Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.TritiumSpectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Polybrene in combination with DMSO shock is used to transfect some cell types such as NIH-3T3 and CHO. It has other uses, ... is a cationic polymer used to increase the efficiency of transduction of certain cells with retrovirus in cell culture. ... increases retrovirus gene transfer efficiency by enhancing receptor-independent virus adsorption on the target cell membranes ... Polybrene is also used in enzyme kinetic assays in order to reduce spontaneous activation of zymogens that are prone to auto ...
Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data ... The reduction of PTPkappa expression in CHO cells with PTPkappa siRNA increased EGFR phosphorylation. Therefore, the hypothesis ... In cell-free assays, the presence of hydrogen peroxide reduces PTPkappa tyrosine phophatase activity and increases EGFR ... PTPkappa mediates homophilic cell-cell aggregation via its extracellular domain. PTPkappa only mediates binding between cells ...
Classical cadherins are important proteins for cells to bind in the body (''in vivo'') where they commonly stabilize cell-cell ... PTPmu has been shown to increase the mRNA of the K+ channel Kv1.5 in cardiac myocytes when CHO cells expressing PTPmu are ... The Ig domain is also responsible for localizing PTPmu to the plasma membrane surface of the cell. The ability of closely ... A neurite outgrowth assay is a type of experiment where neurons are placed on different adhesive substrates on tissue culture ...
... cDNA cloning by functional complementation on a CHO cell mutant, patient analysis, and characterization of PEX12p". Mol. Cell. ... 2002). "Analysis of mammalian peroxin interactions using a non-transcription-based bacterial two-hybrid assay". Mol. Cell. ... 2001). "Human Pex19p Binds Peroxisomal Integral Membrane Proteins at Regions Distinct from Their Sorting Sequences". Mol. Cell ... Although the clinical features of PBD patients vary, cells from all PBD patients exhibit a defect in the import of one or more ...
... and export of the 13-OXO-glutathione conjugate in HT-29 cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell ... Cho, Y; Ziboh, V. A (1994). "Incorporation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) into epidermal ceramides and ... Kühn, H; Belkner, J; Wiesner, R; Alder, L (1990). "Occurrence of 9- and 13-keto-octadecadienoic acid in biological membranes ... "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter™ Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
This particular motif suggests that it may increase cell-to-cell contact in cells which express TIG1 (Jing et al., 2002). TIG1 ... Cho et al.: "Hypermethylation of CpG island loci and hypomethylation of LINE-1 and Alu repeats in prostate adenocarcinoma and ... decreased in vitro invasiveness was measured using an extracellular matrix migration assay over a period of 48 hours. This same ... is predicted to contain a membrane anchor at the N-terminus. TIG1 contains two faces: the first face contains homology to the ...
"Membrane protein hMYADM preferentially expressed in myeloid cells is up-regulated during differentiation of stem cells and ... Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify ... Youn SW, Kim DS, Cho HJ, et al. (August 2004). "Cellular senescence induced loss of stem cell proportion in the skin in vitro ... 2005). "Somatic stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 is expressed in embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors". Stem Cells. 23 (6 ...
They identified cytoplasmic membranes inserted perpendicularly onto the basement membrane with occasional cells containing ... Cho, Eunyoung; Curhan, G; Hankinson, SE; Kantoff, P; Atkins, MB; Stampfer, M; Choueiri, TK (2011). "Prospective Evaluation of ... "Optimization of the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10K 2.0 Assay for routine clinical use on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ... The most common cell type exhibited by renal cell carcinoma is the clear cell, which is named by the dissolving of the cells' ...
... a critical review of sphere-formation as an assay for stem cells". Cell stem cell. 8 (5): 486-98. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2011.04. ... CD200 (OX-2) is a type 1 membrane glycoprotein, which delivers an inhibitory signal to immune cells including T cells, natural ... Dalerba, P; Dylla, SJ; Park, IK; Liu, R; Wang, X; Cho, RW; Hoey, T; Gurney, A; Huang, EH; Simeone, DM; Shelton, AA; Parmiani, G ... "Critical appraisal of the side population assay in stem cell and cancer stem cell research". Cell stem cell. 8 (2): 136-47. doi ...
... are produced by metabolically active bacterial cells, and the OMVs are not the result of cell lysis or cell death. Pathogenic ... These outer membrane proteins are involved in the transfer of the antimicrobial genetic material in the cell. Loss of either ... Subscription required (help)). Choi, JP; Cho, EH; Lee, SJ; Lee, ST; Koo, MS; Song, YG (2012). "Influx of multidrug resistant, ... "Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based FUnctional Assay for Rapid Detection of ...
Cho, Y. S.; Chung, H. -M.; Kim, K. -S.; Cha, H. -J. (2013). "Inhibition of pluripotent stem cell-derived teratoma formation by ... A common feature of pluripotent stem cells is the specific nature of protein glycosylation of their outer membrane. That ... iPSCs have been shown to support the development of all-iPSC mice using a tetraploid (4n) embryo, the most stringent assay for ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ...
LTC4 exits its cells of origin through the MRP1 transporter (ABCC1) and is rapidly converted to LTD4 and then to LTE4) by cell ... which promote the translocation of ALOX5 form the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm to the cited membranes, are induced by cell ... Cho NK, Joo YC, Wei JD, Park JI, Kim JH (2013). "BLT2 is a pro-tumorigenic mediator during cancer progression and a therapeutic ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ...
... egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay and an epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells, in comparison with ... Cho, Sun (May 15, 2012). "A new cell-based method for assessing the eye irritation potential of chemicals: alternative to the ... the use of human corneal cell line (HCE-T cells) is also another good alternative method to test eye irritation on potential ... "Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes". J. ...
... membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases in gliomas revealed by profiling proteases and inhibitors in human cancer cells. Mol. ... Cell Proteomics 3(6):565-76 (2004). Bredemeyer A.J., Lewis R.M., Malone J.P., Davis A.E., Gross J., Townsend R.R., Ley T.J. A ... 1;1702(1):79-87 (2004). Lee A.Y., Goo Park S., Kho C.W., Young Park S., Cho S., Lee S.C., Lee D.H, Myung P.K., Park B.C. ... Unfortunately, these assays fail to provide insight on enzymatic function for proteases and suffer similar drawbacks to western ...
CHO cells[edit]. DHFR lacking CHO cells are the most commonly used cell line for the production of recombinant proteins. These ... DHFR has been used as a tool to detect protein-protein interactions in a protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA). ... "In vitro binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor to the beta adaptin of plasma membrane coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal ... which are important for cell proliferation and cell growth.[14] DHFR plays a central role in the synthesis of nucleic acid ...
... red blood cells. Exosomes are either released from the cell when multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane or ... Balaj, L.; Lessard, R.; Dai, L.; Cho, Y. J.; Pomeroy, S. L.; Breakefield, X. O.; Skog, J. (2011). "Tumour microvesicles contain ... Well-known examples of assays to detect proteins in total populations of exosomes are mass spectrometry and Western blot. ... Composed of cellular membranes with multiple adhesive proteins on their surface, exosomes are known to specialize in cell-cell ...
"Glutathione transferases as mediators of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and cell death". Cell Death Differ. ... Similarly, in humans, renal proximal tubular cells contain high concentrations of alpha GST, while distal tubular cells contain ... GST can be added to a protein of interest to purify it from solution in a process known as a pull-down assay. This is ... Long F, Cho W, Ishii Y (September 2011). "Expression and purification of 15N- and 13C-isotope labeled 40-residue human ...
γ-Secretase inhibitors (e. g. semagacestat). These work to block the second cleavage of APP in the cell membrane and would then ... Studies focusing on human breast cancer cell lines have further demonstrated that these cancerous cells display an increased ... Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Kim, Jinsik; Kim, Gangeun; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hye Yun; Lee, Sejin; Cho, Won Woo; Kim, Seongsoo; Lee, Sang- ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta. ...
Modern pharmacological studies indicate that binding to receptors or ion channels on cell membranes is the first step of some ... ISBN 978-0-521-36377-8. Lee YS, Park JS, Cho SD, Son JK, Cherdshewasart W, Kang KS (Dec 2002). "Requirement of metabolic ... Many phytochemicals, including curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein and resveratrol are pan-assay interference ... and protection of cells from premature aging, antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and ...
... more receptor protein is synthesized and transported to the membrane of the cell and, thus, the sensitivity of the cell is ... Cheadle C, Fan J, Cho-Chung YS, Werner T, Ray J, Do L, Gorospe M, Becker KG (2005). "Control of gene expression during T cell ... Cells do this by modulating the capping, splicing, addition of a Poly(A) Tail, the sequence-specific nuclear export rates, and ... To measure the transcription rates nuclear run-on assays can be done and newer high-throughput methods are being developed, ...
Cell fate is regulated by both interactions between stem cells and interactions between stem cells and membrane proteins. ... In situ microscopy assays with microfluidic cell cultures may help in this regard, but have inherently lower throughput due to ... Cho, Brenda S.; Schuster, Timothy G.; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Chang, David; Smith, Gary D.; Takayama, Shuichi (2003). "Passively Driven ... Manipulating cell seeding density is a common biological technique in controlling cell-cell interactions, but controlling local ...
... and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum for proteins that are for export from the cell or insertion into a cell membrane ... Kober L, Zehe C, Bode J (April 2013). "Optimized signal peptides for the development of high expressing CHO cell lines". ... this gives cells the flexibility to adapt to a variable environment, external signals, damage to the cell, and other stimuli. ... The gel-based nature of this assay makes quantification less accurate, but it has the advantage of being able to identify later ...
This synthetic cell will be now able to show scientists how truly a cell works. Now that they have synthetic cells growing in ... "First Self-Replicating Synthetic Bacterial Cell". Press Release. Retrieved 17 December 2012. Cho, M. K.; Magnus, D; Caplan, AL ... Since, mycoplasmas are built with a minimum set of organelles such as: a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a circular double ... Bochner, B. R.; Gadzinski, P; Panomitros, E (2001). "Phenotype MicroArrays for High-Throughput Phenotypic Testing and Assay of ...
In the next step, Pax6 is downregulated and Tbr2 is expressed as the cell differentiates into an intermediate progenitor cell. ... Successive migrations of neurons divide the preplate such that its inner cells form the cortical plate while its outer cells ... Jones DT, Jäger N, Kool M, Zichner T, Hutter B, Sultan M, Cho YJ, Pugh TJ, Hovestadt V, Stütz AM, Rausch T, Warnatz HJ, Ryzhova ... Through luciferase reporter assays of neurons in the hippocampus, it was found that increased Tbr1/CASK complex expression ...
Cell Biol. 11 (11): 1315-24. doi:10.1038/ncb1984. Van HT, Le QM, Lee KY, Lee ES, Kwon Y, Kim TS, Le TN, Lee SH, Cho WJ. ... resistance of cancer cells overexpressing membrane transporters, and 4) dose-limiting side effects of diarrhea and neutropenia ... Fisher, L. Mark; Pan, Xiao-Su (2008), "Methods to Assay Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Activities", New ... Cho WJ, Le QM, My Van HT, Youl Lee K, Kang BY, Lee ES, Lee SK, Kwon Y (Jul 2007). "Design, docking, and synthesis of novel ...
nuclear membrane. • membrane. • nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell nucleus. • extracellular region. • ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... Cho NK, Joo YC, Wei JD, Park JI, Kim JH (2013). "BLT2 is a pro-tumorigenic mediator during cancer progression and a therapeutic ... VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase ...
Receptor Cell Lines & Membranes. check quantity Membrane Target Systems: N-formyl Peptide (FPRL1) (human) membrane preparation ... One assay unit is defined as micrograms of protein, defined by competition binding assay (filtration). A complete product ... Our Membrane Target System membranes are prepared from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. Selected for ... Membrane Target Systems are quality assured frozen membranes from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. We ...
Receptor Cell Lines & Membranes. check quantity Membrane Target Systems: Glutamate mGlu5a (human) membrane preparation, in CHO- ... One assay unit is defined as micrograms of protein, defined by competition binding assay (filtration). A complete product ... Membrane Target Systems: Glutamate mGlu5a (human) membrane preparation, in CHO-K1 cells. 400 Units. Part Number : ES-555-M400UA ... Our Membrane Target System membranes are prepared from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. Selected for ...
... in CHO-K1 cells. 400 Units. on Neobits.com shop. Our Membrane Target System membranes are prepared from cells that express ... Membrane Target Systems: Opioid Mu (OP3) (human) membrane preparation, ... Selected for optimal performance in binding assays. Membrane Target Systems are quality assured frozen membranes from cells ... PerkinElmer - ES-542-M400UA - Membrane Target Systems: Opioid Mu (OP3) (human) membrane preparation, in CHO-K1 cells. 400 Units ...
All synthesized chalcone compounds could be taken to visualize hH3R proteins in stably transfected HEK-293 cells using confocal ... All synthesized chalcone compounds could be taken to visualize hH3R proteins in stably transfected HEK-293 cells using confocal ... In HEK-293 cells which do not have human hH3R, no enrichment of ligand in the outer cell membrane can be identified (Figures 3A ... CHO-K1 cells expressing the human histamine H1 receptor were used for membrane extraction. In brief, human histamine H1 ...
CHO,Cells,Expressing,the,Human,5-HT1B,Receptor,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology ... Flashplate Assay Membrane immobilization onto FlashPlate. CHO cells expressing the h5-HT1B receptor were diluted to a desired ... Several experiments were performed to determine the optimum conditions for binding in FlashPlate coated with CHO cell membranes ... Prior to [35S]-GTPγS binding assay, the CHO cells were prepared as described by Thomas, et al ., 1995, and frozen in aliquots ...
35S]Guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]Triphosphate (GTPγS)-Binding Assay.. [35S]GTP[γS]-binding assays by using CHO-CCR5 cell membranes (20 ... RANTES Inhibition Assay.. Membranes from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human CCR5 (Biosignal, Montreal) were ... In the screening assay, [125I]RANTES binding to CHO cell membranes expressing CCR5 was measured in the presence and absence of ... RANTES to the CHO cell membranes expressing human CCR5. The Ki value for SCH-C in this assay is 2.9 nM (Fig. 1B). To determine ...
Membranes from CHO cells expressing the MCH receptor were prepared by lysing cells with 5 mM HEPES for 15 min at 4C. Cell ... MCH Receptor Binding Assay:. ... 1 mg of cell membranes were incubated with 10 mg of wheat germ ... R2 is hydrogen, Boc, alkyl or -S(O2)R3; R3 is alkyl; R4 is -(alkylene)NR5R6, -CN, alkoxy, R9-substituted heterocyclyl, CHO, -C ... The membrane/bead mixture (100 μl) was then added to 96-well plates containing 50 μl of 500 pM [125I]-MCH (NEN) and 50 ml of ...
For the [35S]GTPγS assay, membranes were prepared from CHO cells stably expressing rmGluR3. The assay mixtures contained 10 μg ... Functional Calcium Mobilization Assay for mGluR8. The rat mGluR8/Gqi9/CHO cell lines were plated at a seeding density of 4 × 10 ... Membranes were prepared from CHO cells stably expressing hm-GluR2 and were incubated with 1 nM [3H]LY341495 in a final volume ... 3H]LY341495 binding was measured in CHO cell membranes stably expressing hmGluR2. As shown in Fig. 6A, the three compounds ...
CHO/chemerinR cells). Receptor activation was tested in a GTPγ[35S] binding assay, using membranes from CHO/chemerinR cells (EC ... We developed, as a screening assay, CHO-K1 cell lines coexpressing human ChemR23, apoaequorin, and Gα16, allowing to test ... binding assay, using membranes of CHO/chemerinR cells. (E) Immunodetection of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in CHO/chemerinR cells ... in the culture medium of hamster CHO-K1 cells, simian Cos-7 cells, or human HEK293 cells (unpublished data), as well as in ...
Assays were performed in membranes from CHOκ, C6μ, and C6δ cells as described under Materials and Methods. Data are expressed ... In Vitro Binding Assay.Ligand binding assay. Cell membranes (20 μg of protein) were incubated at 25°C in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer ... Cell Culture and Membrane Preparation. C6 glioma cells stably transfected with μ-or δ-opioid receptors (C6μ,C6δ) (Lee et al., ... 35S]GTPγS binding assays. Cell membranes (10-20 μg) were incubated for 60 min in a shaking water bath at 25°C with 30 mM Tris- ...
GTPγS binding assay in CHO cell membranes] (18). ... HEK cells, human embryonic kidney cells; LgBiT, large BiT; ... CELL CULTURE AND MOR REPORTER ASSAY. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells were routinely maintained at 37 °C, 5% CO2, under ... HEK 293T cells were plated in 6-well plates at 5 × 105 cells/well. The next day, cells were transiently transfected with FuGENE ... 2. Influence of GRK2 on the performance of the MOR reporter assay.. HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with MOR-LgBiT, ...
Cell Culture and Membrane Preparation.. FlpIn-CHO cells stably expressing the A1AR were generated and cultured as described ... Cell Viability Assay and Imaging.. Detection of nonviable cells resulting from ischemia was achieved by PI staining assay. For ... DPCPX and membrane-based functional assays of [35S]GTPγS binding in CHO cells stably expressing the human A1AR. Data represent ... we determined the affinity of the hybrids and comparator ligands in whole-cell binding assays performed on FlpIn-CHO cells ...
Membranes were prepared from Chinese hamster ovary recombinant cells stably expressing the human NK-3 receptor. The membranes ... Binding assays consisted of 25 μl of membrane suspension (approximately 3.75 μg of protein/well in a 96 well plate), 50 μl of ... The affinity of compounds of the invention for the NK-1 receptor was evaluated in CHO recombinant cells which express the human ... Generally, only the unbound or "free fraction" of a drug is available for diffusion or transport across cell membranes, and for ...
2.4.1. Competition Binding Assay. Frozen membrane preparations from CHO-K1 cells transfected with human CB1 (hCB1) and CB2 ( ... The total radiolabeling time was around 40 min after delivery of [11C]CO2 from the cyclotron to the hot-cell. Specific activity ... In vitro competitive binding assays were performed with membranes obtained from CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human CB1 ... Produced [18F]fluoride/[18O]water solution was transferred using a helium stream from the target to a shielded hot cell ...
Small quantities of membrane are required, with proven succes using native tissue, mammalian and insect cell lines, bacteria, ... pumps and ion channels in diverse and heterologous membranes can be investigated with high sensitivity and high efficiency ... Duration 30 minutes, CHO cell membrane preparation.. * Sensor stability over time. The same assay was repeated at different ... Cells were kindly provided by Charles River.. NCX1 over-expressed in HEK cells was recorded on the SURFE2R 96SE. A membrane ...
Receptor Cell Lines & Membranes. check quantity Membrane Target Systems: Somatostatin sst3 (human) membrane preparation, in CHO ... One assay unit is defined as micrograms of protein, defined by competition binding assay (filtration). A complete product ... Our Membrane Target System membranes are prepared from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. Selected for ... Membrane Target Systems are quality assured frozen membranes from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. We ...
CGP62349 to membranes from stably transfected CHO cells was measured in a scintillation proximity assay using wheat germ ... The cells were grown to 80 to 90% confluence in 14-cm cell culture dishes. For some specificity experiments, a CHO cell line ... Stable Transfection and Culture of CHO Cell Clones.. Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells were stably transfected with GABAB ... binding in membranes from CHO cells stably expressing the human mGluR2 receptor. The GTPγ[35S] assay was performed as described ...
... oryzae-induced endothelial or CHO cell damage was quantified using a 51Cr release assay (48). Briefly, endothelial cells or CHO ... Extraction of endothelial cell membrane proteins. Endothelial cell membrane proteins were extracted according to the method of ... Endothelial cells and CHO cells. Endothelial cells were collected from umbilical vein endothelial cells by the method of Jaffe ... Interaction of fungi with endothelial or CHO cells. The number of organisms endocytosed by endothelial cells or CHO cells was ...
"Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) displaced [3H]CP55940 from specific binding sites on mouse brain and CHO-hCB2 cell membranes ( ... 2004), or with CHO-hCB2 cell membranes (Ross et al., 1999a). The hCB2 transfected cells were removed from flasks by scraping ... GTPγS-binding assay when CHO-hCB2 cell membranes were used. Interestingly, its apparent KB-value in these experiments was ... These CHO-hCB2 cells were passed twice a week using a nonenzymatic cell dissociation solution.. Membrane preparation. Binding ...
CHO) cells was assessed by in situ mobility assays. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to probe molecular ... Upon stimulation with 50 nM EGF, a significant decrease from 0.11 to 0.07 μm2/s in the diffusion coefficient of membrane- ... The slow, 100-1000 ms component was attributed to membrane localized receptors moving with free Brownian diffusion, whereas the ... the time course of the mobility and aggregation states of eGFP tagged EGFR in the membranes of Chinese hamster ovary ( ...
Expression of M3R in CHO cells promoted plasma membrane localization of YFP-PLCβ3. Deletion of the PLCβ3 C terminus or deletion ... In assays using reconstituted purified components in vitro, M3Ri2, M3Ri3, and M3R/H8-CT potentiated Gαq-dependent but not Gβγ- ... GST-Ric-8·Gα complexes were isolated from whole cell detergent lysates with glutathione-Sepharose. Gα subunits were dissociated ... Co-expression of Gα subunits with Ric-8A or Ric-8B in HEK293 cells or insect cells greatly promoted Gα protein expression. We ...
F) Displacement of 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in human 5-HT1A CHO cell membranes by 8-OH-DPAT (n = 6) and THCV ... of 5-HT₁A receptors in membranes obtained from rat brainstem or human 5-HT₁A CHO cells, using [(35)S]-GTPγS and 8-[(3)H]-OH- ... DPAT binding assays. In vivo studies investigated whether THCV induces signs of 5-HT₁A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects ... GTPγS binding to human 5-HT1A CHO cell membranes in the presence of DMSO (vehicle) or 100 nM THCV (n = 8). (E) Effect of 8-OH- ...
Receptor binding and [35S]-GTPγS binding assay. A. Membranes of CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the V1A receptor were incubated ... Effect of SP-G on proliferation of SCLC cells and V1A expressing CHO-K1 cells. A, B. H69-SCLC cell growth. The effect of SP-G ... CHO-K1 cells were cultured in low adhesion plates in the presence or absence of 100 ng mL−1 PTX for 7 days. Viable cells were ... CHO-K1 cells were incubated with AVP (left) or SP-G (right) at the indicated concentrations for 10 min at 37°C. Cells were ...
Cell line (such as CHO, HEK293 cells) over‐expressing membrane receptor of interest ... Assays for determination of protein concentration. Curr. Protoc. Protein Sci. 48:3.4.1‐3.4.29. ... Genetically encoded chemical probes in cells reveal the binding path of urocortin‐I to CRF class B GPCR. Cell. 155:1258‐1269. ... Protein photo‐cross‐linking in mammalian cells by site‐specific incorporation of a photoreactive amino acid. Nat. Methods 2:201 ...
Membrane Preparation. For [35S]GTPS and iodinated chemokine binding experiments, membranes from HEK 293T or CHO-K1 cells were ... Clones expressing the highest amounts of receptors at the cell surface were used for chemokine binding assays. Clones were ... HEK 293T cells) or Hams F-12 (CHO cells) containing 20 mM HEPES and 1% BSA (2 x 106 cells/ml), in the presence or absence of ... Saturation binding experiments of CCL4 to membranes from CHO-K1 cells expressing wt-CCR5 or D125V-CCR5 were performed using ...
  • They potentiate GABA-stimulated guanosine 5′- O -(3-[ 35 S]thiotriphosphate) (GTPγ[ 35 S]) binding to membranes from a GABA B(1b/2) expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line at low micromolar concentrations and are ineffective in the absence of GABA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The surfactant Pluronic F-68 (PF-68) is widely used in large-scale mammalian cell culture to protect cells from shear stress that arises from agitation and gas sparging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Luciferase Assay Kit provides rapid, sensitive, and quantitative measurement of American firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase activity in cultured mammalian cells. (selectscience.net)
  • Therefore, we have produced a recombinant soluble form of LFA-1 (sLFA-1 2 ), a truncated form of LFA-1 lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, in mammalian cells to facilitate the study of the ICAM-1/LFA-1 interaction ( 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A prerequisite for the successful manufacture of a biopharmaceutical in mammalian cells is a cell line development strategy that selects a cell line with the most desirable properties from a heterogeneous transfectant population. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • A recombinant CHO cell linesecreting a soluble E-selectin-IgG chimera was cultivated competitively under serum free conditions in three different bioreactor systems: a 1 l Super-Spinner, a 2 l stirred tank bioreactor equipped with a spinfilter, and a 100 l stirred tankbioreactor. (springer.com)
  • Its activity was verified in a cellular adhesion assay performed with HL-60 cells and a recombinant CHO cell line expressing membrane-anchored E-selectin constitutively, and E-selectin expressing HUVECs, respectively. (springer.com)
  • To address this point, we have developed an integrated autocrine system that uses a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) luciferase reporter cell line that permanently expresses the human ET A receptor. (ahajournals.org)
  • APC recruitment is expected to contribute to the development of an antitumoral immune response, and such an effect has been demonstrated in a number of animal studies in which the forced expression of chemokines, such as RANTES, by tumor cell lines resulted in a decreased pathogenicity of these cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The CB2 receptor on the other hand is found predominantly in cells of the immune system, spleen, lymph nodes but has very low or undetectable expression levels in the CNS under basal conditions [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression of M3R in CHO cells promoted plasma membrane localization of YFP-PLCβ3. (stanford.edu)
  • Expression of -arrestin in R126N-CCR5-expressing cells resulted in receptor down-regulation, thereby suggesting that R126N-CCR5 spontaneously interacts with -arrestins. (39kf.com)
  • However, although expression of -arrestin favored wild-type CCR5-mediated chemotaxis, it failed to promote migration of cells expressing R126N-CCR5. (39kf.com)
  • Expression of Bcl-2 or CrmA each suppressed cadmium-induced cell death although Bcl-2 was somewhat more effective than CrmA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ΔN-APP expression and processed fragments (arrows) were determined by immunoblot assay using α-APP C-terminus. (biologists.org)
  • APP expression and processing was determined by immunoblot assay using α-APP C-terminus. (biologists.org)
  • Alterations in the gene expression levels of Bcl‑2 family members were measured by semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this study, the authors sought to determine whether cytokines and hydroquinone (HQ) affect mCRP expression in cultured human RPE (hRPE) and cultured mouse RPE (mRPE) cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cultured hRPE cell mCRP expression was upregulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and a repetitive nonlethal dose of HQ. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using proprietary expression systems, our GPCR and hERG Ion Channel membrane preps have excellent signal-to-background ratios to generate data you can count on. (eurofinsdiscovery.com)
  • Further analysis revealed that CHO-18.4m cells were deficient in the expression of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. (asm.org)
  • Soluble E-selectin-IgG was used to block adhesion to these cell layerscompetitively. (springer.com)
  • A soluble form of LFA-1 (sLFA-1), normally expressed as two noncovalently associated membrane-bound subunits, has been produced, and its interaction with ICAM-1 has been examined. (jimmunol.org)
  • The release of soluble cytosolic enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase release assay (G6PD) assays, into the supernatant can be easily quantified. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, the cellular uptake of TIMP-3 significantly slowed down after 10 h due to shedding of LRP-1 from the cell surface and formation of soluble LRP-1 (sLRP-1)-TIMP-3 complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, a number of studies have demonstrated that the infiltration of tumors by macrophages and DCs contributed to their aggressive phenotype by supplying different classes of factors necessary for tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness, such as growth and angiogenic factors, as well as proteolytic enzymes ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • 3'-Deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used to identify proliferating tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hahne M, Jäger U, Isenmann S, Hallmann R and Vestweber D (1993) Five tumor necrosis factor-inducible cell adhesion mechanisms on the surface of mouse endothelioma cells mediate the binding of leukocytes. (springer.com)
  • The antibody was typically administered to the CNS by implanting antibody-producing hybridoma cells into the brain, either encapsulated or directly as suspension, leading to tumor growth and immunological problems. (jneurosci.org)
  • This compound specifically inhibits HIV-1 infection mediated by CCR5 in U-87 astroglioma cells but has no effect on infection of CXCR4-expressing cells. (pnas.org)
  • The FLIPR Membrane Potential Assay Kit combines the benefits of highlyinformative data that is comparable to patch clamping data with the benefits of high-throughput screening achievable using the FLIPR system. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The alamarBlue and PrestoBlue assays are designed to be simple and convenient by providing the reagents in a proprietary stabilizing formulation with a "add, incubate, and read" protocol that is scalable from single wells to high-throughput screening (HTS). (thermofisher.com)
  • Pope, A.J. Simple absorbance-based assays for ultra-high throughput screening. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Yuan, P.M. Homogeneous cell- and bead-based assays for high throughput screening using fluorometric microvolume assay technology. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Deletion of the PLCβ3 C terminus or deletion of the PLCβ3 PDZ ligand inhibited coimmunoprecipitation with M3R and M3R-dependent PLCβ3 plasma membrane localization. (stanford.edu)
  • Undoped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) layers and cells have been deposited by plasma chemical vapour deposition at low temperature at different powers and silane dilutions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several studies suggested that PF-68 is incorporated into the cell plasma membrane and could enter the cells, but without providing any direct evidence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dye is subsequently added to the cells and equilibrates across the plasma membrane. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Cells with compromised or damaged plasma membranes allow for the influx of cell-impermeant dyes and the efflux or release of cytosolic enzymes into the surrounding media. (thermofisher.com)
  • Genomic regulation of the OXTR is mediated via suppression of ER signaling by P. Upon OT binding at the plasma membrane of endometrial cells, a signaling cascade is generated stimulating release of prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This signaling cascade can be rapidly blocked by exposing endometrial cells to physiologic levels of P. This mini review will focus on the mechanisms by which P may act to block OXTR signaling and the luteolytic cascade in the ruminant endometrium, with special focus on both non-genomic signaling pathways and non-receptor actions of P at the level of the plasma membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lysosomes that fused were predominantly predocked at the plasma membrane, indicating that calcium is primarily responsible for fusion and not recruitment of lysosomes to the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, it also remains to be elucidated if the role of calcium is to trigger exocytosis of vesicles that are docked at the plasma membrane, or if calcium is responsible for the long range movement, tethering or docking of vesicles at the site of fusion. (rupress.org)
  • Calcium primarily triggered the exocytosis of a pool of lysosomes that were immediately apposed and appear docked to the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, the nuclear-translocated CdtB subunit exhibits type I DNase activity, which causes DNA damage resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G 2 /M phase ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Hayes, S.A. A one-arm homologous recombination approach for developing nuclear receptor assays in somatic cells. (guwsmedical.info)
  • A cell-based system was set up in which activation of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) led to recruitment of β-arrestin 2, resulting in functional complementation of a split NanoLuc luciferase and allowing readout via bioluminescence. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Affinity and potency were determined using radioligand displacement and stimulation of guanosine 5′- O -(3-[ 35 S]thio)triphosphate binding in C6 (μ, δ) and Chinese hamster ovary (κ) cell membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To identify cellular determinants of susceptibility to SV infection we mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by retroviral insertion with a vector containing the neomycin resistance gene that allowed selection for integration into transcriptionally active genes. (asm.org)
  • To begin to identify cellular factors that influence the outcome of SV infection we have used a retroviral gene trap strategy that incorporates the use of a selectable marker to enrich for cells with insertional mutations ( 6 , 42 ) to generate mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells resistant to SV. (asm.org)
  • The vast majority of PMPs appear to be synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally inserted into the peroxisomal membrane ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • F) Total cell fractions (T), membrane fractions (M) and cytosolic fractions (C) were prepared from growing WT, aph1 -null and nct -null Dictyostelium that express ΔN-APP. (biologists.org)
  • Intra-assay variation was investigated by measuring the stimulation of [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding produced by 5-HT [10 μM] in 80 of the FlashPlates 96 wells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • THCV (1μM) also antagonized CP55940-induced stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding to these membranes (apparent KB=93.1 and 10.1nM, respectively). (420magazine.com)
  • In V(1A) receptor expressing cells, SP-G caused a sustained activation of ERK via a stimulation of V(1A) receptor coupling to G(i). (nih.gov)
  • The pathogenesis of the shock is presumed to be secondary to excessive stimulation of host cells by microbial constituents, which are potent activators of inflammatory cytokine synthesis. (asm.org)
  • In the case of sepsis due to gram-negative bacteria, excessive stimulation of host cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be key to the development of the shock. (asm.org)
  • Bioprocessing begins upstream, most often with culturing of animal or microbial cells in a range of vessel types (such as bags or stirred tanks) using different controlled feeding, aerating, and process strategies. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Membranes were incubated with SP-G in the presence or absence of 100 ng mL −1 PTX for 60 min at 4°C. D. [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding to specific G α subunits. (nih.gov)
  • subunits were co-expressed with GST-tagged Ric-8A or Ric-8B in insect cells. (stanford.edu)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that cell intoxication by Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin is through the association of cytolethal distending toxin subunits and membrane cholesterol-rich microdomains. (asm.org)
  • The disruption of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin not only reduced the binding activity of cytolethal distending toxin subunits on the cell membrane but also impaired their delivery and attenuated toxin-induced cell cycle arrest. (asm.org)
  • Our work seeks to strengthen the evidence for channel regulation by PIP 2 through a deeper understanding of the parameters of PLC activation and pharmacology in living cells and by asking if M-current modulation parallels PLC activation and PIP 2 hydrolysis under several conditions. (rupress.org)
  • An experimental model for studying chronic modulation of β-cell function. (springer.com)
  • After the docking of the receptor-substrate complexes at the cytoplasmic face of the peroxisomal membrane, the transport substrates are translocated into the peroxisomal matrix. (asm.org)
  • Of particular interest are targets in host cells upon which viruses depend, and critical RNA secondary structures in viruses. (stanford.edu)