Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.TritiumGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
... amygdalina Extracts Alter MCF-7 Cell Membrane Permeability and Efflux". Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 3 (2): 174-179. ... Nwanjo HU (2005). "Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in ... Inhibition of the growth or growth signals of cancerous cells. Suppression of metastasis of cancerous cells in the body by the ... Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy. ...
It is mildly fluorescent in aqueous suspension, but becomes bright when bound to cell membrane. Once bound to a membrane it ... signals with high extinction coefficients Are well retained in cell membranes Demonstrate very little transfer to other cells ... It has a thiol-reactive chloromethyl (CM) group that makes it more soluble in aqueous solution i.e. culture media and aldehyde- ... It might also migrate faster than DiI within the membrane. 5,5′-Ph2-DiIC18(3) (D-7779) has phenyl substituents attached to the ...
When chemoattraction occurs in a particular area of the cell membrane, actin polymerization can begin and move the cell in that ... The motor around the base produces torque, just like in bacteria for movement through the aqueous environment. Movement using a ... As the pressure increases the cell membrane is pushed outward creating the pseudopod. When the pseudopod moves outward, the ... Mauthner cells are activated when something startles the fish and can be activated by visual or sound-based stimuli. Fast- ...
The most common chloralkali process involves the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (a brine) in a membrane cell. ... Similarly to the Membrane Cell, chloride ions are oxidized at the anode to produce chlorine, and at the cathode, water is split ... Mercury cells are being phased out due to concerns about mercury poisoning from mercury cell pollution such as occurred in ... The mercury is recycled into the electrolytic cell. Chlorine is produced at the anode and evaporates out of the cell. ...
Some enzymes are actively excreted through the plasma membrane, where they diffuse through or act in the cell wall. Note that ... the enzymes released from the hyphal tip require an aqueous environment for release and subsequent degradative activity. The ... Extracellular digestion is a process in which saprobionts feed by secreting enzymes through the cell membrane onto the food. ... Since digestion occurs outside the cell, it is said to be extracellular. It takes place either in the lumen of the digestive ...
... in tissue samples it stabilizes nucleic acids and cell membranes. Uranyl nitrate was used to fuel Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors ...
They can be extremely large, up to 5 nS in size, and can insert into the cell membrane from aqueous solution. Aβ channels are ... and cell death. The large, poorly selective, and long-lived nature of Aβ channels allows rapid degradation of membrane ... and Li+ across the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity caused by ion channel formation is commonly seen in the world of bacteria. While ... stable ion channels or anchoring to sterols in the cell membrane. Neurons are particularly vulnerable to channel-forming toxins ...
Pinocytosis Pinocytosis, also known as cell drinking, is the absorption of small aqueous particles along with the membrane ... Endocytosis is when a cell absorbs molecules, such as proteins, from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane. ... but also add and subtract membrane from the cell's plasma membrane. The surface area of the membrane is determined[citation ... The vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and their content, usually protein, is released out of the cell. There are two types ...
However, the hydrophobic nature allows them to readily diffuse through the plasma membrane of cells. This is important to the ... that contribute to its insolubility in aqueous environments. ... The immune system specifically targets the cells of the adrenal ... Specifically, it binds receptors of cells that comprise the distal tubules of the kidneys which then stimulate ion channels to ... The process is controlled by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) which sits in the mitochondrial membrane and ...
The N-terminal domain protrudes out of the extracellular side of the cell membrane and is, thus, soluble in the aqueous ... When both Kcne2 and Kcne3 are germline-deleted in mice, KCNQ1 traffics to the parietal cell apical membrane but the gastric ... Kcne2-/- mice exhibit achlorhydria, gastric hyperplasia, and mis-trafficking of KCNQ1 to the parietal cell basal membrane. The ... KCNE2 forms constitutively active K+ channels with KCNQ1 in the basolateral membrane of thyroid epithelial cells. Kcne2-/- mice ...
Ion-exchange resins in the form of thin membranes are used in chloralkali process, fuel cells and vanadium redox batteries. Ion ... Liquid-phase (aqueous) ion-exchange desalination has been demonstrated. In this technique anions and cations in salt water are ... Alkali anion exchange membrane Ion Ion chromatography Ion-exchange membranes Ion-exchange resin Mischissin, Stephen G. (7 ... In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ...
This region forms the channel conductive pore and contains the N- and C-termini on the cytosolic side of the cell membrane. ... and between fifth and sixth segment is an aqueous pore. ...
Moreover, selenium is an essential micronutrient for many organisms (protection of cell membrane against oxidative damages) and ... Without solubility limit and retardation for aqueous selenium, the dose of 79Se is comparable to that of 129I. ...
Interbilayer Forces in Membrane Fusion Fusion mechanism Cell fusion Yeagle, P. L. (1993). The Membranes of Cells (2nd ed.). San ... Assays of membrane fusion report either the mixing of membrane lipids or the mixing of the aqueous contents of the fused ... "Diffusion and redistribution of lipid-like molecules between membranes in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion systems". Biophysical ... In this method, membrane labeled with Pyrene combines with unlabeled membrane. Pyrene self associates in membrane and then ...
Non-cleavable: The BS3 crosslinker has an 8-atom spacer is non-cleavable and the molecule is not cell membrane permeable. BS3 ... of this crosslinker it must be dissolved in an organic solvent such as dimethylsulfoxide before being added to an aqueous ... Because of the ability of DSS to cross cell membranes, it is best suited for applications where intracelluclar crosslinking is ... Membrane impermeable: Since BS3 is a charged molecule, it cannot freely pass through cellular membranes which makes it an ideal ...
... due to the neutral co-lipid mediating fusion of the liposome with the cell membrane, allowing nucleic acid to cross into the ... Lipofectamine reagent contains lipid subunits that can form liposomes in an aqueous environment, which entrap the transfection ... In order for a cell to express this transgene, the nucleic acid must reach the nucleus of the cell to begin transcription. This ... can fuse with the negatively charged plasma membrane of living cells, ...
The endothelium is a single cell layer that separates the cornea from the aqueous humor. ... Posterior to the stroma is Descemet's membrane, which is a basement membrane for the corneal endothelium. ... There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and ... However, larger or deeper ulcers often require the presence of blood vessels to supply inflammatory cells. White blood cells ...
... hydrophobic interfaces are important for understanding biochemical properties at boundaries such as cell membranes, as is the ... Tarbuck, T. L.; Ota, S. T.; Richmond, G. L. (2006). "Spectroscopic studies of solvated hydrogen and hydroxide ions at aqueous ... Raymond, E. A.; Richmond, G. L. (2004). "Probing the molecular structure and bonding of the surface of aqueous salt solutions ... doi:10.1016/0079-6816(88)90005-6. Richmond, G. L. (2002). "Molecular bonding and interactions at aqueous surfaces as probed by ...
The cell is separated into two compartments by a membrane that allows ion flow but prevents bulk mixing of the anolyte and ... This technology has been demonstrated at the pilot level for the destruction of perchlorate contaminated aqueous streams. The ... The organic waste is treated by the generation of highly oxidising species in an electro-chemical cell. ...
Bojesen, Inge N.; Hansen, Harald S. (2005). "Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes ... transporters have been described that act as carriers to solubilize and transport the endocannabinoids through the aqueous ... Most neurotransmitters are water-soluble and require transmembrane proteins to transport them across the cell membrane. The ... Fowler, Christopher J. (2013-05-01). "Transport of endocannabinoids across the plasma membrane and within the cell". FEBS ...
... also important to cell membranes composed of amphiphilic phospholipids that prevent the internal aqueous environment of a cell ... cell membranes and vesicles formation, protein folding, insertion of membrane proteins into the nonpolar lipid environment and ... Gerald Karp (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 128-. ISBN 978-0-470-48337-4 ... The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous solution and exclude water ...
Such oxidative modification could rupture animal cell membranes. Plumbagin is known to induce apoptosis, associated with the ... Aqueous leaf extracts have been found to contain quinones such as the naphthoquinone plumbagin that couples to different NADH- ... Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Cells through p53 Accumulation via c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase-Mediated ... Alternatively, cells in the inner layers of the lobes and midrib may rapidly secrete other ions, allowing water to follow by ...
Medically, aqueous surface structures are particularly relevant in the understanding of cell membranes and skin surfaces, which ... Liu, Dingfang; Ma, Gang; Levering, Lori M.; Allen, Heather C. (February 19, 2004). "Vibrational spectroscopy of aqueous sodium ... She is particularly interested in understanding the activities of ions and molecules in aqueous surface structures. ... function as gateways to the cell and the body. As a Beckman Young Investigator, Allen studied the biophysics of the lung as a ...
Aqueous calcium chloride is used in genetic transformation of cells by increasing the cell membrane permeability, inducing ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_547 "Binary Phase diagram: The Calcium Chloride - water system". Aqueous Solutions Aps. October 2016. ... competence for DNA uptake (allowing DNA fragments to enter the cell more readily). Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes ...
Potentiometric dyes: Imaging electrical activity of cell membranes. Leslie M. Loew. Pure &Appl. Chern., Vol. 68, No. 7, pp. ... chains acting as membrane anchors and a hydrophilic group which aligns the chromophore perpendicular to the membrane/aqueous ... Many physiological processes are accompanied by changes in cell membrane potential which can be detected with voltage sensitive ... Cells may be permanently affected by treatments. Lasting pharmacological effects are possible, and the photodynamics of the ...
The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... Group 3 elements are generally hard metals with low aqueous solubility, and have low availability to the biosphere. No group 3 ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
CELL-MEMBRANE ABNORMALITY DETECTED IN ERYTHROCYTES FROM PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS BY PARTITION IN 2-POLYMER AQUEOUS- ... CELL-MEMBRANE ABNORMALITY DETECTED IN ERYTHROCYTES FROM PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS BY PARTITION IN 2-POLYMER AQUEOUS- ... CELL-MEMBRANE ABNORMALITY DETECTED IN ERYTHROCYTES FROM PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS BY PARTITION IN 2-POLYMER AQUEOUS- ... CELL-MEMBRANE ABNORMALITY DETECTED IN ERYTHROCYTES FROM PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS BY PARTITION IN 2-POLYMER AQUEOUS- ...
Aqueous Vernomia amygdalina extracts alter MCF-7 cell membrane permeability and efflux. / Opata, Michael M.; Izevbigie, Ernest ... Aqueous Vernomia amygdalina extracts alter MCF-7 cell membrane permeability and efflux. International Journal of Environmental ... Opata, M. M., & Izevbigie, E. B. (2006). Aqueous Vernomia amygdalina extracts alter MCF-7 cell membrane permeability and efflux ... Opata, MM & Izevbigie, EB 2006, Aqueous Vernomia amygdalina extracts alter MCF-7 cell membrane permeability and efflux, ...
Osmotic and morphological effects on red blood cell membrane: action of an aqueous extract of Lantana camara / Efeitos osmótico ... Osmotic and morphological effects on red blood cell membrane: action of an aqueous extract ... assay and morphometric analysis have been used to verify the interaction of drugs with the membrane of red blood cells (RBC). ... The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract of Lantana camara on the osmotic fragility and on the ...
... computational investigation of water transport in nafion membranes for fuel cells; desalination with gas hydrates for improved ... Water and aqueous solutions. The peculiar properties of water include expansion upon cooling, expansion upon freezing, ... our understanding of its physical properties and that of aqueous solutions is very incomplete. We apply computational and ...
... buffered aqueous solution; Synonym: CACH2, CACN2, CACNL1A1, CCHL1A1, CaV1.2, MGC120730, TS; find Sigma-Aldrich-SAB1402709 MSDS ... Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of ... clone 4D10, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution Synonym: CACH2, CACN2, CACNL1A1, CCHL1A1, CaV1.2, MGC120730, TS ... Keywords: AGE, Buffers, Cell disruption, Detection methods, Detergents, Dialysis, Electroblotting, Electrophoresis, Enzyme ...
Kf is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, ℑ is ... and jf c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate. ... A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer ... Aqueous liquid feed organic fuel cell using solid polymer electrolyte membrane. US5773162. Dec 8, 1995. Jun 30, 1998. ...
Cell membrane (Lipid bilayer), Micelle, Liposome. Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of ... Cell membrane (Lipid bilayer), Micelle, Liposome. Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of ... field of fat cells, High quality 3d render of fat cells, cholesterol in a cells, structure of the molecule, receptors on the ... Structure of a fat cell. 3D rendering. Fat cells contain a large lipid droplet (yellow), a nucleus (red) and cell organelles ...
Cell membrane (Lipid bilayer), Micelle, Liposome. Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of ... cell surface membrane, lipid bilayer, membrane lipid, cell transport, cell membrane, cell membrane structure ... Mechanisms for the transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. Types of a channel in the cell membrane: simple ... Artistic impression of a plasma membrane of a human cell. The plasma membrane is a bilayer composed of phopholipids in which ...
The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a ... An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe and low-cost materials journal, October 2015 * Janoschka ... An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples ... A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing a Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO ...
... thus there is no flow of water across the cell membrane hypotonic: outer solution has lower concentration than the internal ... A red blood cell will burst open when it is put in pure water, because water flows into the cell. "Osmolarity": The " ... solution of a cell; thus there is a net flow of water into the cell, e.g., hemolysis of red blood cells hypertonic: outer ... w/w)% = (mass of solute/mass of solution) ´ 100% example: How to prepare 75.0 g of a 7.20% w/w aqueous glucose solution? 7.20% ...
New transport mechanism of nanomaterial through a cell membrane: membrane stretching. Dec 12, 2018 ... The developed aqueous hybrid energy device shows more than 100-fold higher power density compared to conventional aqueous ... Schematic diagram for aqueous hybrid capacitors. (Image: KAIST) Professor Jeung Ku Kang and his team from the Graduate School ... Aqueous storage device needs only 20 seconds to go. (Nanowerk News) A KAIST research team developed a new hybrid energy storage ...
Cultivation Using Membrane Filtration and Cell Recycling 3. Liquid-Liquid Extractive Membrane Reactors 4. Continuous Removal of ... Extractive Bioconversions in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems. 8. Solid Sorbents Used in Extractive Bioconversion Processes. 9. ... Vacuum Fermentation 11.Bioconversions in Permeabilized Cells. 12. Ion-Pair Extraction in Biological Systems 13. The Biostil ...
Membrane proteins represent about one third of the proteins encoded in a cells genome, and, because of their key physiological ... Membrane proteins represent about one third of the proteins encoded in a cells genome, and, because of their key physiological ... Amphipols Reviewed Membrane Protein Folding Membrane Protein Stability Membrane Protein Structural Studies Membrane Protein ... Topical chapters cover in vitro folding, cell-free synthesis and stabilization of membrane proteins, and such biophysical and ...
... the most common cause of failure of cells to attach to a substrate is environmental stress placed on the cells. Stress on cells ... Healthy and appropriately nourished cells re-engineer and optimize their attachment matrices. Cells that are cultured under ... Common Cell Culture Problems: Poor Attachment of Adherent Cells -- ... Ascorbic acid arrests lipid peroxidation that can degrade cell membranes, causing cells to detach. It oxidizes rapidly in ...
Endothelial Cell Density Changes in the Corneal Center Versus Paracentral Areas After Descemet Membrane Endothelial ... The Influence of Speed During Stripping in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Tissue Preparation ... Slow-peeled Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty grafts result in a wider scroll width but were associated with a greater ... All-aqueous emulsions as miniaturized chemical reactors in the food and bioprocess technology. *. ...
Aqueous pores. Openings in cell membranes that allow entry of water and water soluble drugs. ... Lipid (fat) soluble drugs that penetrate the lipoidal cell membrane better than hydrophilic drugs. ... This is why specific cells only respond to certain drugs. Agonists. Drugs that activate receptors and produce a response that ... Many drugs bind to proteins in blood plasma to form a complex that is too large to penetrate cell openings. So the drug remains ...
Aqueous vs. non-aqueous pores1. Loss of membrane integrity and leakage of K+. Cell death. Examples. Amphotericin B. Nystatin. ... Found in fungal cell membrane. -Clusters in phospholipid bilayer. -regulates membrane permeability. - required for normal ... 3) Cell membrane (Ergosterol). 4) Protein Synthesis. 5) Cell wall - B-1,3-glucan ... Inserts lipophilic tail into cell membrane resulting in depolarisation and ion loss. Effective in Gram-positives only. ...
enzyme located in plasma membrane of cells Functions:. 1. Control of Hydration of cornea. 2. Production of aqueous humor ... endothelial cells do not regenerate Defects are covered by the spreading of cells from adjacent areas. When a large defect ... cell density does NOT change. CV increases. Hexagonal cells drop to 50% expect high astig or high myopia ... A change in cell size. Pleomorphism. A change in cell shape. Both polymegathism and pleomorphism increase significantly with ...
... of one or more electrolytic cells having a cathode chamber separated from at least one anode chamber by a separation membrane. ... The contaminated aqueous solution is subjected to high current density electrolysis, after which it is passed to a holding ... The cathode chamber has cathode plates positioned at an angle to the perpendicular or vertical axis of the cell made of valve ... A separation membrane separates cathode and anode chambers and allows conductivity driven ionic transfers, and prevents electro ...
... very similar to a cell membrane, surrounding an aqueous volume core. Liposomes can be produced to carry various compounds or ... Thereafter, the biocidal component (which may be concentrated in the aqueous core of the liposome or in the lipid membrane ... The liposomes, being similar in composition to microbial membranes or cells, are readily incorporated into the existing biofilm ... The liposomes, being similar in composition to microbial membranes or cells, are readily incorporated into the existing biofilm ...
... octylamine dissolved in xylene were measured using a stirred membrane-based cell in the 298-328 K temperarature range. It was ... KINETIC STUDIES ON THE EXTRACTION OF CITRIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WITH TRI-N-OCTYLAMINE * * JUANG Ruey-Shin ... EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES ON THE EXTRACTION OF CITRIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WITH TRI-n-OCTYLAMINE JUANG Ruey-Shin , HUANG Wen- ... In this paper, the rates of the extraction of citric acid from aqueous solutions with tri-,I,n,/I,- ...
An example of naturally occurring membrane is the lipid bilayer of cells, also known as cellular membranes. Synthetic membranes ... which allows it to partition between the hydrophobic core of the membrane and the hydrophilic aqueous environment. Another ... Membrane curvature is the geometrical measure or characterization of the curvature of membranes. The membranes can be naturally ... Journal of Cell Biology 148, 45-58 (2000). Zimmerberg, J. & McLaughlin, S. Membrane curvature: how BAR domains bend bilayers. ...
... amygdalina Extracts Alter MCF-7 Cell Membrane Permeability and Efflux". Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 3 (2): 174-179. ... Nwanjo HU (2005). "Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in ... Inhibition of the growth or growth signals of cancerous cells. Suppression of metastasis of cancerous cells in the body by the ... Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy. ...
... the solvent binds to the cells (2) and disturbs the structure of the cell membrane (3, 23). Here, logP OW is the common ... coli cells by partitioning between the cells and their external milieu. Therefore, the cells that had accumulated a solvent ... Cell viability was maintained by loading the cells with the test solvent at a lowCc (0.01 to 0.1 μmol/mg of protein). It is ... of biocatalytic activity in an organic-aqueous two-liquid phase system with solvent concentration in the cell membrane. Enzyme ...
Once formed, membranes are stable in serum, aqueous solutions and cell culture medium. They can be made under sterile ... Interestingly, costaining Ki67 and cell-specific markers revealed that cell proliferation occurred only in endothelial cells ... Formation of Membranes. The self-assembling peptides described herein will not form membranes in water, but will assemble in ... Myocardial Cell Culture. Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (1-2 days old) and adult cardiac endothelial cells and fibroblasts were ...
  • A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. (google.com)
  • It also facilitates a boosting charge with high energy density, which makes it suitable for portable electronic devices ( Advanced Energy Materials , 'Synthesis of Pseudocapacitive Polymer Chain Anode and Subnanoscale Metal Oxide Cathode for Aqueous Hybrid Capacitors Enabling High Energy and Power Densities along with Long Cycle Life' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • An active metal fuel cell has a renewable active metal (e.g., lithium) anode and a cathode structure that includes an electronically conductive component (e.g., a porous metal or alloy), an ionically conductive component (e.g., an electrolyte), and a fluid oxidant. (google.co.uk)
  • The pairing of an active metal anode with a cathode oxidant in a fuel cell is enabled by an ionically conductive protective membrane on the surface of the anode facing the cathode. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. The cell of claim 1 , wherein the cathode oxidant comprises air. (google.co.uk)
  • Researchers at Berkeley are helping with this problem through the development of an affordable battery membrane , which is the part of the battery that separates the cathode and the anode. (engadget.com)
  • We conclude that the initial process for the cell-selective binding by A β , to later conversion of elemental A β units into larger structures such as fibrils or to the potentially toxic ion channel aggregates, is highly influenced by the membrane content of PtdSer and cholesterol in the cell surface membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the existence of enclosed cells protected by membranes or other structures, it is difficult to imagine flooding as anything, but predominantly destructive to protobiotic reaction mixtures. (nature.com)
  • N -glycans were released from membrane glycoproteins by PNG ase F and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography on porous graphitized carbon and negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Glycan structures were characterized based on their molecular masses and tandem MS fragmentation patterns. (mcponline.org)
  • The group also explores novel techniques in the synthesis of new catalyst, nanomaterials and membrane materials and optimising electrode structures. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers , an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix. (primidi.com)
  • Others as building material for structures that protect the cell/organism. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Forces and structures self-organize to shape the cell and drive its dynamic functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conventional aqueous electrolyte-based energy storage devices have a limitation for boosting charges and high energy density due to low driving voltage and a shortage of anode materials. (nanowerk.com)
  • Due to the very low anode overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) on Pt, particularly in acid media, H 2 is supposed to be the best fuel, which can be used in the anode of PEMFC for obtaining sufficient high performance in these cells, but unfortunately the use of pure H 2 in these system is highly unfavorable due to the lack of required infrastructure for its production. (scielo.br)
  • 8. The cell of claim 1 , wherein the solid state lithium metal layers of the anode are selected from the group consisting of lithium and a lithium alloy. (google.co.uk)
  • More and more, tBLMs are replacing liposome release assays, black lipid membranes and patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques because they use fewer reagents, are able to obtain results far more quickly and can provide a uniformity of responses with fewer artefacts. (edu.au)
  • CTT enhanced 3- to 4-fold the cellular uptake of liposome-encapsulated water-soluble fluorescent marker, rhodamine B by gelatinase-expressing cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because both MMP-2 (20 , 21) and MMP-9 (22 , 23 , 24) are bound by specific cell-surface receptors, these enzymes represent potential receptors for liposome targeting to invasive cells, such as tumor cells and angiogenic endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The solvent entered the E. coli cells rapidly. (asm.org)
  • When microbial cells are exposed to a large volume of an organic solvent with a log P OW of 2 to 5, the solvent binds to the cells ( 2 ) and disturbs the structure of the cell membrane ( 3 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The extent of the inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli cells by a solvent in a two-phase culture system seems to be inversely correlated with the log P OW of the solvent ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • E. coli cells accumulate solvent in a manner positively dependent on the log P OW and the concentration of the solvent in the medium. (asm.org)
  • Cloned genes coding for components of efflux pumps belonging to the resistance/nodulation/cell division (RND) family ( 20 ) have been shown to serve to maintain solvent resistance in certain bacteria ( 4 , 8 , 11 , 21 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic evidence suggests that the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump, a member of the RND family ( 5 , 14 ), is involved in solvent resistance of E. coli cells ( 4 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Novamem polyether ether ketone (PEEK) membranes exhibit outstanding resistance to almost any known organic solvent, as they consist of pure PEEK (no sulfonation or similar). (dksh.com)
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract of Lantana camara on the osmotic fragility and on the morphology of RBC. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of the current study was to evaluate the methanolic root extract of Gentiana kurroo for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities as well as to study the effect of the extract on the induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The anti-proliferative property of Gentiana kurroo root extract was determined by sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay against Human colon cancer cell line (Ha-116). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • G. kurroo root extract inhibited cancer cell growth depending upon the cell line used and in a dose dependent manner. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The extract induced potent apoptotic effects in MiaPaCa-2 cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The population of apoptotic cells increased from 11.4% in case of control to 49.6% at 100 [micro]g/ml of G. kurroo root extract. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The extract also induced a remarkable decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][PSI]m) leading to apoptosis of cancer cells used. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An attempt has been made in the present study to elucidate the effects of oral feeding of aqueous root extract of Withania somnifera on paracetamol (PCM) induced liver damage in mice. (scialert.net)
  • Aqueous extract of P. citrina was fractioned and aqueous fraction showed a greatest inhibitory activity on Staphylococcus strains. (scielo.br)
  • Increasing the concentration of safflower extract resulted in degradation of cell membranes, increased free fatty acid levels, and decreased activity of barnyard grass catalase enzymes. (magiran.com)
  • In general, the allelopathic compounds in the aqueous extract of safflower reduced the amount and speed of germination of wild grasshoppers and wild oat by reducing the activity of α-amylase enzyme and increasing the peroxidation of membrane fats. (magiran.com)
  • Benzaldehyde was also converted to benzyl alcohol by a cell-free crude extract in biphasic systems containing hexane, although the rate of product formation was much lower. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Most of the currently used anticancer drugs which have been obtained either by synthesis of new compounds or from natural sources or by structural modification of natural compounds, are toxic to normal cells in addition to cancer cells and therefore, have substantial side effects. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Lipid membranes in living cells facilitate non-polar chemistry in an aqueous environment by forming microscopic spaces friendly to fat-soluble compounds. (asknature.org)
  • Deliquescent compounds have been identified in natural geological settings, including systems where deliquescent salts play a role in enabling aqueous liquid mixtures to exist in environments that are otherwise too cold and/or dry to support liquid water. (nature.com)
  • Results from these studies will be used as input for computational modelling in order to predict a new generation of redox compounds and improved membrane design. (nwo.nl)
  • The yeast transports only certain nitrogen-containing compounds across its cell membrane. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • With this target, the liquid uptake and the surface expansion of the membranes in contact with different pure liquids, water and alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol), and with water alcohol mixtures with different concentrations have been experimentally determined in presence and in absence of an alkaline medium (LiOH, NaOH and KOH of different concentrations). (ucm.es)
  • The alkali-metal doping effect on the membrane water uptake has also been investigated, analyzing the influence of the hydroxide concentration and the presence of an alcohol in the doping solution. (ucm.es)
  • Abrams FS, London E (1993) Extension of the parallax analysis of membrane penetration depth to the polar region of model membranes: use of fluorescence quenching by a spin-label attached to the phospholipid polar headgroup. (springer.com)
  • We also display distinct modifications related to a membrane fluidity modulator, benzyl alcohol, and two revertants of multidrug resistance, verapamil and cyclosporin-A. A relation between the distribution of the diffusion-time values and the modification of membrane lateral heterogeneities is proposed. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae analyzed the conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol in aqueous-organic biphasic media. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Mutant strains of S. cerevisiae lacking some or all of the ADH isoenzymes, ADH I, II, and III, manifested similar rates for bioconversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol in both aqueous and two-phase systems. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Polymeric membranes to remove high toxic contaminants have attracted highly the attention of a large sector of scientific community, since innovative materials with more potential are needed due to the increasing in pollution problems. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Use citrate only in cell culture systems where transferrin is used to bind iron and copper is bound in ceruloplasmin or to albumin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A membrane-bound enzyme resembling the neutrophil NADPH oxidase may contribute to the pathogen-induced oxidative burst in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Membrane-bound enzymes produced by the bacteria Pseudomonas putida produce energy from trapped hydrocarbon-based substrates by producing oxygen free radicals that break down the substrates. (asknature.org)
  • When all of the above can be ruled out, failure of cells to attach and form monolayers is likely due to inadequate nutrients in cell culture media or the gas environment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The two-dimensional (2-D) fluid organization of cell membranes is a common crucial structure for every form of life. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Gemcitabine is administered in the form of infusion into a vein in therapy of various cancer types, especially breast cancer, ovarian cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and bladder cancer. (springer.com)
  • The reaction mixtures evaporate to dryness at high temperatures and spontaneously reacquire water vapor to form aqueous solutions at low temperatures. (nature.com)
  • Cells of the suspensor divide transversely to form a longitudinal file of cells. (iastate.edu)
  • Both cells then divide again longitudinally in a plane perpendicular to the first division to form a quadrant. (iastate.edu)
  • These four cells then divide transversely to form an octant. (iastate.edu)
  • All cells then divide periclinally to form the first histologically distinct tissue, the protoderm. (iastate.edu)
  • Afterward, protodermal cells divide predominantly anticlinally to form a distinct cell lineage. (iastate.edu)
  • These cells continue dividing and form a protuberance that becomes the apical meristem. (iastate.edu)
  • Furthermore, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations show that ATP can form aggregates in the aqueous phase at high concentrations. (edu.au)
  • We report herein that mycobacteria in an aqueous suspension will induce arthritis if injected into the peritoneal cavity of highly susceptible rats during the postinflammatory healing phase of chemically induced peritonitis. (docme.ru)
  • Effect of chemically induced peritonitis on the induction of arthritis by intraperitoneal injection of aqueous or oil-based suspensions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bovine type I1 collagen in adjuvant, or M tuberculosis in adjuvant, in dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis rats* Incidence of arthritis lnoculum Arthritis severity score? (docme.ru)
  • Novamem is a manufacturer and supplier of bioseparation membranes and chemically resistant filters. (dksh.com)
  • Systems biologist Hiroki Ueda at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Osaka, Japan, and his team created an atlas of the mouse brain using a technique called CUBIC-X, in which they chemically labelled every cell in the brain, then rendered the organ crystal-clear while also expanding its size tenfold 1 . (nature.com)
  • The paper is titled "Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene. (psu.edu)
  • A proton exchange membrane for a fuel cell, comprising a graft (co)polymer comprising a main chain and grafts comprising at least one proton acceptor group and at least one proton donor group. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. A fuel cell device comprising at least one membrane comprising a graft (co)polymer comprising a main chain and grafts bonded covalently to said main chain, each ofsaid grafts comprising both (1) at least one proton acceptor group and (2) at least one proton donor group, said grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the proton acceptor group contains an atom bearing a lone pair and/or is negatively charged. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. The fuel cell device according to claim 2, wherein the negatively charged proton acceptor group is an --O.sup. (patentgenius.com)
  • 7. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the proton donor group is an --OH or --SH group, an acid group --CO.sub.2H, --SO.sub.3H or --PO.sub.3H.sub.2, or a salt of amine group. (patentgenius.com)
  • 13. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, further comprising grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences, each of which (1) does not comprise at least one proton acceptor group and/or (2) does not comprise at least oneproton donor group. (patentgenius.com)
  • PU foams were synthesized with two types of isocyanates: diphenyl-methane-diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene-diisocyanate (TDI), which were mixed separately with polyol and keratin in order to study their effect on the membrane microstructure. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Lipoproteins are components of the foam cells that eventually develop into the plaque, if inflammation in blood vessels continues. (labce.com)
  • Iodine (I or I3 ) interacts with CV+ and forms large complexes of crystal violet and iodine (CV I) within the inner and outer layers of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • The CVI complexes are washed from the Gram-negative cell along with the outer membrane. (scribd.com)
  • The large CVI complexes become trapped within the Gram-positive cell due to the multilayered nature of its peptidoglycan. (scribd.com)
  • The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Our research group has developed new polyurethane-keratin membranes with the aim of taking advantage of the natural affinity of keratin towards metals with the adequate porous support to act as membrane during separation processes [6, (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mini TrpRS is shown here to be angiostatic in a mammalian cell culture system, the chicken embryo, and two independent angiogenesis assays in the mouse. (pnas.org)