The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).

The structlre of pili (fimbriae) of Moraxella bovis. (1/52017)

Cells from rough and smooth colonies of Moraxella bovis were examined by electron microscopy utilizing both shadowing and thin sectioning techniques. Pili were found on the surfaces of cells from rough but not smooth colonies. Pili had a peritrichoud distribution and appeared as delicate (6.5-8.5 nm in diameter), elongated unbranched filaments. When bacteria were sectioned pili did not contain central pores and appeared to originate from opacities on the surface of the cell wall.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (2/52017)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations. (3/52017)

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (4/52017)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Dopamine stimulates salivary duct cells in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. (5/52017)

This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic, and reversible dose-dependent elevation in [Ca2+]i in the duct cells. Upon stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine, [Ca2+]i rises from 48+/-4 nmol l-1 to 311+/-43 nmol l-1 (mean +/- s.e.m., N=18) within 200-300 s. The dopamine-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i is absent in Ca2+-free saline and is blocked by 10(-)4 mol l-1 La3+, indicating that dopamine induces an influx of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane of the duct cells. Stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine causes the basolateral membrane to depolarize from -67+/-1 to -41+/-2 mV (N=10). This depolarization is also blocked by La3+ and is abolished when Na+ in the bath solution is reduced to 10 mmol l-1. Serotonin affects neither [Ca2+]i nor the basolateral membrane potential of the duct cells. These data indicate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has previously been shown to stimulate fluid secretion from the glands, also stimulates the salivary duct cells, suggesting that dopamine controls their most probable function, the modification of primary saliva.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (6/52017)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/52017)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (8/52017)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
Al, hamdani M.; Atkinson, M E.; and Mayhew, T M., Changes in the plasma membrane surface of lymphocytes stimulated in vivo with dncb. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2522 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of cytoskeletal support is not sufficient for anoxic plasma membrane disruption in renal cells. AU - Chen, Jing. AU - Dai, Jianwu. AU - Grant, Roberta L.. AU - Doctor, R. Brian. AU - Sheetz, Michael. AU - Mandel, Lazaro J.. PY - 1997/5/21. Y1 - 1997/5/21. N2 - The goal of this study was to determine whether anoxic membrane disruption is initiated by loss of cytoskeletal support in rabbit renal proximal tubules (PT). We specifically tested 1) whether cytoskeletal perturbation affects membrane integrity under normoxia, 2) whether cytoskeletal perturbation potentiates anoxic membrane damage, and 3) whether the membrane protection by glycine depends on cytoskeletal integrity. Cytoskeletal perturbation was achieved with 10 μM cytochalasin D (CD) because it selectively disturbs F-actin organization and has similar effects as anoxia on the cytoskeleton of PT. During normoxia, CD caused decreased basal F-actin content, microvillar breakdown, and membrane-cytoskeleton dissociation, ...
BackgroundIngestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair.Methods and FindingsRepair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a
1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. 4. Antibodies to the proteins of bile-canalicular vesicles were shown to localize to the hepatocyte surface in thin liver sections examined by immunofluorescent and ...
Cell-free studies have demonstrated how collective action of actin-associated proteins can organize actin filaments into dynamic patterns, such as vortices, asters and stars. Using complementary microscopic techniques, we here show evidence of such self-organization of the actin cortex in living HeLa cells. During cell adhesion, an active multistage process naturally leads to pattern transitions from actin vortices over stars into asters. This process is primarily driven by Arp2/3 complex nucleation, but not by myosin motors, which is in contrast to what has been theoretically predicted and observed in vitro. Concomitant measurements of mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity demonstrate that changes in actin patterning alter membrane architecture but occur functionally independent of macroscopic cortex elasticity. Consequently, tuning the activity of the Arp2/3 complex to alter filament assembly may thus be a mechanism allowing cells to adjust their membrane architecture without affecting their
Plasma membrane-derived vesicles (PMVs) are released into circulation in response to normal and stress/pathogenic conditions. They are of tremendous significance for the prediction, diagnosis, and observation of the therapeutic success of many diseases. Knowledge of their molecular characteristics and therefore functional properties would contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms leading to various diseases in which their levels are raised. The review aims at outlining and discussing the molecular characteristics of PMVs in order to bring to the fore some aspects/characteristics of PMVs that will assist the scientific community to properly understand the role of PMVs in various physiological and pathological processes. The review covers PMVs characterisation and discusses how distinct they are from exosomes and endosomes. Also, methods of PMVs analysis, importance of proper PMV level estimation/characterisation, PMVs and their constituents as well as their therapeutic
Considerable controversy arose over the concept that cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich rafts in the T cell plasma membrane serve as a platform for TCR signalling reactions. This controversy was founded on the initial definition of rafts as detergent resistant membranes which later turned out to misrepresent many features of cell membrane organisation under physiological conditions. Raft-organisation was subsequently studied using a number of detergent-free experimental approaches. The results led to a refined perception of membrane rafts which resolves the controversies. Here we review new biophysical and biochemical data which provide an updated picture of the highly dynamic nanometer-sized cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich raft domains stabilised by protein-networks to form TCR signalling platforms in the T cell plasma membrane.
Plasma membrane-derived vesicles (PMVs) are released into circulation in response to normal and stress/pathogenic conditions. They are of tremendous significance for the prediction, diagnosis, and observation of the therapeutic success of many diseases. Knowledge of their molecular characteristics and therefore
Cell membranes are structured so that molecules can pass in and out of the cell across them. While both plant and animal cells have membranes, plant...
Cell membranes are structures of contradictions. These oily films are hundreds of times thinner than a strand of spider silk, yet strong enough to protect the delicate contents of life: the cells watery cytoplasm, genetic material, organelles, and all the molecules it needs to survive. How does the membrane work, and where does that strength come from? Nazzy Pakpour investigates ...
The distribution of [3H]leukotriene D4 [( 3H]LTD4) receptors in subcellular membrane fractions obtained from sheep tracheal smooth muscle was studied. Using differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, the subcellular membranes were separated into six fractions. The [3H]LTD4 receptor distribution profile in these fractions correlated with markers for the plasma membrane (5-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase) and did not correlate with markers for the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and succinate-dependent cytochrome c reductase). The dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the crude mixture of membranes (PII) were 0.38 +/- 0.2 nM and 77 +/- 14 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Kd and Bmax of [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction (FII) were 0.40 +/- 0.2 nM and 268 +/- 46 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The specificity profile of ...
Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated from human gliomas and brain white matter. These membrane fractions were characterized by electron microscopy and by the distribution of the membrane...
Norma Andrews (UMCP) 1: Mechanisms of Plasma Membrane Repair Dr. Norma Andrews overviews the mechanisms of cellular plasma membrane repair. Part 1: Mechanisms of Plasma Membrane Repair: Norma Andrews overviews the
Antibodies for proteins involved in cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
DC-Research Knowledge Portal: Transcriptional analysis of the integral plasma membrane proteome of D1 cells stimulated with LPS harvested at different time-points
In this study, we identified a novel domain, the EFC domain, which is related to the BAR domain. Half of the EFC domain was previously characterized as an FCH domain, but an additional sequence is required for interaction with the membrane. Our results provide the first evidence that the EFC domain of FBP17 directly binds to the membrane and deforms protein-free liposomes into tubules. Moreover, the EFC domains of other PCH family proteins, such as CIP4, FER, PSTPIP1, and PSTPIP2, also strongly bind to and tubulate liposomes (Figs. 3 and 4). Conservation of both amino acid sequence and function indicate that the EFC domain is a membrane tubulation module that is dependent on lipid binding.. The SH3 domain of FBP17 and that of other EFC domain-containing proteins bind to dynamin-2 and N-WASP. Dimerized FBP17 recruited N-WASP and dynamin-2 simultaneously (Figs. 7 and 8). N-WASP and dynamin preferentially bind to PI(4,5)P2 (Ho et al., 2004; Praefcke and McMahon, 2004). The EFC domain of FBP17 binds ...
The signals that direct membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells are not known. Several of the class of proteins anchored in the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) are expressed on the apical surface of such cells. However, it is not known whether the mechanism of membrane anchorage or the polypeptide sequence provides the sorting information. The conversion of the normally basolateral vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) to a GPI-anchored protein led to its apical expression. Conversely, replacement of the GPI anchor of placental alkaline phosphatase with the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of VSV G shifted its expression from the apical to the basolateral surface. Thus, the mechanism of membrane anchorage can determine the sorting of proteins to the apical or basolateral surface, and the GPI anchor itself may provide an apical transport signal. ...
Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels play a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential, shaping action potential repolarization and regulating spike frequency in many cell types. These channels often target specific plasma membrane regions where they probably assemble into signaling complexes. However, in most cases little is known about the mechanisms responsible for this localization, even though the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel surface expression and localization probably represents a central mechanism in the regulation of cellular excitability. Given the central role that the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier plays in neurons (Du et al., 2000; Misonou et al., 2005b), the heart (Nerbonne, 2000), pancreatic β cells (Tamarina et al., 2005) and vascular smooth muscle (Coppock et al., 2001), a greater understanding of the mechanisms regulating its surface localization is essential.. As originally noted by Trimmer and colleagues (Scannevin et al., 1996), Kv2.1 is expressed primarily in ...
The production of external membrane vesicles by Gram-negative bacteria has been well documented; however, the mechanism behind the biogenesis of these vesicles remains unclear. have led to several different models describing how Gram-negative bacteria produce OMVs. Data showing that OMV lipids differ from the lipids of the OM, such as the aforementioned statement on OMVs, have led to a model in which membrane curvature is definitely induced from the build up of LPS molecules with atypical constructions or costs. LPS is the major constituent of the outer leaflet of the OM of most Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS molecules themselves are not homogeneous; the space and content material of the polysaccharide chain varies among the different molecules. It is proposed that subsets of these molecules may gather in patches along the OM, inducing higher BIIB021 examples of membrane curvature at particular locations, either due to charge repulsion [22] or their molecular shape [23]. A second, but not ...
The function of any given biological membrane is determined largely by the specific set of integral membrane proteins embedded in it, and the peripheral membrane proteins attached to the membrane surface. The activity of these proteins, in turn, can be modulated by the phospholipid composition of the membrane. The reconstitution of membrane proteins into a model membrane allows investigation of individual features and activities of a given cell membrane component. However, the activity of membrane proteins is often difficult to sustain following reconstitution, since the composition of the model phospholipid bilayer differs from that of the native cell membrane. This review will discuss the reconstitution of membrane protein activities in four different types of model membrane - monolayers, supported lipid bilayers, liposomes and nanodiscs, comparing their advantages in membrane protein reconstitution. Variation in the surrounding model environments for these four different types of membrane layer can
The function of any given biological membrane is determined largely by the specific set of integral membrane proteins embedded in it, and the peripheral membrane proteins attached to the membrane surface. The activity of these proteins, in turn, can be modulated by the phospholipid composition of the membrane. The reconstitution of membrane proteins into a model membrane allows investigation of individual features and activities of a given cell membrane component. However, the activity of membrane proteins is often difficult to sustain following reconstitution, since the composition of the model phospholipid bilayer differs from that of the native cell membrane. This review will discuss the reconstitution of membrane protein activities in four different types of model membrane - monolayers, supported lipid bilayers, liposomes and nanodiscs, comparing their advantages in membrane protein reconstitution. Variation in the surrounding model environments for these four different types of membrane layer can
The pathological importance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is now widely accepted. Ex vivo data from synovial cell cultures suggest that direct cell contact between activated T-cells and macrophages may be an important driver of macrophage TNF-alpha production in the RA joint. However, the ligand/receptor pairs driving this cell contact signal remain obscure. One reason for this is that plasma membrane (PM) proteins are resistant to systematic analysis using traditional proteomic approaches. In this chapter we present a method for the enrichment and resolution of PM proteins from murine T-cell hybridomas as a prelude to identification by tandem mass spectrometry. We used cell surface biotinylation, differential centrifugation and subsequent streptavidin affinity capture, followed by solution phase iso-electric focussing and tandem mass spectrometry to identify 75 PM proteins and make semiquantitative comparisons of resting and activated cells. The method is applicable
The connection between T cell activation, plasma membrane order and actin filament dynamics was the main focus of this study. Laurdan and di-4-ANEPPDHQ, membrane order sensing probes, were shown to report only on lipid packing rather than being influenced by the presence of membrane-inserted peptides justifying their use in membrane order studies. These dyes were used to follow plasma membrane order in live cells at 37°C. Disrupting actin filaments had a disordering effect while stabilizing actin filaments had an ordering effect on the plasma membrane, indicating there is a basal level of ordered domains in resting cells. Lowering PI(4,5)P2 levels decreased the proportion of ordered domains strongly suggesting that the connection of actin filaments to the plasma membrane is responsible for the maintaining the level of ordered membrane domains. Membrane blebs, which are detached from the underlying actin filaments, contained a low fraction of ordered domains. Aggregation of membrane components ...
enerated within this study cGKI-deficient mice. None of our antisera detected certain phospho-cGKI signals in the freshly isolated tissues (information not
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effect of insulin on the synthesis of specific plasma proteins. T2 - Biphasic response of hepatocytes cultured in serum- and hormone-free medium. AU - Liang, T. J.. AU - Grieninger, G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Monolayers of chicken embryo hepatocytes, cultured in chemically defined medium, retain the ability to synthesize a wide spectrum of plasma proteins for several days in the absence of added hormones. Addition of insulin to the medium elicited a biphasic stimulation of plasma protein synthesis: a rapid response of the synthesis of a limited number of plasma proteins (e.g., albumin and α1-globulin M), then, after prolonged exposure to the hormone, the involvement of additional plasma proteins (e.g., fibrinogen and lipoproteins). Synthesis of transferrin and a few other plasma proteins was not affected by the presence of insulin. The degree of stimulation for the most responsive plasma proteins ranged between 2- to 4-fold during the early phase and 10- and even ...
The exocyst is a protein complex that has been found to be essential for exocytosis underlying neurite outgrowth (Hsu et al., 2004). Several models have been proposed to explain how the exocyst complex promotes exocytosis, including modulating cytoskeletal activity and tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane. Targeting of the exocyst complex to spatially defined domains, such as growth cones, is expected to be essential for a focused function of the exocyst complex. In this regard, exocyst subunits have been found to associate with various scaffold proteins such as PSD95 and SAP102 that target plasma membrane proteins to specific plasma membrane subdomains (Riefler et al., 2003; Sans et al., 2003) or with plasma membrane receptors, such as the glycine receptor GLYT1 (Cubelos et al., 2005).. In this manuscript, we identify NCAM as a novel binding partner of the exocyst complex. Several studies have shown that NCAM plays an important role in neural development by regulating neurite outgrowth. In ...
One mode of regulation occurs directly at the level of Rho, where activation of Rho causes PM blebbing. This can be mediated by extracellular signals (see the next section) or by intracellular signaling cascades, such as the up-regulation of RhoA in the absence of the tumor suppressor p53 (Gadea et al., 2007). PM blebbing as a result of Rho activation can also occur indirectly via the Rac GTPase, whose activity is tightly balanced with that of Rho (Sander et al., 1999). In one such example, expression of FilGAP suppresses the activity of Rac, leading to cross talk regulation of RhoA and subsequent membrane blebbing (Ohta et al., 2006). Similar events likely explain extensive PM blebbing after overexpression of an effector loop mutant of active Rac1 (Schwartz et al., 1998) or Dictyostelium discoideum RacB (Lee et al., 2003) as well as the complete lack of Rac1 expression (Vidali et al., 2006). As indicated by the potent suppression of PM blebbing by specific inhibitors of ROCK (Table I), ...
At one time cell membranes were believed to just be envelopes surrounding cells. However, it has been nearly forty years since the structure of the cell membrane was deciphered leading to the development of the Lipid Bi-Layer Fluid Mosaic Model. In this model cell membranes are no longer seen as merely envelopes, they become dynamic structures that play critical roles in the health and detoxification of cells, and the cells unique ability to work in concert - thus keeping us in good health.. Lipids - or fats - are the main component of cell membranes. Lipids in cell membranes are actually phospholipids - or a combination of fats and phosphorus - and not just fats. They dont just sit idly by doing nothing; they contribute to every aspect of cellular energy, detoxification, and optimal function.. Healthy cell-membranes lead to healthy cells, a healthy body, plenty of energy, healthy aging, and so forth. Among other things, cell membranes incorporate hormone receptors that, if sound, will promote ...
In the present study, we identified a critical trafficking determinant in the KCNQ1 channel. Significantly, the structure is the target of several LQT1 associated mutations. The N-terminal location of the trafficking domain was unexpected because previous studies highlighted the C-terminal domain as the key determinant of subunits assembly and processing in the secretory pathway.7,8,25 Indeed, we showed that the deletion of the initial 114 residues, but not the 106 initial residues, abolished plasma membrane expression of the channel. This suggested that residues 106 to 114 may constitute an ER export signal or that the amino acid sequence beyond L114 encodes a retention motif. Studies designed to test these ideas (Figure 7) revealed that these discrete structures do not function as independent, autologous trafficking signals. Indeed, they suggest that the structural integrity of the entire region preceding the first transmembrane domain is essential for proper trafficking of the ...
Membrane reservoirs serve as membrane buffers that help redistribute membrane area when cells need to stretch or change shape and size. They are found at the cell surface as membrane superstructures varying in size from large membrane folds, to tiny membrane invaginations and caveolae (reviewed in [1]).. Cells are often subject to frequent morphological changes throughout life. For example, cellular processes like phagocytosis and migration require protrusion-driven movement and cell shape changes. At the tissue and organ level, critical biological processes such as respiration and the cardiac cycle rely on the continuous, coordinated expansion and contraction of cells.. In order to accommodate these varied changes in cell morphology, the cell membrane that contains the cell must alter morphology as well. However, cell membranes are highly inelastic. Studies have shown that the maximum elastic stretching of a membrane is only 4%, even when the cell is subjected to lytic tensions which are 100 to ...
Cell membrane function in animal cell and plant cell. Cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm and other organelles in it. Also, it controls the entry and exit of nutrients and other microscopic entities into the cell. In both animal and plant cell. The cell (from latin cella, meaning small room) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms.a cell is the smallest unit of life. The ability to develop and grow The entire cell is surrounded by a membrane which is called the cell membrane. The cell membrane is also called plasma membrane or plasmalemma. It is a feature of all cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The cell membrane embraced owo layers of polysaccharide chains that are crosslinked with the assistance of dumpy peptide chains. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a double layer of lipids and proteins that surrounds a separates the cytoplasm (the contents of the cell) from the external environment. Functions of cell wall in ...
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Introduction. Transport across plasma membranes In this essay I will discuss and explain the transport across plasma membranes, to do this, I shall refer to osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport and finally, exocytosis and endocytosis. Like all other cellular membranes, the plasma membrane consists of both lipids and proteins. The fundamental structure of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments. In the case of the plasma membrane, these compartments are the inside and the outside of the cell. Proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer carry out the specific functions of the plasma membrane, including selective transport of molecules. The diagram opposite shows the fluid The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier between the cell and the extracellular environment. Its permeability properties ensure that essential molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and lipids are able to readily enter the ...
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Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1) has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated
TY - JOUR. T1 - The economics of neurite outgrowth - The addition of new membrane to growing axons. AU - Futerman, Anthony H.. AU - Banker, Gary A.. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - Recent studies have shown that axonal growth is disrupted by treatments that block the synthesis of membrane components or their delivery by microtubule-based transport. This implies that a continuous supply of newly synthesized membrane components is necessary to sustain growth. In contrast, no clear consensus has yet been achieved about the site of insertion of new membrane components in the membrane of the growing axon, despite the application of new and refined biophysical and molecular techniques to the study of this issue. Until the site of insertion of new membrane components is resolved, little progress can be made in defining the feedback mechanisms by which the supply of new membrane components is co-ordinated with the demands of growth, particularly in cases where the dynamics of neurite growth change from ...
The membrane curvature can regulate the localization of proteins with specific recognition motifs. Amphipathic alpha helices are critical membrane curvature sensors with a large range of proteins included with larger affinity for positively curved membranes through the recognition of curve defects in lipid packing. The membrane curvature dependent measurements, mostly made in vitro, are averaged across liposomes of variant diameter. These measurements reduce the accuracy and make calculation of affinity more difficult ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High-Affinity Transport of L-Glutamine by a Plasma Membrane Preparation from Rat Brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Amazing pictures of 5 Pictures Of Animal Cell Membrane is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 640 x 480 px and the image size only 66 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: animal cell membrane, animal cell membrane color, animal cell membrane definition, animal cell membrane diagram, animal cell membrane function, .. ...
Monotopic proteins represent a specialized group of membrane proteins in that they are engaged in biochemical events taking place at the membrane interface. In particular, the monotopic lipid-synthesizing enzymes are able to synthesize amphiphilic lipid products by catalyzing two biochemically distinct molecules (substrates) at the membrane interface. Thus, from an evolutionary point of view, anchoring into the membrane interface enables monotopic enzymes to confer sensitivity to a changing environment by regulating their activities in the lipid biosynthetic pathways in order to maintain a certain membrane homeostasis. We are focused on a plant lipid-synthesizing enzyme DGD2 involved in phosphate shortage stress, and analyzed the potentially important lipid anchoring segments of it, by a set of biochemical and biophysical approaches. A mechanism was proposed to explain how DGD2 adjusts its activity to maintain a proper membrane. In addition, a multivariate-based bioinformatics approach was used ...
Plasma membrane(PM) protein accounts for a small fraction of total cellular protein in plants but performs a very critical role in plant physiology. Isolation and purification of PM protein from plant tissues have been traditionally done by sucrose density ultracentrifugation and aqueous two-phase partitioning. These methods, while relatively effective, require ultracentrifugation and large amount of starting material. The procedures are usually tedious and time consuming.To overcome the shortcomings, we have developed this PM isolation kit. Plant tissues are first sensitized by buffer A, homogenized, and pass through a specialized filter cartridge that allows homogenates to pass through with a zigzag path. The cell membranes are ruptured into a range of predefined size during the process. Native plasma membranes are separated from a mixture of un-ruptured cells, nuclei, cytosol and organelles by subsequent differential centrifugation and density centrifugation without using ...
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Physiology and structure of cell membrane depend on the proportion of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. They change according to the cell type and membrane location. For example, plasma membrane of erythrocytes contain 50 % of lipids, 40 % of proteins and 10 % of carbohydrates. A similar composition is found in most of the plasma membranes of other cell types, with some exceptions. Myelin, cell membrane of glial cells that wraps axons, is composed of 80 % of lipids and 20 % of proteins, and almost no carbohydrates. Intracellular membranes usually show a higher proportion of proteins than plasma membrane. A remarkable example is the inner mitochondrial membrane, where proteins are up to 80 %. Furthermore, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates are diverse, and membranes do not only differ in the proportion of these three molecular groups, but also in the different types of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that are present. Moreover, as mentioned above, membranes are continuously recycled, and ...
Question 4: [8 pts]Data for membrane mobility of three different proteins (X, Y, and Z) using fluorescent recovery afterphotobleaching (FRAP) are shown
Listing of the answers to the question: Proteins that are destined to become associated with the inner surface of the plasma membrane are:
To make use nuclear content doesnt release, you can take out serveral ul cells and stain with trypan blue. Cell with intact plasma membrane will appear as white and nucleas will appear as blue (coz prypan blue can stain nucleas but cannot pass through plasma membrane ...
DC-SIGN cell surface distribution during monocyte-derived DC development. DC-SIGN binding activity was monitored during development of monocyte-derived DCs. As
... damage to cell membrane Cell theory Cytoneme Elasticity of cell membranes Gram-positive bacteria Membrane models Membrane ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some authors who ... It was also inferred that cell membranes were not vital components to all cells. Many refuted the existence of a cell membrane ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ...
Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), also known as polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, are a type of fuel ... Before the invention of PEM fuel cells, existing fuel cell types such as solid-oxide fuel cells were only applied in extreme ... the fuel cell. The membrane must also not allow either gas to pass to the other side of the cell, a problem known as gas ... solar cells, and fuel cells. Within the field of fuel cell research, MOFs are being studied as potential electrolyte materials ...
In this view, the cell was seen to be enclosed by a thin surface, the plasma membrane, and cell water and solutes such as a ... The lipid nature of the cell membrane was first correctly intuited by Georg Hermann Quincke in 1888, who noted that a cell ... but it was nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory was developed to explain what separates cells from ... model of the cell membrane by Singer and Nicolson in 1972. According to this model, biological membranes are composed largely ...
... alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs), hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), or solid alkaline fuel cells (SAFCs) is ... An alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AAEMFC), also known as anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), ... Proton Exchange Membrane Alkaline fuel cell Winter, M; Brodd, R. J. (2004). "What are batteries, fuel cells, and ... In alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell, aqueous KOH is replaced with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, that can ...
Cold storage temperatures below 0 °C are no problem for the fuel cell membrane in contrast to DMFC and LT-PEM fuel cell. ... The HT-PEM fuel cell technology is similar to Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), but mainly differs in the membrane which is ... Whereas the common PEM fuel cell, also called Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (LT-PEM), must usually be ... HT-PEM fuel cell was developed in 1995 for operation at higher cell temperatures aiming at lower sensitivity of PEM fuel cells ...
A cell membrane defines a boundary between a cell and its environment. The primary constituent of a membrane is a phospholipid ... A cell membrane is simplified as lipid bilayer plus membrane skeleton. The skeleton is a cross-linking protein network and ... Physics of Composite Cell Membrane and Actin Based Cytoskeleton, in Physics of bio-molecules and cells, Edited by H. Flyvbjerg ... Assume that each proteins in the membrane skeleton have similar length which is much smaller than the whole size of the cell ...
... glial cells (e.g. astrocytes), mechanoreceptor cells (e.g. hair cells and Merkel cells), chemoreceptor cells (e.g. glomus cells ... juxtaglomerular cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, many types of epithelial cells (e.g. beta cells, alpha cells, delta cells, ... This term is used for the membrane potential of non-excitable cells, but also for the membrane potential of excitable cells in ... Excitable cells include neurons, muscle cells, and some secretory cells in glands. Even in other types of cells, however, the ...
The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix that provides cell and tissue support and acts ... Fractones may be a type of basement membrane, serving as a niche for stem cells. Some diseases result from a poorly functioning ... 2005). Basement membranes: cell and molecular biology. Gulf Professional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-12-153356-4. (CS1: long volume ... This is achieved by cell-matrix adhesions through substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs). The basement membrane acts as a ...
In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane. ... Membrane fluidity is also affected by cholesterol. Cholesterol can make the cell membrane fluid as well as rigid. Membrane ... Lateral diffusion (within the membrane matrix) of membrane-related enzymes can affect reaction rates. Consequently, membrane- ... is hypothesized to exist in cell membranes and perform biological functions. Also, a narrow annular lipid shell of membrane ...
Cell membranes require high levels of cholesterol - typically an average of 20% cholesterol in the whole membrane, increasing ... The bilayer formed by membrane lipids serves as a containment unit of a living cell. Membrane lipids also form a matrix in ... Cholesterol also occurs naturally in other eukaryote cell membranes. Sterols have a hydrophobic four-membered fused ring rigid ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Membrane lipids. Membrane+lipids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... s (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the ... membrane progesterone receptors are good candidates for the membrane receptors mediating many of the nonclassical cell surface- ... Immunohistochemical studies revealed that mPRγ is associated with the apical membrane of ciliated cells in the lumen of the ... This determines its location in the cell, the membrane. MPRs recognise some specific substances and facilitate the entrance of ...
Information can also pass through the plasma membrane when signaling molecules bind to receptors in the cell membrane. The ... Other types of semipermeable membranes are cation-exchange membranes (CEMs), anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), alkali anion ... "Semipermeable Membranes' Role in Cell Communication - Video & Lesson Transcript". Retrieved 6 April 2017. Wood, ... Semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to ...
When tectorial membrane calcium is restored, sensory cell function returns.[1] Floor of ductus cochlearis. Cross section of the ... The tectoria membrane (TM) is one of two acellular membranes in the cochlea of the inner ear, the other being the basilar ... It overlies the sensory inner hair cells and electrically-motile outer hair cells of the organ of Corti and during acoustic ... Meaud, Julien; Grosh, Karl (2010). "The effect of tectorial membrane and basilar membrane longitudinal coupling in cochlear ...
Integral membrane proteins are a permanent part of a cell membrane and can either penetrate the membrane (transmembrane) or ... Peripheral membrane proteins are transiently associated with the cell membrane. Membrane proteins are common, and medically ... Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes. Membrane proteins fall into ... Look up membrane protein in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Membrane proteins. Membrane ...
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium ( ... PMCAs were first discovered in the 1960s in the membranes of red blood cells. The presence of an ATPase was discovered in the ... PMCA was first purified from red blood cell membranes in 1979. Jensen, Thomas P.; Buckby, Lucy E.; Empson, Ruth M. (2004). " ... In breast tissue, mammary epithelial cells express PMCA2, which transports calcium across the apical surface of the cells into ...
The hair cells are attached to the basilar membrane, and with the moving of the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane and ... In the membrane of the outer hair cells there are motor proteins associated with the membrane. Those proteins are activated by ... The basilar membrane is also the base for the hair cells. This function is present in all land vertebrates. Due to its location ... This leads to the hair cell have a resting potential of -45 mV. As the basilar membrane moves upward, the cilia move in the ...
This technique incorporates electrical stimulation of polar molecules in cell membrane. The study found that Dorsal cells are ... ions must enter the cell through voltage gated sodium channels through membrane and depolarize the cell. The threshold is ... They used whole-cell patch recording in vivo and biophysical modeling in compartmental simulations of entorhinal stellate cells ... Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations are membrane oscillations that do not directly trigger an action potential since ...
An inner bilayer, the inner cell membrane, encloses the cytoplasm or cytosol. Surrounding this inner cell membrane there is a ... In addition, there is a firm cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan layer, which surrounds the cell membrane and occupies the ... Antibiotic treatment altered vesicle dynamics, vesicle-to-membrane affinity, and surface properties of the cell membranes, ... Bacterial membrane vesicles dispersion along the cell surface was measured in live Escherichia coli, commensal bacteria common ...
The mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), play role in cell death modulation. Mitochondrial outer membrane ... These closed membranes are double membrane-bond, with lysosomes inside it. The main function of these membrane is degradation, ... Eiyama, Akinori; Okamoto, Koji (2015). "PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in mammalian cells". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. ... Mitochondria-associated membranes) in mammalian cells: Lipids and beyond". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and ...
... are membrane proteins which play important roles in cell recognition. Examples include: Fibronectin ... Membrane glycoproteins, Glycoproteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Laminin Osteonectin Glycocalyx Media related to Membrane glycoproteins at Wikimedia Commons Membrane+glycoproteins at the US ...
In biological systems, membranes fulfill a number of essential functions. The compartmentalization of biological cells is ... Chemical reactors making use of membranes are usually referred to as membrane reactors. The membrane can be used for different ... A membrane reactor is a physical device that combines a chemical conversion process with a membrane separation process to add ... For dense membranes the separation is governed by the difference of the chemical potential of the components in the membrane. ...
The primary application of proton-exchange membranes is in PEM fuel cells. These fuel cells have a wide variety of commercial ... A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM), is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and ... of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell or of a proton-exchange membrane electrolyser: separation of reactants and transport of ... PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer membrane (a thin plastic film) which is permeable to protons when it is saturated with water ...
The cell membrane regulates the transport of materials entering and exiting the cell. Thermodynamically the flow of substances ... In this system a semipermeable membrane separates two solutions of different concentration of the same solute. If the membrane ... The movements of most solutes through the membrane are mediated by membrane transport proteins which are specialized to varying ... The regulation of passage through the membrane is due to selective membrane permeability - a characteristic of biological ...
In cell biology, membrane bound polyribosomes are attached to a cell's endoplasmic reticulum. When certain proteins are ... Bound ribosomes usually produce proteins that are used within the cell membrane or are expelled from the cell via exocytosis. ... v t e (Cell biology, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ... "The Fate of Membrane-bound Ribosomes Following the Termination ... synthesized by a ribosome they can become "membrane-bound". The newly produced polypeptide chains are inserted directly into ...
During myelination, nerve axons are wrapped with multiple layers of cell membrane by oligodendrocyte glial cells, a process ... In the next stage, lipid droplets then migrate to the apical surface of the cell, where plasma membrane subsequently envelops ... and lipids derived primarily from the membrane of the secreting mammary epithelial cell (lactocyte). This trilayer is ... almost half of identified proteins have membrane/protein trafficking or cell signaling functions. The glycosylated proteins, ...
A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that separates the interior of a cell ... The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous membranes, basement ... and the cell membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Peroxisomes are one form of vacuole found in the cell that ... For all cells, membrane fluidity is important for many reasons. It enables membrane proteins to diffuse rapidly in the plane of ...
Too strong or too weak a solution may damage the membranes. Membrane cells typically produce caustic in the range of 30% to 33 ... the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell (1908), and the Townsend cell (1904). The cells vary in construction and ... The building that houses the many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are ... The electrolysis cell is divided into two "sections" by a cation permeable membrane acting as a cation exchanger. Saturated ...
The fences and pickets model of plasma membrane is a concept of cell membrane structure suggesting that the fluid plasma ... Kusumi A, Sako Y (August 1996). "Cell surface organization by the membrane skeleton". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 8 (4): ... "Three-dimensional reconstruction of the membrane skeleton at the plasma membrane interface by electron tomography". J. Cell ... meshwork is directly situated on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. Membrane skeleton fence, or membrane skeleton ...
... from the intraerythrocytic asexual parasite to the cytoplasmic face of the host cell membrane". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... The last CIDR region joins the TMD, which is embedded in the cell membrane. The TMD and ATS are highly conserved among ... It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these ... Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red ...
Boldyrev, A. A. (2000). "Na+,K+-ATPase: 40 years of investigations". Membrane & Cell Biology. 13 (6): 715-9. PMID 10963431. ... He therefore had the idea of looking at an enzyme which was embedded in the membrane and finding out if its properties were ... Post had recently discovered that three sodium ions were pumped out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in, and in ... Skou, J. C. (1989). "The identification of the sodium-pump as the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase: a commentary on 'The Influence ...
The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ... After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. ...
"Oncogene Amplification in Growth Factor Signaling Pathways Renders Cancers Dependent on Membrane Lipid Remodeling". Cell ... Zimmer, Carl (2019-11-20). "Scientists Are Just Beginning to Understand Mysterious DNA Circles Common in Cancer Cells". The New ... Williams, Ruth (2008-06-30). "Paul Mischel: All about brains". The Journal of Cell Biology. 181 (7): 1044-1045. doi:10.1083/jcb ... Molecular Cell. 67 (1): 128-138.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.05.030. ISSN 1097-4164. PMC 5521991. PMID 28648777. Guo, Deliang ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ...
Janet Quentin Plowe was a biologist credited for helping to discover the cell membrane. In 1931 she demonstrated that the cell ... and the cell membrane itself. Plowe, Janet Quentin (1922). The reduction divisions in the pollen mother-cell of a hybrid cotton ... Plowe, Janet Q. (1931). "Membranes in the plant cell". Protoplasma. 12 (1): 196-220. doi:10.1007/BF01618716. ISSN 0033-183X. ... Plowe, Janet Quentin (1930). Membranes in the plant cell (Ph.D.). University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 1049423562. Collander, Runar ...
"CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... Ff phages for phage display is that they require the protein of interest to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ... The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as ... These are made into synthetic receptors for T-Cells collected from the patient that are used to combat the disease. Competing ...
... life processes of cell membranes, the importance of pH control, the role of iodine in human health, and specifically its ...
PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... Cell Dev. Biol. 17 (5): 544-54. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2006.09.001. PMID 17071117. Minghetti L, Pocchiari M (2007). " ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... Increased expression of the PTGS2 gene in the fetal membranes is connected to the presence of inflammation, causing uterine ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... the ventral part of the cloacal membrane becomes the urogenital membrane. Mesoderm extends to the midventral line for some ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ... For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the ...
The ability of the Traube cell membrane to allow water to flow in while retaining the cell solute is comparable to living cells ... The membrane is semi-permeable, and expands rapidly into the Traube cell. Within the cell is a high concentration of potassium ... When the expansion caused the membrane to burst, a new membrane was quickly formed. In this way, the cell could "grow" and ... A Traube cell is an "artificial cell" created by Moritz Traube in order to study the processes of living cells, including ...
Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... Kaplan JM, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (March 1990). "The src protein contains multiple domains for specific attachment to membranes ... HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ... Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. c- ...
... maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cells and aid in repolarization of cells following depolarization. Kir2.6 is ... Cell. 140 (1): 88-98. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.12.024. PMC 2885139. PMID 20074522. v t e This article incorporates text from the ... Membrane protein stubs, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, Ion channels ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the rhomboid protease family of integral membrane proteins. This family ... Molecular Cell. 11 (6): 1425-34. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00181-3. PMID 12820957. Urban S, Lee JR, Freeman M (October 2001). " ... RHBDL2 functions as a sheddase and is localized to the plasma membrane. Known substrates of RHBDL2 include thrombomodulin and ... "Quantitative proteomics screen identifies a substrate repertoire of rhomboid protease RHBDL2 in human cells and implicates it ...
In developmental biology, choriogenesis is the formation of the chorion, an outer membrane of the placenta that eventually ... April 1993). "Induction of choriogenesis by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the German cockroach". Tissue & Cell. 25 (2): 195-204. doi: ...
Coronaviruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell through various mechanisms. In several coronaviruses, including SARS- ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... N also has additional functions in manipulating the cell cycle of the host cell. The N protein is highly immunogenic and ... "Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals". Cell. 181 (7 ...
... but contain a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. BL2T (=DSM 15510T=NCIMB 13906T) is the type ... Microbial Cell Factories. 19 (1): 144. doi:10.1186/s12934-020-01395-0. ISSN 1475-2859. PMC 7364539. PMID 32677952. Vos PW, ... It lacks intracytoplasmic membranes common to all methane-oxidizing bacteria except Methylocella, ...
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. Once priming is complete, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is loaded into the DNA ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ...
... the presence and location of myoepithelial cells, i.e. cells that normally rest on the basement membrane of mammary gland ducts ... These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ... Mucin may also occur outside of cells in these lesions. The presence of signet ring-shaped cells bearing mucin-containing ...
J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... Neodymium dust and salts are very irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes, and moderately irritating to skin. Breathing the ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ... and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (hereinafter referred to as xEVs), wind turbines, home appliances, computers, and many small ...
... a triangular membrane occurring in eyes Cell membranes: Plasma membrane, a membrane that separates the interior of all cells ... a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid Tunic membrane, protective membrane covering ... Biology: Isolating tissues formed by layers of cells Amnion, a membrane in the amniotic sac Basement membrane, a thin sheet of ... flexible surface Membrane structure, a sort of spatial structure made of tensioned membranes Membrane (M-Theory), a spatially ...
2004). "Clathrin adaptor epsinR is required for retrograde sorting on early endosomal membranes". Dev. Cell. 6 (4): 525-38. doi ... and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. ... Cell. 14 (2): 625-41. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-09-0552. PMC 149997. PMID 12589059. Wasiak S, Denisov AY, Han Z, et al. (2004). " ... Cell. 13 (11): 4060-73. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-03-0171. PMC 133614. PMID 12429846. Pimm J, McQuillin A, Thirumalai S, Lawrence J, ...
The membrane consists of a single lipid bilayer surrounded by an S-layer. The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein ... pigment present within the membrane of H. salinarum. The primary role of bacterioruberin in the cell is to protect against DNA ... It is able to protect the cell from reactive oxygen species produced from exposure to UV by acting as a target. The ... These proteins form a lattice in the membrane. Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving ...
Journal of Cell Biology 93:63-75 Unwin P N T, Zampighi G (1980), "Structure of the junction between communicating cells" Nature ... "Three-dimensional model of purple membrane obtained by electron microscopy" Nature 257:28-32 Unwin P N T, Henderson R (1975), " ... He is currently also Emeritus Professor of Cell Biology at the Scripps Research Institute. Nigel Unwin was born in New Zealand ... He was Professor of Cell Biology at Stanford University from 1980 to 1987. In 1988 he returned to the MRC Laboratory of ...
v t e v t e (Genes on human chromosome 12, Solute carrier family, All stub articles, Human chromosome 12 gene stubs, Membrane ... BMC Cell Biology. 10: 54. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-54. PMC 2717050. PMID 19607714. Satake W, Nakabayashi Y, Mizuta I, Hirota Y ... "Identification of genes associated with non-small-cell lung cancer promotion and progression". Lung Cancer. 67 (2): 151-9. doi: ...
... and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (10): 1743-51. doi:10.1084/jem. ... the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... "Cloning of novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors expressed on human myeloid and lymphoid cells: structural evidence for ...
A conductivity cell is placed in the titration vessel. The sample solution is titrated with alcoholic hydrochloric acid. Mid- ... This causes an ion exchange in the outer solvated layer at the glass membrane, so a change in potential is generated which can ...
The cells of this tumor usually show a columnar to cuboidal cytoplasm with a well-defined cytoplasmic membrane. Vacuolated, or ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ... There are meant to be certain cells in a specific area, for the pineal region these are ependymal cells, and the cells divide ...
The bomb is fired into the cell's nucleus and the Enterprise backs out using what little power remains. With seconds remaining ... Spock pilots a shuttle through the creature's outer membrane and makes his way toward the nucleus. Eventually, he reports that ... With power levels nearly exhausted, the ship approaches the outer membrane just as the bomb explodes. Both the Enterprise and ...
The Journal of Cell Biology. 148 (4): 801-10. doi:10.1083/jcb.148.4.801. PMC 2169361. PMID 10684260. Kawai H, Akaike M, Endo T ... comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber membranes and to the linking of the actin ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (7): 2033-44. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.7.2033. PMC 2175228. PMID 9864373. Bowe MA, Mendis DB, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 148 (4): 801-10. doi:10.1083/jcb.148.4.801. PMC 2169361. PMID 10684260. Yoshida M, Hama H, ...
Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane. Their ... Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ...
... mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell ... "Entrez Gene: WIPI2 WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2". Orsi A, Polson HE, Tooze SA (December 2009). "Membrane ... which is a lysosomal degradation pathway required for maintaining cell health, surviving periods of nutrient deprivation and ... lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells[citation needed] (but is also detected in many human tissues). The Atg ...
This page is a subset of reference material about cell structures. It gives an overview of membrane proteins, with particular ... The user will learn about membrane proteins, their structures, and how they contribute towards cell function. ... There are no prerequisites for this site, although some knowledge of cell structure and function will enhance the learning ... Peer Review: Cell Structure: Membrane Proteins Peer Review. Cell Structure: Membrane ...
Almost 20 years ago, a class of cancer drugs called MMP inhibitors failed miserably in human trials despite looking like cure-alls in mouse models of metastatic cancer.
... to activate the pumping of protons across the plasma membrane. (Adapted from H. Luecke et al., Science 286:255-260, 1999.) ... Special proteins inserted in cellular membranes create pores that permit the passage of molecules across them. The bacterial ... Cell membranes are crucial to the life of the cell. The plasma membrane encloses the cell, defines its boundaries, and ... Three views of a cell membrane. (A) An electron micrograph of a plasma membrane (of a human red blood cell) seen in cross ...
... What and Why One of the key challenges in the construction of a ... synthetic cell is to realize cell division. The physical process of dividing a single cell into two daughter cells has been a ... You will compare external addition of membrane material with intracellular biosynthesis of the membrane building blocks, called ... In this project, you will explore various techniques for in vitro realization of membrane growth. ...
The cell membrane is essential to the life of the cell and without it, the cell dies. If all the cells in an organism suddenly ... The cell membrane provides several vital functions for the cell. Cell walls anchor the cytoplasm and hold the cells shape. It ... the cell wall attaches to the cell walls of other cells to form tissues, organs and ultimately the organism. The cell membrane ... Cells absorb nutrients through the cell membrane and expel waste through the same membrane using both active and passive ...
Altered membrane proteins of monkey erythrocytes infected with simian malaria / by Donald F. H. Wallach, Margaret Conley  ... Plasmodium knowlesi induced antigens in plasma membranes of parasitized rhesus monkey erythrocytes / by R. Schmidt-Ullrich, D. ...
Home Topics Drug Discovery Opioid Drug Tolerance Linked to Cell Membrane Cholesterol Gene and Key GPCR ... The worm genetics revealed PTCHD1 plays a key role, altering cholesterol in cell membranes. [Photo by Scott Wiseman for UF ... Ptchd1 belongs to a family of genes known to be involved in regulating cholesterol accumulation in cell membranes. For that ... This discovery then raised a new and important question: Could enriching cholesterol in the cell membrane be a strategy for ...
... By Eric Sauter. The membranes surrounding and inside cells ... "Layer-by-layer membrane assembly allows us to create synthetic cells with membranes of arbitrary complexity at the molecular ... Scientists Develop New Process to Create Artificial Cell Membranes Researchers Shed Light on Bodys Master Energy Regulator ... The study, "Layer-by-layer Cell Membrane Assembly," was supported by a National Institutes of Health Pathway to Independence ...
Study free Biology flashcards about CellMembrane &Homeo created by nicole.strickland to improve your grades. Matching game, ... CellMembrane &Homeo. Plasma membrane. Question. Answer. The function of this organelle is to maintain homeostasis? plasma ... This characteristic allows certain molecules to come in and out of the cell?. selectively permeable ...
Tag archive for Cell Membrane. Want more amazing articles related to Cell Membrane? Please subscribe below well notify you ...
Modular Membrane Cell Electrolysers utilise chlorine and hydrogen from brine in a modern and efficient membrane cell ... Modular Membrane Cell Electrolysers. Learn how chlorine and hydrogen are produced from brine in a modern and efficient membrane ... Membrane cell electrolysers feature a sealed module that consist of two chambers, separated by a flexible cation exchange ... full wetting the membrane in the centre of the cell, for inherently safer operation : ...
... if this is a cell right over here, and this is its membrane, its kind of what keeps the cell, the inside of the cell, ... This movement helps the cell membrane maintain its role as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell environments. ... its going to sit outside of the cell. And these chains of sugars, these are actually key for cell-cell recognition. Your ... Now, why is it called the Fluid Mosaic Model? Well, if we were to look at a cell membrane and just to be clear what were ...
CONTEXT: National Institutes of Health researchers have successfully broken through the cell membrane, a barrier that has ... Focused ultrasound helps exogenous genes permeate targeted cells outer membrane. .social-ris-container { display: flex; ... Ultrasonic waves were delivered in short pulses to dissipate heat and generate mechanical power that increased a tumor cells ... IMAGES: Stained histologic sections reveal the nuclei of tumor cells in blue as seen with fluorescence microscopy. Green ...
... resulting notably in cell membrane fluctuations (CMF). These CMF have been subject of many studies in order to obtain a better ... Red blood cells (RBCs) present unique reversible shape deformability, essential for both function and survival, ... Spatially-resolved eigenmode decomposition of red blood cells membrane fluctuations questions the role of ATP in flickering ... resulting notably in cell membrane fluctuations (CMF). These CMF have been subject of many studies in order to obtain a better ...
Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to undergo compositional changes during storage, which may impact the cells function and ... We extracted the RBCs cytoplasmic membrane (RBCcm) to study the effect of storage on the membranes molecular structure and ... leading to an increased membrane thickness and membrane order. The size of both, lo and liquid disordered (ld) lipid domains ... The results show that the membrane composition has a small contribution to the increased bending rigidity and suggests ...
... the lipid bilayer is the fundamental structure of cell membranes, and the structure and dynamic of bilayer membranes govern the ... Graphene could play an important role in the modelling of cell membranes. For example, ... transport of materials and information in and out of cells. ... Graphene shows potential for modelling cell membrane systems. ( ... and its derivatives could be a new cell membrane model system for the researche on fundamental processes in cell membrane ...
Tag: amniotic membrane. Neil Riordan PhD - on opening a stem cell clinic in the United States. Stem Cell Pioneers featured Dr. ... Neil Riordan PhD on stem cell expansion in stem cell therapy. Stem Cell Pioneers featured Dr. Riordan in its February ... a monthly segment that features stem cell scientists and doctors answering questions from readers about stem cell therapy. Over ... a monthly segment that features stem cell scientists and doctors answering questions from readers about stem cell therapy. Over ...
... and membrane resistances (Rm) of granule cells at four stages are indicated. The resting membrane potential and membrane ... Resting membrane potential (C), membrane resistance (Rm) (D), and action potentials (E) of granule cells at DIV 10-14 were ... After a whole-cell configuration had been established, cell membrane capacitance was electronically compensated. The resting ... PCL, Purkinje cell layer. E, Time-dependent changes in a cell population of four developmental stages of granule cells in ...
CytoTox-ONE Homogeneous Membrane Integrity Assay Shop Promega CytoTox-ONE™ Homogeneous Membrane Integrity Assay at ... Cytotoxicity determination, total cell number determination, measures release of Lactate Dehydrogenase. Description. CytoTox- ... A fast homogeneous, fluorometric method for estimating the number of non-viable cells present in multiwell plates. Based on ... A Fluorometric Method for Estimating the Number of Nonviable Cells Present in Multiwell Plates ...
AI course biometrics-security-and-privacy CAD Services in USA cat dental treats Cell Functions Cell Membrane Cell Structure ... Cell Structure and Functions Oct 17, 2022 Viratk Cell Structure and Functions - A cellular can mirror itself independently. ...
Gyorgy Panyi, MD, PhD: "Membrane cholesterol content and ion channel functions in T cells". ... Lorenzo Moretta, MD "NK cells: from surface receptors to the cure of high risk leukemias" und Prof. Anna Erdei, PhD "Modulation ... Kv1.3 potassium channels are localized in the immunological synapse formed between cytotoxic and target cells. Proceedings of ... Vm24, a natural immunosuppressive peptide, potently and selectively blocks Kv1.3 potassium channels of human T cells. Molecular ...
... artificial membranes created in a lab and membranes shed from cells under severe stress. ... Living cell membranes can self-sort their components by demixing. News releases , Research , Science ... Living cell membranes can self-sort their components by demixing UW News staff ... Cells - the building blocks of our bodies - are encapsulated by membranes. The same goes for the specialized compartments ...
Compendium of the research presented and discussed at the Ninth Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Symposium (PEMFC 9) ...
More info for Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides. Timeline for Class f: Membrane and cell surface ... Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides appears in SCOP 1.65. *Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and ... Lineage for Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides. *Root: SCOP 1.67 *. Class f: Membrane and cell surface ... Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides first appeared (with stable ids) in SCOP 1.55. * ...
Lung Inspired Energy- and Material-Efficient Design of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell. April 7, 2017. August 22, 2010 ... Home » Uncategorized » Lung Inspired Energy- and Material-Efficient Design of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell ... Energy Fuels Journal - Nature-Inspired Energy- and Material-Efficient Design of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell. ... is presented that improves the energy efficiency and saves catalyst material of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC ...
EP-1474839-B1 chemical patent summary.
Christian Siegel High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Modeling, simulation, and segmented measurements ... High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Modeling, simulation, and segmented measurements Christian Siegel ... For large fuel cells and complete fuel cell stacks in particular, well designed anode and cathode inlet and outlet sections are ... A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, employing ...
calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules + calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane ... cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin + cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules + The attachment of one ... cell-cell adhesion involved in ameboidal cell migration + cell-cell adhesion involved in cerebral cortex tangential migration ...
Epiretinal membranes at the macula were seen in 4% of the eyes of 355 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and ... The occlusion of PSR lesions by treatment appears to reduce the risk of epiretinal membranes being formed. ... and vitreous haemorrhage all constitute risk factors for the formation of epiretinal membranes. ... sickle cell haemoglobin-C (SC) disease under the age of 60 years. The presence of proliferative sickle retinopathy (PSR), the ...
Similarly, a cell recovers from injuries by replacing damaged components of its structural integrity: its plasma membrane and ... As such, direct or indirect insults to the plasma membrane or cytoskeleton of a cell may not only result in the temporary loss ... how does the cell counteract them and how does the cell return to its previous tensegrity state? These questions will be ... Cells can be thought of as tensegral structures, their structural integrity relying on the interplay between tensile forces ...
  • It gives an overview of membrane proteins, with particular emphasis on peripheral and integral proteins. (
  • The user will learn about membrane proteins, their structures, and how they contribute towards cell function. (
  • Special proteins inserted in cellular membranes create pores that permit the passage of molecules across them. (
  • Ion gradients across membranes, established by the activities of specialized membrane proteins, can be used to synthesize ATP, to drive the transmembrane movement of selected solutes, or, in nerve and muscle cells, to produce and transmit electrical signals. (
  • In the plasma membrane, some proteins serve as structural links that connect the cytoskeleton through the lipid bilayer to either the extracellular matrix or an adjacent cell, while others serve as receptors to detect and transduce chemical signals in the cell's environment. (
  • As would be expected, it takes many different membrane proteins to enable a cell to function and interact with its environment. (
  • In fact, it is estimated that about 30% of the proteins that are encoded in an animal cell's genome are membrane proteins. (
  • In this chapter we consider the structure and organization of the two main constituents of biological membranes-the lipids and the membrane proteins. (
  • The cell membrane embeds specific proteins that are molecular signals cells use to communicate with one another. (
  • Other embedded proteins on the cell membrane are markers to identify the cell to other cells. (
  • The fluid mosaic model describes the cell membrane as a tapestry of several types of molecules (phospholipids, cholesterols, and proteins) that are constantly moving. (
  • These membranes are extremely thin, oily films, containing proteins and fatty molecules called lipids. (
  • A vacuole from a genetically engineered strain of yeast in which membrane proteins fluorescently glow. (
  • The UW researchers were inspired by pictures of a genetically engineered strain of yeast in which membrane proteins fluorescently glowed. (
  • The proteins lit up intracellular, membrane-bound compartments called vacuoles. (
  • The membranes of living systems contain many different types of fats, proteins and other molecules," said co-lead author Scott Rayermann , a lecturer at UW Tacoma who conducted this research when he was a UW doctoral student in chemistry. (
  • To show that phase separation occurs, we had to reliably track the distribution of proteins within membranes, show that they formed regions like in artificial systems and that these regions would merge in response to changing environmental conditions. (
  • Engagement of the T cell receptor leads to activation of several tyrosine kinases and phosphorylation of many intracellular proteins. (
  • Membrane-associated adaptor proteins play an important role in T cell activation by coupling TCR ligation at the membrane to distal signalling cascades. (
  • Two other recently identified adaptor proteins, TRIM (T cell receptor interacting molecule) and SIT (SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein), which constitutively associate with several surface molecules, bind to PI3K and SHP2, respectively, after T cell activation and might also function in the TCR signalling pathway. (
  • It acts as an anchor, connecting each muscle cell's structural framework (cytoskeleton) with the lattice of proteins and other molecules outside the cell (extracellular matrix). (
  • Most bacteria are, however, surrounded by a rigid cell wall made out of peptidoglycan , a polymer composed of linked carbohydrates and small proteins. (
  • For instance, although archaea also have a cell wall, it's not made out of peptidoglycan-although it does contain carbohydrates and proteins. (
  • The small intestines allows properly digested fats, proteins and starches to pass through the cells in order to be used by the body while providing a barrier to keep out foreign substances, large undigested molecules and bacterial products. (
  • a IL-1 gene manifestation was considerably less pronounced in PKRA7-treated mice (ideals by Mann-Whitney check Discussion In today's study, we exhibited that PKR1 proteins was indicated in infiltrating neutrophils, while PKR2 proteins was within macrophage-like mononuclear cells in the synovial membrane of CIA mice. (
  • We discovered that PKR2 proteins was within macrophage-like cells in the synovial membrane of CIA mice which, unlike PKR1, PKR2 gene manifestation was even more pronounced in swollen joints. (
  • Most cells contain ribosomes , which are structures that combine amino acids to create proteins. (
  • Our cells do a lot for us: they synthesize proteins, convert nutrients from our food into energy we can use, and make up the tissues and organs in our bodies. (
  • Cytoskeleton offers several reagents for live-cell research including fluorescent proteins, cell permeable protein activators and inhibitors, as well as our recent addition of live cell imaging probes. (
  • The free radicals and oxidative environment can damage DNA proteins and lipids in the skin cells. (
  • called peripheral membrane proteins. (
  • Almost four decades of research have led scientists at Japan's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) to propose that a family of transporter proteins has played an important role in species evolution. (
  • There are different types of ABC proteins with different transportation roles, importing nutrients into cells, exporting toxic compounds outside them, and regulating lipid concentrations within cell membranes. (
  • Organisms that existed early in Earth's history were probably formed of DNA and proteins surrounded by a leaky lipid membrane. (
  • The ABC proteins also played important roles in generating an outer membrane that protected cells from external stresses and in removing harmful substances from inside. (
  • The resultant accumulation of cholesterol in the inner leaflet triggers the recruitment of proteins to the membrane and modulates the signal transduction. (
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by all cells, circulate at high levels, and convey nucleic acids, peptide/proteins, lipids. (
  • The bacterial protein shown here uses the energy from light (photons) to activate the pumping of protons across the plasma membrane. (
  • these protein sensors, or receptors, transfer information-rather than ions or molecules-across the membrane. (
  • Despite their differing functions, all biological membranes have a common general structure: each is a very thin film of lipid and protein molecules, held together mainly by noncovalent interactions. (
  • Protein molecules that span the lipid bilayer mediate nearly all of the other functions of the membrane, transporting specific molecules across it, for example, or catalyzing membrane-associated reactions, such as ATP synthesis. (
  • In Chapters 12 and 13 we discuss the internal membranes of the cell and the protein traffic through and between them. (
  • These protein receptors receive signals from other cells as well as the environment. (
  • The research, led by neuroscientist Kirill Martemyanov, PhD, and colleagues, indicates that PTCHD1, a protein that is involved in altering cholesterol content in a cell's membrane, is involved in controlling opioid responses by regulating µ-opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking. (
  • Hundreds of receptors known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as landing sites for medications and biological molecules on the surface of cells. (
  • One gene, PTR-25, which encoded a membrane protein stood out. (
  • The results show that the membrane composition has a small contribution to the increased bending rigidity and suggests additional protein-driven mechanisms. (
  • Experiments were designed to precisely characterize the ontogenic processes of developing granule cells by combining organotypic cerebellar cultures with the specific expression of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in granule cells by use of DNA transfection. (
  • To address these questions, this present investigation combined the use of organotypic cerebellar cultures and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing granule cells obtained by DNA transfection. (
  • For decades, scientists have argued about how cell membranes organize and maintain distinct regions enriched in particular protein and lipid types. (
  • During astrocyte differentiation, membrane tension initially decreases and then increases after 72 h, accompanied by consolidation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and striking actin reorganization, while bending modulus increases following observed alterations. (
  • For oligodendrocytes , the changes in membrane tension are less abrupt over the first hours, but their values subsequently decrease, correlating with a shift from oligodendrocyte marker O4 to myelin basic protein expressions and a remarkable actin reorganization, while bending modulus remains constant. (
  • The sarcoglycan protein complex is located in the membrane surrounding muscle cells. (
  • Nearly all pathogens, including cancer cells, are protected by a protein-based coating, or "fibrin", that makes it difficult for the immune system to identify and destroy them. (
  • This post-translational modification is used to anchor the protein into membranes within the cell. (
  • Data was from mice sacrificed on Times 21, 28, and 35 Immunohistochemical staining of PKR1 and PKR2 protein demonstrated that PKR1-positive cells had been mainly neutrophils infiltrating in the synovial membrane (Fig.?4a). (
  • Open up in another windows Fig. 4 Immunostaining of PKR1 and PKR2 protein in synovial cells. (
  • The cell consists of a permeable cell membrane, DNA, protein factories called ribosomes, and a protective outer cell wall. (
  • plasma membrane of the cell, the heavy chain is called an integral membrane protein. (
  • The ABCA1 protein flips the cholesterol from the inner to the outer layer of the cell membrane. (
  • One protein in particular, called ABCA1, was likely crucial for vertebrate evolution by helping regulate when signals involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration enter a cell. (
  • The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (
  • Cell walls anchor the cytoplasm and hold the cell's shape. (
  • The spatial distributions of induced 27 or 2450 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electric fields (E-fields) and specific absorption rates (SARs) in a three-component spherical cell model (cytoplasm, membrane, extracellular space) were determined by Mie scattering theory. (
  • Cytoplasm consists of the jelly-like cytosol inside the cell, plus the cellular structures suspended in it. (
  • In eukaryotes, cytoplasm specifically means the region outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane. (
  • The interior of all cells consists of cytoplasm filled with a jelly-like substance called cytosol. (
  • Cell membranes are dynamic, fluid structures, and most of their molecules are able to move about in the plane of the membrane. (
  • This lipid bilayer provides the basic fluid structure of the membrane and serves as a relatively impermeable barrier to the passage of most water-soluble molecules. (
  • The scientists engineered a microfluidic device containing an array of microscopic cups, each trapping a single droplet of water bathed in oil and lipids, the molecules that make up cellular membranes. (
  • This characteristic allows certain molecules to come in and out of the cell? (
  • In a paper published Dec. 5 in the Biophysical Journal , scientists at the University of Washington show for the first time that the complex distribution of molecules within a membrane of a living yeast cell arises through demixing. (
  • Each of these types of molecules harbors different physical and chemical properties with the potential to affect the properties of the membrane as a whole. (
  • We and other groups have hypothesized that this variety of molecules would allow membranes to phase separate by composition into discrete regions. (
  • The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that are at least partially embedded in the plasma membrane. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • LAT (linker for activation of T cells) is an adaptor molecule, which following its phosphorylation associates with Grb2, Gads, PLC-gamma 1, and other signalling molecules. (
  • Exciting discoveries in the last decade have cast light onto the fundamental mechanisms that underlie polarized trafficking in epithelial cells. (
  • SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, which share about 80% structural identity, do this by harnessing the action of the angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE-2, which is expressed in the membranes of many cells in the body, including lung alveolar epithelial cells. (
  • Human alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells are cultured on either side of the porous membrane. (
  • In between the epithelial cells are tight junctions held together by the junctional complex. (
  • When the junctional complex is disrupted, the epithelial cells separate and allow particles into the body without policing them. (
  • To address these issues, we analyzed the morphology, molecular composition, fusion capacity and biological activity of Cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs). (
  • Oligodendrocytes at later differentiation stages show membrane vesicles with similar membrane tension but higher bending modulus as compared to the cell surface. (
  • Illustration of membrane-bound vesicles containing clusters of viruses, including rotavirus and norovirus, within the gut. (
  • However, in 2015 Altan-Bonnet and her colleagues showed that polioviruses could transmit themselves in packets, or membrane-bound vesicles containing multiple virus particles. (
  • In 1982 John Vane won a Nobel Prize and a knighthood for his work on eicosanoids, local hormones produced by cellular membranes. (
  • The computer-controlled microfluidic circuits we have constructed will allow us to assemble synthetic cells not only from biologically derived lipids, but from any amphiphile and to measure important chemical and physical parameters, such as permeability and stability," said Paegel. (
  • The lipophilic CellBrite® dyes would not be suitable for solvent-cleared samples as membrane lipids would be extracted during the solvent treatment step. (
  • We extracted the RBC's cytoplasmic membrane (RBC cm ) to study the effect of storage on the membranes' molecular structure and bending rigidity by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and coarse grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. (
  • Himbert S, Qadri SM, Sheffield WP, Schubert P, D'Alessandro A, Rheinstädter MC (2021) Blood bank storage of red blood cells increases RBC cytoplasmic membrane order and bending rigidity. (
  • The RBCs' unique ability to deform is intrinsically related to the complex interplay between the spectrin network and the cytoplasmic membrane, which form the outer layer of the cell. (
  • We can now control the molecular composition of the inner and outer layers of a bilayer membrane, and even assemble multi-layered membranes that resemble the envelope of the cell nucleus. (
  • A prokaryote is a simple, single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. (
  • We'll talk more about the nucleus and organelles in the next article on eukaryotic cells, but the main thing to keep in mind for now is that prokaryotic cells are not divided up on the inside by membrane walls, but consist instead of a single open space. (
  • The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains its DNA. (
  • Prokaryotic cells don't contain a nucleus. (
  • Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus where their DNA is stored. (
  • Margins of ulcers showed marked epidermal swelling (intracellular edema, ballooning degeneration) and large numbers of epithelial syncytial cells, often with marginated chromatin and smudgy intranuclear inclusion bodies filling the nucleus ( Figure 1 , panel B.). Inclusion bodies were present in individual cells in the stratum basalis and stratum spinosum adjacent to the ulcers. (
  • Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed virions consistent with herpesvirus in shape and size within the nucleus of syncytial cells and budding through the nuclear membrane ( Figure 1 , panel C.). Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy findings were essentially identical to findings from human HSV-1 infections ( 7 ). (
  • Forster RE, Gros G, Lin L, Ono Y, Wunder M. The effect of 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate on CO2 permeability of the red blood cell membrane. (
  • Hemolytic anemias: red blood cell membrane and metabolic defects. (
  • Red blood cell membrane disorders. (
  • Yippee like 4 (Ypel4) is essential for normal mouse red blood cell membrane integrity. (
  • The plasma membrane encloses the cell, defines its boundaries, and maintains the essential differences between the cytosol and the extracellular environment. (
  • Organisms are able to recover from injuries by replacing damaged tissues, which recover by replacing damaged cells and extracellular structures. (
  • Canonically, PS is exposed to the extracellular (outer) leaflet of the plasma membrane in an irreversible manner when cells undergo apoptosis, marking them for clearing by macrophages. (
  • The results were compared to results for the same cell model but with 0.5 nm thick of bound water on the inner (cytoplasmic) and outer (extracellular) membrane surfaces (i.e., five-component cell model). (
  • We can now control the molecular composition of the inner and outer layers of a bilayer membrane," says Assistant Professor Brian Paegel. (
  • Because when you understand what a phospholipid is, it starts to make sense why it would form a bilayer like this, and why it's the basis for so many membranes in biological systems. (
  • For example, the lipid bilayer is the fundamental structure of cell membranes, and the structure and dynamic of bilayer membranes govern the transport of materials and information in and out of cells. (
  • B) Atomic force microscope topography and (C) structural model of DOPC bilayer membranes on GO/SiO 2 /Si. (
  • Subsequent observation with an atomic force fluorescence microscopy (Fig.1B) and revealed the presence of two planar DOPC bilayer membranes stacked on GO with the assistance of calcium ion (5 mM), and that the DOPC bilayers on GO were fluid and continuous with the surrounding DOPC bilayers on the bare SiO 2 surfaces (Fig. 1C). (
  • Mammalian cells maintain a distinct disparity in lipid composition between the two leaflets of the bilayer of the plasma membrane. (
  • Through the investigations on water/methanol uptake, swelling, and methanol permeability, it was found that the membrane performance was highly dependent on the zeolite particle and pore size, content, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature. (
  • Moreover, under the identical conditions, all the as-prepared membranes exhibited much lower methanol permeability than Nafion ® 117 while the proton conductivity of the membranes remained high enough for DMFC applications. (
  • The interesting finding is that membrane CO2 permeability, from a value of 1cm/sec or higher in the control experiments, was lowered by the drug to a value of 0.1cm/sec. (
  • Once intestinal permeability is increased and a leaky gut is present, the antigen enters the body and stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. (
  • Cholesterol's role was thought to focus mainly on physically strengthening the cell membrane and reducing its permeability to ions. (
  • A design procedure is presented that improves the energy efficiency and saves catalyst material of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). (
  • Buchbeschreibung: Christian Siegel : High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. (
  • A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, employing a high temperature stable polybenzimidazole membrane electrode assembly doped with phosphoric acid, was developed and implemented using a commercially available finite element software. (
  • This work helps to provide a better understanding of the internal behaviour of a running high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and presents valuable data for modeling and simulation. (
  • The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is a type of fuel cell that uses a proton-conducting membrane as the electrolyte. (
  • This work paves the way for future studies to determine the broad roles of compositional and biophysical plasma membrane asymmetry in cellular physiology, and the specific mechanisms by which it is involved in various cell signaling pathways. (
  • MSc in Cell Biology, Physiology and Pathology. (
  • More specifically, each organ-on-a-chip is fabricated on a clear polymer containing hollow microfluidic channels lined with living human cells. (
  • The plasma membrane is an outer covering that separates the cell's interior from its surrounding environment. (
  • Detection of cytokine producing cells in the synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • b Hematoxylin and eosin staining from the rearfoot synovial membrane of control CIA mice (100) on Day time 35. (
  • In swollen joints, consequently, PKR1 manifestation is likely within those bloodstream cells infiltrating the synovial membrane. (
  • We discovered that PKR1 was indicated in neutrophils in the synovial membrane. (
  • The membranes surrounding and inside cells are involved in every aspect of biological function. (
  • You will compare external addition of membrane material with intracellular biosynthesis of the membrane building blocks, called phospholipids. (
  • This Ca 2+ signaling should greatly influence intracellular signaling mechanisms of developing and maturing granule cells. (
  • It is now clear that epithelial cell membrane asymmetry is achieved by a combination of intracellular sorting operations, vectorial delivery mechanisms and plasmalemma-specific fusion and retention processes. (
  • The physical process of dividing a single cell into two daughter cells has been a fascinating research question for decades, and its molecular basis is still far from understood. (
  • Layer-by-layer membrane assembly allows us to create synthetic cells with membranes of arbitrary complexity at the molecular and supramolecular scale," said TSRI Assistant Professor Brian Paegel, who authored the study with Research Associate Sandro Matosevic. (
  • From these studies, we suspect that targeting the molecular organization of CD82 may provide a means by which AML cells can be released from the bone marrow, while attenuate uncontrolled signaling in AML. (
  • Ozawa E, Mizuno Y, Hagiwara Y, Sasaoka T, Yoshida M. Molecular and cell biology of the sarcoglycan complex. (
  • The Red Cell Service has close links with the University of Oxford through internationally recognised units and laboratories with an interest in disorders of haemoglobin, including the MRC Molecular Haematology Unit within the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (WIMM). (
  • Tobacco plants have evolved a chemical called nicotine that locks into particular molecular receptors in the outer membranes of certain animal nerve cells. (
  • Proton exchange membrane fuel cells 9. (
  • For large fuel cells and complete fuel cell stacks in particular, well designed anode and cathode inlet and outlet sections are expected to aid in achieving flatter quantities distributions and in preventing hot spots over the membrane electrode assembly area, and to develop proper start-up, shut-down, and tempering concepts. (
  • Computational modeling of transport and electrochemical reactions in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. (
  • PEMFCs have a number of advantages over other types of fuel cells, including high power density, high efficiency, and low emissions. (
  • The key drivers of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) market are the increasing demand for fuel cells, the need for clean energy, and government support for fuel cells. (
  • Fuel cells are a clean and efficient way to generate electricity, and they are being increasingly used in a variety of applications, such as power generation, transportation, and portable electronics. (
  • Fuel cells offer many advantages over traditional combustion-based power generation technologies, including higher efficiency, lower emissions, and the ability to operate using a variety of fuels. (
  • Staining using CF® Dye WGA Conjugates may be an option, but staining can be cell- and tissue-type dependent i.e. it is based on the expression pattern of glycoproteins on the cell membranes. (
  • It is also important to note that if tissue sections are used, the lectins would stain glycoproteins on all cell membranes, external (plasma membrane) as well as internal (organelle membranes). (
  • Their resemblance to the sun with a corona, as seen during an eclipse, is due to so-called spike glycoproteins, or peplomers, on the surface, which enable coronaviruses to enter host cells. (
  • Inside eucaryotic cells, the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other membrane-enclosed organelles maintain the characteristic differences between the contents of each organelle and the cytosol. (
  • Association of AP-1 with the membranes required GTP or GTP analogues and was inhibited by the fungal metabolite, brefeldin A. In the presence of GTP gamma S, binding of AP-1 to Golgi membranes was strictly dependent on the concentration of cytosol added to the assay. (
  • Using only an adaptor-enriched fraction from cytosol, purified myristoylated ARF1, and Golgi membranes, the GTP gamma S-dependent recruitment of AP-1 could be reconstituted. (
  • Structures inside the cell are suspended in the cytosol. (
  • A quasi three-dimensional dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. (
  • A single PEMFC cell is discretized into 245 control volumes in three dimensions to resolves local voltage response, current generation, species mole fractions, temperature, and membrane hydration spatially in the PEMFC. (
  • New York, 2022-Aug-12 - /EPR Network/ - According to a new market research report published by Global Insight Services " Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Market " is expected to reach US$ XX bn by 2031. (
  • A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is a type of fuel cell that uses hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity. (
  • The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Market is segmented by type, application, and region. (
  • Epiretinal membranes in sickle cell disease. (
  • The Red Cell Service provides a comprehensive clinical service for the population of Oxfordshire and acts as the hub for major haemoglobinopathy referrals for tertiary care from the Thames Valley network - sickle cell disease, thalassaemia and rare inherited anaemia. (
  • Exchange blood transfusions for people with sickle cell disease are carried out by the Therapeutic Apheresis Services (TAS) at the NHS Blood and Transplant Centre on the John Radcliffe Hospital site. (
  • If you are worried that you need urgent attention for your blood disorder, or have a medical concern (e.g. if you have a sickle cell disease and think you might be developing a crisis), we have a dedicated triage assessment team. (
  • This page is a subset of reference material about cell structures. (
  • They are also the largest and most complex structures that cells synthesize. (
  • Understanding the myriad biochemical roles of membranes requires the ability to prepare synthetic versions of these complex multi-layered structures, which has been a long-standing challenge. (
  • Similarly, a cell recovers from injuries by replacing damaged components of its structural integrity: its plasma membrane and cytoskeletal structures. (
  • Cells can be thought of as tensegral structures, their structural integrity relying on the interplay between tensile forces generated within and without the cell, and the compressive elements that counteracts them. (
  • Cells are neither amorphous blobs nor rigid, unchanging structures. (
  • Virus alters the mechanical properties of the membranes, impairing mesophase structures mediated by the fractal architecture initiated by actomyosin. (
  • Some bacteria also have specialized structures found on the cell surface, which may help them move, stick to surfaces, or even exchange genetic material with other bacteria. (
  • Fimbriae are numerous, hair-like structures that are used for attachment to host cells and other surfaces. (
  • Eukaryotic cells contain smaller structures, called organelles , that help it carry out these functions. (
  • Gyorgy Panyi has been a professor and head of Biophysics at the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Hungary, since 2009. (
  • UW has been at the forefront of yeast genetics and cell biology for over 60 years. (
  • En la mayoría de las células microbianas, ésta aparece bordeada externamente por la PARED CELULAR (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Mollecular Biology, 2d ed). (
  • Osmotic fragility is a blood test to detect whether red blood cells are more likely to break down. (
  • Cellular pharmacokinetics of antibiotics : study of the mechanisms of penetration, accumulation, distribution, and efflux of antibiotics in eucaryotic cells, including the study of their transport by eucaryotic efflux pumps. (
  • In complex organisms, the cell wall attaches to the cell walls of other cells to form tissues, organs and ultimately the organism. (
  • Some organisms consist of only one cell, while others (like humans) have trillions of cells! (
  • All living organisms have cells that contain genetic material ( DNA ). (
  • Prokaryotes-organisms composed of a prokaryotic cell-are always single-celled (unicellular). (
  • Eukaryotes-organisms composed of eukaryotic cells-are multicellular or complex unicellular organisms. (
  • As the organisms evolved, their membranes were fortified to protect them from the external environment. (
  • But this meant only organisms that evolved special ABC transporters capable of carrying nutrients across the membrane survived. (
  • The majority of organ-on-a-chip models utilize a porous membrane as a substrate for defining cell layers. (
  • It is demonstrated that [3H]ICS 205-930 identifies 5-HT3 receptors in preparations of cat and rabbit vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and their rank order of affinity for 5- HT3 receptors from neuroblastoma-glioma NG 108-15 cells. (
  • Biochemical dissection of AP-1 recruitment onto Golgi membranes. (
  • Recruitment of the Golgi-specific AP-1 adaptor complex onto Golgi membranes is thought to be a prerequisite for clathrin coat assembly on the TGN. (
  • We have used an in vitro assay to examine the translocation of cytosolic AP-1 onto purified Golgi membranes. (
  • Our results show that the association of the AP-1 complex with Golgi membranes, like the coatomer complex, requires ARF, which accounts for the sensitivity of both to brefeldin A. In addition, they provide the basis for a model for the early biochemical events that lead to clathrin-coated vesicle formation on the TGN. (
  • By type, the market is divided into low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell. (
  • Junctophilin-4, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions, regulates Ca2+ dynamics in T cells. (
  • Data show that junctophilin-4 (JP4) is expressed in T cells and localized at the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions to regulate Ca(2+) signaling. (
  • Nerve growth factor induces 5-HT3 recognition sites in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. (
  • Fats are nutrients in food that the body uses to build cell membranes, nerve tissue (including the brain), and hormones. (
  • The acute transient neurotoxicity observed in rats exposed to MeI is best supported by a mode of action involv- ing modification of ion currents by the parent chemical in nerve cells. (
  • The hydrogen ions (protons) pass through the membrane and react with oxygen to produce water and electricity. (
  • There the microbe encounters the alveolar macrophage (AMac) and submucosal dendritic cell (DC). (
  • This procedure is hypothetically generic for enhancing delivery to all tissues, according to coauthor Victor Frenkel, Ph.D. Li previously demonstrated that tumor cells increase their uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs with a similar ultrasound treatment. (
  • However, if staining of live cells is possible, the reactive CellBrite® fix and MemBrite® fix membrane dyes may be used before fixation and solvent-clearing, but these dyes may not penetrate multilayer cells or tissues effectively. (
  • A host transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2 , promotes entry of SARS-Cov into cells by two separate mechanisms . (
  • Vm24, a natural immunosuppressive peptide, potently and selectively blocks Kv1.3 potassium channels of human T cells. (
  • It has been concluded that LLO Y406A has the ability to selectively eliminate cancer urothelial cells through pore-forming activity at the plasma membrane, without cytotoxic effects on normal urothelial cells. (
  • LLO Y406A decreased viability, altered cell morphology, provoked membrane blebbing, and induced apoptosis in RT4 cells, while it did not affect NPU cells. (
  • Capsid gene delivery into the striatum of mouse brain or interskeletal muscle resulted in cell death and inflammation, likely through capsid-induced apoptosis in vivo. (
  • Semithin (1.0-µm) sections resulted in apoptosis and inflammation of muscle cells. (
  • Absorbed energy distribution from radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in a mammalian cell model: effect of membrane-bound water. (
  • TMPRSS2 also acts on the S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein, causing an irreversible conformational change, activating it, and facilitating fusion of the virus to the cell membrane. (
  • Stained histologic sections reveal the nuclei of tumor cells in blue as seen with fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Therefore, our goal was to compare the cytotoxic effect of LLO Y406A on cancer cells (RT4) and normal urothelial cells (NPU), and to identify which cell membranes are the primary target of LLO Y406A by viability assays, life-cell imaging, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. (
  • A Multimodal Multi-Shank Fluorescence Neural Probe for Cell-Type-Specific Electrophysiology in Multiple Regions across a Neural Circuit. (
  • Ross B, Loew LM, Baker B . Decision letter: Optical estimation of absolute membrane potential using fluorescence lifetime imaging Elife . (
  • With this tuning, the model is shown to predict well the voltage current (V-I) behavior for the full range of cell operating current. (
  • Although such behavior has been observed across many different immune cell types, so far, no functional role has been attributed to it. (
  • material in a eukaryotic cell is called the nuclear membrane. (
  • We report that the WNV capsid (Cp) by itself induces rapid nuclear condensation and cell death in tissue culture. (
  • Multiple approaches using morphology, electrophysiology, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that granule cells developed and matured at the physiological KCl concentration in organotypic cultures in a temporally regulated manner. (
  • Here, by precisely measuring membrane tension and bending modulus, we map their variations and correlate them with changes in neural precursor cell morphology along their distinct differentiation fates. (
  • The structure of individual organ-on-chip systems varies because the arrangement of organ specific cell types within the microfluidic device is made to resemble the basic morphology of the organ. (
  • As such, direct or indirect insults to the plasma membrane or cytoskeleton of a cell may not only result in the temporary loss of structural integrity, but also directly impact its ability to respond to its environment. (
  • Although this compositional asymmetry has been known for decades, there has been little investigation of its structural impact on the physical properties of the membrane, nor its functional impact in healthy cells. (
  • Special attention will be given to changes in plasma membrane composition and area to cytoskeletal dynamics, and how these factor each other to influence and effect single-cell repair. (
  • Artificial lipid bilayers on graphene and its derivatives could be a new cell membrane model system for the researche on fundamental processes in cell membrane reactions. (
  • The reactions take place in an airtight 3-ml glass water-jacketed and stirred chamber connected to the ion source of a mass spectrometer through a thin 0.012-mm-thick Teflon membrane supported by a sintered glass disc, through which gases are dissolved in the solution diffuse. (
  • Characteristics of prokaryotic cells. (
  • It also means that you-for some definition of the word you-actually consist of both of the major types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. (
  • There are some key ingredients that a cell needs in order to be a cell, regardless of whether it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic. (
  • Image of a typical prokaryotic cell, with different portions of the cell labeled. (
  • Typical prokaryotic cells range from 0.1 to 5.0 micrometers (μm) in diameter and are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells, which usually have diameters ranging from 10 to 100 μm. (
  • 4. There are two main types of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. (
  • Prokaryotic cells include bacteria and archaea. (
  • You will mechanically characterize and quantify the membrane growth. (
  • In the first experiment of the current study, the effect of oxygen free radical scavengers (SOD+CAT) on blood flow, ATP content, and plasma cell membrane potential in the liver was evaluated after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. (
  • The functions of cell membranes are considered in later chapters. (
  • The cell membrane provides several vital functions for the cell. (
  • Cell Structure and Functions - A cellular can mirror itself independently. (
  • By teaming up with Alex Merz , a UW professor of biochemistry and a yeast expert, we've shown that phase separation is one of those tools to shape membranes and their functions within a living system. (
  • Neural precursor cells differentiate into several cell types that display distinct functions. (
  • Cells absorb nutrients through the cell membrane and expel waste through the same membrane using both active and passive transport. (
  • Membrane Elastic Properties During Neural Precursor Cell Differentiation. (
  • However, little is known about how cell surface mechanics vary during the differentiation process. (
  • Altogether, our results display an entire spectrum of how membrane elastic properties are varying, thus contributing to a better understanding of neural differentiation from a mechanobiological perspective. (
  • The antigens (either dietary related or microbial or viral) pass through the weakened junctional complex(JC), they are presented by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) to the T-cells (a lymphocyte produced by the Thymus gland). (
  • The infectivity of the virus was titrated study, we used beta-propiolactone (BPL)- by the focus-forming method in Vero inactivated dengue viruses as antigens in cells(6). (
  • The general results are illustrated using the standard E-TEK Elat/Std/DS/V2 gas diffusion electrode with 0.5 mg of Pt/cm2 membrane area and 20% Pt/C on Vulcan XC-72 as a support material. (
  • In order to estimate the dependence of the results on bound water within the membrane per se, the model was revised to include bound water within the inner and outer membrane surfaces. (
  • and (7) variation of bound-water characteristic frequency, ionic conductivity, or bound-water incorporation inside the membrane surfaces, per se, did not significantly affect the E-field or SAR ratios. (
  • All cells are bound by a plasma membrane . (
  • The scientists compared this new model of viral transmission to a Trojan horse: A group of membrane-bound viruses arrives at a host cell and deposits viruses in the cell while dodging detection by the immune system. (
  • The researchers obtained fecal samples of humans and animals (pigs and mice) and found that the viruses are shed in the stool as virus clusters inside membrane-bound packets. (
  • with the plasma membrane are tightly bound to it. (
  • Learn how chlorine and hydrogen are produced from brine in a modern and efficient membrane cell electrolyser. (
  • Membrane cell electrolysers feature a sealed module that consist of two chambers, separated by a flexible cation exchange membrane, to prevent chlorine and hydrogen gasses from mixing. (
  • Due to the presence of hydrogen bonds between CS and zeolite, the hybrid membranes displayed desirable thermal and mechanical stabilities. (
  • PEMFCs work by passing hydrogen gas through a membrane. (