Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
... neuroepithelial cells express prominin-1 in the apical plasma membrane as well as tight junctions to maintain the cell polarity ... During G1 the cell nucleus migrates to the basal side of the cell and remains there for S phase and migrates to the apical side ... The formation of the neural tube polarizes the neuroepithelial cells by orienting the apical side of the cell to face inward, ... As these additional layers form the apical-basal polarity must be downregulated. Further proliferation of the cells in these ...
Ectopic Shroom3 has been shown to be sufficient to induce apical constriction, but only in cells with apico-basal polarity. The ... In these cells, apical constriction occurs when actomyosin contractility folds the cell membrane to reduce the apical surface ... apical constriction of a ring of cells leads to blastopore formation. These cells are known as bottle cells, for their eventual ... Apical constriction is the process in which contraction of the apical side of a cell causes the cell to take on a wedged shape ...
Membrane polarity. See also: Epithelial polarity. Alpha intercalated cell. The apical membrane of a polarized cell is the ... The basolateral membrane of a polarized cell is the surface of the plasma membrane that forms its basal and lateral surfaces. ... 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[15] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[16][17] Some ...
For example, the cells located in the vasculature (at the center) of the root all show PIN1 proteins on their basal membrane ... The formation of flowers is triggered by regularly spaced local auxin accumulation at the surface of the shoot apical meristem ... Mechanical signals have been proposed to regulate PIN polarity. The asymmetrical localisation of PIN efflux carrier protein at ... type of membrane transport protein) in the cell-to-cell fashion (from one cell to other cell and then to the next one) and the ...
... induces the formation and organization of phloem and xylem. When the plant is wounded, the auxin may induce the cell ... PDK1 phosphorylates and activates D6PK at the basal side of plasma membrane, executing the activity of PIN-mediated polar auxin ... Apical dominance[edit]. Auxin induces shoot apical dominance; the axillary buds are inhibited by auxin, as a high concentration ... November 1999). "An auxin-dependent distal organizer of pattern and polarity in the Arabidopsis root". Cell. 99 (5): 463-72. ...
... induces the formation and organization of phloem and xylem. When the plant is wounded, the auxin may induce the cell ... PDK1 phosphorylates and activates D6PK at the basal side of plasma membrane, executing the activity of PIN-mediated polar auxin ... Removal of the root tip can lead to inhibition of secondary root formation. Auxin induces shoot apical dominance; the axillary ... November 1999). "An auxin-dependent distal organizer of pattern and polarity in the Arabidopsis root". Cell. 99 (5): 463-72. ...
... is also likely involved in establishing apical-basal polarity as well as progression from the G1 phase to S phase in the cell ... In humans, SCRIB is found as a membrane protein and is involved in cell migration, cell polarity, and cell proliferation in ... For example, SCRIB is known to inhibit breast cancer formation and the depletion of SCRIB promotes neoplastic growth by ... The Scribble complex plays a role in determining cell polarity and cell proliferation in epithelial cells. The precise ...
These protein complexes are involved in cytokinesis, chitin deposition, cell polarity, spore formation, in the morphogenesis ... are delocalized from the apical pole to the entire plasma membrane of the bud, but not the mother cell. The septin ring at the ... In the case of Aspergillus nidulans polarity is conveyed by disassembly of the more basal ring (the ring further away from the ... Septins have been implicated in the localization of cellular processes at the site of cell division, and at the cell membrane ...
... and cytosolic components of the cell accumulate in the apical region while the nucleus of each cell moves to the basal region. ... "cell-polarity model". This model states that the orientation of the cleavage plane at the 8-cell and 16-cell stages determines ... "Dedifferentiation into blastomere-like cancer stem cells via formation of polyploid giant cancer cells". Oncogene. 36 (34): ... microtubules within the morula's cytosolic material in the blastomere cells can develop into important membrane functions, such ...
Initial polarization of blastomeres occurs at the 8-16 cell stage. An apical-basolateral polarity is visible through the ... Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. Cell 95:379-391. ... while the remaining cells adopt a primitive ectoderm (or epiblast) fate. The hypoblast contributes to extraembryonic membranes ... and aPKC as well as the basal marker E-Cadherin. The establishment of such a polarity during compaction is thought to generate ...
During EMT, the following major events occur: malignant epithelial cells lose their apical-basal polarity due to disruption in ... and subjected to remodeling with the formation of stress fibers that are collected in certain cell parts near the cell membrane ... since these molecules play a key role both in the formation of cell-cell contacts and in the interactions between tumor cells ... type 1 lung alveolar cells, skeletal muscle cells, placenta, etc. Podoplanin expression in breast cancer cells induces cell ...
Two types of dendrites present on pyramidal cells are apical and basal dendrites. Apical dendrites are the most distal along ... A defining characteristic of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum is the apical dendrite. Dendritic arbor formation for pyramidal ... Depolarization of the membrane may also trigger these bursts. Calcium entry into the cell causes more prolonged depolarization ... with the polarity shifted from negative to positive within the superficial layer. The hippocampus contains pyramidal neurons in ...
These cells have an apical-basal polarity defined by the apical membrane facing the outside surface of the body, or the lumen ... "Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo". www.wormbook.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06. Munro, Edwin; Nance, Jeremy ... refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the basal membrane where cells ... Classical examples of polarized cells are described below, including epithelial cells with apical-basal polarity, neurons in ...
At a synapse, the membrane of the axon closely adjoins the membrane of the target cell, and special molecular structures serve ... of a neuron receive input signals at the basal region, and at the apical region the neuron's axon provides output signals. The ... Both of these functions support neuron cell polarity, in which dendrites (and, in some cases the soma) ... Netrin (also known as UNC-6) a secreted protein, functions in axon formation. When the UNC-5 netrin receptor is mutated, ...
"Fine structure of cell plate formation in the apical meristem of Phaseolus roots". Journal of Ultrastructure Research. 19 (5-6 ... Hepler, P. K. (1980). "Membranes in the mitotic apparatus of barley cells". Journal of Cell Biology. 86 (2): 490-499. doi: ... polarity to be part of the actomyosin motor that provides the motive force for cytoplasmic streaming in these giant algal cells ... The blepharoplast in each spermatid generates 100-150 basal bodies, each of which gives rise to the 9+2 arrangement of ...
Gönczy, P. and Rose, L.S. Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo (October 15, 2005), WormBook, ed. The C. ... The C. elegans Research Community, WormBook, doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.30.1 Schneider, SQ; Bowerman, B (2003). "Cell polarity and ... therefore the asymmetric segregation of Numb to the basal cortex biases the response of the daughter cells to Notch signaling, ... Unlike the classic idea of cortical differences at the zygotic membrane that determine spindle asymmetry in the C. elegans ...
The connexon complexes stretches across the cell membrane and when two adjacent cell connexons interact, they form a complete ... elegans apical junction. In multicellular plants, the structural functions of cell junctions are instead provided for by cell ... "The triple-repeat protein Anakonda controls epithelial tricellular junction formation in Drosophila". Developmental Cell. 33 (5 ... Connexon pores vary in size, polarity and therefore can be specific depending on the connexin proteins that constitute each ...
In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells ... 2004). "A novel transmembrane protein recruits numb to the plasma membrane during asymmetric cell division". J. Biol. Chem. 279 ... "Numb links extracellular cues to intracellular polarity machinery to promote chemotaxis". Dev. Cell. 20 (5): 610-22. doi: ... a positive feed-forward response that potentiates Numb-chemotactic receptor binding and subsequent endosomal complex formation ...
His laboratory works on the molecular mechanisms of epithelial polarity, including both apical-basal polarity and planar cell ... "Pak1 Kinase Maintains Apical Membrane Identity in Epithelia". Cell Reports. 22 (7): 1639-1646. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.01.060 ... particularly for formation of the adult fly wings, legs and halteres during metamorphosis. Thompson's lab discovered several ... While epithelial cell polarity and cell proliferation are fundamental to the construction of an epithelium, and can influence ...
The cells in this tissue express E-cadherin and apical-basal polarity.[32] Since gastrulation is a very rapid process, E- ... cells in a primary tumor lose cell-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin repression and break through the basement membrane with ... neural crest formation, heart valve formation, palatogenesis and myogenesis.[3] Epithelial and mesenchymal cells differ in ... The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell ...
establishment or maintenance of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity. • viral process. • T cell cytokine production. • T cell ... cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. • microtubule. • cell nucleus. • cell projection membrane. • membrane raft. • ionotropic ... regulation of cell shape. • establishment of centrosome localization. • immunological synapse formation. • cortical actin ... postsynaptic membrane. • membrane. • cell-cell junction. • bicellular tight junction. • node of Ranvier. • synapse. • ...
establishment or maintenance of apical/basal cell polarity. • regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of attachment ... mutant of Cdc42Hs targets to membranes and activates filopodia formation but does not cycle with the cytosol of mammalian cells ... cell projection. • myelin. • extracellular exosome. • filopodium. • plasma membrane. • spindle. • apical part of cell. • ... leading edge membrane. • cell periphery. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • midbody. Biological process. • ...
... the minus-ends of the microtubule polymer are anchored near the site of cell-cell contact and organized along the apical-basal ... Astral microtubules interact with motor proteins at the cell membrane to pull the spindle and the entire cell apart once the ... Since these stable modified microtubules are typically oriented towards the site of cell polarity in interphase cells, this ... "Relationship between microtubule dynamics and lamellipodium formation revealed by direct imaging of microtubules in cells ...
The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... In an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by special channels called gap ... It is widely accepted that the synapse plays a role in the formation of memory. As neurotransmitters activate receptors across ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ...
The membrane from each cell is the dark line with the whiter narrow gap between the two darkly stained membranes. In such ... Studies allowing views inside the plane of the membrane of gap junctions during formation indicated that a "formation plaque" ... "Connexin43 modulates cell polarity and directional cell migration by regulating microtubule dynamics". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e26379 ... Basal/cell-matrix. *Basal lamina. *Hemidesmosome/Tonofibril. *Focal adhesion. *Costamere. Apical. *Cilia/Kinocilium ...
... contributes to cell growth, cell specification and formation, structuring and organization of the body plan. ... is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity". Cell. 75 (7): 1417-30. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90627-3. PMID 7916661. S2CID ... "Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and ... resulting in a 30-fold increase in potency over the non-palmitylated form and is carried out by a member of the membrane-bound ...
Martizez Arias, A; Baker, NE; Ingham, PW (May 1988). "Role of segment polarity genes in the definition and maintenance of cell ... this happens after each nucleus becomes wrapped with its own cell membrane). ... 1980). Genes of the BX-C regulate pattern formation in part of the thorax and in the abdomen, whereas different genes of the ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ...
... it is the tight junctions and basal lamina of the cerebral endothelial cells that play the most substantial role in maintaining ... When in proximity to the pia mater, all three forms of astrocytes send out processes to form the pia-glial membrane. ... The shape of the electrophysiological response is different and has the opposite polarity compared to the characteristic neural ... "Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration". Nature. 532 (7598): 195-200. Bibcode:2016Natur.532.. ...
these cells which are broader on their inner surface are called palisade cells. In the inner epidermis the cells also enlarge ... Key: 1. Endosperm 2. Zygote 3. Embryo 4. Suspensor 5. Cotyledons 6. Shoot Apical Meristem 7. Root Apical Meristem 8. Radicle 9 ... The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm ... The radicle, the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root. ...
Membrane polarity. See also: Epithelial polarity. Alpha intercalated cell. The apical membrane of a polarized cell is the ... The basolateral membrane of a polarized cell is the surface of the plasma membrane that forms its basal and lateral surfaces. ... 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ...
... and generation of apical-basal polarity can involve two or more cells that directly interact through membrane-tethered ... Disruption of EphB2 or ephrin-B1 expression by means of siRNA inhibits colony formation. (B) Proteins identified through siRNA ... cells (fig. S1) (18). We then mixed EphB2+ cells with either ephrin-B1ΔIC+ cells or ephrin-B1+ cells (expressing wild-type ... confirming that the responses initiated by cell-cell contact differ between the distinct cell populations. We compared the cell ...
Among these, the tip cells that lead emerging sprouts lack apical-basal polarity, degrade both basement membrane and ... Dll4 signalling through Notch1 regulates formation of tip cells during angiogenesis. Nature. 2007;445:776-780. doi: 10.1038/ ... the epithelial/endothelial cells lose apical-basal polarity, severe intercellular junctions, and become motile cells. However, ... Endothelial cells (EC) have many epithelial characteristics, including strong apical-basal polarity, the ability to form tubes ...
... and morphological evidence that glomerular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation participates in the formation and ... actin microfilaments and dense bodies within GPEC which retained a normal epithelial morphology with apical-basal polarity and ... to intact segments of the capsular basement membrane contained large bundles of actin microfilaments throughout the cell, and ... a marker of smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, by glomerular parietal epithelial cells (GPEC). The expression of alpha-SMA ...
... neuroepithelial cells express prominin-1 in the apical plasma membrane as well as tight junctions to maintain the cell polarity ... During G1 the cell nucleus migrates to the basal side of the cell and remains there for S phase and migrates to the apical side ... The formation of the neural tube polarizes the neuroepithelial cells by orienting the apical side of the cell to face inward, ... As these additional layers form the apical-basal polarity must be downregulated. Further proliferation of the cells in these ...
... and basal cell surfaces. The evidence for this is: (a) the formation of numerous microvilli over the apical surface (Fig. 5) ⇓ ... ZO-1 was localized at the lateral plasma membrane with a tight cell-cell contact (right bottom, Fig. 6a ⇓ ) and in the ... The restoration of epithelial cell polarity was evident in two ways: (a) the formation of microvilli over the apical surface; ... Restoration of Epithelial Cell Polarity in a Colorectal Cancer Cell Line by Suppression of β-catenin/T-Cell Factor 4-mediated ...
d, g) Metastatic cells exhibit similar phenotypes to malignant cells with the loss of apical/basal polarity, basement membrane ... The interplay between tumor cells, stromal cells, and ECM contributes to the formation of a microenvironment that determines ... b, e) Nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells will form spherical acini with apical/basal polarity, a basement membrane, and a ... As the stiffness of their substrate increased, MCF10A cell aggregates lost apical-basal polarity and grew to increasingly ...
... cell polarity originates during development is not known but may be presumed to arise during apical-basal axis formation in ... 2E). gnomsuspension cells grew as well as wild-type cells, and trafficking of compartment-specific membrane markers was not ... 1). At the 16-cell stage, all cells of the embryo proper accumulated PIN1 at their inner cell boundaries (Fig. 1A). PIN1 first ... These results suggest that GNOM function is required for establishment of coordinated cell polarity in embryo axis formation. ...
... called the basal and apical membranes. Because only certain proteins and lipids are found in basal membranes, while others are ... "What we have shown previously is that when polarity is altered, tissue that otherwise looks normal can be pushed into a cell ... "We are mimicking formation of breast epithelium as it is normally polarized, and we can play with it and make it lose apical ... located only in apical membranes, the cells are said to be polarized. ...
... the formation and maintenance of intercellular junctions and apical membrane domain identity is tightly linked to the activity ... 2009). Remodeling epithelial cell organization: transitions between front-rear and apical-basal polarity. Cold Spring Harb. ... Polarity comes in two main forms: cell polarity and tissue polarity. In cell polarity, asymmetry is achieved in individual ... 2008). Cell polarity and cancer-cell and tissue polarity as a non-canonical tumor suppressor. J. Cell Sci. 121, 1141-1150. doi: ...
... the resultant epidermal cells have the hallmarks of polarized cells with adherens junctions separating the apical and basal- ... 1995) Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... of membrane delivery during cleavage of the embryo may contribute to the initiation and slow emergence of apical-basal polarity ... 1998) Sec6/8 complex is recruited to cell-cell contacts and specifies transport vesicle delivery to the basal-lateral membrane ...
Our analyses suggest that Moesin1 contributes to the maintenance of apical/basal cell polarity of the ISVs as defined by ... Knockdown of the adherens junction protein Ve-cadherin disrupts formation of the apical membrane and lumen in a cell-autonomous ... that Ve-cadherin and Moesin1 function to establish and maintain apical/basal polarity during multicellular lumen formation in ... Cell Polarity; Embryo, Nonmammalian/blood supply*; Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism*; Endothelial Cells/cytology; Endothelial ...
Silencing Pax8 expression inhibited the acquisition of apical-basal membrane polarity and impaired lumen formation. Both ... J Cell Sci.2016 Oct 25. pii: jcs.184291. Organization of epithelial cells during follicular lumen formation is crucial for ... these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. ... Our results demonstrate that Pax8 controls apical-basal follicular polarization and follicle formation through Cdh16. ...
The observed defects are cell-autonomous and the apical-basal cell polarity remains unaffected in sec24 mutant animals. One ... Although the formation of biological tubes is mechanistically different in these tissues (Baer et al., 2009), apical membrane ... Tube formation in multicellular organisms depends on the ability of epithelial cells to polarize and to form basal and apical ... mark the basolateral membrane domains and the cell borders (I,J) between salivary gland cells. In garz mutants (J), the apical ...
Basal bodies in the apical cell membrane of DsRed-expressing cells are indicated by arrows (J′,M′). (K,N) β-catenin ( ... polarity of basal bodies. Emerging evidence suggests that NMII regulates planar polarity formation in several tissues in ... In immature ependymal cells, in which the basal bodies were distributed broadly in the apical membrane (dispersed cells), the ... Basal bodies migrate within the apical cell membrane of differentiating ependymal cells after docking. The results presented ...
... the formation of adherens junctions is essential for the maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity and for the formation of ... 1A). The basal epidermal cells exhibit three distinct plasma membrane domains. The basal domain connects the cells to the ... Lgl2 mediates targeting of Itga6 to the plasma membrane during hemidesmosome formation in basal epidermal cells. (A-C,E) ... and the apical domain attaches to the outer peridermal cells (Fig. 1A). The basal domains of epidermal cells that cover the ...
... apical tight junctions, basement membrane, and basal infoldings (Fig. 2I). These data indicated that RPE cells enriched through ... 2A-H). In addition, TEM showed typical ultrastructure features of mature RPE including cell polarity with apical microvilli, ... Differentiation of RPE cells from integration-free iPS cells and their cell biological characterization. Stem Cell Res Ther. ... Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into functional retinal pigment epithelium cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2009; ...
... the formation of cell junctions and specialized membrane domains maintains the polarized structure along the apico-basal axis, ... CPEB-mediated ZO-1 mRNA localization is required for epithelial tight-junction assembly and cell polarity. Nat Commun 2012;3: ... 58). Nagaoka and colleagues found that CPEB plays a direct role in the apical localization of ZO-1 mRNA, a process that is ... ADAR1 activation drives leukemia stem cell self-renewal by impairing let-7 biogenesis. Cell Stem Cell 2016;19:177-91. ...
On the opposite side of the apical membrane is the basal surface, which anchors cells to a basement membrane. Basement membrane ... required for the formation of early anterio-posterior polarity in oocytes and epithelial apico-basal polarity in follicle cells ... 2008 Cell polarity and cancer: cell and tissue polarity as a non-canonical tumor suppressor. J. Cell Sci. 121, 1141-1150. (doi: ... apico-basal cell polarity of these cells is disrupted. Also lkb1 mutants show similar energy-starvation-dependent polarity ...
Cinderella of mammary cell biology in light of the earlier focus on the luminal cell. Mammary myoepithelial cells have ... In the present review, we discuss the lineage segregation of mammary myoepithelial cells and their functions in mammary gland ... These functions include their effects on luminal cell growth and differentiation, their key role in the establishment of the ... The addition of myoepithelial cells led to the formation of acinus-like aggregates with the correct polarity. The mammary ...
... β1 integrin-mediated adhesion also controls basal-apical cell polarity, which is essential for lumen formation [59]. In ... another type of membrane protrusions) [27, 28]. The FAK/Src complex also phosphorylates p190RhoGAP in cells adhering to ... Integrin cell adhesion receptors participate in cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions [2]. This large family of heterodimeric ... "An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium," Nature Cell Biology, ...
... and concomitant cell-surface delivery of the apical, luminal membrane. The surrounding cells now exhibit apico-basal polarity ... Junctional adhesion molecule-a participates in the formation of apico-basal polarity through different domains. Exp Cell Res. ... RhoA is associated with both apical and basal membranes in epithelial cells50 and at the rear of migrating cells51 and appears ... Lee M, Vasioukhin V. Cell polarity and cancer-cell and tissue polarity as a non-canonical tumor suppressor. J Cell Sci. 2008; ...
Cell-cell adhesion How can small and fragile cells form large and stable organisms? ? 1 1 Cells are ... to prevent molecular movement between the apical and basolateral domains of , each cells plasma membrane 20 20 Cell Polarity ... a t in c Basal Cues 33 33 Conserved apical and basal cues controlling epithelial polarity 34 34 The integration of polarity ... tight junction formation Occludin making the strands SEAL • 4-pass transmembrane receptor • required for , barrier function • ...
Aberrations in apical or basal auxin-carriers localisation leads to severe developmental defects. Therefore, it is crucial to ... In my work I was mostly focused on polarity and function of auxinic-like compounds transporter ABCG37/PIS1, which localises to ... Asymmetric distribution of these proteins determines the directional flow and facilitates the auxin gradient formation. ... trafficking and plasma membrane dynamics. Lukasz Langowski UGent (2012) *Mark ...
motile cells. Stationary epithelial cells display apical-basal polarity and exhibit an even distribution of basal level of ... Rho downstream proteins Rac and Cdc42, regulate membrane ruffling and filopodium formation, respectively (130). Rho/Rac/Cdc42- ... Twist promotes cell motility through cleavage of intercellular junctions and alterations in cell polarity (apical-basal to ... CD4+ T-cells differentiate into effector T-cells including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells; Th1 and Th17 are inflammatory T-cells and ...
... of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is towards the lumen and the basal cytoplasm ... rests on the basement membrane. This apico-basal polarity is lost in invasive breast carcinomas, which are characterized by ... Proper formation and function of embryonic heart valves is critical for developmental progression. The early embryonic heart is ... Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. ...
Apical-Basal Polarity and Tight Junction Protein Expression in RPE Cells in Serum-Free Culture ... However, tight junction formation in cultured RPE cells can also be inhibited by serum, 57 suggesting that multiple unknown ... and confocal microscopy using antibodies directed against RPE proteins expressed in the apical cell membrane (ezrin), in the ... Furthermore, immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the normal apical-basal polarity of RPE cells was preserved, along with ...
... and likened to that of epithelial cells, but rarely demonstrated. In the cerebral and the retinal microvasculature, the uneven ... For a long time, endothelial polarity has intuitively been presumed, ... thus being instrumental for the formation and maintenance of the endothelial polarity [20]. Apical and basal membranes also ... between the apical and basal membranes of the cell; for example, the receptor for transferrin is localised on the apical side ...
... of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is towards the lumen and the basal cytoplasm ... rests on the basement membrane. This apico-basal polarity is lost in invasive breast carcinomas, which are characterized by ... including migration to sites of inflammation and formation of immunological synapses with antigen presenting cells. T cells ... Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed ...
... of apical-basal cell polarity during the generation of epithelial lumens requires molecules acting at the plasma membrane/actin ... Here, we show that the I-BAR-containing IRSp53 protein controls lumen formation and the positioning of the polarity ... Irradiation with blue light-emitting diode enhances osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla. ... ITGB6-ko cells showed significantly decreased expression of integrin ß6 on flow cytometric analysis. Both cell lines exhibited ...
... and adhesion of human lymphoid cells and participates in immunologic synapse formation. ... Probably involved in connections of major cytoskeletal structures to the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating the ... establishment of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity Source: MGI. *gland morphogenesis Source: MGI ... Cell membrane, Cell projection, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Membrane. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and ...
  • The neural tube begins as a single layer of pseudostratified epithelial cells, but rapid proliferation of neuroepithelial cells creates additional layers and eventually three distinct regions of growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make this change, neuroepithelial cells begin to downregulate their epithelial features, by stopping the expression of occludin, a tight junction protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, this shape change is coordinated across many cells of an epithelial layer, generating forces that can bend or fold the cell sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because all of the cells constrict on the apical side, the epithelial sheet bends convexly on the basal side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active trafficking of these endocytosed vesicles along microtubule tracks is also believed to be important, since the depolymerization (but not stabilization) of microtubules reduces the extent of apical constriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cells of the ectoderm begin multiplying rapidly and fold in forming the neural plate, which invaginates during the fourth week of embryonic growth and forms the neural tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Shroom3 is an actin-binding protein and accumulates on the apical side, the most likely mechanism is that Shroom3 aggregates the actin meshwork, generating a squeezing force. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constricting cells have an actin meshwork directly beneath the apical membrane as well as circumferential actin belts lining the adherens junctions between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulsed contractions of the actin meshwork are believed to be primarily responsible for reducing the apical surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cells, or neuroectodermal cells, form the wall of the closed neural tube in early embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cells are the stem cells of the central nervous system, known as neural stem cells, and generate the intermediate progenitor cells known as radial glial cells, that differentiate into neurons and glia in the process of neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of the neural tube polarizes the neuroepithelial cells by orienting the apical side of the cell to face inward, which later becomes the ventricular zone, and the basal side is oriented outward, which contacts the pial, or outer surface of the developing brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the formation of the neural tube, neuroepithelial cells undergo symmetric proliferative divisions that give rise to two new neuroepithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often categorized as neural stem cells, neuroepithelial cells give rise to only a few varieties of neural cells, making them multipotent - a definite distinction from the pluripotent stem cells found in embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural tube cells in Xenopus apically constrict during the initial invagination as well as during hingepoint folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroepithelial cells span the thickness of the tube's wall, connecting with the pial surface and with the ventricular or lumenal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cells, apical constriction occurs when actomyosin contractility folds the cell membrane to reduce the apical surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apical constriction plays a central role in important morphogenetic events in both invertebrates and vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hippo pathway component Expanded, an Aldara inhibition apically localized adaptor protein, is mislocalized in both mutant cells and Crb overexpressing tissues, whereas the other Hippo pathway components, Fat and Merlin, are unaffected. (clarkfrancis.com)
  • These protein localize towards the basolateral membrane and so are necessary for each other's localization, and Aldara inhibition perturbation from the Dlg complicated causes lack of basolateral markers and development of apical markers (1C4). (clarkfrancis.com)