling in a fraction of cells (Fig. 3b), as observed for other aggregated materials3, 14. Phagolysosomal membranes contain lipid raft components15, which allowed us to stain the surface of cells with the raft marker choleratoxin B labelled with one fluorescent colour and also to label internal phagolysosomal membranes after cell permeabilization with differently fluorescing choleratoxin B. Indeed, in macrophages that had previously ingested cholesterol crystals, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial permeability transition from in vitro artifact to disease target. AU - Bernardi, Paolo. AU - Krauskopf, Alexandra. AU - Basso, Emy. AU - Petronilli, Valeria. AU - Blalchy-Dyson, Elizabeth. AU - Di Lisa, Fabio. AU - Forte, Michael. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a high conductance channel whose opening leads to an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to ≈1500 Da. In this review we trace the rise of the permeability transition pore from the status of in vitro artifact to that of effector mechanism of cell death. We then cover recent results based on genetic inactivation of putative permeability transition pore components, and discuss their meaning for our understanding of pore structure. Finally, we discuss evidence indicating that the permeability transition pore plays a role in pathophysiology, with specific emphasis on in vivo models of disease.. AB - The ...

Permeability and the Nature of Cell Membranes - Google LibriPermeability and the Nature of Cell Membranes - Google Libri

Cell_Memb.html?hl=it&id=BJ8KAQAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePermeability and the Nature of Cell Membranes. ... Permeability and the Nature of Cell Membranes. Volume 8 di Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. ... appear aqueous Arbacia Arbacia eggs Biol blastomeres blood bound water brane calcium capillary cations cell membrane cell ... 0 Recensionihttps://books.google.com/books/about/Permeability_and_the_Nature_of_Cell_Memb.html?hl=it&id=BJ8KAQAAMAAJ ...
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Changes in adsorption and permeability of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of BCRP/MXR resistant cells.  - PubMed - NCBIChanges in adsorption and permeability of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of BCRP/MXR resistant cells. - PubMed - NCBI

Changes in adsorption and permeability of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of BCRP/MXR resistant cells.. Breuzard G1, Piot O, ... Changes of the membrane structure of resistant cells should modify both drug adsorption and membrane permeation. ... drug accumulation measurements showed a decrease of MTX permeability in resistant membrane (42 pmol MTX/10(6) cells), restored ... at the range of cellular membrane. Disruption of the membrane fluidity was carried out to appraise changes in membrane ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721274?dopt=Abstract

Equilibrium binding of calcium to fragmented human red cell membranes and its relation to calcium-mediated effects on cation...Equilibrium binding of calcium to fragmented human red cell membranes and its relation to calcium-mediated effects on cation...

We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low ... Role of membrane-bound Ca in ghost permeability to Na and K.J. Membrane Biol. 29: 329Google Scholar ... Ca binding to the human red cell membrane: Characterization of membrane preparations and binding sites.J. Membrane Biol. 29: ... Studies on the cation permeability of human red cell ghosts. Characterization and biological significance of two membrane sites ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01871144

Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells |...Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells |...

Key message Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory ... effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of... ... Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells. ... Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the "HeLa" cell in the cell biology of higher plants. Int Rev ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00299-018-2269-6

PPT - Intrinsic CO 2  permeability of cell membranes and role of  CO 2  channels PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4256370PPT - Intrinsic CO 2 permeability of cell membranes and role of CO 2 channels PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4256370

Intrinsic CO 2 permeability of a red cell membrane. Gas permeability of synthetic phospholipid bilayers. Slideshow 4256370 by ... Intrinsic CO 2 permeability of cell membranes and role of CO 2 channels. Volker Endeward, Fabian Itel, Samer Al-Samir, Mohamed ... Transport through cell membranes -As biology, cell membranes and transport. 2. transport through cell membranes. the ... Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes -Transport through cell membranes. the transport of substances through cell membranes ...
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Permeability of cell membranePermeability of cell membrane

... fog Rogers joked swinging their skills permeability of cell membrane explosive? downstream and permeability of cell membrane ... Punic Tirrell permeability of cell membrane see the exit planting premedication up and paulo coelho lo zahir recensione down. ... liberating and every Martyn permeability of cell membrane scrimshaw their kindle fire hd support help grata septupling and ... more permeability of cell membrane snow and dealt Ray lumbricalis unspells their tans or redetermined irretrievably. ...
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cell membrane permeability - Metabolic Healingcell membrane permeability - Metabolic Healing

Save Your Cells: Mineralize Your Tissues By Michael Mcevoy. Proper cellular hydration results in electrically charged and ... The Electrolyte Solution: Saving Your Cells From Dehydration By Michael Mcevoy. The amount of people with inadequate ... Poor cellular hydration and poor tissue mineralization will compromise the health of your cells and cause numerous hormonal, ... Some minerals function to increase the electrical potential of cells. Other minerals function as metalloenzymes, which then can ...
more infohttps://metabolichealing.com/tag/cell-membrane-permeability/

Membrane permeability testing, In-Line cells | NorlabMembrane permeability testing, In-Line cells | Norlab

Membrane permeability testing, Franz cells. *Membrane permeability testing, In-Line cells. *Membrane permeability testing, Side ... Membrane permeability testing, Franz cells. *Membrane permeability testing, In-Line cells. *Membrane permeability testing, Side ... In-line cells have a unique clamping system which features user preset, repeatable, secure clamping of tissue or membranes. ... PermeGear In-line cells. In-line cells are available in orifice diameters from 5 mm to 15 mm. They are made from ...
more infohttps://www.norlab.com/infocenter/2692

Biology, The Cell, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Passive Transport | OER CommonsBiology, The Cell, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Passive Transport | OER Commons

Section 2: Selective Permeability Plasma membranes are asymmetric: the interior of the membrane is not identical to the ... In this condition, the cell does not shrink because the cell wall is not flexible. However, the cell membrane detaches from the ... have cell walls that surround the plasma membrane and prevent cell lysis in a hypotonic solution. The plasma membrane can only ... A red blood cell will burst, or lyse, when it swells beyond the plasma membranes capability to expand. Remember, the membrane ...
more infohttps://www.oercommons.org/courseware/module/14958/overview

cell membrane (func (selective permeability (small, nonpolar, fat soluble)…cell membrane (func (selective permeability (small, nonpolar, fat soluble)…

... selective permeability (small, nonpolar, fat soluble)…: cell membrane (func, tr. macromolecules, structure, charc) ...
more infohttps://coggle.it/diagram/Wj_eSOa28AAB4MgF/t/cell-membrane

Cell membrane - WikipediaCell membrane - Wikipedia

Charles Ernest Overtons concept of a cell membrane. In: Membrane permeability: 100 years since Ernest Overton (ed. Deamer D.W ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ... It was also inferred that cell membranes werent vital components to all cells. Many refuted the existence of a cell membrane ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasmic_membrane

Cell membrane - WikipediaCell membrane - Wikipedia

Charles Ernest Overtons concept of a cell membrane. In: Membrane permeability: 100 years since Ernest Overton (ed. Deamer D.W ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[14] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[15][16] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ... It was also inferred that cell membranes werent vital components to all cells. Many refuted the existence of a cell membrane ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane

Cell membrane - WikipediaCell membrane - Wikipedia

Charles Ernest Overtons concept of a cell membrane. In: Membrane permeability: 100 years since Ernest Overton (ed. Deamer D.W ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ... The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basolateral

Cell membrane : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Cell membrane : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Permeability. The permeability of a membrane is the ease of molecules to pass through it. Permeability depends mainly on the ... Make-up of a eukaryote cell membrane]] In all cells, the cell membrane separates the protoplasm inside the cell from its ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is one biological membrane separating the interior of a cell ... Membrane homeostasis, tension regulation, mechanosensitive membrane exchange and membrane traffic - Cell membrane homeostasis, ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Cell_membrane

Cell membraneCell membrane

... also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer found in all ... Permeability. The permeability of membranes is the ease of molecules to pass it. This depends mainly on electric charge and, to ... The membrane also maintains the cell potential. Specific proteins embedded in the cell membrane can act as molecular signals ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Cell_membrane.html

What Is the Relationship Between Cell Size and Diffusion? | Reference.comWhat Is the Relationship Between Cell Size and Diffusion? | Reference.com

... its ability to facilitate diffusion across its cell membrane decreases. This is because the internal volume of a growing cell, ... Why Is the Cell Membrane Said to Be Selectively Permeable? What Factors Affect the Permeability of a Cell Membrane? ... The cytoplasm and organelles within a cell obtain nutrients and eliminate wastes though the cells plasma membrane. A cell ... As the size of a cell increases, its ability to facilitate diffusion across its cell membrane decreases. This is because the ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/relationship-between-cell-size-diffusion-2d032974adc9b43b

What is the main characteristic of an aquifer? | Reference.comWhat is the main characteristic of an aquifer? | Reference.com

Permeability is the ability of a liquid and a gas to pass through the surface. It is very important to determine the aquifers ... The main characteristic of an aquifer is its permeability. ... What factors affect the permeability of a cell membrane?. A: ... What is selective permeability?. A: Selective permeability is the concept that states the cell membrane does exert some control ... How do cells control osmosis?. A: Cells control osmosis through selective permeability. Selective permeability is the process ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/main-characteristic-aquifer-ff964cf401090a96

ISMRM 2009)  Permeability
and Surface Area of Cell Membranes from the DWI SignalISMRM 2009) Permeability and Surface Area of Cell Membranes from the DWI Signal

Permeability and Surface Area of Cell Membranes from the DWI Signal. Dmitry S. Novikov1, Jens H. Jensen1, Joseph A. Helpern1 ... We relate the cell membrane permeability and surface-to-volume ratio to experimentally relevant parameters, such as dispersive ... We demonstrate how a non-Gaussian shape of the DWI signal can originate solely due to the presence of cell membranes, with no ... accessed agrees alone apparent applying autocorrelation averaging borrowing bottom bulk cell cellular characteristic ...
more infohttp://archive.ismrm.org/2009/0450.html

To Determine The Effects Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Beetroot Cell Membrane EssayTo Determine The Effects Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Beetroot Cell Membrane Essay

... Sample. Research Question: To ... Factors Affecting Cell Membrane Permeability Aim: to investigate the factors affecting cell membrane permeability of red ... Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes An experiment to investigate how temperature affects the Permeability of beetroot cell ... To determine the effects of temperature on the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane essay. Rated 5/5 based on 28 review ...
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CO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels  - edocCO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels - edoc

CO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels. The FASEB Journal, Vol. 26, H ... CO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels ... CO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels. FASEB J. 26, 5182-5191 (2012 ... Here, we study the gas permeability of membranes for the case of CO2, using a previously established mass spectrometric ...
more infohttps://edoc.unibas.ch/25123/

The Lives Of A Cell Analysis  - 661 Words -...'The Lives Of A Cell' Analysis - 661 Words -...

The Lives of a Cell Analysis . In the modern world of skyscrapers, smartphones and paved streets in easy to forget that man, ... The Effect Of Temperature On a Cell Membranes Permeability. 1160 words - 5 pages Aim:This experiment aims to determine what ... Description And Analysis Of The Cell Theory. 1472 words - 6 pages of different types of cells. Cell differentiation also plays ... The purpose of a cell membrane is to control the transport of substances moving into and out of a cell. The. ...
more infohttps://brightkite.com/essay-on/the-lives-of-a-cell-analysis

ISMRM 2015) Cell size, intracellular volume fraction and membrane permeability weighted imaging: a Monte Carlo studyISMRM 2015) Cell size, intracellular volume fraction and membrane permeability weighted imaging: a Monte Carlo study

Cell size, intracellular volume fraction and membrane permeability weighted imaging: a Monte Carlo study. Damien J McHugh 1,2 ... kingdom manner medical membrane membranes middle mimic mixed model optimum overall parker particularly penny permeability ... Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate how sensitivity to changes in cell size, R , volume fraction, f i , and ... allowing alterations analogous analogy analytic application assistance averaging biomedical calculating cancer cell cells ...
more infohttp://archive.ismrm.org/2015/2773.html

Changes in membrane permeability following a rapid increase in the density of a lymphoid cell suspensionChanges in membrane permeability following a rapid increase in the density of a lymphoid cell suspension

... ... Changes in membrane permeability following a rapid increase in the density of a lymphoid cell suspension, Voprosy meditsinskoi ... Abstract: Incorporation of uridine into the cells was studied under conditions of rapid increase in density of the cell ... The phenomenon was not due to presence of dead cells in the culture. An inhibitor of protein synthesis puromycin partially ...
more infohttp://pbmc.ibmc.msk.ru/index.php/en/article/PBMC-1980-26-2-179-en

PIP1 Plasma Membrane Aquaporins in Tobacco | Plant CellPIP1 Plasma Membrane Aquaporins in Tobacco | Plant Cell

... root cells were chosen for the membrane water permeability studies. Protoplasts obtained from root material were fixed on a ... A correlation between water permeability changes in leaf cells (e.g., those in the stomatal cavity) and the early-wilting ... Otto, B., and Kaldenhoff, R. (2000). Cell-specific expression of the mercury-insensitive plasma-membrane aquaporin NtAQP1 from ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ...
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  • We postulated that these peptides may exert their toxic effects in much the same manner as natural cytolytic peptides such as magainins, cecropins, and melittin by forming pores through cellular membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • Endocytosis involves the transport of materials in vesicles outside the cell, where the vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and the molecule gets transported out of the cell Daniel, Then the cylindrical beetroot portion was chopped into nine pieces of 1cm long each using a knife, discarding the skin. (agronumericus.com)
  • Previously we reported that synthetic peptide homologs of an amphipathic region (designated the lentivirus lytic peptide, or LLP-1) near the carboxy terminus of HIV-1 transmembrane protein (TM) were toxic for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells when added exogenously to cell cultures. (utmb.edu)
  • This abnormality can affect the cell membrane (e.g. hereditary spherocytosis), result from an absence or abnormality of a red cell enzyme (e.g. glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) or affect haemoglobin, leading to a haemoglobinopathy such as sickle cell disease or thalassaemia. (agronumericus.com)
  • Molecular delivery of gear within the presence or absence of membranes is an ubiquitous phenomenon. (cristinapascual.com)
  • In both cell types, KATP channels were activated in the absence of PEP, inhibited when PEP was added and activated again when PEP was removed, indicating the cells retained metabolic integrity and generated ATP in the proximity of their KATP channels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Factors Affecting Cell Membrane Permeability Aim: to investigate the factors affecting cell membrane permeability of red cabbage, using absolute alcohol (10 cm3), 1 M hydrochloric acid (10 cm3), 1M sodium hydroxide (10 cm3), and distilled water (10 cm3), and change of temperature (40 oC, 65 oC, oC). (agronumericus.com)
  • We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay medium was maintained at 0.16. (springer.com)
  • At 4 degrees C, drug accumulation measurements showed a decrease of MTX permeability in resistant membrane (42 pmol MTX/10(6) cells), restored with fluidizers (e.g., 342 pmol MTX/10(6) cells with BA). (nih.gov)
  • Peripheral vascular effects of piracetam have suggested its use potential for vertigo, dyslexia and sickle cell anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no evidence to support piracetam's use in sickle cell crisis prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study was designed to determine the effects of VBRB on the membrane permeability, constituents, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity of hepatocyte BRL cells, in order to interpret the liver targeting enhancing effects of VBRB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saponin-permeabilized open cell-attached patch configurations of normal and LVH cells were exposed to an exogenous ATP consuming system containing hexokinase and 2-deoxyglucose. (biomedsearch.com)