Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.
The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A person's view of himself.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers. National Cancer Institute July 2019. ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell ... is a small structural domain that sits between the antigen recognition region and the cell's outer membrane. An ideal hinge ... against cancer cells. When they come in contact with their targeted antigen on a cell, CAR-T cells bind to it and become ...
Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. ... The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting ... B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ...
... the semi-permeable nature of the membrane prevents immune cells and antibodies from destroying the encapsulated cells regarding ... of implanting artificial cells with similar chemical composition in several patients irrespective of their leukocyte antigen ... The use of cell encapsulated microcapsules towards the treatment of several forms of cancer has shown great potential. One ... "artificial cells" to define this concept of bioencapsulation. He suggested that these artificial cells produced by a drop ...
Unlike embryonic stem cells, amniotic stem cells have not shown a propensity for developing into teratomas and other cancer- ... An amniotic epithelial cell is a form of stem cell extracted from the lining of the inner membrane of the placenta. Amniotic ... Artificial heart valves and working tracheas, as well as muscle, fat, bone, heart, neural and liver cells have all been ... One possible reason for this is that amniotic epithelial cells have low antigen levels that inhibit compatibility from a donor ...
Staining procedures can apply to both fixed antigen in the cytoplasm or to cell surface antigens on living cells, called " ... "Membrane Topology of the Human Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) Determined by Epitope Insertion and ... This is accomplished by a process which manipulates the immune response of organism with adaptive immunity. The attached ... It is important to realize that this division is artificial and in reality the antibody molecule is four polypeptide chains: ...
... which act as antigen for the monoclonal antibodies), and for targeting individual cells (e.g. cancer cells). Monoclonal ... In the immune system, membrane-bound antibodies are the B cell receptor (BCR). Also, while the T cell receptor is not ... Khudyakov, Yury; Howard A. Fields (2002). Artificial DNA: Methods and Applications. Florida: CRC Press. p. 227. ISBN 0-8493- ... Activation of the T helper cells by antigen-presenting cells.. *Costimulation of the B cell by activated T cell resulting in ...
... cells with rare variants of membrane antigens are more easily distinguished by the immune system from pathogens carrying ... reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma. Conversely, type O blood is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. The B ... Another approach to the blood antigen problem is the manufacture of artificial blood, which could act as a substitute in ... The carbohydrate molecules on the surfaces of red blood cells have roles in cell membrane integrity, cell adhesion, membrane ...
To deliver the molecules to a site of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, thus ... Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. Liposomes can also be designed to deliver drugs in other ways. Liposomes ... Further advances in liposome research have been able to allow liposomes to avoid detection by the body's immune system, ... Liposomal cisplatin has received orphan drug designation for pancreatic cancer from EMEA. A study published in May 2018 also ...
Immature B cells, which have never been exposed to an antigen, express only the IgM isotype in a cell surface bound form. The B ... colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and breast cancer. Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and ... the B cell starts to produce antibody in a secreted form rather than a membrane-bound form. Some daughter cells of the ... Antibody mimetics are organic compounds, like antibodies, that can specifically bind antigens. They are usually artificial ...
In certain cancers (especially myelomonocytic leukemia) excessive production of lysozyme by cancer cells can lead to toxic ... Due to the unique function of lysozyme in which it can digest the cell wall and causes osmotic shock (burst the cell by ... Artificial substrates have also been developed and used in lysozyme. The Phillips Mechanism proposed that the enzyme's ... Whereas the skin is a protective barrier due to its dryness and acidity, the conjunctiva (membrane covering the eye) is, ...
A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... B cells express a unique B cell receptor (BCR), in this case, a membrane-bound antibody molecule. All the BCR of any one clone ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... Both actively acquired and passively acquired immunity can be obtained by natural or artificial means. Naturally Acquired ...
... including B cells and epithelial cells. The viral three-part glycoprotein complexes of gHgL gp42 mediate B cell membrane fusion ... "Contribution of viral recombinants to the study of the immune response against the Epstein-Barr virus". Seminars in Cancer ... because these three-part complexes interact with Human-leukocyte-antigen class II molecules present in B cells in the ... One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ...
Erythropoiesis Proerythroblast Normoblast Reticulocyte CFU-Mast Mast cell precursors B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor ... Ocular immune system in the Eye Cancer immunology/Immunooncology - Tumors History of immunology Timeline of immunology Immunity ... immune enhancement therapy Immunosuppression Sublingual immunotherapy Allergen immunotherapy Immunosuppressive drug Artificial ... Pattern recognition receptor Membrane-bound PRRs Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR1 TLR2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR6 TLR7 TLR8 TLR9 TLR10 ...
CD200 (OX-2) is a type 1 membrane glycoprotein, which delivers an inhibitory signal to immune cells including T cells, natural ... "Delineation of a cellular hierarchy in lung cancer reveals an oncofetal antigen expressed on tumor-initiating cells". Cancer ... the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. However, certain perspectives maintain that this demarcation is artificial, ... They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and ...
Science Daily) (Cell) 23 July American scientists create an artificial jellyfish out of silicone and lab-grown heart cells. The ... using a cancer drug to attack HIV inside certain immune-system cells, which were previously difficult to reach with treatments ... Mater.) Scientists use ultrasound to display 3D video on a modified liquid soap membrane, creating the world's thinnest ... Neurol.) 18 November - A biodegradable nanoparticle has been developed which can stealthily deliver an antigen, tricking the ...
The outer leaflet of cancer cell membranes appears to be enriched with negatively charged phospholipids, which seems to explain ... responsible for targeting a surface antigen present only in certain tumor cells, fused with a ribotoxin that promotes the death ... Since the antibody fragment used is humanized, this last construction would then be practically invisible to the immune system ... This approach has recently been improved with the incorporation of different artificial variants of ribotoxins, such as one ...
... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "A Robust and Highly Efficient Immune Cell Reprogramming System". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (5): 554-566. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2009.10.004 ... Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have great clinical potential as adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. iNKT cells act as ... A common feature of pluripotent stem cells is the specific nature of protein glycosylation of their outer membrane. That ...
... including B cells and epithelial cells.[24] The viral three-part glycoprotein complexes of gHgL gp42 mediate B cell membrane ... Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. Oropharyngeal cancer. KSHV Kaposi's sarcoma. EBV ... EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once EBV's initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV ... because these three-part complexes interact with Human-leukocyte-antigen class II molecules present in B cells in the ...
A selective cytotoxic for prostate-specific antigen-positive prostate cancer cells". Cancer Research. 57 (13): 2559-63. PMID ... shown a unique mechanism of cell death similar to Oncosis with expression of inflammatory cell death markers and cell membrane ... artificial target sites or miRNA response elements (MREs). Differential expression of miRNAs between healthy tissues and tumors ... tumour necrosis and anti-tumoural immune responses (see the EU Clinical Trials Register for further details). Patents for the ...
"CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... Recently, phage display has also been used in the context of cancer treatments - such as the adoptive cell transfer approach. ... Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... Gao C, Mao S, Lo CH, Wirsching P, Lerner RA, Janda KD (May 1999). "Making artificial antibodies: a format for phage display of ...
CMA has also been suggested to contribute to antigen presentation in dendritic cells. CMA is activated during T cell activation ... Links between CMA and cancer have also been established. CMA is upregulated in many different types of human cancer cells and ... the cell stringently regulates the levels of the CMA receptor at the lysosomal membrane by controlling the degradation rates of ... specific depletion of CMA in T cells results in immune response deficiency following immunization or infection. CMA is ...
Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells". Exp Cell Res. 207 (1): 202-205. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182. PMID 8391465.CS1 maint: ... Antisperm antibodies cause immune infertility. Cystic fibrosis can lead to infertility in men. In some cases, both the man and ... Women trying to conceive often have depression rates similar to women who have heart disease or cancer. Emotional stress and ... In both men and women, ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility ...
... including beta cells, as a signaling mechanism. Since it does not ordinarily pass through cell membranes, protein pores in cell ... HLA antigens Proteins on the outer part of body cells that are (effectively) unique to that person. HLA types are inherited, ... Some chemicals preferentially and directly attack the beta cells, and do not trigger the auto-immune attack (for instance a ... Aspartame An artificial sweetener that can replace sugar in many uses. Chemically it is two amino acids and is therefore a kind ...
... also plays a role in cell-to-cell adhesion (a mechanism employed by cells of the immune system) via sugar-binding ... was improved against drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Advanced glycation endproduct Chemical glycosylation ... It is the presence or absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what ... Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of proteins ...
... s also participate in both innate and adaptive intravascular immune responses. The platelet cell membrane has receptors ... Erpenbeck L, Schön MP (April 2010). "Deadly allies: the fatal interplay between platelets and metastasizing cancer cells". ... The separation of platelet dynamics into three stages is useful in this regard, but it is artificial: in fact, each stage is ... "Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 338 (6112): 1348-51. ...
... and certain cancers (for example Non-Hodgkin's B-Cell Lymphoma, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and HPV-associated cancers including anal, ... Avoid artificial rupture of membranes and operative vaginal delivery (using forceps or a vacuum extractor) if at all possible, ... AIDS is caused by the progressive destruction of CD4 T-helper cells of the immune system by the HIV virus. AIDS is defined by ... The most updated HIV testing protocols recommend using the HIV-1 and HIV-2 antigen/antibody combination immunoassay as the ...
Antigen presenting cells *Dendritic cells. *Langerhans cell. *CFU-DL. *CFU-M *MPS ... The process is initiated either by immune cells sensu stricto by activating their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), or by ... These changes are all brought about by the interaction of the microtubule/actin complex with the platelet cell membrane and ... the fatal interplay between platelets and metastasizing cancer cells". Blood. 115 (17): 3427-36. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-10- ...
Donor cells may have homozygous (e.g. K+k+), heterozygous (K+k-) expression or no expression of various antigens (K−k−). The ... to more than 10 different cancer types that are fully associated with blood transfusion and the innate and adaptive immune ... This is a reason for the now-widespread use of leukoreduction - the filtration of donor white cells from red cell product units ... Burns, JM; Yang, X; Forouzan, O; Sosa, JM; Shevkoplyas, SS (2012). "Artificial microvascular network: A new tool for measuring ...
... which involves using an electric shock to make the cell membrane permeable to plasmid DNA. As only a single cell is transformed ... In 2017, genetic engineering of chimeric antigen receptors on a patient's own T-cells was approved by the U.S. FDA as a ... Scientists are creating "gene drives", changing the genomes of mosquitoes to make them immune to malaria, and then looking to ... Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through selective breeding, or artificial selection as ...
... has been developed with the ability to cause immune cells to attack and destroy designated targets such as cancer cells, it has ... the cell membranes ability to switch on immune cells.. They created artificial antigen presenting cells, to copy the action ... activation of immune cells, such as T cells, to find and destroy the tumour cells. Right now, immunotherapies to fight cancer ... We have shown that an artificial antigen presenting cell can be effective in activating T cells in in vitro studies. Our ...
School of Medicine of USC use enzymes responsible for marine animal bioluminescence to help researchers test whether cancer ... Researchers have developed an artificial structure that mimics the cell membrane, which can switch on immune cells to attack ... "One of the most promising areas in cancer research is immunotherapy, including chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cells. It is ... Immune therapy scientists discover distinct cells that block cancer-fighting immune cells. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre ...
Researchers from Switzerland describe a new method that improves cancer immunotherapy by cross-dressing the dendritic cells ... team demonstrated that EVIRs enhanced transfer of tumor antigens from the exosome to the outer membrane of the dendritic cell. ... Swiss researchers have designed a groundbreaking technique that uses artificial receptors to enhance the bodys immune response ... Cancer: Some immune cells found to give tumors a helping hand. Scientists have discovered that a type of immune cell that ...
Adenoviral gene transfer into dendritic cells efficiently amplifies the immune response to LMP2A antigen: a potential treatment ... Adoptive cell transfer: a clinical path to effective cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:299-308 ... Dendritic cells transduced with an adenovirus vector encoding Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2B: a new modality for ... Epstein Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing the anti-CD30 artificial chimeric T-cell receptor for ...
... including human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and antigen-presenting cells ... which are formed directly through the shedding of the cellular membrane in response to various physiological and artificial ... The tumor cells had greater uptake efficiency for TMPs than normal tissue cells or antitumor immune cells, enabling the active ... T cell gate. (C) IFN-γ+ cells and IL-2+ cells (n = 9) within CD45+CD3+CD4+ cells. (D) IFN-γ+ cells and IL-2+ cells (n = 9) ...
... is a peripheral glycosylated membrane protein that regulates the complement activation in the control of immune responses. The ... released from cells are also involved in information transmission between cells in the immune system as well as cancer ... Suppression effect of cell necrosis by sCR1 on stroma cell PA-6. Phase contrast micrographs of PA-6 cells in (a) α-MEM media ( ... regulator of complement activation in the control of immune responses through its binding to C3b/C4b-opsonized foreign antigens ...
... host cells comprising artificial endosymbionts and methods of introducing artificial endosymbionts into eukaryotic host cells. ... wherein the mammalian cell is a cancer cell. 9. The mammalian host cell of claim 1, wherein the mammalian cell is a stem cell. ... Zhang, X. et al., Artificial innate immune system . . . , Proc. of the 3rd Intl Conf. on Artificial Immun. Sys. (ICARIS), LNCS ... As used herein, the term "cytosol" refers to the portion of the cytoplasm not within membrane-bound sub-structures of the cell ...
Regulatory CD4+ T cells are another specialized subset that plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to ... chronical viral infections and cancer, or severe autoimmune diseases and transplantation. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an ... To address this challenge, artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) have been developed. They constitute a reliable and ... To address this challenge, artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) have been developed. They constitute a reliable and ...
In the early phases of cancer immune surveillance, NK cells directly identify and lyse cancer cells. Nascent transformed cells ... In the early phases of cancer immune surveillance, NK cells directly identify and lyse cancer cells. Nascent transformed cells ... Here, we review tumor-NK cell interactions, discuss the mechanisms by which NK cells generate an antitumor immune response, and ... Here, we review tumor-NK cell interactions, discuss the mechanisms by which NK cells generate an antitumor immune response, and ...
New Artificial Cells Can Activate T-cells to Target Cancer, Researchers Say News Researchers have developed an artificial ... antigen-presenting cells November 6, 2018. November 6, 2018. SQZ Biotech and Roche Expand Collaboration to Develop Cell ... membrane that, similar to antigen-presenting cells, can trigger the activation of T-cells toward a particular target. The ... Colorectal Cancer Vaccine Candidate Induces Potent Immune Responses, Interim Trial Results Show. June 18, 2019 ...
CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers. National Cancer Institute July 2019. ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell ... is a small structural domain that sits between the antigen recognition region and the cells outer membrane. An ideal hinge ... against cancer cells. When they come in contact with their targeted antigen on a cell, CAR-T cells bind to it and become ...
The expression of leukotriene receptors was deregulated in esophageal squamous cell cancer. Up-regulation of LTB4R and down- ... in biopsy samples of 19 patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer and 9 sex- and age-matched patients with functional ... protein levels of all leukotriene receptors were significantly increased in esophageal squamous cell cancer compared to control ... We aimed to investigate the expression of LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent ...
Killer Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (KaAPC) for Efficient In Vitro Depletion of Human Antigen-specific T Cells ... Traditional studies of immune responses through imaging of primary cells and surveying cell markers by FACS or immunoblot have ... Natural Killer T cells (NKT) are critical determinants of the immune response to cancer, regulation of autioimmune disease, ... membrane protein that becomes expressed on the NK cell surface when the cytolytic granules fuse to the plasma membrane, we can ...
Antibodies are key players in our immune system. These antibodies recognize antigens displayed on foreign cell membranes and ... Research shows how physical cues drive cell migration, cancer metastasis, and treatment Cancer cells are a product of their ... Screening for pancreatic cancer using artificial intelligence. Dr. Ananya Malhotra. Dr. Ananya Malhotra speaks to News-Medical ... The surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and other features influence disease progression and spread of cancer cells to ...
... enabled them to directly control signaling activity in living T cells from the immune system. By going inside a living cell and ... Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory created unique synthetic membranes that, for the first time ever, ... physically moving its T cell signaling molecules, they showed that the ... "The fluidity of our membranes created artificial antigen-presenting cell surfaces that enabled the formation of functional ...
Adaptive immunity is governed by the response of immune cells (T-cells and B-cells) to specific antigens. T-cells and B-cells ... An Artificial Antigen-presenting Cell with Paracrine Delivery of IL-2 Impacts the Magnitude and Direction of the T Cell ... The scaffold was then able to recruit DCs upon implantation and trigger T-cell response to the introduction of cancer cells in ... is encapsulated in a membrane exhibiting specific ligands to trigger CD8+ T-cell proliferation, and CD4+ T-cell apoptosis in ...
... and facility expansion at Memorial Sloan Kettering have led to several new experimental treatments for people with cancer. ... The drug is made by harvesting a persons immune system cells, engineering them to fight prostate cancer cells, and putting ... Sadelain and Rivière on a T cell therapy targeting a protein called prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). As prostate ... "We have refined the design of the artificial receptors [termed chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs] to increase the potency of ...
... antigen-driven membrane transfer9 and/or precursor cell proliferation3,4,10-18 and immune regulatory and effector cell function ... Perturbations in the balance between Tregs and inflammatory conventional T cells can result in immunopathology or cancer. ... Moreover, FCS can be used not only in artificial membranes and cell lines but also in primary cultures, as described recently12 ... Immunology, Issue 80, Virus Diseases, Immune System Diseases, HIV, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, antigen-presenting cell, Cytokines, ...
Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. ... The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting ... B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ...
We can also supply constructed CD19 viral vector for CD19-targeted CAR T cells preparation. ... AcceGen provides reagents for T cell transportation, transfection, culture, and treatment. ... A CAR-T cell is engineered T cells that express a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) on their cell membrane. This receptor counts ... engineered cells recognize and kill cancerous cells while reactivating other immune players that have been dampened by cancers ...
The Spriggs laboratory has been focused on the proteins on the ovarian cancer cell surface and how those proteins regulate ... cell interactions can slow tumor growth and block the spread of cancer cells locally and inhibit the spread to new organs. ... CAR T-cell dysfunction and immune escape via antigen-loss. In conjunction with Dr. Oladapo Yeku, from our junior faculty, we ... Our approaches to further engineering these CAR T cells with Human Artificial Chromosomes (Dr. Kononenko) are informed by the ...
CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control the induction of antigen-specific CD4+ helper T cell responses in cancer patients. Blood ... cell suppression is the secretion of soluble or membrane-tethered mediators that inhibit effector T-cell functions through cell ... Artificial overexpression of CCL28 in mouse ovarian cancer cells led to enhanced growth of intraperitoneal tumors, as ... T cells in tumors from patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and late-stage ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2001;61: ...
Designer immune cells. Immunotherapy is currently offering new hope for people with cancer by shaping how the immune system ... antigen) on the surface of tumour cells, resulting in the T cells killing the cancerous cells (called CAR-T therapies)10. All ... If mass production of artificial immune cells were possible, it might even lessen the need to tailor treatments to individuals ... In principle, cell-like compartments could be made that have the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells or the clotting ...
immune protein. An antibody or immunoglobulin produced by plasma cells that identifies foreign antigens and initiates their ... membrane-bound protein. , membrane protein. A protein that is part of a cell membrane and acts as a receptor for substances ... for a checkpoint kinase protein that stimulates cells to multiply and is found in excessive amounts in several cancers, ... A protein made from the natural or artificial hybridization and translation of two distinct genes. ...
The fluidity of our membranes created artificial antigen-presenting cell surfaces that enabled the formation of functional ... Front Line Immune Cells Mature in Four Stages - Study. Caspase-12 gene that shuts down immune system is found in 20% of people ... and cell signaling mechanisms in the development of cancer. They are also using it to look at the dynamic range of signaling ... The process starts when antigens, special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as non-self, and signal the ...
... nonimmune cells equipped with signal-transduction devices that sense targets and trigger release of prodrug activators. ... Cell-based anticancer therapies may include synthetic T cells, ... The new type of artificial T cell has several advantages over ... cancer immunotherapies could assemble antitumor units consisting of both engineered immune cells, such as chimeric antigen ... This molecule complex constitutes a molecular warhead that penetrates the membrane of the target cell. It is linked to a ...
... cell,membranes,bend,more,easily,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news, ... it dramatically lowers the energy required for a cell membrane to bend, making it easier for the virus to infect immune cells. ... Carnegie Mellon researcher proposes development of artificial cells to fight disease. 7. Carnegie Mellon engineers devise new ... 0] Developments in Microbial Technology - Pioneers With Proven Success on Advancements Series[0] Towards Precision Cancer ...
immune protein. An antibody or immunoglobulin produced by plasma cells that identifies foreign antigens and initiates their ... membrane-bound protein. , membrane protein. A protein that is part of a cell membrane and acts as a receptor for substances ... Oncogenic beta-catenin is required for bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression in human cancer cells.. Coordination of bone ... A protein made from the natural or artificial hybridization and translation of two distinct genes. ...
Made progress toward creating dendritic cell vaccines.. Dendritic cells key role in priming the immune system gives them ... These spiny cells main job in the body is to display antigens--distinctive bits of undesirable invaders--to the immune ... Invented chips for rapid detection of cancer and infections.. The mutations that lead to cancer can alter a variety of genes ... But yeast is a eukaryote, with a membrane-bound nucleus similar to the cells of humans. The teams accomplishment opens the ...
... and quantitative nature of an immune response depends on the type of APC that processes and presents antigen to T cells. ... Cell Preparation and Culture.. 6-12-wk-old female BALB/c mice were purchased from National Cancer Institute and used for DC and ... Abbreviations used in this paper: aa, amino acid(s); BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; CTLA, CTL-associated antigen; DC, ... 1998) SOSUIclassification and secondary structure prediction system for membrane proteins. Bioinformatics. 14:378-379, pmid: ...
  • One of the most promising areas in cancer research is immunotherapy, including chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cells. (
  • Complement receptor type 1 (CR1 or CD35) is a peripheral glycosylated membrane protein that regulates the complement activation in the control of immune responses. (
  • Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (also known as CAR T cells) are T cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are receptor proteins that have been engineered to give T cells the new ability to target a specific protein. (
  • The receptors are chimeric because they combine both antigen-binding and T-cell activating functions into a single receptor. (
  • The first chimeric receptors containing portions of an antibody and the T cell receptor was described in 1987 by Yoshikazu Kuwana et al. (
  • A first generation CAR containing a CD4 extracellular domain and a CD3ζ intracellular domain was used in the first clinical trail of chimeric antigen receptor T cells by the biotechnology company Cell Genesys in the mid 1990s, allowing adoptively transferred T cells to target HIV infected cells, although it failed to show any clinical improvement. (
  • A CAR-T cell is engineered T cells that express a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) on their cell membrane. (
  • This receptor counts with an external target-binding domain designed to recognize a specific tumor antigen and an internal activation domain responsible for activating the T cell when the CAR-T binds its target. (
  • The main process included: extract a patient's T cells from blood and train them to recognize and kill cancer by modifying them with a viral vector to express an artificial, or chimeric, receptor specific for a particular cancer-associated antigen-such as CD19, an antigen expressed in B-cell-related blood cancers, and then reinfuse the cells back into the patient. (
  • The domains that are used can affect how well the receptor recognizes or binds to the antigen on the tumor cell. (
  • The original idea behind the c-SMAC was that the larger the T cell receptor cluster, the stronger the T cell activation signal," said Groves. (
  • This enabled the researchers to preserve the membranes in their naturally fluid state, allowing lipids and T cell receptor proteins to diffuse and interact freely over macroscopic distances. (
  • They begin as T-cell progenitors with no receptor, which are known as double negative cells (DC). (
  • This is achieved by interacting with a professional APC which presents an antigen recognized by their T cell receptor. (
  • They are very efficient at internalizing antigens, either by phagocytosis (e.g. macrophages), or by receptor-mediated endocytosis (B cells), processing the antigen into peptide fragments and then displaying those peptides (bound to a class II MHC molecule) on their membrane. (
  • Alternatively, cancer immunotherapies could assemble antitumor units consisting of both engineered immune cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells, and engineered nonimmune cells, including cells outfitted with "synthetic T-cell receptor-like signal transduction devices. (
  • Details appeared November 13 in the journal Nature Chemical Biology , in an article entitled, "Nonimmune cells equipped with T-cell-receptor-like signaling for cancer cell ablation. (
  • B7-DC fails to bind the B7.1/2 receptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, but does bind PD-1, a receptor for B7-H1/PD-L1. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, an emerging immunotherapy, has demonstrated promising clinical results in hematological malignancies including B-cell malignancies. (
  • Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells have not been successful in the management of solid tumor malignancies. (
  • Specifically, Baird works with immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which mount membrane proteins on mast cells to form receptor complexes that sense the environment and sensitize the cell to allergens, which are substances that cause an allergic reaction. (
  • At present, very little is known about the structural changes caused by receptor clustering that allow cells to sense their outer environment and start cellular processes within the cell. (
  • In fact, on T-cell receptor stimulation phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase levels were found to be elevated in the presence of sorafenib, showing the complexity of signal transduction events following T-cell receptor stimulation. (
  • However, it is very important to note that ERK activation is regarded as one necessary step in the activation of T cells in response to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and particularly for developing and exerting effector function of cytotoxic T cells ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Mouse monoclonal to CD16.COC16 reacts with human CD16, a 50-65 kDa Fcg receptor IIIa (FcgRIII), expressed on NK cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. (
  • CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell activation. (
  • T and NK cells express several members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family specialized in delivering a costimulatory signal on their surface. (
  • Critical signals for activation are dependent on specific antigens, such as T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation on T cells or on recognition of antibody-coated target cells sensed by FcRγIII (CD16) on natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Four families of molecules play important roles in immune synapses: the immunoglobulin superfamily, the integrin superfamily, C-type lectins, and the TNF/TNF receptor (TNFR) families. (
  • Receptor-ligand interactions in the immune synapse are important for maintaining structure (adhesion), conveying bidirectional biochemical signals for activation or inhibition, reorganizing the cytoskeleton, and reorienting the secretory machinery. (
  • Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells. (
  • Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a powerful targeted immunotherapy, showing striking responses in highly refractory populations. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19, the best-studied CAR T-cell therapy to date, will be discussed, with a focus on clinical trials for ALL demonstrating efficacy as well as toxicity and toxicity management. (
  • Cytotoxic T-cells (CD-28+) are responsible for finding dysfunctional or infected cells of the body by recognizing foreign target proteins presented on the MHC-I proteins with their T-cell receptor (TCR) . (
  • In order to increase the strength of their response, however, the T-cells can also be co-stimulated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via binding of B7 ligands to the CD-28 receptor . (
  • Closed-system manufacturing of CD19 and dual-targeted CD20/19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells using the CliniMACS Prodigy device at an academic medical center. (
  • Tumor Antigen and Receptor Densities Regulate Efficacy of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor Targeting Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase. (
  • Eradication of B-ALL using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells targeting the TSLPR oncoprotein. (
  • In January 2020, Adaptimmune and Japanese company Astellas agreed to co-develop and co-commercialize stem-cell-derived allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T and TCR T cell therapies, which means that they not only treat one specific patient but a large number of patients with a particular cancer type. (
  • Retinoids are thus ideal candidates for medical therapies, as the uptake of RA (and its closely related synthetic analogues) does not require a cell surface receptor [ 1 ]. (
  • To test the Matador assay's effectiveness at measuring cell death, several different types of cancer cells, including chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma and solid tumors, were treated with a variety of immunotherapies, including CAR-T cells, bispecific T-cell engagers and monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Antibodies are key players in our immune system. (
  • These antibodies recognize antigens displayed on foreign cell membranes and thereby recruit attacking forces, called complements. (
  • Also embedded within the cell membrane are antibodies with specific docking sites, which can sense the target structures of the cancer cell and bind to them. (
  • Our work has shown that antibodies which inhibit these cell - cell interactions can slow tumor growth and block the spread of cancer cells locally and inhibit the spread to new organs. (
  • This work includes potential therapeutic antibodies against MUC16 and Galectin-3 in cancer. (
  • Our current MUC16 work concentrates on development of our human MUC16 antibodies for targeting ovarian cancer. (
  • Our antibodies uniquely target the most proximal, retained portion of the MUC16 following cleavage and release of the CA125 antigen into the circulation. (
  • In conjunction with Dr. Oladapo Yeku, from our junior faculty, we are using our antibodies as MUC16 targeted CAR T cells. (
  • The two classes of histocompatibility molecules allow an organism to in essence establish an inventory of what cells are "self" and to expose foreign antigens to the immune system so that antibodies to these antigens can be made. (
  • The USAMRIID researchers, led by virologist Jay Hooper, teamed up with SAB Biotherapeutics in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to use genetically engineered cows that, when presented with an antigen, could produce fully human polyclonal antibodies against both the Sin Nombre hantavirus strain, first isolated from the Four Corners region of the southwestern United Sates, and the Andes hantavirus strain, which is prevalent in Chile. (
  • Creating human antibodies in an animal model is no small feat. Scientists combined parts of human chromosome 14 and human chromosome 2 - the bits that are needed to produce antibodies - into an artificial chromosome and implanted it in cows. (
  • As a result, the bovines produced immune cells that spit out human antibodies. (
  • Humoral immunity refers to the production of antibodies by specialized immune cells. (
  • Antibodies mark foreign or pathogenic material so it can be more easily recognized by the immune system. (
  • While antibodies are a key component of the immune response, they can only act on targets that are outside of cells. (
  • Once a nanomaterial vaccine is internalized within APCs, it is usually sequestered within small vesicles called endosomes If the nanomaterial remains within the endosome, the antigen is typically processed in such a way that the immune system generates antibodies against it. (
  • Therapy for cancer can be achieved by artificially stimulating antitumor T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes with agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAb). (
  • Compositions and methods are provided for producing a medical device such as a stent, a stent graft, a synthetic vascular graft, heart valves, coated with a biocompatible matrix which incorporates antibodies, antibody fragments, or small molecules, which recognize, bind to and/or interact with a progenitor cell surface antigen to immobilize the cells at the surface of the device. (
  • a key feature of this response is the production of antibodies by B cells (or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity . (
  • The antibodies are soluble and do not require direct cell-to-cell contact between the pathogen and the B-cell to function. (
  • Consequently, an effective immune response often involves the production of many different antibodies by many different B cells against the same antigen. (
  • Anti-megakaryocyte monoclonal antibodies, producing hybridoma cell line [in German]. (
  • Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies. (
  • The clotting will cause blood cells to be coagulated and leave straw colored liquid containing fluids with hormones,glucose,electrolytes, antibodies,antigens and nutients devoid of clotting factors. (
  • The company's proprietary ADCs combine monoclonal antibodies that are specific to targets on the surface of tumor cells with a specific class of toxins called pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimers. (
  • Using its ROCK platform , Affimed develops multi-specific antibodies called cell engagers. (
  • Its pipeline is full to bursting with a variety of immuno-oncology therapies based on mRNA, antibodies, and CAR-T cells. (
  • T cells identify certain fragments as foreign, and either kill the cells directly or stimulate the immune response of B cells to produce antibodies against the originating proteins and pathogens. (
  • Phage display technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Frank Breitling and Stefan Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (
  • It acts as a 'gatekeeper' controlling the transport of molecules between the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm (the protein-containing solution in the inside of a cell). (
  • This marriage of inorganic nanotechnology with organic molecules and cells enables us to go inside a living cell and physically move around its signaling molecules with molecular precision," said Jay Groves, a chemist who holds a joint appointment with Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division and UC Berkeley's Chemistry Department. (
  • At the immunological synapse, a central cluster of T cell receptors surrounded by a ring of adhesion molecules form what co-author Dustin has described as a sort of "bull's-eye. (
  • In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. (
  • Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (
  • They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (
  • Such cells express MHC class I and MHC class II molecules and can stimulate CD4+ helper T cells as well as cytotoxic T cells. (
  • They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (
  • Once a dendritic cell's pattern-recognition receptors recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antigen is phagocytosed and the dendritic cell becomes activated, upregulating the expression of MHC class II molecules. (
  • It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. (
  • The device, a signal-transduction apparatus, can sense when it contacts a target cell and then trigger the release of output molecules. (
  • Lipid bilayers provide a protective barrier for the cell against intruders, yet also contain molecules to recognize and communicate with other cells or get nutrients. (
  • Although expression of the currently described B7 family molecules is clearly important in mediating T cell activation, their ubiquitous expression on multiple APC types suggests that other molecules contribute to the extraordinary stimulatory capacity of DCs. (
  • The so-called nano-keys are surfaces of silicon with a layer of polymer or a thin lipid (fatty molecules that make up cell membranes) bilayer. (
  • MHC-I molecules rapidly deliver information about cancer cells or virus-infected cells to the immune system. (
  • In order for the cell to provide information to the immune system, membrane transport proteins, folding enzymes and MHC-I molecules must work together precisely within a complex. (
  • In ALF, extensive liver injury can be caused by a variety of molecules of the innate immune system, and the complement system plays an important role in this process [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • These molecules are made up of a portion that is embedded in the cell membrane and a portion that protrudes out from the membrane's outer surface. (
  • The molecules function to identify a cell to the T lymphocyte cells of the immune system. (
  • Class II molecules have two segments that are embedded in the membrane. (
  • Class II molecules are not present on all cells the way class I molecules are. (
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (
  • The membrane of a red blood cell contains the antigen molecules that determine the 'type' of the blood (A, B, AB or O). Because HBOCs have no membranes, they do not need to be cross-matched by type and can be given to any patient without previous testing. (
  • As a consequence, CMV has evolved diverse countermeasures to avoid recognition by T cells, allowing it to interfere with the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) and class II and costimulatory molecules, compromising antigen presentation [3] - [6] . (
  • The signalling lymphocyte-activation molecules (SLAM) family of cell-surface receptors is a distinct structural subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily differentially expressed on hematopoietic cells and found to play pivotal roles in both innate and adaptive immunity [11] - [13] . (
  • Most nanoscale vaccines deliver antigens the molecules that the immune system recognizes - to antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • The expression of mRNA for α- and β-chemokines preceded the appearance of immune cells suggesting that these molecules may have a role in the inflammatory. (
  • Costimulatory molecules will subsequently determine the outcome of the primary antigen recognition by providing signals that will amplify, complement, and modulate those elicited from the TCR or CD16. (
  • Saponins like digitonins serve a crucial function in the permeabilization process by selectively removing cell cholesterol membranes without affecting protein molecules. (
  • Antigens are foreign molecules that activate an immune response within an organism and may originate from microorganisms or exist independently, such as pollens. (
  • Although the polyclonal response confers advantages on the immune system, in particular, greater probability of reacting against pathogens, it also increases chances of developing certain autoimmune diseases resulting from the reaction of the immune system against native molecules produced within the host. (
  • Protein molecules released by the immune system in response to an antigen, which are capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen. (
  • Usually applied to the process of incorporating simple molecules of food produced by digestion into the living cells of an animal for use in metabolism. (
  • IgE molecules thus produced then bind at their Fc region to Fcε receptors present on the surface of mast cells, which occur in subcutaneous as well as connective tissues, or of basophils, and thus stay there. (
  • If they come into contact with the same antigen, two of adjacent IgE molecules bind to the antigen falling between them, via which two adjacent Fcε receptors thus become cross-linked. (
  • The earlier an epitope is presented by MHC class I (MHC-I) 3 molecules on the surface of an infected target cell, the more likely it is to serve as an effective target for CD8 + T cells. (
  • It allows for the small molecules of the toxins to be absorbed while the blood cells pass unhindered through the extra-corporeal device. (
  • To boost the in vivo effectiveness of low-avidity CTLs, we immunized mice bearing lung melanoma metastases with artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC), made by covalently coupling (pep)MHC-Ig dimers and B7.1-Ig molecules to magnetic beads. (
  • Mice were sequentially given two sets of minicells - the first filled with small RNA molecules to block production of the pumps that confer drug-resistance, and the second one loaded with toxic chemotherapy drugs to kill the tumour cells with disabled pumps. (
  • These cells assess threats to the body by gathering information from proteins they are exposed to, and trigger T cells to attack these specific proteins. (
  • The artificial cells are made using a filamentous polymer scaffold with a nanoworm-like structure and various T cell activating proteins embedded in it. (
  • Extracellular antigens are taken up via phagocytosis and are incorporated into a set of surface proteins on the APC called the Major Histocompatibility Complex -II (MHC-II). (
  • APCs can also present foreign and self lipids to T cells and NK cells by using the CD1 family of proteins, which are structurally similar to the MHC class I family. (
  • The mechanism triggering the signal cascade leading to the destruction of the cancer cell is new, and has a physical function: as the synthetic T cell moves closer toward the target cell, the antennae proteins buckle. (
  • Cells also communicate with one another via small, membrane-bound vesicles that contain proteins or other molecular cargo. (
  • The Spriggs laboratory has been focused on proteins present on the ovarian cancer cell surface and how those proteins regulate function in health and cancer. (
  • By understanding a membrane's role in cell function, she explained that these nano-keys could interfere with responses via the membrane interactions, rather than just targeting proteins to block responses. (
  • proteins are part of all cell membranes. (
  • For example, carrier erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) were widely used to encapsulate or bind small-molecule agents, nucleic acids, proteins, and NPs to treat systemic disease owing to their long lifespan and high biocompatibility[ 16 , 22 , 23 ]. (
  • These peptides are presented on the cell's surface by MHC-I proteins, short for major histocompatibility complex class I proteins, so that they can be detected by the immune system. (
  • Within the rapidly growing vaccine space, conjugate vaccines-polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to carrier proteins-have been shown to be effective against several bacterial pathogens. (
  • Conjugate vaccines use carrier proteins to increase the immunogenicity of antigens (e.g., peptides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides) and other haptens. (
  • These antigens are poor immunogens unless conjugated to proteins. (
  • Carrier proteins both increase the magnitude of the immune response as well as engender B-cell "memory. (
  • The number of carrier proteins used in licensed vaccines is relatively limited and includes tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, CRM 197 (a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin), Haemophilus influenzae protein D, and Neisseria outer membrane protein. (
  • EVs are submicron particles composed of a lipid bilayer, proteins, and nucleic acids released by cells in a regulated fashion. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (
  • These proteins have a pivotal role in the body's immune response to foreign material. (
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (
  • 70 substrates including membrane, cytoskeletal, cytoplasmic, nuclear, and even mitochondrial proteins ( 3 ). (
  • In the years since, immune proteins from survivors have been administered to infected individuals in an attempt to combat diseases like Lassa fever, SARS, and even Ebola. (
  • It's hard, however, to find survivors who can donate plasma containing these lifesaving immune proteins. (
  • The scientists then extracted the immune proteins and used them to treat hamsters that had been lethally infected with hantavirus. (
  • Mutations are a prerequisite for tumor development, often found in cell signaling proteins as a result of deletions/point mutations in gene-coding regions or in promoter-enhancer sequences, DNA insertions, copy-number variations, and chromosomal translocations. (
  • EVs entrap lipids, proteins and nucleic acids which can mediate varied functions while their membrane composition allows them to selectively deliver their content into particular surrounding and distal target tissues [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (
  • Researchers commonly apply this detergent in studies that involve membrane proteins and isolation of mitochondria. (
  • The process involves a two-step approach that expresses fluorescent-protein fusion proteins and permeabilization of plasma membranes, which require digitonin preparations. (
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (
  • Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. (
  • The early proteins Tat, Rev, and Nef may be better CD8 + T cell targets than the late-expressed structural proteins Gag, Pol, and Env. (
  • Ideally, such a CD8 + T cell vaccine would induce responses against conserved proteins expressed early during the replication cycle of the virus. (
  • Therefore, it has been suggested that CD8 + T cells which recognize epitopes derived from the early proteins Tat, Rev, and Nef might be more effective than CD8 + T cells directed against epitopes located in the late structural proteins Gag, Pol, and Env ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (
  • This could diminish the effectiveness of CD8 + T cells directed against proteins expressed later in the viral replication cycle. (
  • Michelle Peckham (University of Leeds, UK) introduced affimer technology: artificial non-antibody binding proteins that can be selected against a range of protein targets. (
  • The team will develop an attenuated virus to test whether over-expression of viral envelope proteins within cells can confer resistance to further HIV infection. (
  • T cell epitopes are peptide fragments of pathogenic, other foreign or self- proteins. (
  • These proteins are taken up and processed by a cell, and then are bound into the cleft of a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule and presented on the outer surface membrane. (
  • Large proteins can be broken down by specialised enzymes into hundreds of short peptide fragments, but only very few of these fragments will elicit an immune response. (
  • T cell epitope discovery is, however, most needed in those cases where either the information about the proteins involved in a response is lacking or blood samples from responding donors are unavailable. (
  • This is the case for the development of many novel vaccines targeted against complex pathogens, where the proteins involved in potentially generating a beneficial immune response are as yet unknown. (
  • Equally important is the discovery of unwanted immune responses which can occur against new drugs, which are themselves proteins. (
  • In instances where the originating proteins are known, such as in the case of novel drug and existing vaccine candidates, but where patients with known immune responses against such proteins are not, a range of naïve T cell assays and MHC binding assays can be used to define new epitopes with high accuracy. (
  • Swiss researchers have designed a groundbreaking technique that uses artificial receptors to enhance the body's immune response to tumors. (
  • They created artificial receptors, known as extracellular vesicle-internalizing receptors (EVIRs). (
  • In 1991, chimeric receptors containing the intracellular signaling domain of CD3ζ were shown to activate T cell signaling by Arthur Weiss at the University of California, San Francisco. (
  • Leukotriene B4 (LTB4R and LTB4R2) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2) contribute to malignant cell transformation. (
  • The expression of leukotriene receptors was deregulated in esophageal squamous cell cancer. (
  • Up-regulation of LTB4R and down-regulation of CYSLTR2 gene expression may occur already in normal squamous esophageal epithelium of patients with esophageal cancer suggesting a potential role of these receptors in early steps of esophageal carcinogenesis. (
  • Therefore, the expression pattern of the two leukotriene B4 receptors LTB4R and LTB4R2 and the two receptors for cysteinyl leukotrienes (CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2) was studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a prospective study cohort of patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer. (
  • Activation of NK cells, in part, depend on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and HLA class I ligand interactions. (
  • The duration of the activation signal is related to the spatial organization of the T cell receptors rather than cluster size. (
  • These double positive cells express receptors for both the CD4 signal and the CD8 signal. (
  • These double positive T-cells go through further processing, via positive selection, to express either CD4 receptors or CD8 receptors. (
  • Killer T-cells, which actively seek out infected cells, require binding to an epitope on an expressed antigen, as well as costimulation via other receptors on the APC. (
  • These epitopes are sequences of amino acids on an antigen recognized by T-cell or B-cell receptors. (
  • T cells may recognize these complexes using their T cell receptors (TCRs). (
  • B7-H1/PD-L1 and B7h/B7RP-1 bind the PD-1 and inducible costimulator (ICOS) receptors, respectively, both of which are induced upon T cell activation ( 18 )( 21 ). (
  • The tumblers of life continue to click as Cornell University researchers have fabricated a set of "nano-keys" on the molecular scale to interact with receptors on cell membranes and trigger larger-scale responses within cells -- such as the release of histamines in an allergic response. (
  • In her presentation, "Design and Fabrication of Stimuli to Reveal Spatial Regulation of Cellular Signaling," she explained, "We want to understand how the receptors on cell surfaces mediate cellular responses, how cells work on a molecular level. (
  • To study how receptors on cell membranes jump-start cellular responses, Baird and her colleagues chose to work with mast cells. (
  • Typically, two or more receptors cluster together when they bind with an antigen (allergen or foreign body), and this causes transmembrane activation of enzymes within the cell that eventually lead to the release of histamines. (
  • there are 25,400 microns in an inch), are arranged in patterns that contain antigens and cause IgE-receptors to cluster when the cells attach to the surface. (
  • Therefore, the lentivector tropism is first determined by specific binding to cell surface receptors. (
  • Indeed, the success of sorafenib in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma ( 10 ) is primarily attributed to inhibition of angiogenesis by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors ( 11 ). (
  • In this study, we report that murine CMV drastically reduces the expression of several SLAM family receptors at the cell surface of infected macrophages, most likely as part of its immunoevasion mechanisms. (
  • Likewise, the virus counteracts NK cell triggering, primarily by suppressing the expression of ligands for activating receptors while preserving engaged inhibitory receptors [7] - [9] . (
  • Engagement of these receptors is typically associated with proliferation, elevated effector functions, resistance to apoptosis, and differentiation into memory cells. (
  • Combinations with other immunomodulatory mAb that block T-cell checkpoint blockade receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are also promising. (
  • However, it should be noted that many molecular players are acting in a structured and concerted fashion at the synapse including receptors, signaling adaptors, cytoskeletal components, and the distribution of lipids in the interacting plasma membranes ( 2 ). (
  • This mechanism can control the extent of T cell activation by eliminating a portion of newly dividing, Ag-reactive lymphocytes ( 2 , 3 ) and is mediated through the engagement of receptors for Fas and TNF ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • Each antigen, by binding to specific receptors, selectively activates a tiny fraction of cells from the bodys diverse pool of lymphocytes this relatively small number of selected cells gives rise to clones of thousands of cells, all specific for and dedicated to eliminating the antigen. (
  • The company's technology can identify and select T cell receptors (TCRs) that are more likely to improve the patient's immune response and result in the effective binding of cancer cells. (
  • Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME) and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation, and/or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. (
  • Manipulating effector or regulatory CD4 + T cells responses is a promising immunotherapy strategy for, respectively, chronical viral infections and cancer, or severe autoimmune diseases and transplantation. (
  • Finally, we discuss the potential interest of these AAPCs, both as fundamental tools to decipher CD4 + T cell responses and as reagents to generate clinical grade antigen-specific CD4 + T cells for immunotherapy. (
  • Functionally distinct CD4 + T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms or transformed cells ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Since a long time, it has been known that CD4 + T cells have a crucial role to support CD8 and B cell responses. (
  • Natural Killer (NK) cells are important in early innate immune responses to viral infections. (
  • To study factors involved in NK cell dysfunction in overactive immune responses to H1N1 infection, KIR3DL1/S1 and KIR2DL2/L3 allotypes and cognate HLA ligands of H1N1/09 intensive-care unit (ICU) patients were determined. (
  • Early studies evaluating NK cell cytolytic responses to primary HIV-infected cells failed to show significant killing of the infected cells 1,2 . (
  • Autoimmune diseases are characterized as abnormal immune responses in which the immune system confuses native cells for pathogens. (
  • 1] Biomaterials that trigger specific immune responses can be used to recruit the body's own defense system to fight diseases such as cancer [2]. (
  • Manipulating these two-signal pathways is key to modulating immune response (3) There are three main characteristics of biomaterials to consider when attempting to engineer immune responses: Epitope content, size, and multivalency. (
  • 2] Adaptive immune responses are controlled by the presence of antigen binding sites or epitopes. (
  • 3] It is also possible to take advantage of these epitopes to elicit desired immune responses. (
  • They are considered to be important for limiting antitumor immune responses and promoting immunologic ignorance (peripheral tolerance) of cancer cells. (
  • In a study of ovarian cancer patients, Tregs that were isolated from the tumor site, ascites, or peripheral blood were equally able to suppress tumor-antigen-specific immune responses, suggesting that Tregs contribute to the promotion of ovarian cancer, likely due to their enhanced recruitment or local expansion rather than an enhanced suppressive capacity acquired in the tumor microenvironment ( 6 ). (
  • Antigen presentation allows for specificity of adaptive immunity and can contribute to immune responses against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (
  • As such, they are critical regulators of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses. (
  • These properties of B7-DC may account for some of the unique activity of DCs, such as their ability to initiate potent T helper cell type 1 responses. (
  • Among the different types of APCs, dendritic cells (DCs) are the central initiator of antigen-specific T cell responses. (
  • T cell-dependent immune responses initiated by DCs depend on their expression of specific costimulatory signals. (
  • However, nanotechnology now gives researchers new tools to understand the role of cell membranes in activating responses within cells. (
  • One day, Baird said, scientists might use these insights to develop new drug therapies for allergies and other immune responses, high cholesterol and perhaps viral infections. (
  • However, transgene expression in certain cell types is sometimes not desirable, either because of toxicity, cell transformation, or induction of transgene-specific immune responses. (
  • These actions can be further amplified by specific adaptive immune responses adapted to the activating stimulus. (
  • A good understanding of the mechanisms by which innate immune cell-derived EVs influence adaptive immune responses, or vice versa, may reveal novel insights in the regulation of the immune system and can open up new possibilities for EVs (or their components) in controlling immune responses, either as a therapy, target, or as an adjuvant in future immune modulating treatments. (
  • These accumulating new insights indicate that in contrast with the conventional idea that innate immune cells only participate in immune responses as terminal effector cells, they also significantly contribute to the initiation and shaping of adaptive immune responses. (
  • By contrast, photoallergic reactions are cell-mediated immune responses to a light-activated compound. (
  • Because T-cell activation is tightly regulated by a multitude of kinases, we scrutinized effects of sorafenib on immune responses. (
  • Notably, even established tumor-specific immune responses are influenced by sorafenib. (
  • Indeed, ELISPOT data of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from melanoma patients vaccinated against survivin show markedly diminished survivin-specific immune responses in the presence of sorafenib. (
  • The homeostatic equilibrium achieved between host immune responses and viral immune escape mechanisms empowers these viruses to successfully establish their characteristic lifelong infections. (
  • The generation of an efficient host-elicited immune response against CMV includes the induction of natural killer (NK) cells, antibody and T-cell mediated responses [3] . (
  • They can also deliver contents to the endosome, which is important for generating humoral immune responses. (
  • By delivering antigen by both the cytosolic and endosomal pathways, these vaccines allow immune responses to be tuned. (
  • The emerge of personalized medicine demands high-quality human biospecimens with appropriate clinical annotation, especially in complex diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic alterations in which specimen heterogeneity and individual responses often complicate the development of precision therapeutic programs. (
  • Indeed, T-cell responses elicited to tumor antigens by means of immunogenic tumor cell death are amplified by these immunostimulatory agonist mAbs. (
  • It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. (
  • These observations could account for the apparent absence of Ag-specific immune responses after some current vaccination regimens employing powerful immunogens. (
  • Finally, our results may shed new light on a mechanism for the suppression of CD8 + T cell responses and its effect on vaccine efficacy and on immune memory. (
  • The deactivation of immune responses is conducted, in part, by suppressive and regulatory circuits that result in apoptosis of lymphocytes ( 1 ). (
  • In experimental animal models, NS cells have been reported to suppress the generation of CTL independently of Ag and MHC restriction and may play a role in the inhibition of B cells and Th cells, as measured by allo- and Ag-specific proliferative responses ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (
  • NS cells have been reported to be responsible for the suppression of immune responses associated with cancer as well as infectious diseases like Trypanosoma and Salmonella ( 11 , 16 , 17 ). (
  • We found that immunization strategies that have been optimized for their ability to elicit cytotoxicity elicit the weakest secondary immune responses upon early restimulation. (
  • These results suggest that HIV vaccines should focus CD8 + T cell responses on Gag. (
  • Therefore, research efforts have focused recently on developing vaccine strategies that elicit effective CD8 + T cell responses ( 4 ). (
  • For example, one could investigate the condition-specific responses of specific immune cell subsets across cells measured from patients within each condition, however, it is not clear which statistical framework best handles this situation. (
  • Understanding T cell responses at the individual peptide sequence level, or the 'molecular signatures' involved, can be very useful in directing the function of the immune system. (
  • Cancer is a further area where T cell responses are implicated, not only having a crucial effect in disease prevention but also being instrumental in resolving the disease in patients undergoing conventional cancer therapies. (
  • often oncogenes and resulting cancer markers remain uncharacterised and many cancers have evolved to proactively prevent effective immune responses against them (2). (
  • The varied cellular responses to RA treatment may provide an explanation for the failure of RA to reach its full potential in treatment and prevention of solid tumors, including breast, lung, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. (
  • The development of effective antitumor immune responses is normally constrained by low-avidity, tumor-specific CTLs that are unable to eradicate the tumor. (
  • Mr Eggermont said: 'Cancer immunotherapy strongly depends on proper activation of immune cells, such as T cells, to find and destroy the tumour cells. (
  • Polyisocyanopeptide nanoworms as artificial antigen-presenting cells: towards efficient cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Radioactive chromium release assay is the gold standard for testing whether an immunotherapy kills cancer cells. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. (
  • Heightened interest in applicability of NK cells for cancer immunotherapy has been evoked by improved methodologies for their purification, molecular and phenotypic characterization. (
  • In vivo and/or in vitro approaches could be harnessed to develop CD4 + T cell-based immunotherapy. (
  • The premise of CAR-T immunotherapy is to modify T cells to recognize cancer cells in order to more effectively target and destroy them. (
  • 1. A subcutaneous dosage form, comprising a container configured for subcutaneous injection, wherein the container comprises an effective amount of a Dengue Virus as an adjuvant to an immunotherapy for treatment of cancer, and wherein the Dengue Virus is present in an amount of 10.sup.3 pfu/ml to 10.sup.8 pfu/ml. (
  • 11. A subcutaneous dosage form, comprising a container configured for subcutaneous injection, wherein the container comprises an effective amount of a Dengue Virus as an adjuvant to an immunotherapy for treatment of cancer, and wherein the Dengue Virus is DENV-2 strain #1710. (
  • Not yet in in use with other immunotherapy drugs researchers are looking at ways to harness the actions of natural killer cells as they have T cells. (
  • Note: This is just part 2 of my article series on cancer immunotherapy and covers basic immunology concepts that you might need to know to better understand the remaining articles on specific methodologies for cancer immunology. (
  • Only after determined, relentless work by several researchers in the later 20th century did this notion finally begin to unravel, laying the foundation for the use of immunotherapy in cancer treatment. (
  • CD22-targeted CAR T cells induce remission in B-ALL that is naive or resistant to CD19-targeted CAR immunotherapy. (
  • Therefore, in vivo aAPC administration represents a potentially novel approach to improve cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Targeted cancer immunotherapy offers increased efficacy concomitantly with reduced side effects. (
  • Specifically, the Swiss group is interested in improving so-called dendritic cell vaccines . (
  • Dendritic cells - also referred to as antigen-presenting cells - are an important part of the immune system. (
  • To create dendritic cell vaccines, dendritic cells are removed from the patient and "force-fed" tumor antigens before being released back into the patient. (
  • Dendritic cell vaccines have already shown promise, but they do have limitations. (
  • One major drawback is that the tumor antigens used to "feed" the dendritic cells are from lab-grown tumors, not the patient's own. (
  • Two images of EVIR-engineered dendritic cells (green) capturing tumor antigens in exosomes (gold/red). (
  • Dendritic cells are extracted from a patient and EVIRs are inserted into them. (
  • When the dendritic cells are returned to the patient's body, they are primed to recognize types of small vesicle called exosomes . (
  • EVIRs trap exosomes traveling through the body, giving dendritic cells the exact blueprint of the resident tumor. (
  • The dendritic cells can then inform the killer T cells and boost the patient's immune response to the cancer. (
  • Using imaging techniques, the team demonstrated that EVIRs enhanced transfer of tumor antigens from the exosome to the outer membrane of the dendritic cell. (
  • We call this phenomenon cross-dressing, which alludes to the fact that the dendritic cells acquire immunogenic antigens from the tumor and directly display them on their own surface. (
  • This is a fascinating and unconventional route for antigen presentation to T cells, which does not require complex and rate-limiting molecular interactions inside the dendritic cell. (
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • The APC involved in activating T cells is usually a dendritic cell. (
  • The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation and are necessary for activation of naive T cells. (
  • Dendritic cells also play a role in peripheral tolerance, which contributes to prevention of auto-immune disease. (
  • These immature dendritic cells are ineffective at presenting antigen to T helper cells. (
  • The dendritic cell is then a fully mature professional APC. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), unique antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with potent T cell stimulatory capacity, direct the activation and differentiation of T cells by providing costimulatory signals. (
  • However, this also leads to transgene expression in professional antigen presenting cells such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). (
  • Described herein are compositions and methods for treating cancer through the combination of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells and Dengue Virus. (
  • The mechanisms of action depend on a complex interplay of CTL, T-helper cells, regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, and vascular endothelium in tumors. (
  • for gene therapy of dendritic cells inducing immunoresponse. (
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center in Philadelphia report in the current issue of the Journal of Immunology (vol 159, p 3823) that by adding calcium and chemicals called cytokines to monocytes-white blood cells which are plentiful in the body-they can turn them into rare dendritic cells. (
  • The team hopes that by taking monocytes from cancer patients and transforming them into dendritic cells, then exposing them to tumour cell antigens, the resulting activated cells can be given back to the patients as a vaccine. (
  • A tissue-like platform for studying engineered quiescent human T-cells' interactions with dendritic cells. (
  • In this thesis, dendritic cells were additionally introduced to this model mimicking an important component of the immune system. (
  • Dendritic cells were shown to phagocytose the particles after they have passed the intestinal barrier. (
  • SQZ Biotech and Roche are expanding their collaboration to jointly develop and market cancer treatments based on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • T-cells and B-cells encounter antigens via Antigen Presenting Cells or APCs in the lymph nodes. (
  • B-cells, which control long term immunity are activated by binding to APCs and additional signaling from helper T-cells. (
  • Antigen stimulation or CD3/CD28 polyclonal stimulation of membrane cholesterol-enriched, resting CD4 T-cells followed a path of Th1 differentiation, which was more vigorous in the presence of increased IL-12 secretion by APCs enriched in membrane cholesterol. (
  • APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (
  • Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. (
  • however, the term "antigen-presenting cell" is often used specifically to describe professional APCs. (
  • Professional APCs specialize in presenting antigens to T cells. (
  • B7.1 and B7.2 are expressed by all bone marrow-derived APCs including B cells, macrophages, and DCs, although at different ratios and with different kinetics. (
  • The surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and other features influence disease progression and spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body. (
  • Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. (
  • The nonimmune cells, the article emphasized, could contribute "to the advancement of synthetic biology by extending available design principles to transmit extracellular information to cells. (
  • The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. (
  • Recent studies have been focusing on the possibility of using natural cell or cell derived vesicles as drug carriers, including the whole cell, extracellular vesicles (EVs) and cell membrane coated particles[ 9 , 16 - 21 ]. (
  • Moreover, the possible contribution of innate immune cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to the modulation of adaptive immunity will be outlined in this review. (
  • Another increasingly investigated and appreciated mechanism via which cells may exert their modulatory effect is through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). (
  • Surprisingly, inhibition of T-cell activation was not associated with reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. (
  • This review is aimed at highlighting the increasing importance of EXOs for the clinic, especially in the cancer field, and at summarizing the initiatives taken to improve current isolation procedures, classification criteria, and storage conditions of EXOs as an effort to identify technological demands that biobank platforms face for the incorporation of EXOs and other extracellular vesicle fractions as valuable biospecimens for research. (
  • Both healthy and unhealthy cells secrete vesicles into the extracellular space. (
  • This study showed that preserved biological extracellular matrix components like collagen and elastin provide a natural environment for the epithelial cells, promoting cell adhesion and growth. (
  • T cells play a crucial role in building a specialised immune response and help adapt the immune response to different challenges, whether they are intracellular bacteria, viruses or cancer or extracellular organisms such as blood-borne bacteria and parasites. (
  • This supports the immunological surveillance hypothesis that postulates that as well as conferring protection from infectious pathogens, the immune system also guards against cancer ( 9 ). (
  • The immune system is the tool by which the body protects itself from pathogens. (
  • Innate immune cells are recognized for their rapid and critical contribution to the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens and harmful agents. (
  • Following the complement cascade, C5b with C6-C9 forms the "membrane attack complex" (MAC), capable of lysing infected cells and pathogens [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • Pathogens have recourse to innumerable tactics for evading host immune surveillance. (
  • However, many pathogens avoid immune recognition by residing within cells. (
  • As part of their natural infection cycle, certain pathogens, including the influenza virus, can escape from endosomes and enter the cell cytoplasm. (
  • Often, these pathogens use pH-dependent molecular switches that destabilize the endosome membrane in response to the acidic environment within the endosome. (
  • In the course of normal immune response, parts of pathogens (e.g. bacteria ) are recognized by the immune system as foreign (non-self), and eliminated or effectively neutralized to reduce their potential damage. (
  • Bromelain component useful as an immunostimulatory adjuvant for treating cancer and pathogens. (
  • Antigens from different pathogens are available as well as tumor associated antigens. (
  • Experts used to firmly believe that there was no way for the immune system to actually recognize cancers since, unlike pathogens like viruses and bacteria, the cancer cells originated in our body, and therefore resembled our own cells. (
  • As discussed in the previous article in this series, the immune system is unbelievably powerful at defending from pathogens and invaders. (
  • LOS ANGELES - A team of scientists at the Keck School of Medicine of USC is looking to some deep sea dwellers to create a better way to develop cancer-fighting therapies. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies offer a unique model to develop T cell-based immune therapies, targeting viral antigens expressed on tumor cells. (
  • From left) Investigators Isabelle Rivière, Michel Sadelain, and Renier Brentjens are collaborating on the development of several cell-based therapies. (
  • We are at a critical time when a number of cell therapies are starting to demonstrate some therapeutic benefits," says Isabelle Rivière , Director of Memorial Sloan Kettering's newly established Cell Therapy and Cell Engineering Facility (CTCEF). (
  • Cell therapies can be created by engineering a patient's own cells or by engineering cells from a donor. (
  • The first CAR-T cell therapies were FDA-approved in 2017, and there are now 5 approved CAR-T therapies. (
  • Clinical trials in the early 2010s using second generation CARs targeting CD19, a protein expressed by normal B cells as well as B cell leukemias and lympohomas, by investigators at the NCI, University of Pennsylvania, and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center demonstrated the clinical efficacy of CAR T cell therapies and resulted in complete remissions in many heavily pre-treated patients. (
  • It is important to understand the ability of NK cells to recognize and lyse HIV-1 infected cells because identifying any aberrancy in NK cell function against HIV-infected cells could potentially lead to therapies that would enhance their cytolytic activity. (
  • Further, we highlight several current therapies aimed at eliminating Tregs in cancer patients. (
  • Given the multifaceted role of Tregs in cancer, a greater understanding of their functions will ultimately strengthen future therapies. (
  • Cell-based anticancer therapies may include synthetic T cells, nonimmune cells equipped with signal-transduction devices that sense targets and trigger release of prodrug activators. (
  • Although T cells are being engineered to combat tumors more effectively, their deployment in immune-cell therapies can have significant side-effects. (
  • Human nonimmune cells modified to incorporate custom cell-contact-sensing output devices, however, could extend the applicability of cell-based cancer therapies. (
  • A susceptible cell culture system and animal models are important to improve knowledge of viral liver pathogenesis and promising therapies. (
  • In very rare instances, some previous antibody therapies have actually helped viruses reproduce in cells by serving as a bridge to host cells. (
  • Cancer genomics and early diagnostics are increasingly playing a key role in developing more precise targeted therapies for most human tumors. (
  • Preclinical evidence suggests that engaging TNFR members would be particularly active with conventional cancer therapies and additional immunotherapeutic approaches. (
  • Students learn advanced concepts in stem cell medicine for careers in the pharmacology industry and stem cell clinics offering patient stem cell therapies. (
  • In this article, I'll discuss CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 system, two well-studied suppressive pathways involved in such immunosuppressive mechanisms that have been successfully targeted in cancer immune blockade therapies with multiple FDA-approved medications. (
  • With the success of CAR T-cell therapies and other innovative medicines in this area, immuno-oncology has become a buzzword in biotech, with more and more companies starting up in Europe and elsewhere. (
  • Founded in Abingdon, UK, in 2008, Adaptimmune develops enhanced T-cell therapies that support the immune system in detecting and targeting cancer cells. (
  • Scientists have discovered that a type of immune cell that normally helps fight infection may actually assist lung tumors. (
  • important in a number of processes, such as coagulation, cell signaling, and waste management, they are produced by tumors in large amounts. (
  • However, with the possible exception of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes therapy for melanoma, clinical trials of adoptive T-cell therapy for solid tumors have so far provided only clear proofs-of-principle to build on with further development. (
  • Among the factors that so far limited a wider use of T cell therapy for human tumors may be the very low frequency of tumor-specific lymphocytes circulating in patients with cancer, or the limited ability to induce T cell lines with protective antitumor activity with current knowledge and available technology. (
  • With the exception of TIL therapy in melanoma, the only other human solid cancer setting in which tumor-specific T cells have been employed with success is virus-related tumors. (
  • Scientists harvest T cells from people, genetically alter them, then infuse the resulting CAR-T cells into patients to attack their tumors. (
  • Once isolated from a person, these T cells are genetically engineered to express a specific CAR, which programs them to target an antigen that is present on the surface of tumors. (
  • Similar early clinical trials of CAR T cells in solid tumors in the 1990s using first generation CARs targeting a solid tumor antigens such as MUC1 did not show long term persistence of the transferred T cells or result in significant remissions. (
  • The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. (
  • T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are found infiltrating tumors in a vast array of tumor types, and tumor-infiltrating Tregs are often associated with a poor clinical outcome. (
  • Many of the immune suppressive regulatory circuits that operate in tumors are part of the physiologic regulatory mechanisms used by the immune system to maintain homeostasis to prevent autoimmunity and temper inflammation after infection or injury ( 1 ). (
  • Recently, we expanded on the roles of Tregs beyond immune suppression in tumors and showed that Tregs are directly involved in promoting angiogenic reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment ( 3 ), highlighting a multifaceted role for Tregs in promoting cancer through tumor immune escape and angiogenesis. (
  • Increased numbers of Tregs in tumors have been associated with poor survival in many solid tumors, including breast cancer ( 7 ), gastric cancer ( 8 ), and ovarian cancer ( 6 , 9 ). (
  • Breast cancer is remarkable among human malignancies in the incidence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a minority of tumors that suggest an ongoing humoral immune response. (
  • (4) specifically examined the role of PCs in 192 cases of patients with MC in comparison with those with NOS and showed a correlation of increased PC infiltration with better survival in MC and NOS tumors alike, prompting the oft-stated impression that these tumors may be regulated by a host immune response. (
  • Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. (
  • In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. (
  • CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. (
  • However, due to the selective pressure exerted on the tumors by the immune system, immune tumor editing , which is essentially the evolution of stronger and more resistant cancer cells as a result of a fight with the immune system, sometimes gives rise to cancer cells that take advantage of these immunosuppressive mechanisms for their survival. (
  • Cancer immune checkpoint blockade therapy, then, is the term to describe the oncotherapy that interferes with the expression of these suppressive mechanisms in patients suffering from cancer to essentially release the "off-switch" preventing activated T-cells from attacking tumors. (
  • Using the advanced tools that genomics provides, and the ability to engineer T cells with gene vectors, our lab works to unravel the defense mechanisms that tumors employ to avoid detection and elimination, and to engineer T cells to recognize and destroy malignant cells, with a special emphasis on solid tumors like rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma. (
  • Interestingly, its SPEAR T cell technology can target a variety of solid tumors - a feat that is not easy to achieve, as solid tumors have a highly complex tumor microenvironment that many immunotherapies find difficult to penetrate. (
  • By staining with a fluorochrome conjugated antibody against CD107a, a lysosomal membrane protein that becomes expressed on the NK cell surface when the cytolytic granules fuse to the plasma membrane, we can determine what percentage of NK cells degranulate in response to target cell recognition. (
  • This device employs an interleukin signaling cascade, whose OFF/ON switching is controlled by biophysical segregation of a transmembrane signal-inhibitory protein from the sensor cell-target cell interface," wrote the authors of the Nature Chemical Biology article. (
  • Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend m. (
  • The Carnegie Mellon scientists used X-rays to study how HIV fusion peptide (part of a larger protein) affected the energy of manufactured lipid bilayers made to mimic normal cell membranes. (
  • Another protein gp41 then enables HIV to penetrate a T-cell membrane. (
  • A protein that works with another protein, e.g., in helping it to fold into its normal shape or become anchored into its preferred location in a cell membrane. (
  • This cell or cell membrane-based DDS can be produced in a simple way with minimum membrane protein loss. (
  • The cells in our body act in a similar manner: In the fight against parasites, viruses and even cancer, a molecular machine called the MHC-I peptide-loading complex selects protein fragments important for the immune system. (
  • In cells, status updates in the form of small protein fragments carry information from the cell's interior. (
  • The results of the study show how the MHC-I peptide-loading complex filters out only those protein fragments that are recognized by immune cells. (
  • The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity by providing T-cell epitopes via MHC Class II presentation to T-helper cells. (
  • In conclusion, our data show that T-cell function is sensitive toward the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent fashion. (
  • Where examined, IgG1 was the predominant isotype, consistent with a T-dependent ( i.e. , protein) antigen. (
  • Moreover, this viral protein contributes to increased MCMV growth during acute infection in the mouse by protecting against NK cell mediated surveillance. (
  • Another conserved flu protein that is strongly expressed in virus-infected cells is a nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). (
  • Loss of PTEN correlated with increased S6 kinase activity and phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 protein, providing evidence for activation of the FRAP/mTOR pathway in these cells. (
  • Lipid rafts affect membrane fluidity and protein management, which regulates neurotransmission. (
  • Scientists require a consistently reliable method in cell localization and topology research to optimize protein function. (
  • A foreign molecule (which may be protein or glycoprotein) that can provoke an immune response. (
  • In this study, we show that Gag-specific CD8 + T cells recognize infected CD4 + T lymphocytes as early as 2 h postinfection, before proviral DNA integration, viral protein synthesis, and Nef-mediated MHC class I down-regulation. (
  • Cells of the epidermis that produce a tough protein called keratin and form a soft, protective sheet for the body. (
  • Finding which portions of a protein or whole pathogen contribute to a T cell immune response is an active area of research. (
  • Where such information and samples are on hand, a method that is conceptually simple (but laborious nevertheless) is to synthesise each possible peptide fragment generated from the protein of interest and use a functional assay such as ELISPOT (3) to test available blood samples for a memory immune response. (
  • Protein-carbohydrate interactions are central to many biological processes (e.g. cell-cell interaction, cellular signaling and differentiation, immune response) that are at the core of important diseases. (
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (
  • CD4 + T cells differentiate into various T helper subsets characterized by distinct cytokine secreting profiles that confer them effector functions adapted to a variety of infectious or endogenous threats. (
  • Each type of CD4 + T helper (Th) cells is endowed with a specific cytokine profile that regulates adaptive and innate immunity. (
  • The CD4+ T-cells are known as helper T-cells, and CD8+T-cells are known as killer T-cells. (
  • These epitopes are recognized by CD4+ helper T-cells. (
  • Herein, we investigated whether enrichment of membrane cholesterol in lipid rafts affects antigen-specific CD4 T-helper cell functions. (
  • Enrichment of membrane cholesterol by 40-50% following squalene administration in mice was paralleled by an increased number of resting CD4 T helper cells in periphery. (
  • DCs present antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Activation of the T helper cells by antigen-presenting cells . (
  • T helper cells in the blood of patients with multiple sclerosis infiltrate the central nervous system, causing inflammation and neural damage. (
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (
  • Synchrotron InfraRed Nanospectroscopy has been used for the first time to measure biomolecular changes induced by a drug (amiodarone) within human cells (macrophages) and localized at 100 nanometre scale, i.e. two orders of magnitude smaller than the IR wavelength used as probe. (
  • Macrophages can be stimulated by T cell secretion of interferon. (
  • 100 times more potent than macrophages in activating naive T cell in vitro ( 1 )( 2 ). (
  • However, it is now more and more recognized that both at inflammatory sites and in secondary lymphoid structures, DCs can interact with innate immune cells (i.e., mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, and natural killer (NK) cells) resulting in the modulation of DC migration and function. (
  • Looking at the roles of alternative effector cells such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and iNKT (invariant NKT) cells. (
  • Specific or nonspecific recognition of the pathogen (because of its antigens) with its subsequent engulfing by B cells or macrophages . (
  • Innate cell engagers can bind to the patients' innate immune cells, including natural killer cells and macrophages, while simultaneously binding to specific tumor cells. (
  • A novel artificial structure has been developed with the ability to cause immune cells to attack and destroy designated targets such as cancer cells, it has been announced. (
  • To fight these infections, the immune system generates specialized cells, known as cytotoxic T-cells , which recognize and eliminate infected cells. (
  • To generate cytotoxic T cells, the nanomaterial must escape from the endosome and deliver the antigen into the cell cytoplasm. (
  • Supramolecular attack particles are autonomous killing entities released from cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Intracellular antigens are digested into short peptide fragments by proteasomes, before being attached to the MHC-I complex of an APC. (
  • Cells can source cholesterol from intracellular synthesis and from plasma lipoproteins, both sources are sufficient to fully satisfy cells' requirements for cholesterol. (
  • Step 2: incubation of cells in serum-free medium to equilibrate labelled cholesterol among all intracellular cholesterol pools. (
  • Therefore, gene condensation/protection and guided intracellular trafficking are necessary for exogenous nucleic acids to function inside cells. (
  • Permeabilization serves various purposes, specifically in the detection of intracellular antigens. (
  • Effective staining of intracellular antigens enables researchers to detect and understand pathogenic pathways. (
  • Specifically, this detergent permeabilizes plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells by forming complexes with cholesterol and other similarly unconjugated β-hydroxysterols. (
  • Organisms have antigens on their plasma membranes. (
  • This is reinforced by findings of decreased NK-cell activity among relatives of patients diagnosed with familial melanoma ( 11 ), implicating NK cells in tumor surveillance. (
  • An increased number of Tregs has been shown in a multitude of cancers, including melanoma and ovarian, breast, colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers [see Zou ( 5 ) and references therein]. (
  • In this regard, the Cancer Genome Project revealed BRAF to be affected by activating mutations in several cancers in general and in melanoma in particular ( 2 ). (
  • 6. The subcutaneous dosage form of claim 4, wherein the solid cancer is lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma or prostate cancer. (
  • The checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressed in immune cells were successfully targeted for immunotherapies: in metastatic melanoma patients the anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab significantly extended the median OS to 10.1 m, in phase III, compared to 6.4 m for the control group, enabling an unprecedented durable tumor regression of 46,6% at 1 y. and 23,5% at 2 y. [ 8 ]. (
  • In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. (
  • CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone. (
  • Clinical and immunologic evaluation of three metastatic melanoma patients treated with autologous melanoma-reactive TCR-transduced T cells. (
  • This progress is a result of a deeper understanding emerging from 40 years of scrutiny of their roles in anti-cancer immunity. (
  • Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the functions of CD4 + T cells in immunity and in immune tolerance, and their use for ACT. (
  • Due to their multiple functions in immunity and immune tolerance, targeting CD4 + T cells has important clinical applications to treat cancer and chronic viral diseases, or to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases and allograft. (
  • Adaptive immunity is governed by the response of immune cells (T-cells and B-cells) to specific antigens. (
  • Tregs are potent immunosuppressive cells of the immune system that promote progression of cancer through their ability to limit antitumor immunity and promote angiogenesis. (
  • In the case of HIV, a molecule called gp120 initially helps the virus lock onto its host T cell, a cell critical for maintaining immunity. (
  • Mechanisms that are involved in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity obviously include cell-cell contacts and the release of a diverse array of soluble factors, including cytokines and chemokines. (
  • The complement system plays an important role in innate immunity inducing liver diseases as well as signaling immune cell activation in local inflammation regulating immunomodulatory effects such as liver damage and/or liver regeneration. (
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) Reporting in the journal ACS Nano ( 'pH-Responsive Nanoparticle Vaccines for Dual-Delivery of Antigens and Immunostimulatory Oligonucleotides' ), researchers have developed nanoscale polymer micelles that elicit both humoral and cellular immunity. (
  • Yet, while many nanoscale vaccines promote humoral immunity, few can prime the immune system to search for and destroy infected cells directly. (
  • Nanoparticle vaccines based on pH-responsive polymers deliver antigen to the cytoplasm to enhance cellular immunity. (
  • Immunity that is acquired by activation of immune system. (
  • In this article, we discuss the current knowledge on how NK cells recognize and kill cancer cells while sparing the normal healthy cells, how the cancer and its associated cells exploit this biology. (
  • The engineered cells recognize and kill cancerous cells while reactivating other immune players that have been dampened by cancer's inhibitory signals. (
  • T cells cannot recognize (and therefore cannot respond to) "free" or soluble antigens. (
  • This enables the immune system to recognize degenerate or infected cells and eliminate them. (
  • The T cell will recognize a region of the histocompatibility complex as a host structure, and no immune reaction will be initiated towards the cell. (
  • For optimal effectiveness, vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells should recognize infected cells early enough to prevent the release of progeny virus. (
  • Based in London, UK, and founded in 2014 as a spin-out from the University College London, Autolus Therapeutics uses CARs and TCRs to reprogram T cells so they recognize and consequently kill tumor cells. (
  • Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. (
  • T-cells are lymphocytes which originate in the thymus. (
  • Breast carcinomas and metastatic adenocarcinoma have also been found to be associated with LP. The skin at graft sites is seen to be infiltrated with lymphocytes leading to typical basal cell vacuolar degeneration and disruption of the basement membrane underlying the epithelium. (
  • Lichen planus is an autoimmune disease supposed to be mediated by cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against the basal cells of the oral mucosal epithelium. (
  • lated cells have a distinctive surface phenotype reminiscent of CD3- natural killer cells/large granular lymphocytes (NK cells/LGLs) (Refs 3-5, Fig. i and Table 1). (
  • Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are defined as nonad-herent mononuclear cells with cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. (
  • Some of these are T supressor lymphocytes (Cd3+ Cd8+) while others are NK cells (Cd3 - CD8+). (
  • Dec 15, 2010 · Disorders of large granular lymphocytes, whether of C3 + T‐cell or CD3 − NK cell origin, can be divided into two groups based on clinical presentation. (
  • The last of these antigens has a molecular weight of 220,135 and is found on a subpopulation of large granular lymphocytes in peripheral blood and on cells with natural-killer activity. (
  • Mechanisms for the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes include "propriocidal cell death" and "clonal exhaustion. (
  • Indeed, when the frequency of circulating T cells against the target antigen on a tumour is high, as is the case for viral antigens, T cell therapy can be very effective in destroying large tumours in humans. (
  • carcinoma A malignant tumour derived from epithelial tissue, which forms the skin and the outer cell layers of internal organs. (
  • Furthermore, I will quantitatively investigate how mutations and the cell of origin act in concert to determine the functional characteristics of the pre-malignant clone that ultimately develops into an invasive intestinal tumour. (
  • This will provide critical and quantitative information on the relevance of the cancer stem cell concept in CRC and on the degree of inter-tumour variation with respect to the frequency and functional features of stem-like cells within individual CRCs and molecular subtypes of the disease. (
  • I am convinced that a better and quantitative understanding of the dynamical properties of stem cells during tumour development and within established CRCs will be pivotal for an improved classification, prevention and treatment of CRC. (
  • Promising implementations are underway, including harnessing the therapeutic potential of CTLs specific for subdominant EBV latent cycle epitopes, and delineating strategies aimed at targeting immune evasion mechanisms exerted by tumor cells. (
  • T-cell epitope prediction is generally more accurate because the T-cell epitopes are generally shorter, only 8-10 amino acids in length. (
  • The B-cell epitopes can be anywhere between 9 and 40 amino acids in length. (
  • Moreover, these B-cell epitopes can be discontinuous sequences so there is a need to be able to predict the 3-D structure of a folded amino acid sequence. (
  • The ability to predict the occurrence of these epitopes is key to preventing unwanted immune response to biomaterial implants. (
  • It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes , by multiple clones of B cell . (
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (
  • Additionally, the number of Gag epitopes recognized by CD8 + T cells was significantly associated with lower viremia ( p = 0.0017) in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. (
  • To address these possibilities, we assessed how soon after infection CD8 + T cells recognized epitopes derived from Tat, Gag, and Env on the surface of infected CD4 + T cells. (
  • One of the most fundamental parts of the human immune response is that of recognition of epitopes by T cells. (
  • Identifying the epitopes which create a response is vital for research into the functioning of the immune system, and critical in drug and vaccine development. (
  • There are several methods for identifying peptide fragments (or epitopes) recognised by T cells in an immune response. (
  • The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting cell. (
  • This molecule complex constitutes a molecular 'warhead' that penetrates the membrane of the target cell. (
  • This artificial molecule is able to inhibit the activity of several DNA-bindin. (
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (
  • We have identified a murine CMV gene product (m154) that downregulates CD48, a SLAM family member that functions as a ligand of CD244, a molecule involved in the regulation of natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T cell functions. (
  • It is well established that the key to T cell activation is the molecular signal coming off antigen-presenting cell surfaces. (
  • One of the components of synthetic T cells entails molecular antennae protruding well outside the membrane. (
  • The antennae's anchorage deep within the cell therefore loses contact with a molecular switch that it had previously blocked. (
  • Scientists have been tweaking cells at the molecular scale for decades. (
  • In November 2003 she and her team produced a molecular condensate in which the paired fermions were chemically bound--an important landmark en route to the accomplishment but still short of the goal. (
  • On the therapeutic side, practical consequences for treatment, derived from a better understanding of the molecular basis of cancer cell growth, are now emerging. (
  • This symposium will review what is known about the cell and molecular biology of fibrosis and reparative healing, discuss current model systems, and consider the challenges and opportunities for future innovation. (
  • The flow of materials through nanopores can also be externally regulated.18 The first artificial voltage-gated molecular nanosieve was fabricated by Martin and colleagues19 in 1995.Martin?s membrane contains an array of cylindrical gold nanotubules with inside diameters as small as 1.6 nanometers. (
  • To study this concept I will generate cell of origin- and mutation-specific molecular profiles of oncogenic clones and relate those to human CRC samples. (
  • Molecular recognition of gangliosides and their potential for cancer immunotherapies. (
  • Cancer is a generic group of over 100 diseases unified by fundamental characteristics acquired during their clonal evolution ( 1 ), including tumor-promoting inflammation and escape from immune surveillance ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Panning of phage Fab libraries against purified antigens excluded Her2/ neu and p53 as the eliciting antigen, and failure of clonal enrichment by cell panning suggested that the neoantigen was not membrane expressed or was expressed at low levels. (
  • Investigators documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation. (
  • A broad range of clonal behaviors characterized by contribution level and biases towards certain cell types were extremely stable over time. (
  • From the cellular point of view, given the fact that a single cell can lead to the development of a whole tumor (clonal origin of cancer), it is already late when a breast tumor is detected by mammography. (
  • Unlike previously described mechanisms of "propriocidal cell death" and "clonal exhaustion," the cell death we observed was not an inherent property of the CD8 + T cells but rather was due to a population of splenocytes that stained positive for both the Mac-1 and Gr-1 surface markers. (
  • A phenomenon termed "clonal exhaustion" is due to the apoptotic death of T cells after restimulation through their TCR, resulting in a chronic virus carrier state in which there is a complete absence of memory T cells ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (
  • Central tolerance operates on T-cells during their development in the thymus via negative clonal selection (killing off self-reactive T-cells). (
  • In other cases, some self-reactive T-cells might be able to evade the negative clonal selection mechanisms. (
  • However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells, and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. (
  • Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. (
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (
  • Tissue specimen from cancer and adjacent non-transformed squamous epithelium were analyzed. (
  • It moves from the tissue to lymph nodes, where it encounters and activates T cells. (
  • Consequently, great effort has been invested in developing strategies to control transgene delivery/expression in a cell/tissue-specific manner. (
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (
  • A protective tissue, consisting of parenchyma cells, that develops over a cut or damaged plant surface. (
  • 3. Actively dividing non-organized masses of undifferentiated and differentiated cells often developing from injury (wounding) or in tissue culture in the presence of growth regulators. (
  • A layer, usually regarded as one or two cells thick, of persistently meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem tissues, and which gives rise to secondary tissues, thus resulting in an increase in diameter. (
  • cancer Uncontrolled growth of the cells of a tissue or an organ in a multicellular organism. (
  • for inhibiting cell and tissue growth and differentiation. (
  • exposing said plasma to cells, tissue or organ in said bioreactor. (
  • 6. A method of claim 1 or 2 including transplanting the treated cells, tissue or organ into the patient or donor. (
  • 8. A method of claim 1 or 2 comprising exposing a patient's own cells, tissue or organ to autologous plasma in said bioreactor. (
  • Furthermore, to mimic the complex structure and physiology of the gut including the presence of multiple different cell types, the Caco-2 cell line was replaced by primary intestinal cells to set up a de novo tissue model. (
  • To that end, intestinal crypts including undifferentiated stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated from human small intestinal tissue samples (jejunum) and expanded in vitro in organoid cultures. (
  • Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. (
  • A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. (
  • We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. (
  • Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. (
  • Looking at oscillations in gene expression, he observed that single cells isolated in vitro slow their oscillations and differentiate, suggesting that the key processes underlying the tissue level 'wave' of gene expression do not depend on long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. (
  • Once they had created T cells with the proper physical properties, the researchers needed to adjust the cells' biological attributes - to give them the same traits that enable natural T cells to be activated to fight infection, penetrate human tissue and release cellular messengers to regulate inflammation. (
  • This signal must be enhanced and sustained long enough for the T cells to commit to mounting an immune response, and then must be cut off in time to avoid antigen-induced cell suicide or "apoptosis" of the T cells. (
  • Cell signaling for T-cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis is initiated in the cholesterol-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. (
  • Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1 . (
  • Although the name BMP describes the ability of BMPs to induce ectopic bone or cartilage formation, it is misleading in that BMPs are critical in development of the viscera and have roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differerntiation, and morphogenesis. (
  • Auto-cytotoxic CD8+ T cells target basal keratinocytes and produce apoptosis via various pathways such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). (
  • Because rapamycin also can induce growth arrest and apoptosis in certain tumor cells ( 9 ), it is under investigation as a potential anticancer drug. (
  • Potentially malignant cells are continuously eliminated by apoptosis and the immune system, but cancers have escaped these mechanisms. (
  • From lab tests, the researchers discovered that these cells can influence both the proliferation and differentiation of T cells. (
  • The CCE is a collaborative partnership between physicians and scientists that brings together researchers who investigate areas that span stem cell and immune cell engineering, cell delivery and stem cell transplantation, directed cell differentiation, gene transfer, and gene repair. (
  • The term cell engineering encompasses several different processes: cell purification (separating one cell type from other types), cell expansion (inducing cells to divide and reproduce in order to create larger quantities), cell differentiation (exposing cells to factors that stimulate them to develop into a more specialized cell type), and gene transfer (inserting new or modified genes into cells to change their behavior). (
  • Finally, a transgene may be toxic in a particular cell lineage but only at certain differentiation stages. (
  • Under hypoxic condition, very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) exhibited stronger survival, proliferation and differentiation than unpurified MSC. (
  • The coating on the device can also contain a compound or growth factor for promoting the progenitor endothelial cell to accelerate adherence, growth and differentiation of the bound cells into mature and functional endothelial cells on the surface of the device to prevent intimal hyperplasia. (
  • Maintenance of primary intestinal stem cells with their proliferation and differentiation potential together with adjusted culture protocols might help further improve the models. (
  • RA and its related analogues (termed retinoids, Figure 1 ) play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Right now, immunotherapies to fight cancer mostly depend on non-specific activation of the immune system. (
  • Although more studies are now needed to see if this system works in animal models, we hope that it might one day lead towards development of new off-the-shelf cancer immunotherapies. (
  • Our immune system is excellent at destroying and removing damaged, faulty, or old cells, but in the case of cancer, it tends to need a little help. (
  • Immunotherapies are designed to stimulate a patient's immune system to fight the cancer within. (
  • In this way, killer T cells are primed to destroy tumor cells, which are normally experts at evading the immune system. (
  • We provide the CAR-T cell therapy system to meet your specific needs. (
  • Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California at Berkeley, combining nanotechnology with biochemistry, have created unique synthetic membranes that, for the first time ever, enable them to directly control signaling activity in living T cells from the immune system. (
  • The process starts when "antigens," special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as "non-self," and signal the cellular warriors of the immune system to kill the invader. (
  • The immune system is comprised of multiple cell types and signaling pathways that allow for both short term response, and long term memory. (
  • This first suggests that membrane cholesterol could be a new therapeutic target to modulate the immune functions, and second that increased membrane cholesterol in various physiopathological conditions may bias the immune system toward an inflammatory Th1 type response. (
  • The impact of single-cell RNA sequencing on understanding the functional organization of the immune system. (
  • Application of single-cell genomics technologies has revolutionized our approach to study the immune system. (
  • Our research group is actively examining the role of glycosylation, especially on mucins in tumor specific behaviors including uncontrolled growth, oncogene activation, invasion, immune system evasion angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. (
  • These findings are significant because viruses and cancer cells interfere with information transfer and are able to outsmart the immune system. (
  • EVs are involved in intercellular communication between multiple cell types, including those of the immune system. (
  • the potential for an immune system response against the engineered cells. (
  • its protective function starts with a cascade of proteases and soluble factors that activates the immune system, stimulating microbial clearance [ 11 ]. (
  • Essentially the different HLA arrangement on cells allows the immune system to develop an inventory of "self" antigens in the body. (
  • Knowing the "self" antigen allows the immune system to rapidly distinguish foreign antigens. (
  • Viruses, and in particular large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses, are endowed with the capacity to encode multiple products committed to altering, during all stages of their life cycle, several functions of the innate and adaptive immune system. (
  • The immune system does not mount a defense against the adjuvant directly. (
  • Instead, the adjuvant helps to prime the immune system to respond to the antigen. (
  • Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals . (
  • For more details on this topic, see Immune system . (
  • The collection of various cells , tissues and organs that specializes in protecting the body against infections is known as the immune system . (
  • for treating immune system disorders. (
  • This co-culture model was then successfully proven to be suitable for the screening of particle formulations developed as delivery system for cancer antigens in peroral vaccination studies. (
  • Mechanical stimulation of the cells by a dynamic culture system had a great impact on barrier integrity and transporter activity resulting in a tighter barrier and a higher efflux transporter activity. (
  • When people consider using natural remedies to boost their immune system, what typically first comes to mind are antioxidant vitamins and minerals. (
  • It works by boosting the immune system, helping the body to battle infections and prevent them from reoccurring. (
  • If you don't have prior exposure or understanding of how the immune system works, check out part 1 in the series where I go over the basics of the human immune system, and then come back to continue reading this article! (
  • As obvious as it may seem today, the concept that the immune system was capable of attacking cancer cells was widely ridiculed for the longest time. (
  • One d i scovery that came from this relentless research was the realization that the problem didn't always lie in the inability of the immune system to detect cancer cells. (
  • In fact, in many patients, the immune system had recognized cancer cells and responded by sending armies of T-cells to attack them. (
  • To ensure these self-reactive T-cells don't harm the body, peripheral tolerance employs a variety of mechanisms to restrain autoreactivity, including the use of regulatory T-cells (discussed in the previous article on the function of the immune system). (
  • Such cells also could eventually be used to boost the immune system of people with cancer or immune deficiencies. (
  • We were able to create a novel class of artificial T cells that are capable of boosting a host's immune system by actively interacting with immune cells through direct contact, activation or releasing inflammatory or regulatory signals," said Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, an assistant project scientist at UCLA Samueli. (
  • T cells play a key role in the immune system. (
  • They also can grow to almost three times their original size, which helps them fight off or overcome the antigens that attack the immune system. (
  • The team fabricated T cells using a microfluidic system. (
  • My passion is to understand how the immune system can be brought to bear on childhood cancer. (
  • After all, enlisting the immune system to fight cancer remains an extremely promising therapeutic strategy. (
  • Yet another direction in the treatment of cancer via the immune system is taken by Heidelberg-based company Affimed Therapeutics. (
  • Founded in 2000, the company focuses on the innate immune system. (
  • The present invention relates to an improved three-dimensional cell culture system in which cells are grown on a three-dimensional matrix while cycling the cultures between metabolically favorable and metabolically unfavorable (but noncytotoxic) conditions. (
  • Cells of the immune system that work in the skin to fight infection. (
  • In those patients who achieve a complete response to conventional therapy, small amounts of surviving cancer cells are mopped up by the immune system, which becomes more effective again when the disease burden is reduced (1). (
  • The dualistic role of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in cancer is revealed in its gene transcription targets, cross-talk with other transcription factors, mediation of apoptotic pathways, and influence in the immune system. (
  • aAPC treatment induced significant tumor reduction in a mouse telomerase antigen system, and complete tumor eradication in a mouse TRP-2 antigen system, when low-avidity CTLs specific for these antigens were adoptively transferred. (
  • A novel type of artificial drug delivery system that blocks cancer cells' ability to expel chemotherapy and thereby acquire drug resistance is published online this week in Nature Biotechnology. (
  • CAR-T cells destroy cells through several mechanisms, including extensive stimulated cell proliferation, increasing the degree to which they are toxic to other living cells (cytotoxicity) and by causing the increased secretion of factors that can affect other cells such as cytokines, interleukins and growth factors. (
  • B7-DC costimulates T cell proliferation more efficiently than B7.1 and induces a distinct pattern of lymphokine secretion. (
  • Meanwhile, laboratory assays using HepG2 (hepatocyte cell line) showed susceptibility to plasma samples from ALF patients impairing in vitro cell proliferation and an increase in apoptotic events submitting plasma samples to heat inactivation. (
  • Callus culture is used as the basis for organogenic (shoot, root) cultures, cell cultures or proliferation of embryoids. (
  • for suppression of T cell proliferation. (
  • Supraphysiologic T-cell proliferation, a hallmark of this therapy, contributes to both efficacy and the most notable toxicity, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), posing a unique challenge for toxicity management. (
  • Functional studies provide clues for the poor performance of retinoic acid as a general cancer therapeutic, connecting retinoic acid signaling to both cell growth arrest and proliferation with tumor suppression and cancer progression consequences. (
  • These cells chew up bits of cancer cells and invading bacteria and carry the fragments around on their membranes. (
  • The fragments, or antigens, train other immune cells to destroy the tumours and invaders. (
  • Genomic amplification of either PI3-kinase or Akt has been reported in cervical, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers ( 23 - 25 ). (
  • Critical determinants of T cell activation include the density of peptide-MHC ligand available for TCR engagement as well as the provision of soluble and membrane-bound costimulatory signals. (
  • The means of communication that are thus far primarily associated with this function are cell-cell contacts and the release of a broad range of soluble mediators. (
  • Their soluble forms which carry out these functions are produced by plasma B cells , a type of white blood cell. (
  • Besides CD4 + effector cells, CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), consisting of thymus-derived or induced cells, maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens by regulating other types of immune cells ( 3 ). (
  • However, for some types of T-cells, self reactivity is required for their function, leading to some level of positive selection for self-reactive T-cells in the thymus. (
  • and IL-12R?2 subunits with GM1 positive lipid rafts, and increased STAT-4 and STAT-5 phosphorylation following membrane cholesterol enrichment. (
  • Digitonin targets lipid rafts in the plasma membrane layer, resulting in disrupted bilayers. (
  • Due to the mode of NK cell killing, requiring one-to-one target engagement and site-directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. (
  • Unleashing the Therapeutic Potential of CAR-T Cell Therapy Using Gene-Editing Technologies. (
  • The direct association between genetic mutations and various human diseases (such as cancer, HIV, and Alzheimer's disease) has driven the development of efficient strategies for therapeutic purposes. (
  • In other circumstances, transgene expression in immune cells is therapeutic. (
  • Stem cells (SCs) could transport therapeutic cargoes to tumor microenvironment via their intrinsic tumor-tropic properties[ 24 ]. (
  • Here we've laid out the technology to make mouse and human red blood cells in culture that can express what we want and potentially be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. (
  • The combination of the two forms of therapeutic intervention provides enhanced tumor cell reduction compared to either alone. (
  • Researchers investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reached the brain following intraarterial or intravenous administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. (
  • In biomedicine, this has led to considerable hope for the identification of potential pathological markers and therapeutic targets ( 1 , 2 ), particularly in the field of cancer ( 3 ). (
  • Such data should provide the knowledge base for the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of innovative strategies against breast cancer. (
  • A novel type of therapeutic agent, human mesenchymal stem cells, and a composition containing the same for the treatment of atopic dermatitis is disclosed. (
  • The present invention relates to a therapeutic composition for atopic dermatitis, more specifically to a therapeutic composition for dermatitis comprising, as an active principle, mesenchymal stem cells of a mammal, in particular of a human. (
  • Herein, we review the current paradigm for retinoic acid signaling, its role in cancer and potential therapeutic applications and challenges. (
  • PhD student Loek Eggermont and colleagues at the Figdor lab at Radboud University Medical Centre in The Netherlands investigated ways to mimic the cell membrane's ability to switch on immune cells. (
  • This team, led by Martin Fussenegger, Ph.D., a professor of biotechnology and bioengineering, reports that it can equip nonimmune cells with additional components, and muster ranks of synthetic designer cells that mimic T cells. (
  • However, due to the relatively simple structure, it is hard for liposome to mimic the complexity of cell membranes. (
  • Until recently, bioengineers hadn't been able to mimic the complex nature of human T cells. (
  • Harnessing the power of the enzymes that give these marine animals the ability to glow, the team created a test that makes it easy for researchers to see whether a therapy is having its intended effect -- killing cancer cells. (
  • Researchers have developed an artificial membrane that, similar to antigen-presenting cells, can trigger the activation of T-cells toward a particular target. (
  • The researchers found that after HIV docks onto a host cell, it dramatically lowers the energy required for a cell membrane to bend, making it easier for the virus to infect immune cells. (
  • CNRS) French researchers have developed an artificial sequence mimicking the surface features of DNA for the first time. (
  • Made-to-order cells may soon transition from the realm of science fiction to the reality of science and medicine, as researchers from Imperial College London and Loughborough University have demonstra. (
  • NPR) - A new application of artificial intelligence could help researchers solve medical mysteries ranging from cancer to Alzheimer's. (
  • Researchers have established the separation and characterization methods needed to identify almost all the parts of a single cell. (
  • Even complete makeovers are possible: in 2016, researchers simplified the entire genome of the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides, and incorporated this 'minimal genome' into cells that proved viable and were able to grow 16 . (
  • To turn the micelles into vaccines, the researchers loaded them with a model antigen, ovalbumin. (
  • Researchers investigated the use of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (
  • Researchers discovered that digitonin caused membrane rupture with the prerequisite of cholesterol. (
  • Researchers applied digitonin in permeabilizing human neutrophils , a component that makes up 40 to 70 percent of white blood cells. (
  • A team of researchers in Poland who treated three of six paraplegics with spinal cord injury using transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) found that the three treated patients showed neurological improvement and no adverse effects while the three control patients who did not receive transplants saw no improvement. (
  • Regulatory CD4 + T cells are another specialized subset that plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens. (
  • In the future, an invading organism that possesses one or some of these "non-self" antigens will be swiftly recognized as an invader and will be dealt with. (
  • Early DCs have specialized antigen uptake and processing machinery, whereas mature DCs efficiently present antigen to and activate T cells. (
  • Personalized oncology provides new hopes for reducing cancer mortality by selectively targeting anticancer drugs to malignant cells, at the level of the target-sites on the cell surface and within the tumor microenvironment [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Our findings also help us to better understand the mechanisms behind this T cell activation. (
  • Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. (
  • Human cells - like those of many other organisms - have developed mechanisms to protect us from cancer. (
  • The tumor microenvironment is characterized by a multitude of mechanisms that support angiogenesis and immune suppression ( 1 ). (
  • in addition, the diversity of liver cell lines is used to study therapy interventions and also to understand mechanisms related to liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis [ 19 , 20 ]. (
  • Second, when oxygen is being delivered by a cell-free carrier instead of red blood cells, complex biological mechanisms alter the flow through the smallest blood vessels (the arterioles and capillaries). (
  • While great strides have been made in recent years in identifying CMV inhibitors of immune response mechanisms, current consensus is that among the vast amount of genetic CMV material still requiring a functional assignment, the virus harbours as yet uncovered immunoevasins directed against already known or new immunological targets. (
  • In vitro Transwell® systems based on a porous PET-membrane enable the standardized study of transport mechanisms across the intestinal barrier as well as the investigation of the influence of target substances on barrier integrity. (
  • MDR can result from several distinct mechanisms, including reducing drug accumulation in tumor cells [1] . (
  • for use as an adjuvant in antigenic compositions that induce an immune response. (
  • The permeabilization of cell membranes usually includes two critical reagents: organic solvents and a biological detergent such as digitonin. (
  • The experiment involved the addition of digitonin in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), resulting in direct staining of antigens without accessory reagents. (
  • The invention additionally provides eukaryotic host cells containing magnetotactic bacteria. (
  • New artificial cell successfully minimised to target and kill specific bacteria. (
  • Digitonin also exists in a wide range of processes, such as hemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells commonly caused by Gram-positive bacteria). (
  • Your body contains 10 times more bacteria than cells. (
  • Friendly bacteria not only attack pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but also trigger appropriate white cell reactions to invaders. (
  • Whitehead Institute scientists have genetically and enzymatically modified red blood cells to carry a range of valuable payloads-from drugs, to vaccines, to imaging agents-for delivery to specific sites throughout the body. (
  • Nanoscale vaccines may also prevent, or even treat a wider range of diseases, including cancer. (
  • Inspired by nature s approach to escaping the endosome, Dr. Patrick Stayton and his colleagues at the University of Washington incorporated a pH-responsive polymer into nanoscale polymer micelle vaccines to facilitate antigen delivery to the cell cytoplasm. (
  • For example, vaccines constructed that contain only the most effective portions of a pathogen in causing an immune response thus maximise the balance between effectiveness and safety of the vaccine. (
  • In our hands, the Matador assay can detect cell death in as little as 30 minutes, which can ultimately translate to more expedient treatments for patients getting cellular immunotherapies such as CAR-T cells," Chaudhary says. (
  • The development of new agents targeting important cellular pathways involved in cancer progression, although promising, has so far resulted in relatively short-term benefits for the majority of patients with advanced malignancy. (
  • Eicosanoids have pleiotropic effects on various cellular functions and numerous studies have shown their role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and cancer [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Step 1: labelling cellular cholesterol by adding labelled cholesterol to serum-containing medium and incubating with cells for 24-48 h. (
  • This retained ectodomain is a 58 amino acid peptide, linked to the membrane via a short transmembrane domain and a 31 amino acid cytoplasmic tail which is linked to the cellular cytoskeleton for mobility. (
  • How cell membranes control cellular function has long been studied but. (
  • How cell membranes control cellular function has long been studied but with ambiguous results. (
  • Studies in yeast and mammalian cells suggest that mTOR functions as part of a nutrient-sensing mechanism, regulating the cellular response to starvation conditions such as amino acid deprivation ( 1 , 10 ). (
  • BY a trick of cellular alchemy, scientists are turning one type of immune cell into another that could help the body fight cancer. (
  • Depending on the cellular and histological origin of the cancer cells and on the evolution of the disease, a broad range of breast tumor types have been described. (
  • In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. (
  • This deactivation must not occur before the work of the cellular immune response is complete (e.g., the eradication of a dangerous pathogen) and must not interfere with the establishment of the appropriate memory immune response. (
  • This observation has important implications for the use of sorafenib as therapy for immunogenic cancers. (
  • A macrophage that has ingested a pathogen and displays the pathogen's antigens on its cell surface membrane. (
  • CD4 + T cells also exert direct anti-tumor and anti-viral roles based on their cytolytic activity and effector cytokine secretion. (
  • We can also supply constructed CD19 viral vector for CD19-targeted CAR T cell preparation. (
  • M2 is present in low copy numbers at the surface of influenza viral particles, but is expressed abundantly on the surface of infected cells. (
  • Protransduzin™ the highly efficient transduction enhancer increases viral gene transfer in pre-clinical and clinical applications, such as ex vivo gene therapy and CAR-T cell development. (
  • When we immunized mice with recombinant viral immunogens optimized to enhance the lytic capability of CD8 + T cells, we measured a profound depression in Ag-specific effector function after early restimulation. (
  • Kuan-Teh Jeang of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. will investigate whether cells infected by one virus become resistant to infection from other viruses, and if this viral interference can confer protection against HIV. (
  • We aimed to investigate the expression of LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-transformed squamous epithelium of the esophagus, as well as in control biopsy samples from esophageal squamous epithelium of patients with functional dyspepsia. (
  • Expression of LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in biopsy samples of 19 patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer and 9 sex- and age-matched patients with functional dyspepsia. (
  • However, using HIV-1 infected primary T-cells as target cells in NK cell functional assays has been difficult due the presence of contaminating uninfected cells 3 . (
  • The fluidity of our membranes created artificial antigen-presenting cell surfaces that enabled the formation of functional immunological synapses with living T cells," said Groves. (
  • Thus, we assert that future cancer therapy strategies must take into consideration either the elimination or the functional suppression of Tregs because these cells play an important role in the establishment of aggressive tumor phenotypes. (
  • Our initial functional studies indicate that B7-DC is more active than B7-1 in stimulating IFN-γ production by T cells. (
  • Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex and rare clinical syndrome characterized by the development of severe liver dysfunction, promoted by extensive death of functional cells. (
  • It is widely accepted that cancer cells have acquired a particular set of functional capabilities during their development ( 1 ). (
  • The central hypothesis of this research project is that the cell of origin contributes to the phenotype and functional properties of the pre-malignant clone and the resulting malignancy. (
  • Dynamic Cell III, a meeting jointly organized by the British Society of Cell Biology (BSCB) and the Biochemical Society, took place at the Manchester Conference Centre, Manchester, UK in March 2018. (
  • This can be achieved by membrane-bound organelles, but non-membrane-bound compartments, for instance P-granules and stress granules, provide a highly dynamic alternative ( Wheeler and Hyman, 2018 ). (
  • IgE, an isotype of immunoglobulin, is produced by such B cells that have been stimulated with an antigen and then switched into IgE class cells, as being specific to the very antigen. (
  • They created artificial 'antigen presenting cells', to copy the action of similar body cells. (
  • To address this challenge, artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) have been developed. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells fall into two categories: professional and non-professional. (
  • When they come in contact with their targeted antigen on a cell, CAR-T cells bind to it and become activated, then proceed to proliferate and become cytotoxic. (
  • Two of the members, B7.1 and B7.2, bind both CD28 and CTL-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 on T cells. (
  • It is also one of the most difficult because the methods for testing immunotherapies are not ideal," says corresponding author Preet M. Chaudhary, MD, PhD , professor of medicine at the Keck School, chief of the division of hematology and center for blood diseases, and director for bone marrow transplant at USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center . (
  • Novel immunotherapies have recently demonstrated unprecedented success in selected cancer types ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Rather than hone the killer instincts of immune cells-and risk unleashing an overzealous horde-cancer immunotherapies may recruit and train nonimmune cells, which have the potential to be more controllable. (
  • Although immunotherapies to treat cancer have been around for decades, new approaches are popping up every other day. (
  • We have shown that an artificial antigen presenting cell can be effective in activating T cells in in vitro studies. (
  • Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach that necessitates defining robust and efficient methods for the in vitro expansion of antigen-specific T cells then infused into patients. (
  • They showed that regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells were increased in tumor sites in non-small cell lung and ovarian cancers, and that these cells (now appreciated as Tregs) secreted large amounts of TGF-β that inhibited CD8 + effector T-cell functions in vitro ( 4 ). (
  • To this end, comprehensive in vitro studies revealed that the presence of sorafenib concentrations comparable with observed plasma levels in patients strongly impairs the activation of T cells. (
  • In vitro and in vivo studies of isogenic PTEN +/+ and PTEN −/− mouse cells as well as human cancer cells with defined PTEN status showed that the growth of PTEN null cells was blocked preferentially by pharmacologic FRAP/mTOR inhibition. (
  • Author Correction: Human in vitro-induced regulatory T cells display Dlgh1 dependent and PKC-θ restrained suppressive activity. (
  • In Summary, the use of primary human intestinal cells combined with a biological decellularized scaffold offers a new and promising way to setup more physiological intestinal in vitro models. (
  • Deletion of these cells in vitro or in vivo completely abrogated the observed suppression of cytolytic reactivity of Ag-specific CD8 + T cells. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital component of the innate immune response to virus-infected cells. (
  • These findings are important for better understanding CMV pathogenesis, and provide a novel example of host innate immune subversion by CMV. (
  • A new study finds a way to enhance the immune system's anticancer response. (
  • one of the more recent shifts in treatment revolves around enhancing the natural immune response. (
  • Second and third generation CAR-Ts have additional co-stimulatory domains that further enhance the immune response. (
  • As such, there are two main goals to the use of biomaterials in this area: To curb unwanted immune response, and engage specific immune response. (
  • Each perform distinct immune response functions to be discussed later. (
  • In addition to the control of epitope expression on biomaterials, the size of the biomaterial as well as the concentration of epitope occurrence on the surface are significant factors in modulating immune response. (
  • Multivalency, or the concentration of epitope occurrences on a biomaterial surface is also a key factor in controlling immune response. (
  • Here, we discuss the ways in which Tregs suppress the antitumor immune response and elaborate on our recent discovery that Tregs make significant direct contributions to tumor angiogenesis. (
  • The qualitative and quantitative nature of an immune response depends on the type of APC that processes and presents antigen to T cells. (
  • Expression of all the currently known B7 family members is broadly distributed on multiple hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues, raising interesting questions as to their relative role in immune response regulation. (
  • They were chosen because mast cells secrete chemicals and histamines (substances released in allergic reactions that cause runny nose, watery eyes and other character istic allergy symptoms) and they are the gatekeepers for the allergic immune response. (
  • An example is insulin-dependent diabetes, where a host immune response causes the destruction of insulin producing cells. (
  • It is our hypothesis that these plasma cell (PC) infiltrates represent a host humoral response driven by one or more tumor-derived neoantigens. (
  • From these data, we infer that the breast tumor PC infiltrates of the medullary carcinoma subtype are compatible with an autogenic tumor neoantigen-driven humoral immune response. (
  • Finally, MC patients who failed primary therapy died the fastest of all of the groups (5) , seemingly reflecting the aggressive histology of MC and the high proliferative index when the immune reaction was ineffective, again reinforcing the role of the immune response rather than the histology as determining the favorable prognosis. (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has developed diverse tactics to elude the host immune response and guarantee its survival. (
  • They have the ability to deliver cargo to specific immune cells and modulate the resulting immune response. (
  • This article deals with immune response in the jawed vertebrates and, more specifically, mammals . (
  • Following an infection or immunization, a primary CD8 + T cell response generally rises then falls rapidly before giving rise to a "memory" response. (
  • Indeed, a "mirror image" cytolytic capability was observed: the most powerful immunogens, as measured by cytolytic capacity 6 days after immunization, elicited the weakest secondary immune response when evaluated following an additional 6 days after restimulation. (
  • In such an assay, T cells that have already encountered a specific peptide fragment are restimulated and if the fragment is recognised, a cytokine response is elicited and can be measured within a short period of time (4). (
  • CD8 + T cells are a key focus of vaccine development efforts for HIV. (
  • Philip J. Shaw of Thailand's National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology will seek to identify potential drug targets and vaccine antigens in the malaria parasite using a novel technology to reduce specific gene expression. (
  • Therefore, of particular importance is the ratio of Tregs to CD8 + effector cells, with a high CD8:Treg ratio representing the best indicator of prolonged survival ( 9 ). (
  • Cytotoxic effector cells can be rapidly and specifically deleted in mice exposed to high doses of a particular strain of rapidly disseminating lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) 4 . (