Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Potassium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to POTASSIUM ions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)EthersCarbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sodium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to SODIUM ions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).ButylaminesProtons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.MethylaminesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Calcium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Coccidiostats: Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.PyransMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Clioquinol: A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
"Mechanism of action of calcium ionophores on intact cells: ionophore-resistant cells". Membrane & Cell Biology. 13 (3): 357-368 ... Calcium ionophore treatment is used to artificially activate the oocyte. This treatment may be necessary as globozoospermic ... It has been found that treating globozoospermia with ICSI along with oocyte activation by calcium ionophore (an ion carrier ... It characterised by round-headed spermatozoa without acrosome, an abnormal nuclear membrane and midpiece defects. Affected ...
It also acts as a divalent cation ionophore, allowing these ions to cross cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to them ... A23187 also induces apoptosis in some cells (e.g. mouse lymphoma cell line, or S49, and Jurkat cells) and prevents it in others ... The ionophore is used in laboratories to increase intracellular Ca2+ levels in intact cells. It also uncouples oxidative ... Calcium Ionophore, Antibiotic A23187 and Calcium Ionophore A23187. It is produced at fermentation of Streptomyces ...
This ionophore is also used in experiments with membrane vesicles to destroy the electrochemical gradient, if such is required ... Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium- ... Potassium ionophore Bulletin 1.File.tmp/k_potassium.pdf Potassium ionophore Bulletin] Chemical Safety Regulations from New ... Thompson M & Krull UJ (1982). "The electroanalytical response of the bilayer lipid membrane to valinomycin: membrane ...
Thy-1 is present in the outer leaflet of lipid rafts in the cell membrane. In case of neurons it is known to be expressed ... Ca2+ ionophore, and diacylglycerol (DAG). As a GPI-anchored protein, ... Thy 1 is also a marker of other kind of stem cells, for example: mesenchymal stem cells, hepatic stem cells ("oval cells"), ... mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, NK cells, murine T-cells, endothelium (mainly in high endothelial venules or ...
... A is able to transport these cations across lipid membranes of cells in an electroneutral (i.e. non-depolarizing) ... Monensin A is an ionophore related to the crown ethers with a preference to form complexes with monovalent cations such as: Li+ ... I. Monensin inhibits the transport of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells ... Monensin has some degree of activity on mammalian cells and thus toxicity is common. This is especially pronounced in horses, ...
Bleb (cell biology) DODAB Host-pathogen interface Membrane contact sites Membrane nanotube Membrane vesicle trafficking Micelle ... Applying ionophores like valinomycin can create electrochemical gradients comparable to the gradients inside living cells. ... Producing membrane vesicles is one of the methods to investigate various membranes of the cell. After the living tissue is ... Others are made when an object outside of the cell is surrounded by the cell membrane. The vesicle "coat" is a collection of ...
Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across a cell membrane. Ionophore means "ion carrier" as these ... Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and ... Ionophores have been used to modify the permeability of biological membranes toward certain ions. Additionally, some ionophores ... Carrier ionophores may be proteins or other molecules. Channel formers that introduce a hydrophilic pore into the membrane, ...
In living cells, DNP acts as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen cations) across biological ... DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This ... DNP is often used in biochemistry research to help explore the bioenergetics of chemiosmotic and other membrane transport ... It dissipates the proton gradient across mitochondria and chloroplast membranes, collapsing the proton motive force that the ...
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals ... as well as the more commonly used calcium ionophore A23187. This can be done to serve as a positive control when assessing the ... These enzymes break down the outer membrane of the ovum, called the zona pellucida, allowing the haploid nucleus in the sperm ... This shedding of the acrosome, or acrosome reaction, can be stimulated in vitro by substances a sperm cell may encounter ...
In general, CCCP causes the gradual destruction of living cells and death of the organism. CCCP affects the protein synthesis ... The chemical acts essentially as an ionophore and reduces the ability of ATP synthase to function optimally. Carbonyl cyanide-p ... D. Gášková; B. Brodská; A. Holoubek; K. Sigler (1999). "Factors and processes involved in membrane potential build-up in yeast ... diS-C3(3) assay". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 31 (5): 575-584. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00002-3 ...
After the sperm penetrates the zona pellucida, part of the sperm's cell membrane then fuses with the egg cell's membrane, and ... Sperm activation has been shown to be caused by calcium ionophores in vitro, progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and ... Sperm cells were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1677. The human sperm cell is the reproductive cell in males and ... Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male". Sperm cells that give rise to female (XX) offspring after fertilization ...
Rose L, Jenkins AT (2006). "The effect of the ionophore valinomycin on biomimetic solid supported lipid DPPTE/EPC membranes". ... It is also one of the binding targets of C-reactive protein (CRP). Thus, when a cell is damaged, CRP binds to phosphocholine, ... Phosphocholine is a natural constituent of hens' eggs (and many other eggs) often used in biomimetic membrane studies. ...
Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction ... Like many antibiotics, monensin-A is an ionophore that tighlty bind Na+ (shown in yellow). ... The maintenance of precise gradients across cell membranes maintains osmotic pressure and pH. Ions are also critical for ... sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell membrane and T-tubules. ...
Cells exposed to toxic amounts of Ca2+ ionophores also undergo MPT and death by necrosis. While the MPT modulation has been ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ... However, these cells do die in response to stimuli that kill cells through apoptosis, suggesting that MPT does not control cell ... MPT is one of the major causes of cell death in a variety of conditions. For example, it is key in neuronal cell death in ...
Part of the sperm's cell membrane then fuses with the egg cell's membrane, and the contents of the head sink into the egg. In ... as well as the more commonly used calcium ionophore A23187. Birefringence microscopy, flow cytometry or fluorescence microscopy ... Those cells are not able to fertilise the egg, even if they do reach it later. Other cells will spontaneously shed their ... The contents include surface antigens necessary for binding to the egg's cell membrane, and numerous enzymes which are ...
... ceramide readily flip-flops across membranes as supported by studies in membrane models and membranes from red blood cells ( ... also known as calcium ionophore. C1P was also previously reported to encourage cell division (mitogenic) in fibroblasts, block ... Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging ( ... whereby the cells differentiated into white blood cells called macrophages. Treatment of the same cells by exogenous Sph caused ...
This makes it easier for it to interact with anionic membranes, such as those in tumor cells, which are inherently more acidic ... a polypeptide from the Red Sea Moses sole with ionophore activity". FEBS Letters. 242 (1): 161-166. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88) ... The N-terminal α-helix is important for the insertion of the peptide to the lipid bilayer of the cell. The mechanism of ... This distress is caused by the attack of the cellular membrane of the gills, which causes a large influx of salt ions. Research ...
In most cells, this occurs at the cell membrane however, evidence suggests that the PIP2 required for oocyte activation is ... Oocyte activation may be artificially facilitated by calcium ionophores, something that is speculated to be useful in case of ... The hyalin forms a layer adjacent to the plasma membrane and the peroxidases cross-link the protein in the vitelline membrane ... The proteases cleave the bridges connecting the plasma membrane and the vitelline membrane and cleave the bindin to release the ...
After the sperm penetrates the zona pellucida, part of the sperm's cell membrane then fuses with the egg cell's membrane, and ... Sperm activation has been shown to be caused by calcium ionophores in vitro, progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and ... Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells". Exp Cell Res. 207: 202-205. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182. PMID 8391465.. ... The human sperm cell is the reproductive cell in males and will only survive in warm environments; once it leaves the male body ...
Biological cell membranes and cell walls are polyanionic surfaces. This has important implications for the transport of ions, ... Bulychev, A. A.; Vredenberg, W. J. (1976). "Effect of ionophores A-23187 and nigericin on the light induced redistribution of ... and interacts with the negative charges associated with the cell walls and membranes. Mg2+ may be taken up into cells ... it is generally assumed that the ion stays in that cell for as long as the cell is active. In vascular cells, this is not ...
... an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and ... "The use of anti-VDAC2 antibody for the combined assessment of human sperm acrosome integrity and ionophore A23187-induced ... In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies ... Danial NN, Korsmeyer SJ (Jan 2004). "Cell death: critical control points". Cell. 116 (2): 205-19. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04) ...
PAF is produced by a variety of cells, but especially those involved in host defense, such as platelets, endothelial cells, ... Using lab rats and mice, Jacques Benveniste found that ionophore A23187 (a mobile ion carrier that allows the passage of Mn2+, ... PAF also elicits hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and the activation of ion channels, followed by an increase in ... and pancreatic beta cells, confirming that this defect in cell Ca2+ metabolism is a basic pathology associated with the ...
Inner membrane Ionophores that disrupt the proton gradient by carrying protons across a membrane. This ionophore uncouples ... In eukaryotes, these redox reactions are carried out by a series of protein complexes within the inner membrane of the cell's ... In some bacteria and archaea, ATP synthesis is driven by the movement of sodium ions through the cell membrane, rather than the ... Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori T (2001). "ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 ( ...
... which then acts on the post-synaptic membrane (i.e. the pharyngeal/muscle membrane) of the nematode, having an inhibitory ... Ionophore and anthelmintic activity of PF 1022A, a cyclooctadepsipeptide, are not related - Gesner et al. Willson J; Amliwala K ... Wormbase The molecular biology of the cell - Alberts et al. Baylis HA, Furuichi T, Yoshikawa F, Mikoshiba K, Sattelle DB (1999 ... Indeed, in C.elegans DAG regulates UNC-13, a plasma-membrane associated protein critical for vesicle-mediated neurotransmitter ...
... of the total membrane in the cell, whereas intracellular organelles contain 98% of the cell's membrane. The major intracellular ... channel family as defined in Pfam and InterPro Ionophore Ki Database Lipid bilayer ion channels Magnesium transport Membrane ... and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all excitable cells. Ion channels are one of the two ... These channels are known mainly for their role in repolarizing the cell membrane following action potentials. The α subunits ...
The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane. The cell membrane ... carbohydrates and ionophore complexes. ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ...
ionophore A compound which can carry specific ions through membranes of cells or organelles. ... beauvericin (CHEBI:3000) has role ionophore (CHEBI:24869) beauvericin (CHEBI:3000) has role mycotoxin (CHEBI:25442) beauvericin ... Any substance that inhibits the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in multi-celled organisms. ...
Cell Membrane / metabolism. Electrochemistry. Escherichia coli / drug effects, metabolism*. Gluconates / metabolism*. Hydrogen- ... 0/Cations; 0/Gluconates; 0/Ionophores; 0/Protons; 7440-09-7/Potassium ... 2. In respiring cells, the magnitude of the pH gradient alone, as measured by distribution of [3H]acetate, appears to be ... The process is stimulated when the membrane potential is collapsed by valinomycin in the presence of K+ ions.. ...
They alter the function of the cell membrane and rupture the parasite. Ionophores also have antibacterial action and help ... Inside the cell, the parasite divides and invades more cells. There may be several generations of asexual multiplication; ... Ionophores: Ionophores are anticoccidials commonly used in the large-scale industry. ... Coccidia multiply in intestinal cells.. Photo by Joe Beasley, DVM, PhD.. Chickens get coccidiosis by eating oocysts that have ...
These include activation of cell locomotion (1-4), secretion of granule components such as... ... The influence of divalent cations and cation ionophores. Exp.Cell. Res. 93: 420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Action of ionophore A23187 at the cellular level. Separation of effects at the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. J.Biol.Chem ... Protein analysis of cardiac sarcolemma: Effects of membrane-perturbing agents on membrane proteins and calcium transport. ...
Calcium Ionophores (2) • Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions. MeSH ... Cytotoxins (6) • Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are ... The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, ... Calcium Channel Blockers (117) • A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes ...
Calcium Ionophore A23187 hemimagnesium salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ... Cell Biology, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Interferes with Cell Membrane Permeability (Ionophores), Intracellular Calcium ... Ionophore highly selective for Ca2+. Potentiates responses to NMDA but not quisqualate. In cell culture, stimulates nitric ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 hemimagnesium salt Synonym: A23187 hemimagnesium salt, Antibiotic A 23187 hemimagnesium salt, ...
Probenecid (P36400) is commonly used to inhibit organic-anion transporters located in the cell membrane. Such transporters can ... into a variety of cell lines.. In addition to the Influx pinocytic cell-loading reagent and cell growth medium, all that is ... Ionophores A-23187 and 4-Bromo A-23187. The Ca2+ ionophore A-23187 (A1493, Figure 19.8.7) is commonly used for in situ ... optimal conditions for loading must be determined for each cell type. It is also important to note that cell-to-cell ...
They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely ... Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. ... Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant ... cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is ...
Suchard, S. J., Rubin, R. W., Pressman, B. C.: J. Cell. Biol. 87, 303a (1980)Google Scholar ... Painter G.R., Pressman B.C. (1982) Dynamic aspects of ionophore mediated membrane transport. In: Vögtle F. (eds) Host Guest ... A., Ivanov, V. T., Shkrob, A. M.: The Chemistry and Membrane Activity of Peptide Ionophores, in: Molecular Mechanisms of ... The Conformational Dynamics of the Carboxylic Ionophore Lasalocid A Underlying Cation Complexation-Cecomplexation and Membrane ...
A process for preparing proton exchange membranes and fuel cells comprising the proton exchange membrane are also provided. ... Metal ionophores in PEM membranes US20150105239A1 (en) * 2012-09-12. 2015-04-16. GM Global Technology Operations LLC. Crown ... Electrolyte membrane for solid polymer fuel cell, its manufacturing method, and membrane electrode assembly for solid polymer ... Electrolyte membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cell, process for its production and membrane-electrode assembly for polymer ...
Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across a cell membrane. Ionophore means "ion carrier" as these ... Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and ... Ionophores have been used to modify the permeability of biological membranes toward certain ions. Additionally, some ionophores ... Carrier ionophores may be proteins or other molecules. Channel formers that introduce a hydrophilic pore into the membrane, ...
Cells and Model Membranes, Volume 171 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121820725, 9780080882888 ... S.A. Lewis and N.K. Wills, Use of Ionophores in Epithelia: Characterizing Membrane Properties. J.S. Handler, N. Green, and R.E ... M.J. Sanders and A.H. Soll, Cell Separation by Elutriation: Major and Minor Cell Types from Complex Tissues. J. Wells, Cell ... R. Krmer, Modulation of Membrane Protein Function by Surface Potential. Isolation of Cells: D. Pietrobon and S.R. Caplan, Use ...
5) Use of Ionophores. Ionophores such as A23187 rapidly transport magnesium across the cell membrane and modify intracellular ... The action of magnesium depends on the cell membrane category. It is important to distinguish the tight cell membranes ( ... the cell membrane (K+ -ATP channels) have been described in cardiac and muscle cells 29,30 and in insulin-secreting cell 31. ... from the leaky cell membranes (presence of desmosomes and gap junctions). In cell membranes, ionic movements are carried out ...
This indicates that Ca"++ must penetrate cell membranes in order to reduce the analgesic effects of morphine. These findings ... the ionophore X537A was found to increase greatly the narcotic antagonist effect of a low dose of Ca++ although the ionophore ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ...
"Mechanism of action of calcium ionophores on intact cells: ionophore-resistant cells". Membrane & Cell Biology. 13 (3): 357-368 ... Calcium ionophore treatment is used to artificially activate the oocyte. This treatment may be necessary as globozoospermic ... It has been found that treating globozoospermia with ICSI along with oocyte activation by calcium ionophore (an ion carrier ... It characterised by round-headed spermatozoa without acrosome, an abnormal nuclear membrane and midpiece defects. Affected ...
The Ca++ overloaded cells eventually develop membrane damage which can lead to acute or chronic alterations in acid-base ... Ionophores. Definition and Mode of Action. Ionophores are antiprotozoal agents with the ability to form complexes with various ... They form lipid-soluble complexes and selectively help and modify the transport of these cations through cell membranes. Such a ... in order to maintain normal enzymatic and physiological functions including cell membrane conductance. While there are a number ...
... synthesis of ionophores; mechanisms of inorganic reactions; chemical analysis of spices; characterization of protein-mediated ... exchange of small molecules across the plasma membrane of active muscle, liver , and red blood cells; biochemistry of snake ...
Ionophore are feed additives used to improve animal body weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle diets. These additives ... Ionophores select against Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa in the rumen due to their cell membrane composition, while ... The majority of ionophores are provided to growing cattle, but mature cows can benefit from ionophores. Ionophores are ... What Are Ionophores?. Ionophores are feed additives used to improve animal body weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle ...
Polyether ionophores facilitate transport of divalent cations across cell membranes to interfere with osmoregulation, resulting ... to cause toxicosis signs when the ionophore concentration in the feed is normal. Examples of ionophores used in poultry are ... This ionophore coccidiostat is widely used in the broiler industry. At levels >120 ppm it reduces feed intake and weight gain; ... This ionophore is often administered in combination with the chemical nicarbazone to prevent coccidiosis in broilers but can be ...
detergent-resistant membrane microdomain. eIF2α. α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Iono. ionophore. LAM. ... cells were identified as early apoptotic cells, Annexin V+/PI+ cells as late apoptotic cells, and Annexin V−/PI− cells as live ... early apoptotic cells (gray), late apoptotic cells (black), and live cells (white). Data are representative of two independent ... Detergent-resistant membrane microdomain preparation. Jurkat T cells (2-5 × 108) were sonicated gently (four 5-s bursts in 0.5 ...
Ionophores are compounds that form lipid-soluble cation complexes that can traverse cell membranes rapidly. When initially ... The compound has been characterized as a Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore. ...
... facilitating zinc uptake across cell membranes. It is the antiviral action of zinc that is presumed to be the main mechanism of ... Were zinc supplements given to the control patients with other zinc ionophores such as Quercetin or EGCG? If this information ... Were they given to patients with the antimalarial treatments? The latter act as zinc ionophores, ...
... a type of suicidal cell death. Hallmarks of eryptosis are cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine ... CONCLUSIONS Mitoxantrone triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect not requiring entry of extracellular Ca(2+) but at least ... METHODS Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, formation of ... Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, ...
... leaves the cell across the apical membrane via conductive pathways. These results may explain previous observations that the ... An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ produced by addition of a Ca2+ ionophore also stimulated short-circuit current. These data ... This result suggests that HCO3- exist at the apical membrane is through the Cl- channel that is defectively regulated in CF ... To determine whether cAMP also stimulates HCO3- secretion, we studied cultured canine and human airway epithelial cells bathed ...
Kuchel, P., Vandenberg, J. (2004). Function Of Membrane Proteins In Whole Cells: NMR Studies. 5th International Membrane ... Momot, K., Kuchel, P., Whittaker, D. (2004). Enhancement Of Na+ Diffusion In A Bicontinuous Cubic Phase By The Ionophore ... Kuchel, P., Vandenberg, J. (2004). Function Of Membrane Proteins In Whole Cells: NMR Studies. 5th International Membrane ... The membrane potential of cells: NMR, IR and fluorescence study of the voltage-sensitivity of Styrylpyridiniums; Kuchel P; DVC ...
ApoptosisExtracellularInducesMitochondrial membranesMechanismsCationsPermeability of biological membranesValinomycinConcentrationsLeading to the plasma membraneProteinFlow CytometryAntibioticsSecretionPotassium ionophoresLipid bilayersDisruptionConcentrationCation ionophoreToxicitySelectiveTranslocationPolymorphonuclearInner MembranePhorbolApicalIntracellular calciumIonomycinCalcium influxApoptotic cellsDepolarizationSynthesized by microorganismsInfluxEndothelialChelatorsIncreasesCytoplasmic membranePolyvinyl chlorideCompoundsMicrobialPathwaysProtonsCytosolReceptorSynthesisLipidsReceptorsPolyether
- Any substance that inhibits the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in multi-celled organisms. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Mycolactone is able to diffuse into and induce death of a variety of mammalian cells by an apoptosis-dependent mechanism ( 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a type of suicidal cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
- Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (alfa.com)
- The predominant physiological function of mitochondria is the generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, but additional functions include the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, involvement in some forms of apoptosis, regulation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial matrix calcium, synthesis and catabolism of metabolites and the transport of the organelles themselves to correct locations within the cell. (biochemj.org)
- Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential has been shown to accompany cell stress and early apoptosis. (thermofisher.com)
- Because early apoptotic cells exhibit disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, JC-1 can be used as an early marker of apoptosis, alone or in combination with other apoptosis probes. (thermofisher.com)
- Multilaser excitation also permitted the authors to develop a second protocol for the simultaneous detection of mitochondrial membrane potential changes and additional apoptosis markers, including the externalization of phosphatidylserine and the formation of reactive oxygen species. (thermofisher.com)
- They suggest that these protocols can be adapted for multiparameter detection of apoptosis using a variety of fluorescent cell function probes. (thermofisher.com)
- Uncompensated multilaser analysis of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RKO cells. (thermofisher.com)
- A moderate but not total decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential triggers apoptosis in neuron-like cells. (abcam.com)
- Salinomycin induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. (intechopen.com)
- In addition, a small synthetic peptide Zfra (zinc finger-like protein that regulates apoptosis) binds membrane HYAL-2 of non-T/non-B spleen HYAL-2 + CD3 − CD19 − Z lymphocytes and activates the cells to generate memory anticancer response against many types of cancer cells in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
- To investigate whether high glucose (HG) induces mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes apoptosis in retinal Müller cells. (arvojournals.org)
- Cells undergoing apoptosis were identified by differential dye staining and TUNEL assay, and cytochrome c levels were assessed by Western blot analysis. (arvojournals.org)
- 2 - 4 Furthermore, studies have established that hyperglycemic conditions affect retinal microvessel integrity and functionality, at least in part, by promoting apoptosis in endothelial cells, pericytes, and Müller cells that can compromise blood-retinal barrier (BRB) characteristics and ultimately lead to excess vascular permeability. (arvojournals.org)
- We and others have shown that HG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction promotes apoptosis in retinal endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to retinal dysfunction. (arvojournals.org)
- 5 , 6 However, it is unknown whether HG affects mitochondrial function and thereby promotes apoptosis in retinal Müller cells. (arvojournals.org)
- In addition, the myeloid cell functions of phagocytosis, superoxide burst, and apoptosis were unaffected in MRP-14 −/− cells. (asm.org)
- Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase ( Gamt ) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. (jneurosci.org)
- However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- There are three major morphologically and biochemically distinct types of cell death: apoptosis (type 1 cell death), autophagy (type 2 cell death), and necrosis (type 3 cell death). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Because secondary necrosis is an end stage of apoptosis it can be discriminated from primary necrosis by occurrence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death parameters. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 15 , 16 Many viruses are known to cause these types of cell death, for example HIV (apoptosis), 17 hepatitis C virus (autophagy), 18 bovine parvovirus (necrosis), 19 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (secondary necrosis). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 19 On the other hand apoptosis induced in H-1 infection progresses to a necrotic cell death state in specific cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells. (nih.gov)
- In conclusion, intracellular and extracellular magnesium may be an important physiological regulator of the sodium and potassium pathways in the cell. (mgwater.com)
- Using experiments employing combined voltage clamping, continuous measurement of extracellular pH, we examined whether plasma membrane H + -ATPases could also be involved in the depolarization. (plantphysiol.org)
- We demonstrated the presence of a novel Ca 2+ wave propagating beneath the plasma membrane in response to acute elevation of extracellular [Ca 2+ ], by targeting a Ca 2+ sensor, cameleon, to the endothelial plasmalemma. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, extracellular Ca 2+ maintains the basal PLC activity of the plasma membrane, is involved in the initiation of compartmentalized subcortical Ca 2+ waves, and regulates Ca 2+ -dependent signaling molecules residing in or translocated to the plasma membrane. (ahajournals.org)
- Across the plasma membrane, the average intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) is generally maintained at a level approximately 10 000 times lower than that of extracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] o ) by Ca 2+ regulators such as Ca 2+ -ATPase or the Na + -Ca 2+ exchanger, which actively regulate the gradients to achieve equilibrium. (ahajournals.org)
- Alternatively, the cells can fuse their granules with the plasma membrane to release antimicrobials to attack extracellular parasites. (the-scientist.com)
- Eventually, the chromatin fills up the entire cell until the cell lyses and extrudes the NET into the extracellular space, a process known as NETosis. (the-scientist.com)
- We show that in the absence of TgNHE1, Toxoplasma is resistant to ionophore-induced egress and extracellular death and amiloride-induced proton efflux inhibition. (rupress.org)
- This process of egress is thought to share many of the molecular mechanisms used during the active invasion of host cells, allowing the parasite to quickly move from the lysed cell to a new one with little exposure to the extracellular environment ( Hoff and Carruthers, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
- This is followed by a second and larger influx of extracellular Ca 2+ across the plasma membrane. (ahajournals.org)
- They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- It's concentration in extra cellular fluid (ECF) is kept within a very close range by various homeostatic mechanisms, in order to maintain normal enzymatic and physiological functions including cell membrane conductance. (thepoultrysite.com)
- In this study, we examined the effects of mycolactone on the functional biology of T cells and identified two mechanisms by which mycolactone suppresses cell responsiveness to antigenic stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
- EVs are released by many cell types and by different mechanisms, resulting in phenotypic heterogeneity that makes them a challenge to study. (nih.gov)
- The many genetically modified cell lines and organisms that have been generated for the study of physiological and pathological mechanisms often show features that suggest compromised energy metabolism or mitochondrial dysfunction. (biochemj.org)
- In the current study, we have used chemical genetic and genetic approaches to investigate the membrane bioenergetics in hypoxic nonreplicating mycobacteria and the mechanisms underlying ATP production, with the idea that this may contribute to the identification of novel targets and new levels of intervention to shorten the time of TB chemotherapy. (pnas.org)
- Comparison of gustatory transduction mechanisms in vertebrate taste cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- Mechanisms of TNF-α stimulation of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport across alveolar epithelium" Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 280:L1258-L1265, 2001. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Our overall research goal is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that keep this dynamic integrity intact, and the consequences that alterations of this structure have for red cell pathology. (chori.org)
- Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- The influence of divalent cations and cation ionophores. (springer.com)
- They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. (hindawi.com)
- Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance. (aspetjournals.org)
- The process is stimulated when the membrane potential is collapsed by valinomycin in the presence of K+ ions. (biomedsearch.com)
- An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. (wikipedia.org)
- Synergistic inhibition of L-proline transport was observed with clomipramine after addition of either of the ionophores valinomycin or nigericin. (sciencemag.org)
- As shown in Figure 1 , U937 cells were treated with valinomycin, a K+ ionophore that depolarizes the mitochondrial membrane, and then stained with JC-1. (thermofisher.com)
- experimental U937 cells were treated with 1 μM valinomycin (VAL) for 15 min to depolarize mitochondria prior to JC-1 staining. (thermofisher.com)
- PC-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of salinomycin for 48 h. (intechopen.com)
- BMCs have been credited with enhancing the activity of the enzyme(s) they contain by providing a unique environment with optimized substrate concentrations or pH, facilitating metabolite channeling, or protecting the cell by sequestering toxic intermediates ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- When higher-than-acceptable concentrations of ionophore are found in equine feed, a horse could be dead in less than 24 hours after ingestion. (sweetpdz.com)
- Originally identified as a sequence up-regulated by the exposure of cerebellar granule cells to subtoxic concentrations of N -methyl- d -aspartate, BNPI mediates the Na + -dependent accumulation of P i in Xenopus oocytes ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and thus could exhibit cytotoxic properties. (wikipedia.org)
- H. Schindler , Planar Lipid-Protein Membranes: Strategies of Formation and of Detecting Dependencies of Ion Transport Functions on Membrane Conditions. (elsevier.com)
- R. Krmer , Modulation of Membrane Protein Function by Surface Potential. (elsevier.com)
- An Abc3-green fluorescent protein fusion localized to the plasma membrane in early appressoria (and in penetration hyphae) but became predominantly vacuolar during appressorial maturity. (plantcell.org)
- Cytoprotection following endoplasmic reticulum stress protein induction in continuous cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
- GPR40, which has recently been identified as a G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor for long-chain fatty acids, was assessed in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). (biomedsearch.com)
- Hyaluronidase HYAL-2 is a membrane-anchored protein and also localizes, in part, in the lysosome. (frontiersin.org)
- Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, which are surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes, these microbial organelles are bounded by a thin protein shell that is assembled from multiple copies of a few different polypeptides. (asm.org)
- The redistribution of CAPRI to the plasma membrane in transfected cells was stimulated by increases in intracellular Ca 2+ (either by treatment with a calcium ionophore or activation of the purinergic G protein-coupled receptor that activates phospholipase C leading to increased intracellular Ca 2+ owing to production of inositol trisphosphate). (sciencemag.org)
- In transfected cells, activation of CAPRI attenuated calcium-induced activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. (sciencemag.org)
- Unperturbed cells express very little TF PCA despite the fact that TF, an integral membrane protein, is on the cell surface where it can bind zymogen factor VII (FVII) as well as activated FVII (FVIIa). (ahajournals.org)
- 5‐LOX resides as soluble protein in the nucleoplasm or the cytsol, depending on the cell type and/or the phosphorylation status at Ser 271 or Ser 523 . (els.net)
- The CaM-binding protein neuromodulin, which demonstrates a decreased affinity for CaM in the presence of Ca2+ and when phosphorylated by protein kinase C, was present in both membranes and cytosol of SK-N-SH cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- MRP-8 mRNA but not protein is present in the myeloid cells of these mice, suggesting that the stability of MRP-8 protein is dependent on MRP-14 expression. (asm.org)
- A bias towards ATP supply from oxidative phosphorylation in hESCs is consistent with the expression levels of the mitochondrial gene regulators peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, PGC-1β and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in hESCs when compared with a panel of differentiated cell types. (biologists.org)
- B.D. Jensen and P.K. Horan , Flow Cytometry: Rapid Isolation and Analysis of Single Cells. (elsevier.com)
- Flow cytometry is a popular tool for characterizing heterogeneous mixtures of particles such as cell types within blood, but the small size of EVs makes them difficult to measure using conventional flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
- De Biasi and coworkers recently described a new version of their original flow cytometry protocol to measure mitochondrial membrane potential using the lipophilic cation JC-1. (thermofisher.com)
- The dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence intensity in the cells was detected by flow cytometry. (intechopen.com)
- Many antibiotics, particularly the macrolide antibiotics, are ionophores. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, some ionophores are used as antibiotics and/or as growth-enhancing feed additives for certain animals, such as cattle (see monensin) and chickens. (wikipedia.org)
- Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. (hindawi.com)
- Ionophores are not used therapeutically and have a different mode of action than therapeutic antibiotics. (aces.edu)
- Ionophores are not affected by the new Veterinary Feed Directive from the Food and Drug Administration unless used in combination with medically important antibiotics. (aces.edu)
- That way there is a far lower risk that any ionophores or antibiotics will be at the property, or inadvertently mixed with your horse feed. (horse-canada.com)
- Ionophore antibiotics are added to feed to improve weight gain and control protozoan and bacteria infections in ruminants, swine and poultry. (sweetpdz.com)
- Ion-selective electrodes for antibiotics from the penicillin series, with membranes based on three different classes of ionophores (anion exchangers, aza compounds, and metal phthalocyanines), were proposed. (ebscohost.com)
- Agents 4:259-276, 2005) were significantly induced by daptomycin and by the cell wall-active antibiotics vancomycin and oxacillin. (asm.org)
- Transcriptional profiles of the responses to these antimicrobial agents showed significantly different patterns compared to those of the cell wall-active antibiotics, including little or no induction of the cell wall stress stimulon. (asm.org)
- These include activation of cell locomotion (1-4), secretion of granule components such as hydrolytic enzymes (3,5-7), and increased reduction of oxygen to cytocidal superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide (7-10). (springer.com)
- Further, a Ca 2+ -requiring plasma membrane phospholipase A 2 (12) can release arachidonic acid, whose metabolites are likely involved in the modulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and secretion (13,14). (springer.com)
- To determine whether cAMP also stimulates HCO3- secretion, we studied cultured canine and human airway epithelial cells bathed in a HCO3-/CO2-buffered, Cl(-)-free solution. (jci.org)
- These data suggest that cAMP and Ca2+ stimulate HCO3- secretion across airway epithelium, and suggest that HCO3- leaves the cell across the apical membrane via conductive pathways. (jci.org)
- The cAMP-induced secretory response was absent in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells, although Ca(2+)-stimulated secretion was intact. (jci.org)
- The Ptl type IV secretion system mediates secretion of assembled toxin past the outer membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
- Recent biochemical evidence has indicated that this ionophore enhanced secretion of the specific granule enzyme, lysozyme, from human neutrophils, thus implicating calcium in the induction of its release (Estensen et al. (docme.ru)
- These observations suggest that the cytotoxic effects of clomipramine result from its disruption of the proton electrochemical gradient of the parasite surface membrane. (sciencemag.org)
- Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) is a promising know-how for the light and power environment friendly disruption of microalgae cells such as Chlorella vulgaris . (youngresearch.eu)
- A model for the bactericidal action of daptomycin involving oligomerization of daptomycin and disruption of the functional integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed ( 57 ). (asm.org)
- Transmembrane ion concentration gradients (membrane potential) are required for living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- 4) Na-K-Cl cotransport increasing Mg o concentration stimulates this system in red cells and human amnion, and the bumetadine-sensitive K + transport is sensitive to Mg i (5) KCl cotransport - The increase in Mg i inhibits this cotransport. (mgwater.com)
- Effect of the Concentration of Ionophores During Supplementation on Growing Calf Gain Offered Different Diets. (aces.edu)
- The subplasmalemmal Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] spm ) in unstimulated cells is ≈10 times higher than the mean cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. (ahajournals.org)
- Any alteration in the cytosolic concentration of cAMP has a profound effect on the various processes of the cell. (biomedsearch.com)
- We found that the intracellular concentration of ATP is five to six times lower in hypoxic nonreplicating Mtb cells compared with aerobic replicating bacteria, making them exquisitely sensitive to any further depletion. (pnas.org)
- In related embodiments, the chromoionophore compounds further comprise a second chromophoric moiety which is insensitive to potassium binding by the TAC ionophore, thus providing for dual wavelength detection and absolute determination of K + concentration. (google.com)
- 12 Intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration is probably the major factor involved in the activation of NO synthase in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Cellular 5‐LOX activity is regulated in a complex manner and depends on cellular localisation, phosphorylation, the intracellular calcium concentration and the redox status of the cell. (els.net)
- The maximal changes in CaM concentration in both membranes and cytosol occurred with 10 microM carbachol. (aspetjournals.org)
- 76). The final concentration of cells was adjusted to 3 X lo6 celldm1 and the exudate separated into 15 ml aliquots. (docme.ru)
- The cells were then centrifuged a t 500 g, (3 minutes), resuspended in one of the test or control media (table 1) a t the original cell concentration, and incubated a t 37OC for three to eight minutes on coverslips for SEM (scanning electron microscopy) or in test tubes for TEM (transmission electron microscopy). (docme.ru)
- High response rate and acceptable toxicity of a combination of rituximab, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first relapse: results of the R-NIMP GOELAMS study. (semanticscholar.org)
- These findings are important, e.g., for the development of whole-cell redox biocatalytic processes that impose equivalent burdens on the cell metabolism: stoichiometric consumption of (reduced) redox cofactors and increased energy expenditures, due to the toxicity of the biocatalytic compounds. (asm.org)
- rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity. (hindawi.com)
- If ionophore toxicity is suspected, you should remove the suspected feed immediately and call your veterinarian, who will likely flush out the digestive tract to prevent any additional absorption of the compounds. (horse-canada.com)
- So how do you prevent ionophore toxicity? (horse-canada.com)
- Clomipramine also killed amastigotes of both species within murine macrophages with no apparent toxicity to the host cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Ionophore toxicity inhibits sodium and potassium ion transport across cell membranes, which can kill cells-especially muscle cells-leading eventually to total system failure and death. (sweetpdz.com)
- Prevention is the best method for preventing ionophore toxicity. (sweetpdz.com)
- A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes. (nih.gov)
- Ionophore highly selective for Ca2+. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In dendritic cells, mycolactone suppresses the TLR-induced production of inflammatory chemokines in a more selective manner, without major impact on their cytokine production ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. (hindawi.com)
- Non-selective cation channel in bullfrog taste cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- Hallmarks of eryptosis are cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. (semanticscholar.org)
- In fact, all lipoxygenases require membrane translocation to exert activity. (jci.org)
- Muscarinic receptor-mediated translocation of calmodulin in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The EC50 values for carbachol in eliciting the translocation were 3.7 microM for the increase in cytosol and 1.3 microM for the decrease in membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Racker, E.: Function and Structure of the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. (springer.com)
- A pBR322-transformed derivative of E. coli ML-35 was used to examine the effects of ECP and MBP on integrity of the bacterial inner membrane (IM) and outer membrane. (jimmunol.org)
- Although both MBP and ECP caused outer and inner membrane permeabilization when nutrients were present, only MBP was effective under nutrient-free conditions. (jimmunol.org)
- We used the human neural crest-derived tumor cell line Paju, which can be induced to differentiation in vitro by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. (biomedsearch.com)
- Interestingly, the NETosis profiles induced by calcium ionophore (CaI) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were also electrically different, which could be attributed to the differential rates of cell enlargement and attenuated membrane permeability. (rsc.org)
- The ionophore ionomycin (10 microM) and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (50 nM) were both able to elicit changes in CaM distribution. (aspetjournals.org)
- This result suggests that HCO3- exist at the apical membrane is through the Cl- channel that is defectively regulated in CF epithelia. (jci.org)
- Pollen tubes are cells that display an extreme example of cellular polarity and growth control, growing exclusively at the tip by means of apical exocytosis. (plantcell.org)
- Cationic and anionic channels of apical receptive membrane in a taste cell contribute to generation of salt-induced receptor potential. (nii.ac.jp)
- Numerous large multicellular, uniseriate trichomes, consisting of a trapezoidal basal cell with a striated cuticle composed of 3-5 small, rectangular, thick-walled cells, and terminated by elongated, tapering apical cells, often curved at 90° to the axis of the basal cell. (who.int)
- It has been found that treating globozoospermia with ICSI along with oocyte activation by calcium ionophore (an ion carrier used to increase intracellular calcium is more likely to result in conception than ICSI alone. (wikipedia.org)
- Mycolactone-mediated hyperactivation of Lck resulted in the depletion of intracellular calcium stores and downregulation of the TCR, leading to impaired T cell responsiveness to stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
- Schreiner and Unanue, '76) have been shown to be initiated, or otherwise affected by the changes in intracellular calcium levels induced by this ionophore. (docme.ru)
- Increase in the intracellular calcium to 1 μM and more causes activation of Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels (Gardos channels), loss of KCl from the cells, cell shrinkage, and dehydration ( 37 ). (physiology.org)
- The dual parameter dot plots combining annexin V and PI show the viable cell population in the lower left quadrant (annexin V-PI-), apoptotic cells in the lower right quadrant (annexin V+PI-) and the upper right quadrant (annexin V+PI+), and necrotic cells in the upper left quadrant (annexin V-PI+). (intechopen.com)
- However, when studied in vitro late apoptotic cells may lose membrane integrity and become necrotic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 14 This terminal phase of in vitro cell death, called secondary necrosis, occurs in apoptotic cells in the absence of phagocytic cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We found that ABA causes simultaneously cell depolarization and medium alkalinization, the second effect being abolished when ABA is added in the presence of H + pump inhibitors. (plantphysiol.org)
- The ratio of green to red fluorescence emission of JC-1 is thus proportional to the degree of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. (thermofisher.com)
- Uncompensated multilaser analysis of JC-1 fluorescence after mitochondrial membrane depolarization in U937 cells. (thermofisher.com)
- Depolarization caused by V-ATPase loss-of-function results in a drastic reduction of cell proliferation in the bud, a profound mispatterning of neural components, and a failure to regenerate. (biologists.org)
- Daptomycin has been proposed to cause membrane depolarization, and the transcriptional responses to carbonyl cyanide m -chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and nisin were determined. (asm.org)
- The results indicate that inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, either directly or indirectly, and membrane depolarization are parts of the mode of action of daptomycin. (asm.org)
- Daptomycin has been shown to cause calcium-dependent membrane depolarization of ( 1 , 57 ) and potassium release from ( 57 ) S. aureus . (asm.org)
- 4 Mislocalization of eNOS outside the caveolar membrane in nonacylating mutants markedly reduces the sensitivity of the enzyme to Ca 2+ influx as a trigger for the NO production, a fundamental determinant of cardiovascular homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
- Passive Ca2+‐influx (leak) was studied in regenerated cells in which the Ca2+‐pump was blocked with 0.2 mm lanthanum. (deepdyve.com)
- Ca2+‐influx showed a slow increase during the first 3 weeks of storage (from 0.4±0.16 to 1.25±0.4 μmoles Ca2+/l. cells/min), later it increased rapidly. (deepdyve.com)
- iNOS and eNOS are found in glial cells, endothelial cells, and astrocytes [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- rADI selectively inhibits NO produced via iNOS rather than eNOS in endothelial cells, which might be because of the accessibility of NOSs to the citrulline-arginine regeneration compartment [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated flattening of the intima and internal elastic lamina in these dilated arteries, associated with patchy losses of endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- The major action of indigo carmine appears to be at the level of nitric oxide generation and/or release from the endothelial cell. (ahajournals.org)
- NO is produced in endothelial cells from the amino acid l -arginine by a constitutive enzyme, NO synthase, which is Ca 2+ -, calmodulin-, and NADPH-dependent. (ahajournals.org)
- 15 16 17 18 NO thus formed in endothelial cells causes vasodilation by stimulating vascular smooth muscle soluble guanylyl cyclase and elevating cGMP levels. (ahajournals.org)
- TF antigen was detected on cells surrounding blood vessels, but it was not visible on either endothelial cells or cells in the bloodstream. (ahajournals.org)
- The lectin-like domain of tumor necrosis factor-α increases membrane conductance in mircrovascular endothelial cells and peritoneal macrophages" Eur. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Mg o increases the K + channel permeability in a leaky membrane. (mgwater.com)
- it increases membrane permeability to calcium. (agscientific.com)
- C) TFEB overexpression increases the release of lysosomal enzymes in the culture medium of MEFs, NSCs, HeLa, and COS-7 cells. (nih.gov)
- Incubation of the SK-N-SH cells with the partial muscarinic agonists bethanechol and arecoline resulted in 27 and 26% decreases in membrane-associated CaM, respectively, and 28 and 35% increases in cytosolic CaM, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
- In the present paper, the potentiometric response characteristics of a metalloporphyrin-based electrode in o -nitrophenyloctylether ( o -NPOE) plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane are presented for a set of monovalent anions. (mdpi.com)
- 4) Mixtures of these ionophores were incorporated into a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), where di-n-octyl phtalate (FADO) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were used as a plasticizer and a solvent respectively, and the responsivities to various salt solutions were examined. (nii.ac.jp)
- Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. (hindawi.com)
- In the present review, we address how to assay mitochondrial dysfunction in a way that is straightforward yet yields the most physiologically relevant, unambiguous and informative results in these genetic models, in tissues and cells from patients, and in response to bioactive compounds. (biochemj.org)
- The invention provides chromoionophore compounds comprising a triazacryptand (TAC) K+ ionophore conjugated to at least a first chromophoric moiety (e.g., xanthylium dyes and derivatives thereof). (google.com)
- exposed neutrophils from healthy people to five different compounds known to cause the cells to make NETs, including some harmful molecules, a fungus and a bacterium. (elifesciences.org)
- In cell membranes, ionic movements are carried out via two pathways: indeed, the paracellular pathway is hindered by the presence of tight junctions, ionic movements being first cellular and then paracellular. (mgwater.com)
- In this review, the interactions between magnesium and the sodium and potassium pathways in cell membranes are examined. (mgwater.com)
- However, it has also become clear that NETs can have negative consequences for the organisms that produce them-by activating autoimmune pathways or encouraging tumor cells to metastasize, for example. (the-scientist.com)
- That said, most pathways of NET formation do kill the immune cell, typically as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (the-scientist.com)
- showed that the way the cells die after the NET is released is unique from other pathways that are known to kill cells. (elifesciences.org)
- ATP generation in aerobic cells is divided between two main pathways: anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. (biologists.org)
- Upon incubation of the cells with the full agonist carbachol, a 4.5- to 5-fold increase in CaM in the cytosol was observed, from 126 ng of CaM to 629 ng of CaM. (aspetjournals.org)
- The increase in the cytosol was maximal by 15 min, as was a corresponding decrease in membrane-associated CaM. (aspetjournals.org)
- CaM content in membranes and cytosol of cells incubated with prostaglandin E1 or the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist UK 14,304 was not different from control values. (aspetjournals.org)
- TPA elicited a decrease in membrane-associated CaM, with a corresponding increase in CaM in the cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
- Without a nucleus, a mature erythrocyte (or RBC) contains a cytosol enclosed within a highly flexible cell membrane. (frontiersin.org)
- In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. (biochemj.org)
- T cell activation via the T cell receptor (T3-Ti complex) by OKT3 results in modulation of the T3-Ti complex, but does not affect T4, T8, or T11 antigen expression. (osti.gov)
- the T cell receptor. (osti.gov)
- Other pesticides, the type-II pyrethroids and several organochlorines interact with the GABA receptor/ionophore complex. (cdc.gov)
- Membrane HYAL-2 degrades HA bound by co-receptor CD44. (frontiersin.org)
- The role of muscarinic receptor-mediated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and subsequent calcium signals in altering the subcellular localization of calmodulin (CaM) was examined in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The presence of N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) was previously shown in rat red blood cells (RBCs) and in a UT-7/Epo human myeloid cell line differentiating into erythroid lineage. (physiology.org)
- Receptor activity was monitored using a radiolabeled antagonist binding assay, live imaging of Ca 2+ uptake, patch clamp, and monitoring of cell volume changes. (physiology.org)
- The receptor tetramers in erythroid precursor cells are composed of the NR1, NR2A, 2C, 2D, NR3A, and 3B subunits of which the glycine-binding NR3A and 3B and glutamate-binding NR2C and 2D subunits prevailed. (physiology.org)
- Circulating RBCs retain a low number of the receptor copies that is higher in young cells compared with mature and senescent RBC populations. (physiology.org)
- Activation of the receptor results in the transient Ca 2+ accumulation, cell shrinkage, and alteration in the intracellular pH, which is associated with the change in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. (physiology.org)
- These biochemical alterations were not observed when T cells were exposed to other bacterial lipids, or to structurally related immunosuppressors. (jimmunol.org)
- Unlike other members of the GAP1 family, CAPRI was not sensitive to changes in phosphatidylinositol lipids in the membrane. (sciencemag.org)