White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Extracts of the thymus that contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities; three distinct substances are already known: thymotoxin, thymin and thymosin.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
"Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. IX. The quantitation of natural killer cell ... "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) and they differ from peripheral NK cells. They are in the CD56bright NK cell subset, potent at ... because of the limited number of NK cells in blood (only 10% of lymphocytes are NK cells), their number needs to be expanded in ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity[edit]. Infected cells are routinely opsonized with antibodies for detection by ...
"Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. IX. The quantitation of natural killer cell ... "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) and they differ from peripheral NK cells. They are in the CD56bright NK cell subset, potent at ... because of the limited number of NK cells in blood (only 10% of lymphocytes are NK cells), their number needs to be expanded in ... The contribution of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to tumor cell killing can be measured with a specific test ...
... s are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Vacuolization may ... "The novel subset of CD14+/CD16+ blood monocytes is expanded in sepsis patients". Blood. 82 (10): 3170-3176. doi:10.1182/blood. ... "Novel insights into the relationships between dendritic cell subsets in human and mouse revealed by genome-wide expression ... Monocytosis is the state of excess monocytes in the peripheral blood. It may be indicative of various disease states. Examples ...
Although HTLV-1 is primarily found in CD4+ T cells, other cell types in the peripheral blood of infected individuals have been ... The virus activates a subset of T-helper cells called Th1 cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction ... "Adult T-cell leukemia: antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera". Proceedings of ... found to contain HTLV-1, including CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells and B cells. HTLV-I entry is mediated through interaction of ...
A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They ... One basis for low T cell lymphocytes occurs when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and destroys T cells ( ... Berrington JE, Barge D, Fenton AC, Cant AJ, Spickett GP (May 2005). "Lymphocyte subsets in term and significantly preterm UK ...
... to humans and primates and represent a minor and unconventional constituent of the leukocyte population in peripheral blood ( ... γδ T cells are a major T cell subset of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) present in the epithelial layer of mucosa. They ... and dendritic cell- mediated production of IL-12 and IL-23 promotes differentiation of Th17 cells to Th1 cells, which produce ... inflammatory cytokines and activate adaptive immunity cells. They can also lyse tumor cells by antibody‐dependent cellular ...
1994). "BY55 monoclonal antibody delineates within human cord blood and bone marrow lymphocytes distinct cell subsets mediating ... Its expression is tightly associated with peripheral blood NK cells and CD8 T lymphocytes with cytolytic effector activity. The ... "BY55/CD160 acts as a co-receptor in TCR signal transduction of a human circulating cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte subset ... form of the MHC class I-specific CD160 receptor is released from human activated NK lymphocytes and inhibits cell-mediated ...
Human CD4(+)CD25(+) cells: a naturally occurring population of regulatory T cells. „Blood". 98 (9), s. 2736-2744, listopad 2001 ... Steady state migratory RelB+ langerin+ dermal dendritic cells mediate peripheral induction of antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ ... Regulatory T cells inhibit dendritic cells by lymphocyte activation gene-3 engagement of MHC class II. „J Immunol". 180 (9), s ... A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. „Nature". 389 (6652), s. 737-742, ...
PP T-cells) compared to other T cell subsets, such as peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes activated T cells. The mechanism of ... Lymphocytes migrate from the blood stream via a distinctive 'rolling interaction' mediated by interactions between cellular ... In this case, in humans α4β1 and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) are expressed on the T cell surface. These integrins ... Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both ...
Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. Other regulatory immune cells include T cell subsets ... Women who have borne multiple children by the same father typically have antibodies against the father's red blood cell and ... It occurs during lymphocyte development in the thymus[14][15] and bone marrow for T and B lymphocytes, respectively. In these ... Placental trophoblast cells express a unique Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-G) that inhibits attack by maternal NK cells. These ...
"Induction of tolerance in peripheral T cells with monoclonal antibodies". European Journal of Immunology. 20 (12): 2737-2745. ... Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... Later developed new tolerogenic strategies have provided strong evidence to re-evaluate the phenomenon of T cell mediated ... "Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway". Blood ...
... immunotherapy of lung cancer with immobilized anti-TCRgammadelta antibody-expanded human gammadelta T-cells in peripheral blood ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ... July 2018). "T cells isolated from patients with checkpoint inhibitor-resistant melanoma are functional and can mediate tumor ... The approval of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) ...
Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production". Cell. Immunol. 12 (1): 150-59. doi:10.1016/ ... B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given ... Ogawa, M (1993). "Differentiation and proliferation of hematopoetic stem cells". Blood. 81 (11): 2844-53. doi:10.1182/blood. ... non-antibody mediators of cellular immunity generated by lymphocyte activation". Nature. 224 (5214): 38-42. Bibcode:1969Natur. ...
... cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells . Tr1 cells regulate ... "Correlation of allergen-specific IgG subclass antibodies and T lymphocyte cytokine responses in children with multiple food ... The suppressing and tolerance-inducing effect of Tr1 cells is mediated mainly by cytokines. The other mechanism as cell to cell ... The specific cell-surface markers for Tr1 cells in humans and mice are CD4+ CD49b+LAG-3+ CD226+ from which LAG-3+ and CD49b+ ...
... secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to leishmania antigens.[48][49][50][51][52] T cells isolated ... "Enhanced Lesional FoxP3 Expression and Peripheral Anergic Lymphocytes Indicate a Role for Regulatory T Cells in Indian Post- ... "Regulatory T Cells Suppress T Cell Activation at the Pathologic Site in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31551 ... 1995). "In Vivo and In Vitro Cytokine and Mononuclear Cell Subsets in Sicilian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis". Cytokine ...
TIRC7 is induced after immune activation on the cell surface of certain peripheral human T and B cells as well as monocytes and ... alpha 2 mediates negative signalling via binding to Tirc7 leading to anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects in lymphocytes in ... Upon lymphocyte activation TIRC7 is upregulated to engage HLA-DRα2 and induce apoptotic signals in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells ... 2007). "Molecular profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis". Molecular Medicine. ...
... is expressed intracellularly in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), resting lymphocyte cells (B, T, NK, and monocytes), ... "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II expression ... HLA-F has been observed only in a subset of cell membranes, mostly B cells and activated lymphocytes. As a result, it has been ... During pregnancy, HLA-F interacts with T reg cells and extravillous trophoblasts mediating maternal tolerance to the fetus. ...
... is expressed on all peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) including T cells, B cells, NK cells and thymocytes. It is also ... Tangye SG, Cherwinski H, Lanier LL, Phillips JH (2001). "2B4-mediated activation of human natural killer cells". Mol. Immunol. ... Wei J (2008). "Cytotoxic Activity of CD48 Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human Lymphoma Cells". The Open Biotechnology Journal. ... CD48 is a member of the CD2 subfamily of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) which includes SLAM (signaling lymphocyte ...
B cells and T cells, two different types of lymphocytes, carry out the main activities: antibody responses, and cell-mediated ... LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... of white blood cells; their total mass is about the same as the brain or liver. The peripheral bloodstream contains only 2% of ... Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells, γδ T cells ...
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... Human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, which constitute the major γδ T cell population in peripheral blood, are unique in that they ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ...
... of induced pluripotent stem cells from a small amount of human peripheral blood using a combination of activated T cells and ... Among these cells SeV achieves high transgene expression in CD34+ cells subset. Another source-human primary PBMC, according to ... "The mannose receptor mediates induction of IFN-alpha in peripheral blood dendritic cells by enveloped RNA and DNA viruses". ... PBMC derived T cells activated for 5 days with anti-CD3 antibody and IL-2 also can be used for the purpose. In addition, human ...
Human γδ T cells which use the Vγ9 and Vδ2 gene fragments constitute the major γδ T cell population in peripheral blood, and ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells ...
A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood showing red blood cells, several types of white blood ... "Lymphocyte subsets in term and significantly preterm UK infants in the first year of life analysed by single platform flow ...
"Two subsets of naive T helper cells with distinct T cell receptor excision circle content in human adult peripheral blood". The ... CD31 could be used as a marker of new generated Treg cells as same as other T lymphocytes. Mature and peripheral Treg cells ... Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induce cytokine deprivation-mediated apoptosis of effector CD4+ T cells". Nature Immunology. 8 (12): ... Read S, Malmström V, Powrie F (July 2000). "Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function ...
B cells and T cells, two different types of lymphocytes, carry out the main activities: antibody responses, and cell-mediated ... The human body has about 2 trillion lymphocytes, which are 20-40% of white blood cells; their total mass is about the same as ... In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding. Diversity is ... The peripheral bloodstream contains only 2% of all circulating lymphocytes; the other 98% move within tissues and the lymphatic ...
Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production". Cell. Immunol. 12 (1): 150-9. doi:10.1016/ ... B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given ... Ogawa, M (1993). "Differentiation and proliferation of hematopoetic stem cells". Blood. 81: 2844-2853. doi:10.1182/blood.V81.11 ... Chen explains the regulatory activity of LIF in human and murine embryos: "In conclusion, human preimplantation embryos express ...
On T lymphocytesEdit. CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ ... cytokines and chemokines upon Fc epsilon RI activation in human cultured mast cells derived from peripheral blood". Cytokine. ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ... Sandor, M., and Lynch, R. G. (1993) Lymphocyte Fc receptors: the special case of T cells. Immunology today 14, 227-231 10.1016/ ...
Studies on human peripheral blood T cells showed that a brief exposure to ShK-186 was sufficient to suppress cytokine responses ... "T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers". PLOS ONE. 12 (1): e0170102 ... During T cell-activation, calcium enters lymphocytes through store-operated CRAC channels (calcium release activated channel) ... November 2006). "Kv1.3 channels are a therapeutic target for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases". Proceedings of the National ...
Human γδ T cells which use the Vγ9 and Vδ2 gene fragments constitute the major γδ T cell population in peripheral blood, and ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte. T cells are one of the important white blood cells of the immune system and play a central ...
... a novel human anti-KIR receptor therapeutic antibody that augments natural killer-mediated killing of tumor cells". Blood. 114 ... which is probably analogous to the human KIR. KIR and CD94 (CTLR) receptors are expressed by 5% of peripheral blood T cells. ... Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and ... Unlike T lymphocytes, resting NK cells use preformed lytic granules to kill target cells, implying a rapid cytolytic effect ...
Both T cells and B cells are cellular components of adaptive immunity. [1] The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator ... An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response.[ ... They become activated and start to secrete cytokines, substances that activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), antibody- ... cell therapy or checkpoint blockade. Neoantigen identification was successful for multiple experimental model systems and human ...
T-helper cell mediated) response. One protease-resistant peptide from α-gliadin contains a region that stimulates lymphocytes ... Family history, blood antibody tests, intestinal biopsies, genetic testing, response to gluten withdrawal[10][11]. ... also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and distinguishes cells between self and non-self for the purposes of the ... Biopsy of small bowel showing coeliac disease manifested by blunting of villi, crypt hypertrophy, and lymphocyte infiltration ...
"MHC class II signal transduction in human dendritic cells induced by a natural ligand, the LAG-3 protein (CD223)". Blood. 102 ( ... "Lymphocyte activation gene-3 expression defines a discrete subset of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells that is associated with lower ... cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. • antigen ... In June 2005 the Triebel group showed that antibodies to LAG-3 would result in T cell expansion, through increased rounds of ...
"Molecular interactions mediating T-B lymphocyte collaboration in human lymphoid follicles. Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... Stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody ... CD4 T cell depleted to the cell count of less than 200cell/μL in blood during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell ...
A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood showing red blood cells, several types of white blood ... "Lymphocyte subsets in term and significantly preterm UK infants in the first year of life analysed by single platform flow ...
... a monoclonal antibody that attacks white blood cells, has been used in treatment with greater success than previous options.[56 ... Instead, HTLV "immortalizes" the infected T-cells, giving them the ability to proliferate abnormally. Human T-cell lymphotropic ... Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is sometimes considered a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but does not fit neatly into this ... Most lymphocytic leukemias involve a specific subtype of lymphocyte, the B cell. ...
C. Röpke, B. van Deurs, P. E. Høyer,DNA-synthesizing cells in human fetal thymus, Cell and Tissue Research, märts 1977, 178. ... immunohistochemical characterization of four thymic epithelial subsets defined by monoclonal anti-keratin antibodies., Eur J ... Lühikokkuvõte., Cell Tissue Res. 1981;217(1):49-54. 1981. *Minoru Amano ja Kiyohiro Hamatani, The Short-Lived Lymphocyte in the ... P.G. Isaacson, A.J. Norton, B.J. Addis, THE HUMAN THYMUS CONTAINS A NOVEL POPULATION OF B LYMPHOCYTES, The Lancet, 330. ...
The first treatment involves adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using TILs immune cells (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes) isolated from ... and PD-L1 antibodies.[110][112] Evidence suggests that anti-PD-1 antibodies are more effective than anti-CTLA4 antibodies with ... Because the cancer cells have not yet reached the blood vessels deeper in the skin, it is very unlikely that this early-stage ... "The human pathology proteome in melanoma - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 2017-10-02.. ...
After the BBB breakdown, the immune-mediated attack against myelin happens. T cells, are a kind of lymphocyte that plays an ... Haegele KF, Stueckle CA, Malin JP, Sindern E (February 2007). "Increase of CD8+ T-effector memory cells in peripheral blood of ... According to the view of most researchers, a special subset of lymphocytes, called T helper cells, specifically Th1 and Th17, ... BBB is a tight vascular barrier between the blood and brain that should prevent the passage of antibodies through it, but in MS ...
... cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.[13] When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated ... "Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood and genital secretions: evidence for viral ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface ... the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells". Nature Immunology. 9 (3): 301-9. doi:10.1038/ni1566. PMID 18264102.. ...
... secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Leishmania antigens. T cells isolated from both cured and ... 2010). "Enhanced Lesional FoxP3 Expression and Peripheral Anergic Lymphocytes Indicate a Role for Regulatory T Cells in Indian ... 2012). "Regulatory T Cells Suppress T Cell Activation at the Pathologic Site in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis". PLOS ONE. 7 (2 ... 1983). "Cell-mediated Immune Response in Indian Kala-azar and Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis". Infect. Immun. 42 (2): 702- ...
Edelman would draw tremendous inspiration from the mechano-chemical aspects of antigen/antibody/lymphocyte interaction in ... Cell Division Cell Motion Cell Death Regulatory Processes - Cell Adhesion Induction Differentiation Neurons can communicate as ... Adaptive pattern recognition in humans is as much social as it is individual. Newborn human babies are symbolically ... Posture is mediated by the motor ensembles responding to the hedonic evaluation of perceptual experience, and re-sensed via ...
Blood test might reveal a large amount of white blood cells or lymphoblasts, and deficiency in other cell lines - such as low ... B cells and T cells were identified as different types of lymphocytes in 1968, and the fact that T cells required maturation in ... Hohl TM (2019). "6. Cell mediated defence against infection: Thymic selection of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells". In Bennett JE, Dolin R ... Tumours originating from T cells of the thymus form a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). These are similar in ...
Red and white blood cell production is regulated with great precision in healthy humans, and the production of leukocytes is ... The number of reticulocytes, immature red blood cells, gives an estimate of the rate of erythropoiesis. Lymphocytes are the ... approximately 1011-1012 new blood cells are produced daily in order to maintain steady state levels in the peripheral ... Morrison SJ, Weissman IL (November 1994). "The long-term repopulating subset of hematopoietic stem cells is deterministic and ...
Important differences exist between integrin-signaling in circulating blood cells and non-circulating cells such as epithelial ... Requirement for cross-linkage in the stimulation of transformation of rabbit peripheral lymphocytes by antiglobulin reagents J ... human) - KEGG PATHWAY [1] Pathway Interaction Database - NCI Literature-curated human signaling network, the largest human ... A theory of the dynamics of cell surface clustering on lymphocyte membranes was developed by DeLisi and Perelson who found the ...
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells perform normal antibody-dependent cell-mediated ... Vallejos, D.A.; Ambrosio, A.M.; Feuillade, M.R.; Maiztegui, J.I. Lymphocyte subsets alteration in patients with argentine ... T-cell mediated immunopathogenesis is hypothesized to occur in mice but not in other species, including humans. In humans there ... Alche, L.E.; Coulombie, F.C.; Coto, C.E. [isolation of junin virus from blood and peripheral lymphocytes of infected calomys ...
... that the various NK-R molecules typically expressed by NK cells are also expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These CD3 ... mediated functions. In the present study, it is demonstrated that the various NK-R molecules typically expressed by NK cells ... Furthermore, by the combined use of anti-TCR Vβ- specific antibodies and a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, ... are also expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These CD3+ NK-R+ cells have a cell surface phenotype typical of memory ...
CD56bright and CD56dim NK cell subsets were FACS-purified from fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of ... whereas CD56dim NK cells express PEN5/PSGL1 which appears to mediate interactions with L-selectin.15 16 ADCC, antibody- ... Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function. Nature. 2000;408:57-63 ... Cell culture reagents and antibodies. Human NK cells and macrophages were cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% human serum (C-6 ...
While most CD3+ cells co-expressed T44 antigen, a small distinct subset was CD3+ T44- (2-10% of CD3+ cells). This cell subset ... two-color fluorescence cytofluorometric techniques to the analysis of the distribution of T44 and CD3 antigens in peripheral ... Effect of CD28 Signal Transduction on c-Rel in Human Peripheral Blood T Cells RG Bryan et al. Mol Cell Biol 14 (12), 7933-42. ... Monoclonal Antibodies Which React With the T Cell Receptor Gamma/Delta Recognize Different Subsets of CD3+WT31- T Lymphocytes S ...
Validated in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 2 publication(s). ... Mouse monoclonal CD18 antibody [3EB] conjugated to FITC. ... receptor 7 ligands in human blood dendritic cell subsets.. J ... Primary antibody notes. ab52049 is useful for monitoring of subsets in peripheral blood; analysis of CTL mediated cytotoxicity ... ab52049, at a concentration of 10µl for 100µl of whole blood, staining CD18 in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Flow Cytometry. ...
... specific monoclonal antibody on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and suppressor T cells in mixid lymphocyte culture.- ... committed T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and in the graft.- Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) induction on ... Suppression of human lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation by a soluble factor derived from K562 cells ... Perfusion of rabbit hearts with pig blood results in complement mediated hyperacute xenograft rejection.- Antibody binding to ...
NKT cells were able to help B lymphocytes, autologous B cells were purified from peripheral blood and analyzed for the ... lymphocyte subset was sorted from PBMCs of three healthy subjects, and analyzed for the presence of NKT cells before and after ... NKT lymphocytes help B lymphocytes proliferation and antibody production. Most mouse and human B cells express CD1d and data ... NKT cells promote proliferation of memory and naive B lymphocytes, and immunoglobulin production. Help is mediated by CD1d ...
Human Interleukin-15 and Obinutuzumab in Treating Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small ... mediated by obinutuzumab using ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).. III. To characterize the biological effects ... cells) and the T-cell subsets (including naive, central, and effector memory subsets) by flow cytometry. ... To define the effects of rhIL-15 on the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) ...
This antibody reacts with Mouse samples. Clone: 53-6.7. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.5 mg/mL) in PBS with 0.1% ... CD8a Monoclonal Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ... immune system process T cell mediated immunity cell surface receptor signaling pathway T cell activation cytotoxic T cell ...
This antibody reacts with Mouse samples. Clone: 53-6.7. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.2 mg/mL) in PBS with BSA and ... CD8a Monoclonal Antibody, Super Bright 702 conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ... immune system process T cell mediated immunity cell surface receptor signaling pathway T cell activation cytotoxic T cell ...
Because aberrant T-cell phenotypes had been reported in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis ... In CD4+ cells significant differences in CD73 expression were confined to memory CD45RA- cells, while in CD4- lymphocytes ... While in AAV patients (n = 29) CD26 was increased on CD4+ lymphocytes, CD39 and CD73 were generally reduced on patients T- ... It remains to be assessed if a decreased CD73 and CD39 expression underlies functional impairment of lymphocytes in AAV ...
Human; Applications: Flow Cytometry Shop CD8 Mouse anti-Human, Biotin, Clone: ... CD8 Antibody Biotin conjugate (17D8), MA1-12029, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ... is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the ...
... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ... is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the ... A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should ... CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % ...
CD5+ B cells, naïve B cells and CD19+CD24hiCD38hi transitional (putative regulatory) B cells. Nonetheless vaccine responses ... Circulating cytokines and lymphocyte subsets were also quantified. Of 16 surviving alemtuzumab recipients, 13 were recruited: 9 ... IL-15 levels were inversely associated with CD4+ total memory and central memory T cells. After 20 years the immune system of ... Compared with controls the alemtuzumab cohort had significantly reduced CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T-cells, ...
Antibodies for Human CD2 clone RPA-2.10, PerCP conjugated for Flow Cytometry. Outstanding Quality and Exceptional Value Every ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. CD2 mediates lymphocyte adhesion and is ... The RPA-2.10 antibody reacts with human CD2, an approximately 50 kDa glycoprotein, and a member of the Ig superfamily. CD2, ... LFA-2, T11, Sheep Red Blood Cell Receptor (SRBC-R), Ly-37. ... Antibodies & Reagents *Flow Cytometry Reagents. *In Vivo Ready ...
The proportion of CD4+CD25+ T cells in lymphocytes extracted from gingival tissues was higher than that from peripheral blood ... which mediate humoral immunity by promoting B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody production. The Th2 response is ... Takeuchi Y, Yoshie H, Hara K. Expression of interleukin-2 receptor and HLA-DR on lymphocyte subsets of gingival crevicular ... T cell T cell subset Periodontal disease Periodontitis Human specimen Rodent model with periodontitis CD8+ cytotoxic T cell CD4 ...
CD8a Antibody Alexa Fluor™ 488 conjugate (AMC908) from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Human; Applications: ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer cells, 80% of thymocytes, on a ... is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the ... CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % of human ...
T helper 2 cytokines differently regulate monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production by human peripheral blood monocytes and ... Lymphocyte migration into tissue: the paradigm derived from CD4 subsets. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8: 312. ... β cell apoptosis in T cell mediated autoimmune disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 213. ... Recombinant human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a chemoattractant for human monocytes and T lymphocytes and promotes T ...
2011) Reduction of the peripheral blood CD56(bright) NK lymphocyte subset in FTY720-treated multiple sclerosis patients. J ... 2007) Antigen-activated human T lymphocytes express cell-surface NKG2D ligands via an ATM/ATR-dependent mechanism and become ... antibodies online; www.antibodies-online.com). Flow cytometry of CSF and whole blood cells was performed as previously ... CD56dim NK cells are the major NK-cell subset in the peripheral blood (PB) (90% of NK cells) and kill target cells without ...
1990) Differential expression of the interleukin 2 receptor beta (p75) chain on human peripheral blood natural killer subsets. ... IEL expressing surface markers characteristic of NK cells and capable of natural killing and antibody-dependent cell-mediated ... Two subsets of CD3+, T cell receptor-1+intraepithelial lymphocyte T cells abrogate oral tolerance. J Immunol 145:2010-2019, ... IEL cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes located between the epithelial cells of the gut mucosa, have been postulated to play ...
In most human cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg), a small subset of CD4+ T cells, are significantly increased in the peripheral ... It is possible that suppression mediated by Treg accumulating in the peripheral blood and/or at the tumor site of patients with ... ATP released from necrotic tumor cells as well as various inflammatory cell types, including mast cells, lymphocytes, and ... Antibodies. The following anti-human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used for flow cytometry: anti-CD3-ECD, anti-CD4-ECD, anti ...
4. Regulatory T Cells. Treg cells, a small subset of T lymphocytes constituting only 5-20% of the CD4+ compartment, are thought ... Several clinical studies have confirmed that Th1 was upregulated in the adipose tissue and peripheral blood from the ... T. Dimova, M. Brouwer, F. Gosselin et al., "Effector Vγ9Vδ2 T cells dominate the human fetal γδ T-cell repertoire," Proceedings ... γδ T cells protect the liver from Listeria-elicited, CD8+ T cell-mediated injury," European Journal of Immunology, vol. 38, no ...
... are available on the association between aflatoxin levels and immune status function in humans ... 2003) investigated cell mediated and antibody responses in Gambian children exposed to aflatoxin in their diets. They found ... and examined the potential role of aflatoxin in modifying the distribution and function of peripheral blood leukocyte subsets ( ... lymphocyte proliferation of CD4+ T cells; and cytokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD3-CD56+ (NK) cells. The ...
... and blastic transformation during stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, T cell activation triggers the ... antibodies. For T cell subset sorting, dead cells were gated out on the basis of forward/side scatter, and the purity of sorted ... as well as for Fas-mediated apoptosis in immortalized cell lines (13). Wee1 is a critical component of the G2/M cell cycle ... 1998) Granzyme release and caspase activation in activated human T-lymphocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 273:6916-6920, pmid:9506996.. ...
These scholarly research also confirmed much less antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity in the bloodstream of ... and NK cell subpopulations, and likened them with the regularity of these lymphocyte subsets in coordinated healthful control ... and discovered it to decrease total lymphocyte matters, but with no significant impact upon the percent of these lymphocytes ... Even more latest analysis evaluating the mRNA transcripts of peripheral bloodstream from 864070-44-0 manufacture Crohns ...
... the major subset of DCs in mediating antigen cross-presentation (10, 11). Since DCs can engulf foreign antigens from invading ... donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes suppress lung metastasis of A549/A2.1 lung cancer cells ... CD3/CD8-enriched T cells as killer cells, in the presence of control antibody or anti-HLA-A2 antibody (30 μg/mL). (K) ... while the ihv-DC-activated lymphocytes generated from 14 to 21 d after mixed lymphocyte reaction served as effectors. Cancer ...
We have demonstrated that a subset of CD19+ B cells in human marrow, but not in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) express N- ... Harris, Shannon L. "Exploring the basis of antibody-mediated peptide-carbohydrate cross-reactivity." 1997. Web. 18 Aug 2019. ... for peripheral blood mononuclear cells respectively. The expression of a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) was 61% in the ... Maturation of B lymphocytes to antibody-secreting cells involves stringent selection as 95% of developing B lymphocytes are ...
... normal colon tissue and peripheral blood of CRC patients and healthy donors. In this preliminary study, we report that the ... Additionally, we investigated co-expression of immunosuppressive molecules on different Treg subsets in the TME, normal colon ... In this preliminary study, we report that the majority of CD3+ T cells in the TME are CD4+ cells with high co-expression of PD- ... infiltrating immune cells in CRC but limited studies have focused on the co-expression of suppressive molecules on immune cells ...
NK cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, whereas T cells constitute only 10% of decidual cells. The fact that NK cells are so ... Biassoni, R, Bottino, C, Millo, R, Moretta, L, Moretta, A. Natural killer cell-mediated recognition of human trophoblast. Semin ... A unique subset of NK cells, making up 70-80% of decidual lymphocytes, express high levels of CD56 but lack CD16. We have ... 221/CEACAM1 cells was restored when rabbit anti-human CEACAM antibodies were included in the assay. The addition of a control ...
Current emerging therapies for OC include immunotherapies, which use antibodies or drive T cell-mediated cancer recognition and ... loss of tumor human leukocyte antigen expression, high levels of immunosuppressive factors, and insufficient immune cell ... Current emerging therapies for OC include immunotherapies, which use antibodies or drive T cell-mediated cancer recognition and ... Natural killer (NK) cells may be ideal as primary or collateral effectors to these nascent immunotherapies. NK cells exhibit ...
  • We have applied two-color fluorescence cytofluorometric techniques to the analysis of the distribution of T44 and CD3 antigens in peripheral blood human lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1989. Leucocyte Typing IV: White Cell Differentiation Antigens. (tonbobio.com)
  • Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated with the cell-mediated immunity multitest (Marcel Merieux, Lyon, France) in which test antigens (tetanus, diphtheria, streptococcus, tuberculin, candida, tricophy-ton, proteus, and glycerin as a control) were applied to the skin and a response (induration of 2 mm or greater) read 48 hours after application. (progressivegardening.com)
  • The investigators found no association between cell-mediated immune responses to the test antigens and aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts. (progressivegardening.com)
  • T cells expressing CD4 recognize antigens presented by class II following the contact of CD4 with non-polymorphic regions of class II. (oatd.org)
  • In OC, these have been limited by adverse side effects and tumor characteristics including inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, lack of targetable antigens, loss of tumor human leukocyte antigen expression, high levels of immunosuppressive factors, and insufficient immune cell trafficking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Third, the DCs can be genetically modified to deliver given tumor antigens in high efficiency and to express activating molecules in driving simultaneous production of antigen-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (pnas.org)
  • Fulani ethnic group individuals are less susceptible than sympatric Mossi ethnic group, in term of malaria infection severity, and differ in antibody production against malaria antigens. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CD8-positive T lymphocytes specific for murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early antigens mediate protective immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These consist of naturally occurring CD25+ Treg cells and adaptive Treg cells that are postulated to prevent immune responses against self-antigens and adaptive immune responses, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • Foreign antigens, including allergens or pathogens, that enter the body are taken up by so-called antigen-presenting cells (APC), which process the antigens and present peptides, thereof, in the context of major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) II molecules on their cell surface. (ersjournals.com)
  • The autoimmune response against beta-cells appears to begin in the pancreatic lymph node where T cells, which have escaped negative selection in the thymus, first meet beta-cell antigens presented by dendritic cells. (soc-bdr.org)
  • T cells within insulitis are specific for islet antigens rather than bystanders. (soc-bdr.org)
  • T-lymphocytes are mostly responsible for fighting microbes, antigens or foreign substances inside the cells, triggering so-called cell-mediated immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoclonal Antibodies to Myeloid Differentiation Antigens: In Vivo Studies of Three Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia," Blood 62(6): 1203-1210, 1983. (patentgenius.com)
  • It also appears to be crucial in the maintenance of regulatory T cell- (Treg-) mediated immunotolerance toward self-antigens, supported by the fact that IL-2-deficient mice develop severe autoimmunity with very low Treg and very high effector T numbers [7-9]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • a cell that captures antigens and migrates to the lymph nodes and spleen, where it presents the processed antigens to T cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a cell found predominately in LYMPHOID TISSUE , but also in BLOOD , that presents antigens to T-CELLS . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is clearly illustrated in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis ( E M ) , an autoimmune animal model sharing many similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE can be induced in rodents by injecting myelin antigens such as myelin basic protein (MBP) and by adoptive transfer of MBP-reactive encephalitogenic T cells to naive syngeneic recipients [ 11. (docme.ru)
  • Despite the expression of multiple defined tumor antigens by melanoma tumor cells, and the characterization of CD8 + T cells that can recognize those antigens and exert cytolytic activity, spontaneous immune-mediated elimination of melanoma remains uncommon. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The identification of defined epitopes derived from shared melanoma antigens presented by dominant HLA alleles has enabled the development of antigen-specific vaccination or adoptive T-cell therapy as strategies to increase the frequency of tumor-reactive effector T cells in an attempt to promote immune-mediated rejection ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unlike the physiologic T-cell receptor, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) encompass immunoglobulin variable regions or receptor ligands as their antigen recognition moiety, thus permitting T cells to recognize tumor antigens in the absence of human leukocyte antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunogenic epitopes have been identified, at least for some HLA alleles, in antigens found in normal and transformed prostate cells, which include acid phosphatases, prostate-secreted antigen (PSA), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and prostate stem cell antigen ( 10 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unlike the physiologic T-cell receptor, CARs encompass immunoglobulin variable regions or receptor ligands as antigen-recognition elements, thus permitting T cells to recognize cell surface tumor antigens in the absence of HLA expression ( 15 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • They express an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes self and bacterial glycosphingolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d. (testcatalog.org)
  • During the innate immune response to infection, monocyte-derived cytokines (monokines), stimulate natural killer (NK) cells to produce immunoregulatory cytokines that are important to the host's early defense. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this report, it is shown that CD56 bright NK cells produce significantly greater levels of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-β, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, IL-10, and IL-13 protein in response to monokine stimulation than do CD56 dim NK cells, which produce negligible amounts of these cytokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It is proposed that human CD56 bright NK cells have a unique functional role in the innate immune response as the primary source of NK cell-derived immunoregulatory cytokines, regulated in part by differential monokine production. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effectors that produce immunoregulatory cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor GM-CSF, critical to early host defense against a variety of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cells constitutively express receptors for monocyte-derived cytokines (monokines) and produce critical cytokines, such as IFN-γ, in response to monokine stimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 17-20 In the current study we examine CD56 bright and CD56 dim NK cell production of multiple cytokines-including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, and GM-CSF-in response to stimulation with monokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Their ability to secrete a variety of cytokines, which in turn modulate the activation of cells of both innate and acquired immune responses, suggests that invariant NKT cells exert a regulatory role mainly via indirect mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • The two major subsets of invariant NKT cells, CD4 + and double negative (CD4 − CD8 − ), express comparable levels of CD40 ligand and cytokines, but differ in helper functions. (rupress.org)
  • Circulating cytokines and lymphocyte subsets were also quantified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because both cytokines signal via receptors containing the β and γ chains, and because IL-2Rγ-deficient mice exhibit profound defects in IEL and NK cell development, it was of interest to examine the role of IL-2Rβ in these lymphocyte populations. (rupress.org)
  • The adaptive T-regulatory cells are further subdivided into T-regulatory cells type 1 and T-helper cell type 3 that mediate suppression exclusively via the cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • The sorted lymphocytes underwent further expansion by cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 for further 7 days, making the E007-specific CD8 + T SCM expanded in number. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After encounter with antigen, CD8 T cells differentiate into effector cells, which form a crucial arm of the adaptive immune response against intracellular pathogens through the action of cytokines and cell-mediated cytotoxicity ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Clinical and animal studies highlight the multiple roles of B cells in the development and severity of RA, including production of autoantibodies, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6, and aberrant antigen presentation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the inflamed gut, effector T cells produce elevated levels of cytokines, which target multiple immune and non- immune cell types thus contributing to amplify the detrimental inflammatory response. (omicsonline.org)
  • Some diseases are characterized by prevalence in the affected tissues of type 1 T lymphocytes, which secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and other proinflammatory cytokines. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocytes can be classified functionally based on the cytokines that they secrete. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, type 2 T lymphocytes secrete cytokines that promote humoral immunity, including IL-4 and IL-5 ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • NK cells, which are part of the innate immunity, are able to directly kill tumor and virus-infected cells and are also a source for immune mediating cytokines [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • When the activity of NK cells is balanced towards activation, it leads to enhanced killing, enhanced production of cytokines, or both [14] , [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Some of the failures of adoptive therapy could be due to an inhibition of anti-tumor T cells by 'passenger-T suppressor cells [ 17 ] and/or by cytokines, which inhibit the development of the anti-tumor T cells [ 18 , 19 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several cytokines released by monocytes and macrophages as well as other agents triggering T cell activation (such as oxidized LDL) are capable of inducing CD25 expression [11, 12]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These molecules serve as cell receptors and are involved in signal transduction for a wide range of ligands, including hormones, cytokines and incidentally serve as receptors for viruses and drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. An antigen-presenting leukocyte found in the skin, mucosa, and lymphoid tissues that initiates a primary immune response by activating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MBP-reactive T cells capable of producing Thl cytokines were found to mediate EAE by adoptive transfer [2, 31. (docme.ru)
  • Furthermore, the clinical course of EAE can be altered therapeutically by regulating various cytokines in balancing the Thl and Th2 cell ratio, indicating the role of these cytokines in the autoimmune processes 14-61. (docme.ru)
  • Cytokines have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells including T lymphocytes in the brain lesions 171. (docme.ru)
  • ILC2s generated antigen-independent interleukin-13 (IL-13) in response to the mast cell product prostaglandin D 2 alone and in a synergistic manner with the airway epithelial cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. (sciencemag.org)
  • Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation with mucosal infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and mast cells, and release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Considerable evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that CD4(+) cells are the predominant cell type involved in the regulation of airway inflammation through the expression of T(H)2-type cytokines. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The effects of T(H)2-type cytokines, particularly IL-4 and IL-5, on inflammatory and structural cells in airways have been studied in great detail. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Activated NKT cells rapidly produce large amounts of Th1 and Th2 cytokines that transactivate other immune components and, therefore, NKT cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. (testcatalog.org)
  • A small percentage of human T lymphocytes, predominantly CD8 + T cells, express receptors for HLA class I molecules of natural killer type (NK-R) that are inhibitory for T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated functions. (elsevier.com)
  • 6-8 These NK cells also express the c- kit receptor tyrosine kinase whose ligand enhances IL-2-induced proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 9 10 In contrast, resting CD56 dim NK cells express only the intermediate affinity IL-2 receptor, are c- kit neg , and proliferate weakly in response to high doses of IL-2 (1 to 10 nM) in vitro, even after induction of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK cell subsets have differential natural killer receptor (NKR) repertoires. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 16 CD56 dim NK cells lack this receptor but have recently been found to express PEN5, an NK cell-restricted sulfated lactosamine epitope that partially mediates the binding of L-selectin, 15 thus suggesting the potential for differential trafficking of human NK cell subsets in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This cell subset also did not react with the WT31 monoclonal antibody (mAb), specific for an alpha/beta framework determinant of the T cell receptor (TCR). (nih.gov)
  • CD3+4-8-WT31-(T Cell Receptor Gamma+) Cells and Other Unusual Phenotypes Are Frequently Detected Among Spontaneously Interleukin 2-responsive T Lymphocytes Present in the Joint Fluid in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • CD8a is an approximately 32-34 kDa cell surface receptor expressed either as a heterodimer with the CD8 beta chain (CD8 alpha beta) or as a homodimer (CD8 alpha alpha). (thermofisher.com)
  • Invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are a highly conserved subset of T lymphocytes expressing a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR), which is restricted to CD1d and specific for the glycosphingolipid antigen α-galactosylceramide. (rupress.org)
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • Lymphocyte extravasation from blood into tissue is regulated by multiple adhesion receptor/counter-receptor pairs and chemokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Infiltration of lymphocytes into tissue from blood is regulated by multiple adhesion receptor/counter-receptor pairs and chemokines that mediate sequential, but overlapping, steps to achieve primary adhesion, activation-dependent adhesion, and transmigration (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The interleukin-2 receptor β chain (IL-2Rβ) is expressed on a variety of hematopoietic cell types, including natural killer (NK) cells and nonconventional T lymphocyte subsets such as intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). (rupress.org)
  • IL-2Rβ −/− mice exhibited an abnormal IEL cell population, characterized by a dramatic reduction in T cell receptor αβ CD8αα and T cell receptor γδ lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The dependence of NK cells and certain subclasses of IEL cells on IL-2Rβ expression points to an essential role for signaling through this receptor, presumably by IL-2 and/or IL-15, in the development of lymphocyte subsets of extrathymic origin. (rupress.org)
  • The increased frequency and enzymatic activity of CD4 + CD39 + cells corresponded to increased adenosine-mediated suppression of effector T cells, which was partly inhibited by ARL67156, an ectonucleotidase inhibitor, and by ZM241385, a selective A 2a /A 2b receptor antagonist. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treg in these patients have increased ectonucleotidase expression (CD39) and produce higher levels of extracellular adenosine, which mediates immunosuppression via A 2a receptor expressed on effector T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4 enhances T cell activation by acting as an adhesion molecule (co-ligand function), or by bringing the CD4 associated p56 sp{lck} to the vicinity of the TCR (co-receptor function). (oatd.org)
  • Apoptosis induced by T cell receptor (TCR) triggering in T lymphocytes involves activation of cysteine proteases of the caspase family through their proteolytic processing. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to the T cell receptor, which is highly specific for a given peptide-MHC complex, KIRs typically recognize subsets of MHC class I molecules with common amino acid motifs in their α1 domains. (prolekare.cz)
  • Flamand, Nicolas 2016-07-11 00:00:00 The CB2 receptor is the peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this respect, the CB2 receptor was shown to modulate immune cell functions, both in cellulo and in animal models of inflammatory diseases. (deepdyve.com)
  • We next examine the regulation of immune cell functions by the CB2 receptor and the evidence obtained from primary human cells, immortalized cell lines, and animal models of inflammation. (deepdyve.com)
  • The CB2 receptor is the peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recent data also indicate that human memory-phenotype CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes within the blood may be divisible into two subsets on the basis of chemokine receptor expression and effector function ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • ADO also has receptor-independent effects, because extracellular adenosine can cross the cell membrane and activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), adenosine kinase, and S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase pathways [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CD4 binds to relatively invariant sites on class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules outside the peptide-binding groove, which interacts with the T-cell receptor (TCR) [ 7 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Natural killer cell activation is determined by the balance of inhibitory and activating receptor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ly49 (homodimers), relatively ancient, C-type lectin family receptors, are of multigenic presence in mice, while humans have only one pseudogenic Ly49, the receptor for classical (polymorphic) MHC I molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing (Tim)-3 receptor was initially identified as a T-helper 1-specific type I membrane protein involved in regulating T-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Overview of T cell engineering and a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) structure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human Th2 cells, polarized and activated in vitro, express the chemokine receptor CCR2 more strongly and migrate across the endothelium to a greater degree than do similarly produced Th1 lymphocytes ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • The invention provides methods for identifying agents which modulate the interaction of a chemokine receptor of previously unknown function, Burkitt's Lymphoma Receptor 1 (BLR1), with its ligand, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC). (google.com)
  • We found that the still healthy normal tissues in acutely inflamed and therefore hypoxic areas under immune attack are protected from the continuing collateral immune damage by immunosuppressive signaling through extracellular A2 receptor [ 21 - 25 ] on the surface of immune cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The natural ligands for the CCR5 chemokine receptor, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and RANTES (regulated on T-cell activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), are known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry, and N-terminally modified RANTES analogues are more potent than native RANTES in blocking infection. (asm.org)
  • The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is utilized by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 isolates ( 6 , 20 ), and viruses using this coreceptor are isolated from about one-half of infected individuals late in the course of disease ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • The earliest activation marker is CD69, which is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein expressed upon activation via the TCR or the IL-2 receptor (CD25). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • CD122 is the [beta]-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and upon expression, it further increases sensitivity of activated CD25+ T lymphocytes to IL-2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Regulation of IgE-receptor expression, IgE occupancy and secretory capacity of mast cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • T cells appear to play an important role in regulating the IgE-receptor expression and also, independently, the intrinsic secretory capacity of mast cells via an unidentified route, possibly involving the secretory signal transduction chain directly. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • IgE itself appears to have an important role in the regulation of IgE-receptor expression, as indicated by the upregulation of receptors in vitro in the presence of IgE, and the absence of IgE-binding capacity of mast cells in IL-4 gene knockout mice, lacking IgE production. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • So we attempt to investigate the expression pattern and clonality of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of γδ T cells in AMI patients, analyze the expression levels of regulatory genes Foxp3 and IL-17A, and characterize the correlation between γδ T cells and the pathogenesis of AMI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the potency of the T-cell response may be undermined by several tumor escape mechanisms, which include antigen loss and HLA down-regulation, both of which deprive the T-cell receptor of its specific ligand on the surface of tumor cells ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1) In general, the most common combination of surface markers used to identify the majority of NK cells is the absence of CD3 (CD3-), along with expression of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule) and CD16 (low-affinity IgG Fc receptor-FcgammaRIII). (testcatalog.org)
  • 11 However, after activation with IL-2 or IL-12, CD56 bright cells exhibit similar or enhanced cytotoxicity against NK targets compared to CD56 dim cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These scholarly research also confirmed much less antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity in the bloodstream of azathioprine recipients[15-17], a sensation that is certainly typically credited to organic great (NK) cells. (acancerjourney.info)
  • Rituximab selectively depletes CD20+ B lymphocytes through a variety of mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, apoptosis and complement-mediated cytotoxicity. (bmj.com)
  • cG250 induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in vitro that can be enhanced by IL-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to Fas ligand that directly indicate infection of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCR (natural cytotoxicity receptors), a type of type 1 transmembrane proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily, upon stimulation, mediate NK killing and release of IFNγ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas Tim-3 has been used to identify dysfunctional T cells, NK cells expressing high amounts of Tim-3 are fully responsive with respect to cytokine production and cytotoxicity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, when Tim-3 was cross-linked with antibodies it suppressed NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • I. Preparation of antihuman chorionic gonadotropin-carboxypeptidase G.sub.2 and cytotoxicity of the conjugate against JAR choriocarcinoma cells invitro," British Journal of Cancer 53: 377-384, 1986. (patentgenius.com)
  • Therefore, cytotoxicity and cytokine production are the major functions of NK cells. (testcatalog.org)
  • Cytotoxicity can be subdivided into (1) natural cytotoxicity directed largely toward virally infected cells or tumor cells, in the absence of prior stimulation or immunization, and (2) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against antibody-coated target cells. (testcatalog.org)
  • The importance of CD73 in cell mediated immunity has been appreciated amongst others in studies using CD73 deficient mice 20 and models of auto-immune uveitis 21 . (nature.com)
  • Inflammatory regulation has been focused on innate immunity especially macrophage for a long time, while increasing evidence suggests T cells are crucial for the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance since 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The dendritic cell (DC) is the master regulator of host immunity. (pnas.org)
  • DCs also possess the capacity to induce activation and proliferation of γσ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, bridging innate immunity to adaptive immune response ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Many intracellular pathogens infect a broad range of host tissues, but the importance of T cells for immunity in these sites is unclear because most of our understanding of antimicrobial T cell responses comes from analyses of lymphoid tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • The progress of the disease may be broken down into three phases: an initial phase, characterized by a Type IV immune response (Cell-Mediated Immunity, delayed-hypersensitivity response), a second phase, characterized by a Type III response (Immune Complex), and a third phase where substantial tissue damage occurs. (angelfire.com)
  • Lachmann outlines a scheme which attempts to account for most of the immunological findings in ROU and BS, and the shift from an early, predominantly lymphomonocytic infiltration (probably Type IV, cell- mediated immunity (CMI), delayed hypersensitivity) to a later PMNL infiltration with features associated with a Type III (immune complex) reaction. (angelfire.com)
  • Lymphocytes, also called white blood cells, have been wildly recognized as a major component of the adaptive immune system, assuming very crucial responsibility for immunity as well as allergy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity , recent research has uncovered information on both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic T-Cell Immunity to Influenza," New Eng. (patentgenius.com)
  • Type 1 T lymphocytes are characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor beta, which help orchestrate cell-mediated immunity. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that lack of critical chemokines in a subset of melanoma metastases may limit the migration of activated T cells, which in turn could limit the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, several obstacles remain to induce tumor immunity, which requires the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to numbers sufficient to mediate tumor rejection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD56 bright NK cells constitutively express the high- and intermediate-affinity IL-2 receptors and expand in vitro and in vivo in response to low (picomolar) doses of IL-2. (bloodjournal.org)
  • All resting CD56 bright NK cells have high expression of CD94/NKG2 C-type lectin receptors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 14 A small percentage (less than 10%) expresses killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), 15 while most (more than 85%) resting CD56 dim NK cells are KIR + and have low expression of CD94/NKG2. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Hypoxia strongly influences adenosine signalling to immune cells partly via stabilisation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which in turn drives the induction of adenosine receptors and CD73 12 . (nature.com)
  • Although both subsets infiltrated the pancreas and elicited multiple adhesion receptors (peripheral lymph node addressin, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, LFA-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1) on vascular endothelium, entry/accumulation of Th1 cells was more rapid than that of Th2 cells, and only Th1 cells induced diabetes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Given the diverse nature of the cytokine receptors that contain the β and γ chains, and the wide range of cell types that express components of the IL-2R, the disruption of multiple immunomodulatory roles might be expected in mice deficient for any one of the three subunits. (rupress.org)
  • NK cells are regulated by a variety of activating and inhibitory receptors and already known to be central effectors across an array of existing therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their MHC class I ligands play a central role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses to viral pathogens and tumors. (prolekare.cz)
  • NK cell activation in primates is regulated in part through interactions between the highly polymorphic killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on NK cells and their MHC class I ligands on target cells [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Adenosine (ADO) is an immunosuppressive molecule, which suppresses the immune responses by interacting with specific receptors expressed by immune effector cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors , but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice . (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell receptors can also be differentiated based on function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MHC-dependent receptors (described above) use an alternate pathway to induce apoptosis in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect is achieved through a complex mosaic of inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by NK cells that ultimately determine the magnitude of the NK-cell response. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NK-cell activity is regulated by an intricate balance of signals transmitted by inhibitory and activating receptors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3 CD56 bright CD16 − NK cells produce abundant IFN-γ in response to stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and proliferate robustly when cultured in IL-2, whereas CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells are more cytolytic and produce significant amounts of cytokine when their activating receptors are engaged. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This is further supported by recent data demonstrating the dynamics of expression of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), CD57, CD94, and CD62L expression on the CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells as they mature from CD56 bright CD16 - NK-cell precursors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing (Tim)-3 is a member of Tim family of receptors of which there are 3 in humans (Tim-1, Tim-3, and Tim-4). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Memory T cells producing interferon (IFN)γ and expressing very late antigen-1 (VLA-1) integrin collagen receptors are found in carotid atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting their involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD) as well. (naver.com)
  • 90Y-ibritumomab is an antibody targeting CD20 receptors on the surface of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, subsequent reports suggest that the correlation between the Th1 phenotype and expression of specific chemokine receptors ( 25 ) or ligands for selectins ( 33 ) is much less distinct for T cells polarized in vivo rather than in vitro. (asm.org)
  • The function of NK cells is controlled by both inhibitory and activating receptors [12] , [13] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Innate response activator (IRA) B cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct, develop and diverge from B1a B cells, depend on pattern-recognition receptors, and produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (sciencemag.org)
  • This may be now possible because of the recent demonstration that genetic deletion of immunosuppressive A2A and A2B adenosine receptors (A2AR and A2BR) or their pharmacological inactivation can prevent the inhibition of anti-tumor T cells by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and as a result facilitate full tumor rejection [Ohta A, Gorelik E, Prasad SJ et al (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(35):13132-3137]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Primate lentiviruses initiate infection by binding to two cell membrane receptors, CD4 ( 24 ) and one of several chemokine receptors ( 1 , 4 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 17 , 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Several other chemokine receptors, including CCR2b, CCR3, STRL33, and gpr15 and gpr1 can mediate virus entry ( 2 , 9 , 19 ), but CCR5 appears to be the most widely expressed and utilized ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Both NK cells and ILC2s expressed the pro-resolving ALX/FPR2 receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipoxin A 4 , a natural pro-resolving ligand for ALX/FPR2 receptors, significantly increased NK cell-mediated eosinophil apoptosis and decreased IL-13 release by ILC2s. (sciencemag.org)
  • Their responsiveness is determined by three important factors: the expression of IgE receptors on the cell surface, the IgE occupancy of these receptors, and the intrinsic secretory capacity of the cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The IgE-receptors of mast cells are saturated to a high degree under different normal conditions, without an obvious relation to antigenic stimulation, also in athymic animals. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Corresponding chemokine receptors were found to be up-regulated on human CD8 + effector T cells, and transwell migration assays confirmed the ability of each of these chemokines to promote migration of CD8 + effector cells in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The genetic transfer of antigen receptors is a powerful approach to rapidly generate tumor-specific T lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NK cell functions are governed by a balance between activating receptors and inhibitory receptors. (testcatalog.org)
  • NK cells are identified by expression of different cell-surface receptors and they are not a homogeneous population. (testcatalog.org)
  • This differential localization is related to the pattern of homing receptors expressed on NK cells: CD56(dim) NK cells express homing markers for inflamed peripheral sites, while CD56(bright) NK cells express receptors for secondary lymphoid organs. (testcatalog.org)
  • The introduction of monoclonal antibodies that selectively target B lymphocytes has provided an opportunity to develop more rationally focused therapy for SLE. (bmj.com)
  • To determine the role of VLA-1+ T cells in CAD percent of CD3+ T cells binding monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to VLA-1 in peripheral blood (PB), and in coronary plaque material aspirated during coronary arterography and arterial blood, were analyzed in a cohort of 117 patients with CAD and 34 controls without CAD. (naver.com)
  • Tonbo Biosciences tests all antibodies by flow cytometry. (tonbobio.com)
  • Ectonucleotidase expression on CD4 + T cells and CD4 + CD25 high Treg was evaluated by flow cytometry and compared with normal controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4 + prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes (PIL) were isolated using magnetic beads and analyzed for subset skewing using both flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We assessed B-cell and T-cell populations using triple-color flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A minimum number of CD16+CD56+ NK cell events (as measured by flow cytometry in the laboratory) are required to perform the NKSP test. (testcatalog.org)
  • If that requirement is not met (eg, patients with severe lymphopenia), the test will be canceled and an alternate test will be suggested (TBBS / T- and B-Cell Quantitation by Flow Cytometry). (testcatalog.org)
  • In vitro FK506 kidney tubular cell toxicity. (booktopia.com.au)
  • We document here that human invariant NKT cells are as efficient as conventional CD4 + Th0 lymphocytes in promoting proliferation of autologous memory and naive B lymphocytes in vitro, and in inducing immunoglobulin production. (rupress.org)
  • To identify events that regulate entry of CD4 cells into the pancreas, we transferred Th1 or Th2 cells induced in vitro from islet-specific TCR transgenic CD4 cells into immunodeficient (NOD. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro, Th1 cells were also distinguished from Th2 cells by the capacity to synthesize several chemokines that included lymphotactin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, whereas both subsets produced macrophage inflammatory protein-1β. (jimmunol.org)
  • NK cell development was also found to be disrupted in IL-2Rβ-deficient mice, characterized by a reduction in NK1.1 + CD3 − cells in the peripheral circulation and an absence of NK cytotoxic activity in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • 1995) but an in vitro study using human cells found that aflatoxin up to a concentration of 10 ^g/ml had no effect on CD4+ T cell proliferation (Meky et al. (progressivegardening.com)
  • 2001). The concentration of aflatoxin used in the in vitro experiments with human cells or present in humans in the study by Jiang et al. (progressivegardening.com)
  • T cells from certain healthy individuals exposed to various concentrations (1-100 nM) of arsenite in vitro showed a dose-dependent suppression at these extremely low concentrations (?0.1-10 ppb) of arsenite, whereas other individuals were not suppressed at low concentrations. (jove.com)
  • Tim-3 expression was induced on CD56 bright CD16 − NK cells after stimulation with IL-15 or IL-12 and IL-18 in vitro, suggesting that Tim-3 is a maturation marker on NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cladribine (2CdA) and dasatinib are two drugs that counteract the in vitro growth of neoplastic mast cells in SM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We used an in vitro model of the blood vessel wall to test the premise that the vascular endothelium actively recruits circulating type 1 T cells to such lesions. (asm.org)
  • In support of the first of these possibilities, several in vitro studies indicate that endothelial adhesion molecules and/or chemoattractants may be responsible for the different migratory capacities of distinct subsets of T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Polarized murine Th1 cells produced in vitro bind to the endothelial adhesion molecules P- and E-selectin, whereas Th2 cells do not ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • These studies support the notion that accumulation of specific subsets of T lymphocytes in tissues may be regulated at the level of extravasation, but all were limited to examination of type 1 and type 2 T cells that were generated in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we show in vitro that the interaction of NK cells with F. nucleatum leads to an NCR1-dependent secretion of TNF-α. (prolekare.cz)
  • This study investigated the apoptotic effects of SF extracts on normal human lymphocytes in vitro . (scielo.org.za)
  • What is it in the tumor microenvironment in vivo that prevents tumor destruction by the tumor-specific and highly lytic in vitro anti-tumor CD8 + T cells? (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 7 , 8 In vitro studies have shown that by binding to CD11a, efalizumab can inhibit T-cell activation, T-cell trafficking, and T-cell adhesion without depleting the T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • CARs encompassing the CD3ζ chain as their activating domain induce T-cell proliferation in vitro , but limited survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, both subsets induce similar levels of B cell proliferation, whereas CD4 + NKT cells induce higher levels of immunoglobulin production. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest a direct role for invariant NKT cells in regulating B lymphocyte proliferation and effector functions. (rupress.org)
  • This report is the first of the association of aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts with decreased level of activated T and B cells and is a significant finding since activation of T and B cells results in proliferation and amplification of immune responses that allow the immune system to fight infectious agents and produce effective antibody responses to vaccines. (progressivegardening.com)
  • 2002). The investigators also found no difference in proliferation of CD4+ T cells in relation to aflatoxin B1 levels. (progressivegardening.com)
  • Studies in animals have shown that aflatoxin decreased CD4+ T cell proliferation (Raisuddin et al. (progressivegardening.com)
  • 2005) may not be high enough to affect CD4+ T cell proliferation. (progressivegardening.com)
  • We show here that the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) blocks proliferation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression, and blastic transformation during stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • In a series of more than 30 normal donors, two individuals were found to be sensitive to low concentration (10 nM equivalent ?1 ppb drinking water exposure) to sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation produced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and anti-CD3/anti-CD28. (jove.com)
  • While the majority of normal blood donors tested were not susceptible to inhibition of proliferation at the 1-100 nM concentrations of As+3, it was found that all donors were sensitive to suppression by 100 nM monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3), a key metabolite of arsenite. (jove.com)
  • Sorting of proliferation cells ensured the E007-specificity of the prepared T SCM cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 14698144 We treated PBMC with anti-MHC class II mAb known to inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation. (jove.com)
  • Adherent cells from mAb-treated PBMC showed increased metabolic activity by the MTS assay that was not due to cell proliferation. (jove.com)
  • Extravascular accumulation of specific subpopulations of T lymphocytes may be due to their preferential migration across the endothelium, their local differentiation once they have emigrated, or their enhanced survival, proliferation, or retention within tissues. (asm.org)
  • In both animal models and cancer patients, chemotherapy has been shown to impact factors such as T-cell proliferation,15 regulatory T-cell (Treg) proportion,16 and monocyte death.17 As immunotherapeutic options for GBM patients are being expanded and investigated, the role of temozolomide as a combinatorial strategy with immunotherapy will become increasingly relevant. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, L-selectin-mediated entry into peripheral lymph nodes is required for optimal induction of lymphocyte homeostatic proliferation during lymphopenia. (sinobiological.com)
  • It plays a role in the proliferation and survival of activated T lymphocytes [4, 5]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They were shown to be important for inflammatory cell maturation, activation and proliferation, IgE production, chemokine expression, mucus secretion, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Alemtuzumab (CAMPATH-1H) was the first humanised therapeutic monoclonal antibody and acts by depleting cells expressing CD52, which includes T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Katz P, Goldstein RA, Fauci AS: Immunoregulation in infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The presence of suppressor monocytes and the alteration of subpopulations of T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, ADO acts as an immunosuppressive molecule, able to inhibit the functions of different cell populations and subsets of the immune system, including T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 14 Tim-3 is expressed on CD4 + T cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, 15 ⇓ - 17 CD8 + T cells, 18 , 19 and NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Activated Peripheral T Lymphocytes Undergo Apoptosis when Cultured with Monocytes Activated by HLA Class II Ligation Cellular Immunology. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, DCIR could be detected on natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, and CD4+ and CD8+, as well as on monocytes, B cells, dendritic cells and granulocytes. (bmj.com)
  • In the review, we will discuss the functional involvement of T cells in the pathogenesis of T2DM, especially the regulatory effects of T cells on chronic inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • It has also been shown that obesity induces MHC class II expression on adipocytes and thus activates CD4+ T cells to initiate adipose tissue inflammation [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • NK cells exhibit multiple functions that combat immune escape and tumor relapse: they kill targets and elicit inflammation through antigen-independent pathways and detect loss of HLA as a signal for activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bergsbaken T, Fink SL, Cookson BT (2009) Pyroptosis: host cell death and inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Little is known about the phenotype of these cells, despite accumulating evidence suggesting a potential role for chronic inflammation in the etiology of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4 + PIL showed a paucity of T H 2 (interleukin-4-secreting) cells, a surprising finding given the generally accepted association of these cells with chronic, smoldering inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also found that a preponderance of T H 17-mediated inflammation was associated with a lower pathologic Gleason score. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whereas all three CD4 + T cell subtypes are known to play a role in immunomediated defense against intracellular or extracellular pathogens, T H 17 cells are unique in that they are the key mediators in a number of autoimmune diseases, and may play a role in inflammation-associated cancer (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cells resident within the intestinal mucosa represent the largest accumulation of T cells in the body and play a prominent role in regulation of mucosal inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • Epidemiological and clinical observations in humans and studies in murine models of IBD suggest that T helper (Th) lymphocytes are master regulators of intestinal inflammation [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fifth, strategies blocking T-cell function are useful for attenuating mucosal inflammation in mice with experimental colitis [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • T lymphocytes have diverse physiological functions, including fighting infections, preventing damaging inflammation, and controlling or eliminating tumors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The role of very late antigen-1 in immune-mediated inflammation (2004) Ben-Horin Shomron et al. (naver.com)
  • L-selectin (SELL), also known as CD62L, is a key adhesion molecule that regulates both the migration of leukocytes at sites of inflammation and the recirculation of lymphocytes between blood and lymphoid tissues. (sinobiological.com)
  • 5 LFA-1 expression is increased in memory T-cells, and ICAM-1 is expressed on vascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation in a variety of T-cell-mediated disorders, including uveitis. (arvojournals.org)
  • It is interesting that MBP-reactive T cells from MS patients expressing the disease-associated HLADRB1*15 allele produced increased quantities of TNFa, a cytokine suggested to play an important role in inflammation and demyelination. (docme.ru)
  • Recent evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including natural killer (NK) cells and type 2 ILCs (ILC2s), can participate in the regulation of allergic airway responses, in particular airway mucosal inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, these findings indicate that ILCs are targets for lipoxin A 4 to decrease airway inflammation and mediate the catabasis of eosinophilic inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipoxins are the lead members of this new class of pro-resolving mediators ( 3 ) with cell type-specific actions that include inhibition of neutrophil activation and promotion of macrophage engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils for the resolution of acute tissue inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • At present, 14 human and murine caspases have been isolated, and the exact role of each one during apoptosis has yet to be fully characterized. (rupress.org)
  • We have established a murine model system for exploring the ability of a CD4 subset-deficient host to cope with cytomegalovirus infection, and reported three findings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vigorous innate and virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to murine cytomegalovirus in the submaxillary salivary gland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An MHC-mismatched murine model of cardiac AMR was developed, in which T cell help for alloantibody responses in T cell deficient () C57BL/6 recipients against donor H-2K MHC class I alloantigen was provided by adoptively transferred "TCR75" CD4 T cells that recognize processed H-2K allopeptide via the indirect-pathway. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • A murine model of chronic AMR was developed in which T cell deficient () C57BL/6 recipients were challenged with MHC-mismatched BALB/c heart allografts and T cell help provided by reconstituting with 10 "TCR75" CD4 T cells that recognize self-restricted allopeptide derived from the H-2K MHC class I alloantigen. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Genentech Inc., San Francisco, CA) is a humanized form of a murine IgG1 antibody directed against CD11a, the α-subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). (arvojournals.org)
  • The eradication of xenogeneic tumors in a murine environment shows that the adoptively transferred T cells do not absolutely require in vivo costimulation to function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • research confirmed that thiopurines mediate apoptosis[10] also, and particularly the 6-thioguanine triphosphate (6-thio-GTP) metabolite may stimulate Testosterone levels cell apoptosis through inhibition of Rac1 account 864070-44-0 manufacture activation, hence stopping Compact disc28 costimulation from causing Bcl-xL phrase in these cells upon account activation[11]. (acancerjourney.info)
  • Caspase-3 cleavage was also reported during T cell stimulation in the absence of apoptosis, although the physiological relevance of this response remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Cysteine proteases of the IL-1β-converting enzyme (ICE) family (caspases) are critical executioners of apoptosis in several mammalian cell death pathways ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • For instance, during apoptosis triggered by TCR cross-linking in T lymphocytes, the 32-kD caspase-3 proenzyme is first cleaved to release fragments of 12 and 20 kD. (rupress.org)
  • CD45 is crucial in lymphocyte development and antigen signaling, serving as an important regulator of Src-family kinases, promotes cell survival by modulating integrin-mediated signal transduction pathway and is also involved in DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. (exbio.cz)
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 Tim-3 is a type I transmembrane protein that contains no defined signaling motifs in its cytoplasmic domain, but it has been implicated both in activation and inhibition of immune responses 12 , 13 and in the induction of apoptosis of Tim-3-bearing cells through interactions with galectin-9. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Temozolomide adds a methyl group to purine and pyrimidine in DNA, resulting in damage to cells and ultimately apoptosis.13 However, approximately 55% of GBM patients are resistant to temozolomide because of their methyl guanine methyl transferase (MGMT) DNA repair system.14 MGMT transfers the methyl group from guanine, thereby repairing damaged DNA and counteracting cytotoxic effects of temozolomide on tumor cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • This was suggested by post-treatment recovery of CD4 + cells brought about by the reduction of the impact of virus-induced apoptosis. (scielo.org.za)
  • At 12 h, SF caused a significant increase in apoptosis in the total lymphocyte population and CD4 + cells as evidenced by increased phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, caspase-3/7 activity, and decreased ATP content. (scielo.org.za)
  • The apoptosis observed may thus be the result of activation-induced lymphocyte cell death (AICD). (scielo.org.za)
  • A number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the extensive CD4 + cell lymphocytopenia, but non-selective enhanced apoptosis is regarded as the primary cause. (scielo.org.za)
  • NK cells were highly activated in severe asthma, were linked to eosinophilia, and interacted with autologous eosinophils to promote their apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • CD4 lymphocytes play a central role in autoimmune diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms that initiate disease in a genetically susceptible individual remain to be elucidated. (jimmunol.org)
  • The nonobese diabetic (NOD) 3 mouse spontaneously develops insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) resembling the human autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice deficient in IL-2Rα exhibit polyclonal T and B cell expansion (( 9 )), which correlates with a defect in activation-induced cell death in T cells, and the development of autoimmune disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. (rupress.org)
  • The most significant antibody responses were to gB and to U1 70K, with higher levels detected in the autoimmune prone mice. (oatd.org)
  • In recent years, the general knowledge regarding the regulation of infectious, autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergen immunotherapy by T-regulatory (Treg) cells, has rapidly increased. (ersjournals.com)
  • The discovery of the mutual inhibitory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in mice 4 , prompted the postulate that an imbalance between these two arms of the immune response would underlie Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases as well as Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including asthma 5 , 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by disturbances in T-cell and B-cell functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review examines a panel of reports focused on the functions of ADO in the context of human autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and the selected animal models. (hindawi.com)
  • Engineered T cells are currently in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer, solid organ transplants, and autoimmune diseases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • L-selectin has also been shown to mediate leukocyte recruitment during chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and thus is a potential therapeutic target for drug development. (sinobiological.com)
  • In fact, increased thyroid disorder prevalence and high levels of autoimmune thyroid antibodies have been reported in women with breast cancer [1-3]. (termedia.pl)
  • Thymectomy and radiation-induced suppressor T cell depletion causes autoimmune thyroiditis [4]. (termedia.pl)
  • It has been demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells prevented experimental autoimmune thyroiditis [5, 6] while their depletion triggered it [7, 8]. (termedia.pl)
  • CD8+CD28- cells also suppress the autoimmune process [9, 10]. (termedia.pl)
  • Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the percentage of CD4+CD25 high cells and CD8+CD28- cells in breast cancer patients with and without high levels of autoimmune thyroid antibodies. (termedia.pl)
  • Jef Raus, MD, PhD,* and Jingwu Zhang, MD, PhD* Myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells have been implicated in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we examined the cytokine profile of 531 primary MBP-reactive T-cell lines and 72 independently established clones from 32 patients with MS and 18 healthy controls (NS) by using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (docme.ru)
  • There is compelling evidence that immune cell function and immune responses are heavily influenced by purinergic mediators. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. (springer.com)
  • Treg are phenotypically defined as CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + and modulate immune responses by suppressing functions of other T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2003) investigated cell mediated and antibody responses in Gambian children exposed to aflatoxin in their diets. (progressivegardening.com)
  • The proportion of, and cytokine secretion by, the different cellular subsets indicate the strength of specific immune responses carried out by each subset of cells and the overall strength of the immune response. (progressivegardening.com)
  • The decreased number of activated T and B cells in those with high aflatoxin B1 levels indicate that aflatoxin may decrease expression of the CD69 activation molecule and that the cells may not mount appropriate and effective immune responses. (progressivegardening.com)
  • These results suggest synergistic associations between PD-1/CTLA-4 and PD-1/CD39 in dampening T-cell activation and function along with suppressing tumor-specific immune responses, suggesting that dual blockade of these molecules could be a more effective strategy for inducing antitumor immune responses in CRC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our laboratory has recently identified differential responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (HPMBC) T cells as measured by polyclonal T cell activation by mitogens during sodium arsenite exposure. (jove.com)
  • The malaria parasite undergoes both extracellular and intracellular stages in the host, and thus the human immune system has to mobilize both humoral and cellular arms of immune responses in the fight against this parasitic infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In light of this role in the suppression of self-reactive cells, T reg have recently been investigated as suppressors of antitumor immune responses (reviewed in ref. 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Once activated, the Th-cells orchestrate adaptive antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. (ersjournals.com)
  • At present, naturally occurring and adaptive T-regulatory cells (Treg) cells (nTreg and aTreg, respectively) are taking the centre stage as the crucial immunoregulatory cells that are capable of suppressing Th1- and Th2-mediated adaptive immune responses in a cell contact-dependant fashion directly or by acting on APCs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Although all animals became infected, the immunized animals mounted better antiviral antibody responses, controlled virus levels more effectively, and had a longer disease-free survival than the unvaccinated infected monkeys. (asm.org)
  • Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of oral HIV transmission, the ontogeny of infant immune responses, and the effect of maternal antibodies will aid the development of an effective infant HIV-1 vaccine. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that, although both vaccines were immunogenic for newborn macaques, they did not prevent infection after oral challenge with SIVmac251 at 4 weeks of age, but the immunized animals mounted better antiviral antibody responses, had lower levels of virus replication, and had better survival than unimmunized animals. (asm.org)
  • NK cells provide rapid responses to virus-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection , and respond to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell activity as a potential cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that NK-cell responses may be negatively regulated when NK cells encounter target cells expressing cognate ligands of Tim-3. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Grafts were not rejected in T and B cell deficient recipients that were reconstituted with TCR75 CD4 T cells or in control (non-reconstituted) recipients, suggesting that the transferred TCR75 CD4 T cells were mediating graft rejection principally by providing help for effector alloantibody responses. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, alloantibody responses generated in recipients reconstituted with smaller number of wild-type TCR75 CD4 T cells (10), although long-lasting, did not have a discernible extrafollicular component, and grafts were rejected much more slowly (MST 50 days). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • By modeling antibody responses to Hen Egg Lysozyme protein, we confirm that a high ratio of antigen-specific helper T cells to B cells favors development of the extrafollicular response, whereas GC activity is favored by a relatively high ratio of B cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • In summary, a relative abundance of helper CD4 T cells favors development of strong extrafollicular alloantibody responses that mediate acute humoral rejection, without requirement for GC activity. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Germinal Center Alloantibody Responses Mediate Progression of Chronic Allograft Injury. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Although such responses would suggest an underlying germinal center (GC) response, the relationship to cellular events within the allospecific B cell population is unclear. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Reconstituted recipients developed Ig-switched anti-K alloantibody responses that were slow to develop, but long-lived, with confocal immunofluorescence and flow cytometric characterization of responding H-2K-allospecific B cells confirming persistent splenic GC activity. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Loss of CD4 + cells causes impairment of cell-mediated immune responses, which leads to opportunistic infections. (scielo.org.za)
  • Monitoring the activation-induced responses of T lymphocytes could help gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There is increasing evidence suggesting that altered T-cell responses to MBP play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS (reviewed in References 11 and 12). (docme.ru)
  • Regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency and activity are increased in cancer patients and play a major role in tumor escape. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, the involvement of the adenosinergic pathway in Treg-mediated suppression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The percentages and expression levels of CD39 and CD73 in CD4 + T cells and Treg were greater in HNSCC than in normal controls and highest in patients with no evident disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD39 + Treg frequency and adenosine-mediated suppression are significantly increased in HNSCC patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adenosinergic pathway is involved in Treg-mediated immunosuppression in cancer and its attenuation could be a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for patients with HNSCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Data in this article highlight the clinical importance of ectonucleotidase activity associated with regulatory T cells (Treg) in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that ATP hydrolysis, adenosine production, and suppression of effector T cells by the patients' Treg positively correlate with high CD39 expression on Treg as well as disease activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In most human cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg), a small subset of CD4 + T cells, are significantly increased in the peripheral blood as well as in the tumor microenvironment ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4+ effector T cells can be further divided into proinflammatory Th1, Th17, and anti-inflammatory Th2 and Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) subtypes based on their functionality and cytokine production [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can be antitumorigenic or pro-tumorigenic in colorectal cancer (CRC) depending on the presence of different Treg subsets with various immunosuppressive molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, we investigated co-expression of immunosuppressive molecules on different Treg subsets in the TME, normal colon tissue, and peripheral blood of CRC patients and healthy donors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, we observed increased levels of PD-1/CTLA-4 and PD-1/CD39 co-expressing cells within FoxP3 + Helios + and FoxP3 + Helios − Treg subsets, indicative of their potent immunosuppressive potential. (frontiersin.org)
  • In an arsenite-susceptible individual, arsenite suppressed the activation of Th1 (Tbet) cells, and decreased the percentage of cells in the double positive Th17 (ROR?t) and Treg (FoxP3) population. (jove.com)
  • Many different Treg subsets have been described, including CD8+ Treg cells, natural killer (NK) cells and several different CD4+ Treg cell subsets. (ersjournals.com)
  • In this review, the authors will focus on two major and well-described CD4+ Treg cell subsets. (ersjournals.com)
  • In figure 1 ⇓ , the major characteristics of CD4+ Treg cells are depicted. (ersjournals.com)
  • Major characteristics of subsets of CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells based on cell-surface markers, immunosuppressive cytokine secretion and suppressive action. (ersjournals.com)
  • CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD8+CD28- cells maintain the balance between autoimmunity and self-tolerance. (termedia.pl)
  • CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD8+CD28- cells play a role in anti-tumor immune response. (termedia.pl)
  • It has been shown that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells increased in peripheral blood of cancer patients and they augmented tumor-induced immunosuppression [11-16]. (termedia.pl)
  • Also in breast cancer, circulating Treg cell levels have been elevated, particularly in the advanced stage and in HER2+ disease [20, 21]. (termedia.pl)
  • L-selectin is the only selectin expressed on leukocytes and mediates a number of leukocyte-endothelial interactions. (sinobiological.com)
  • Ligands present on endothelial cells will bind to leukocyte expressing L-selectin, slowing leukocyte trafficking through the blood, and facilitating entry into a secondary lymphoid organ at that point. (sinobiological.com)
  • A subset of individuals, many of whom possess human leukocyte antigen (HLA) - B*57 exhibit restriction of HIV type 1 viral replication to less than 50 copies/mL, presumably by a mechanism that is CD8+ T-cell mediated, and become elite long-term non-progressors (LTNP), who have no evidence of progressive immunodeficiency and no development of opportunistic complications during many years of follow-up. (knowcancer.com)
  • Apart from environmental factors, there is a substantial genetic impact on disease development from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and from other genomic regions that remain largely unknown. (bmj.com)
  • Successful immunization using dendritic cells or plasmid DNA vaccines ( 7 - 9 ) requires the presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted peptides by both the antigen-presenting cell and the tumor itself. (aacrjournals.org)
  • L3T4+ T-cell-independent reactivity of Lyt2+ T cells in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The reactivity of the antibody MEM-143 can be blocked by a peptide including amino acids 79-88. (exbio.cz)
  • To this end, we will give an overview of the human studies that analyzed specimens such as gingival tissues, gingival crevicular fluid, and peripheral blood obtained from periodontitis patients. (springer.com)
  • Macrophages are the major inflammatory cell type in the glucose-utilizing tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. (hindawi.com)
  • Both CTLs and NK cells are found to infiltrate lung as well as lymphoid tissues, mimicking the in vivo trafficking patterns of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • CD4+CD25+ nTreg cells are generated in the thymus and reside in the blood and other peripheral lymphoid tissues at a frequency of 5-10% of all CD4+ cells and in the bone-marrow ≥20%, both in mice and in humans 22 - 25 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Here, we show that in response to viral or bacterial infection, antigen-specific CD8 T cells migrated to nonlymphoid tissues and were present as long-lived memory cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Strikingly, CD8 memory T cells isolated from nonlymphoid tissues exhibited effector levels of lytic activity directly ex vivo, in contrast to their splenic counterparts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although CD8 memory cells are identifiable within secondary lymphoid organs ( 4 , 7 , 10 , 11 ), their pattern of migration and their relationship with memory populations in other tissues remains unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although this theory is intriguing, the population dynamics and the functional status of pathogen-specific memory T cells within different tissues in vivo remain poorly characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • To address these questions, we compared antigen-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues after viral or bacterial infections. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a percentage of CD8 T cells, tetramer + cells were more prominent in nonlymphoid tissues than in secondary lymphoid tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • For existing T cell therapies, pathologists will be asked to answer important questions about cell trafficking, site of action, and effects on diseased tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A number of diseases are typified by preferential accumulation of type 1 or type 2 T cells in affected tissues ( 11 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Homing of B lymphocytes into specialized microenvironments within secondary lymphoid tissues is essential for normal immune function, yet the molecular cues guiding this cellular traffic are not well defined. (google.com)
  • There is a possibility to develop better and more effective immunotherapies by inactivating mechanisms that inhibit anti-tumor T cells in the tumor microenvironment and thereby protect cancerous tissues from immune damage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This approach is based on in vivo genetic evidence that A2AR play a critical role in the protection of normal tissues from overactive immune cells in acutely inflamed and hypoxic areas. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The observations of much improved T-cell-mediated rejection of tumors in mice with inactivated A2AR strongly suggest that A2AR also protects hypoxic cancerous tissues and that A2AR should be inactivated in order to improve tumor rejection by anti-tumor T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dermatophytes are a subset of fungi that have the ability to invade keratinized tissues, such as skin, hair, and nails. (mdpi.com)
  • The immune system is comprised of highly specialized q The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and cells, tissues, and organs that give the human body the do not necessarily represent the views of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (cdc.gov)
  • Cells are organized into tissues and tissues into organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Homing of effector T cells to inflamed tissues is thought to depend on adhesion molecules such as LFA-1 and VLA-4 ( 8 , 9 ) and also on the activity of specific chemokines ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, the monokine IL-15 appears to be required for type 2 cytokine production by CD56 bright NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show that CD56 bright NK cells are the primary population responsible for NK cell cytokine production in response to monokines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Human interleukin-15 is a man-made version of a small protein (cytokine) that is naturally produced in the body by white blood cells and increases the activity and strength of the immune system. (cancer.gov)
  • and cytokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD3-CD56+ (NK) cells. (progressivegardening.com)
  • This is in accordance with the observed appearance of Th1 cells or the cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, not only in chronic atopic dermatitis and asthma, but also during allergic sensitisation 15 - 18 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Secretion of the chemoattractant cytokine CCL5 (formerly called RANTES) by rat aortic endothelial cells activated with IFN-γ enhances the transmigration of rat Th1-type cell lines but not Th2-type lines ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Cytokine profile of myelin basic proteinЧreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals. (docme.ru)
  • The encephalitogenicity of MBPreactive T cells is not only associated with their recognition of the encephalitogenic epitopes on MBP but also with their cytokine profile. (docme.ru)
  • Cloning and characterization of IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor (IL-TIF), a novel cytokine structurally related to IL-10 and inducible by IL-9. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • IL-9 is a Th2 cytokine active on various cell types such as T and B lymphocytes, mast cells, and eosinophils, and potentially involved in allergy and asthma. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • To understand better the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of this cytokine, we used a cDNA subtraction method to identify genes specifically induced by IL-9 in mouse T cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • 2) The CD16+ CD56± (dim or negative) that are CD3- are referred to as cytotoxic NK cells, while the CD56+ (bright) CD16- NK cells are called regulatory or cytokine secreting NK cells. (testcatalog.org)
  • The remaining minority (approximately 10%) of NK cells are the CD56(bright) cytokine-producing NK cells. (testcatalog.org)
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are able to lyse infected or malignant cells without prior antigenic stimulation, and thus provide an important innate defense against infectious agents and tumors [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells (belonging to the group of innate lymphoid cells ) are defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and constitute the third kind of cells differentiated from the common lymphoid progenitor -generating B and T lymphocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play an important role against viral infections and cancer. (bloodjournal.org)
  • They comprise a key lymphocyte subset (approximately 10%-15% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and are a constituent of the innate immune system, since these cells do not rearrange their germline DNA to obtain specificity. (testcatalog.org)
  • CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (thermofisher.com)
  • Extracellular adenosine, generated via the concerted action of CD39 and CD73, contributes to T-cell differentiation and function. (nature.com)
  • This selective decrease indicates that IEL can be classified into those whose development and/or differentiation is dependent on IL-2Rβ function and those for which IL-2Rβ-mediated signaling is not essential. (rupress.org)
  • However, it is unclear whether signaling via the IL-2R is required for the normal development and differentiation of other lymphoid or myeloid cells. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that certain cell populations that undergo extrathymic development and differentiation have an important developmental requirement for either IL-15 and/or IL-2. (rupress.org)
  • Koethe S, Zander L, K ster S, Annan A, Ebenfelt A, Spencer J, Bemark M: Pivotal advance: CD45RB glycosylation is specifically regulated during human peripheral B cell differentiation. (exbio.cz)
  • As the implantation and long-term existence of tumor-specific T cells in host are the prerequisite for adoptive immunotherapy, memory stem T cells (T SCM ) with self-renewal and differentiation capacity show the greatest potential to implant and long-term exhibit function in vivo, compared with other T cells of differentiation stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prepared T SCM cells exhibited a proliferative history and rapid differentiation into effector cells upon the E007 re-stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, T cell is heterogeneous, which exists in a continuum of differentiation states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The BM is important for the biology of B cells as it represents a site of B-cell differentiation and maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD20 is present on B cells from early development through maturity until the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. (bmj.com)
  • This was associated with T follicular helper (T) cell differentiation of the transferred TCR75 CD4 T cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), arising from the mucosal epithelium, is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related mortality ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The scheme proposed by Lachmann is as follows: A microbial/mucosal antigen causes lymphocytes to become sensitized, and there is antibody response to the mucous antigen. (angelfire.com)
  • We have demonstrated that careful processing of mucosal biopsies allows the generation of transcriptomes from as few as 1000 highly purified cells with minimal interindividual variation. (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, it is demonstrated that the various NK-R molecules typically expressed by NK cells are also expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that expression of T44 molecules was confined to CD3+ WT31+ peripheral blood T cells. (nih.gov)
  • While conventional CD3+ WT31+ cells produced IL2 in response to mAb directed to CD2, CD3 or T44 surface molecules, CD3+ WT31- cells did not respond to anti-T44 mAb but released IL2 following stimulation with anti-CD2 or anti-CD3 mAb. (nih.gov)
  • The surface molecules that mediate activation of different subsets of T or NK cells have been reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • studies of transplantation rejection, and functional studies of cell adhesion molecules. (abcam.com)
  • Because aberrant T-cell phenotypes had been reported in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients, an impaired expression of these molecules on T-cells of AAV patients was hypothesized in the present study. (nature.com)
  • To dissect the molecular interactions which lead to CD4 function(s), wild-type (WT) and mutant CD4 molecules were expressed in the CD4-dependent 3DT52.5.8 T cell hybridomas. (oatd.org)
  • Some studies reported the phenotypic characteristics of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in CRC, but limited studies have focused on the co-expression of suppressive molecules on immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this preliminary study, we report that the majority of CD3 + T cells in the TME are CD4 + T cells with high co-expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1)/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and PD-1/CD39 molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fourth, introducing two allogeneic DRB1 molecules into the DCs improves generation of tumor antigen-specific T cells. (pnas.org)
  • The ihv-DCs are a subset of CD11c + /CD205 + DCs that constitutively display costimulatory molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Through its portion that resides inside the T cell, CD4 amplifies the signal raised from TCR by recruiting the lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), which is essential for activating many molecules involved in the signaling cascade of an activated T cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Embedded in the cell membrane are a wide range of molecules that vary with the cell type and are typically composed of proteins or glycoproteins that have a cytoplasmic transmembrane and external domains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, not all NK cells express the CD56 and CD16 markers uniformly and, therefore, can be divided into subsets based on expression of these 2 molecules. (testcatalog.org)
  • CD4-/CD8-T cells: amplification in spleens of mice following in vivo treatment with monoclonal antibody anti-L3T4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Importantly, the prepared T SCM cells were able to exist long and reconstitute other T cell subsets in vivo, eradicating the E007 cells effectively after transferred into the LCL burden mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of a Rcombinant .alpha.1-Antitrypsin Gene to the Lung Epithelium in Vivo," Science 252: 431-434, 1991. (patentgenius.com)
  • The goal of T cell engineering is to augment the natural functions of T cells through ex vivo manipulation, including special culture conditions, genetic manipulation, and synthetic biology approaches. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pathologists will be at the forefront of understanding how these new T cell therapies function in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Why do anti-tumor T cells fail to completely and reliably destroy tumors in vivo even when the ability to recognize tumors is not the limiting factor and when very high numbers of highly lytic anti-tumor T cells are injected in a cancer patient [ 13 , 15 ] or tumor-bearing mice [ 16 ]? (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These melanoma cells more effectively recruited human CD8 + effector T cells when implanted as xenografts in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The requirements for genetically targeted T cells to function in vivo are less well understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor eradication was directly proportional to the in vivo effector-to-tumor cell ratio. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of human CD4 in microglia/macrophages creates a pathogenetic link between the immune system and the central nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are essential in determining B cell antibody class switching, activating cytotoxic T cells, and maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present, evidence also exists showing that other cells permissive for HIV, monocyte-derived macrophages, 'in the absence of infection', form syncytia during cultivation (Collman et al. (sidasante.com)
  • BLC strongly attracts B lymphocytes while promoting migration of only small numbers of T cells and macrophages and therefore is the first chemokine identified with selectivity for B cells. (google.com)
  • These CD3 + NK-R + cells have a cell surface phenotype typical of memory cells as indicated by the expression of CD45RO and CD29 and by the lack of CD28 and CD45RA. (elsevier.com)
  • Few studies have investigated the phenotype of CD4 + T cells infiltrating the peripheral zone of the prostate, where most adenocarcinomas arise. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow cytometric studies depicted decreased B-cell percentages during the entire course of disease and attainment of exhaustive phenotype with tissue-like memory cell markers, indicative of B-cell dysfunctions in VL. (ajtmh.org)
  • Elevated level of VL-specific antibody titre was directly correlated with exhausted phenotype and also with disease severity during VL. (ajtmh.org)
  • 4) Circulating NK cells are enriched for the CD56(dim) phenotype, while within the lymph nodes, NK cells are largely CD56(bright). (testcatalog.org)
  • The majority of circulating human NK cells, which have cytotoxic function and phenotype (CD56[dim]), are CD27-, while the CD56(bright) cells are CD27+. (testcatalog.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss the presence and the role of various T cell subsets, including CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD4 + T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), regulatory T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. (springer.com)
  • Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, rheumatologic, disseminated, and chronic inflammatory manifestations of histoplasmosis were all associated with a significant elevation above normal of OKT 8 + (suppressor-cytotoxic) lymphocytes and a significantly lower than normal OKT 4 + (helper-inducer)-lymphocyte to OKT 8 +-lymphocyte ratio. (springer.com)
  • In addition to the T H 1 and T H 2 subsets, which secrete IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-4, respectively, a new subset of CD4 + (helper) T cells, termed T H 17 cells, has been characterized by the production of IL-17. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • Relative Frequencies of Alloantigen-Specific Helper CD4 T Cells and B Cells Determine Mode of Antibody-Mediated Allograft Rejection. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Here, we examine how the relative frequencies of alloantigen-specific B cells and helper CD4 T cells influence the humoral alloimmune response and how this relates to antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • and, most convincingly, rapid graft rejection still occurred when recipients were reconstituted with similar numbers of TCR75 CD4 T cells that are genetically incapable of providing T follicular helper cell function for generating GC alloimmunity. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Both CD4 + T helper (Th) cells and CD8 + T cytotoxic (Tc) cells contain type 1 and type 2 subsets ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Strangely enough, this study also found azathioprine to increase the percent of lymphocytes expressing CD25[19] significantly. (acancerjourney.info)
  • Earlier identified as CD4 + CD25 + T lymphocytes ( 2 ), the majority of Tregs were later characterized by expression of Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), a master regulatory transcriptional factor ( 3 ), which is critical for the development and suppressive functions of Tregs ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • While the proportion of CD4+CD25 high was higher in the Fulani ethnic group at the peak of malaria transmission season ( p = 0.03), no clear pattern emerged for T regulatory cells expressing FoxP3 + and CD127 low . (beds.ac.uk)
  • The transcriptional profile of fluorescence-activated cell sorted prostate-infiltrating regulatory T cells (CD4 + , CD25 + , GITR + ) was compared with naïve, peripheral blood T cells using microarray analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In earlier studies, CD25 was used as a cell surface marker for T reg ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rituximab therapy did not alter the number of activated CD4 + HLA-DR + and CD4 + CD25 + T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • demonstrated that resting peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals show little or no expression of CD69 (very early) and moderate basal expression of CD25 (late) and HLA-DR (very late) markers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • While most CD3+ cells co-expressed T44 antigen, a small distinct subset was CD3+ T44- (2-10% of CD3+ cells). (nih.gov)
  • These distinct subset abnormalities may help monitor immunological aspects of disease activity. (springer.com)
  • Expression of the alpha1beta1 integrin, VLA-1, marks a distinct subset of human CD4+ memory T cells. (naver.com)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)
  • Type I OC includes low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinomas that together account for ~30% of ovarian tumors ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The modulation of KIR-MHC class I interactions by viral peptides has important implications to pathogenesis, since it suggests that the immunodeficiency viruses, and potentially other types of viruses and tumors, may acquire changes in epitopes that increase the affinity of certain MHC class I ligands for inhibitory KIRs to prevent the activation of specific NK cell subsets. (prolekare.cz)
  • Increased numbers of T reg have been reported in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of several human solid tumors including breast, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and prostate carcinomas ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the scope of promising immunotherapeutic protocols is currently limited because tumors can create a 'hostile-immunosuppressive microenvironment that prevents their destruction by anti-tumor T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The long sought after explanation of the co-existence of tumors and of anti-tumor immune cells in a patient ('Hellstrom Paradox- [ 13 - 15 ] or in a mouse [ 16 ] has been a challenging problem to solve for more than 35 years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A subset of six chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10) was confirmed by protein array and/or quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to be preferentially expressed in tumors that contained T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Numerous putative mechanisms by which tumors can evade immune attack despite the presence of antigen-specific CD8 + effector T cells have been proposed and supported by preclinical models ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the chemokines expressed by metastatic melanoma tumors that might support recruitment of CD8 + effector cells is not known. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that groups of metastases were segregated largely based on immunologically relevant genes, and in particular, that a subset of tumors expressed both T-cell-specific transcripts and a broad array of chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have, therefore, established animal models to assess the therapeutic efficacy of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an antigen expressed in prostate cancer cells and the neovasculature of various solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD56 bright NK cells also express the adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L), which mediates initial interactions with vascular endothelium. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Therefore, CD56 bright and CD56 dim NK cells differ in their proliferative response to IL-2, intrinsic cytotoxic capacity, NKR repertoire, and adhesion molecule expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD2 mediates lymphocyte adhesion and is involved in T cell activation. (tonbobio.com)
  • Analysis of cell-free human alpha1 integrin with a monoclonal antibody to the I-domain: detection in ocular fluid and function as an adhesion substrate. (naver.com)
  • Lymphocytes expressing alpha1beta1 integrin (very late antigen-1) in peripheral blood of patients with arthritis are a subset of CD45RO(+) T-cells primed for rapid adhesion to collagen IV. (naver.com)
  • The details of the immunogen for this antibody are not available. (abcam.com)
  • These data support a model whereby CD56 bright and CD56 dim NK cells represent functionally distinct subsets of mature human NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3) These are not only phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets but also developmentally separate. (testcatalog.org)
  • [2] NK cells are known to differentiate and mature in the bone marrow , lymph nodes , spleen , tonsils , and thymus , where they then enter into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe a chemokine, B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC), that is highly expressed in the follicles of Peyer's patches, spleen and lymph nodes. (google.com)
  • In patients with cancer, disseminated cancer cells are often detectable in the peripheral blood as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and in the bone marrow or lymph nodes as disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). (nature.com)
  • Here we examine the contribution of germinal center (GC) humoral alloimmunity to chronic antibody mediated rejection (AMR). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Immunotherapy with obinutuzumab, may induce changes in body's immune system and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (cancer.gov)
  • Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy has achieved modest clinical benefits, but several technical hurdles in DC preparation, activation, and cancer/testis antigen (CTA) delivery limit its broad applications. (pnas.org)
  • This approach should facilitate the development of cell-based immunotherapy for human lung cancer. (pnas.org)
  • This study provided a reference method for generation of antigen-specific T SCM for T cell adoptive immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, initial large immunotherapy trials in subsets of patients with GBM have also been negative.1,10 The explanation for lack of efficacy of different approaches for GBM is multifactorial. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although counterintuitive, lymphodepletion induced by temozolomide has been found to enhance antitumor activity associated with cellular immunotherapy in human studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, the potential of T-cell-based immunotherapy is limited by various immune escape mechanisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD8 binds to MHC class I and through its association with protein tyrosine kinase p56lck plays a role in T cell development and activation of mature T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Moreover, T cell activation triggers the selective processing and activation of downstream caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), but not caspase-1, -2, or -4, as demonstrated even in intact cells using a cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. (rupress.org)
  • The current model suggests that after apoptotic stimulation, activation of "upstream" caspases containing a large prodomain such as caspase-8, -2, or -9 leads to the proteolytic cleavage of "downstream" caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), which mediate the apoptotic response ( 1 )( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, there is no evidence yet for a role of caspases during T cell activation, and a recent report suggested that the observed caspase processing was due to the production of granzyme B by CD8 + activated cells and artifactual release during cell lysis of PBMCs ( 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, such a role for caspases in T cell activation is indirectly supported by several recent observations. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, activation of T cells is partially controlled by B cell antigen presentation. (bmj.com)
  • The functions of CD4 are to initiate or augment the early phase of T-cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They were named "natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarly, if the activating signal is dominant, then NK cell activation will result. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 12 h, the SF extract initiated lymphocyte activation in both total lymphocyte and CD4 + subpopulations, indicated by a doubling of the number of cells expressing the CD69 activation marker. (scielo.org.za)
  • The natural ligands for CCR5 are the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES (regulated on T-cell activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The Distribution of Activation Markers and Selectins on Peripheral T Lymphocytes in Preeclampsia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Upon T cell activation, several cell surface markers are upregulated, each at a different stage of the activation process. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • IL-2 plays a key role in the activation, survival, expansion, and function of T lymphocytes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It plays a key role in responsiveness to IL-2 resulting in lymphocyte activation and further IL-2 production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Experiments concerning the mechanism regulating IL-TIF expression in T cells indicate that IL-9 induction is rapid (within 1 h), does not require protein synthesis, and depends on the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT pathway. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Transfection of HEK293 cells with the IL-TIF cDNA resulted in the production of a glycosylated protein of about 25 kDa that was found to induce STAT activation in mesangial and neuronal cell lines. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Among professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) hold unique abilities to prime naïve T lymphocytes in mediating antigen-specific, adaptive immune response ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this context, it is however noteworthy that further cell types other than T cells contribute to sustain and amplify the tissue damaging-immune response in these disorders. (omicsonline.org)
  • The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although substantial progress has been made in studying tumor escape from anti-tumor immune response [ 19 ], the mechanism of inhibition of lethal anti-tumor T cells in a poorly understood 'hostile-tumor microenvironment [ 13 - 16 ] is still perplexing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, a more successful treatment for chronic T. rubrum infection would involve targeting the mechanisms of T. rubrum that diminish the immune response, while restoring the cell-mediated immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • Restrictive expression of TCR γδ repertoire and alteration expression of IL-17A gene are the important characteristics of γδ T cells in AMI patients, which might be related to the immune response and clinical outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data demonstrate polarization of chemokine expression by Th1 vs Th2 cells, which, within the microenvironment of the pancreas, accounts for distinctive inflammatory infiltrates that determine whether insulin-producing β-cells are protected or destroyed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. (springer.com)
  • These effectors enable the pathogen to subvert epithelial cell functions, promoting its own uptake, replication in the host cytosol, and dissemination to adjacent cells while concomitantly inhibiting pro-inflammatory cell death. (springer.com)
  • CD45RB is expressed e.g. in microglia and inflammatory cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Cosenza-Nashat MA, Kim MO, Zhao ML, Suh HS, Lee SC: CD45 isoform expression in microglia and inflammatory cells in HIV-1 encephalitis. (exbio.cz)
  • Bioinformatic integration of transcriptomic data with recent GWAS data identified specific candidate genes and cell types for inflammatory pathologies. (bmj.com)
  • GWAS studies have identified large numbers of genetic risk loci associated with increased risk of developing intestinal inflammatory disorders, but most risk variants are non-coding and are believed to act through regulation of gene expression in a cell-type specific manner. (bmj.com)
  • Caprioli F, Marafini I, Facciotti F, Pallone F, Monteleone G (2013) Targeting T cells in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The pathological process that causes tissue damage in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, the major inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans, is supposed to be mediated by distinct subsets of effector T cells, which accumulate in inflamed intestine of patients as a result of multiple mechanisms. (omicsonline.org)
  • Periodontitis is a common human chronic inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of the tooth attachment apparatus and tooth loss. (prolekare.cz)
  • While several aspects of the pathogenesis are poorly understood, most findings support the central role of immune maladaptation-driven superficial placentation, leading to a systemic maternal inflammatory response, in which the role of activated T lymphocytes appears to be pivotal [1-3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mast cells play an important role in initiating and modulating allergic and inflammatory reactions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This suggests that the inflammatory synovial environment induces DCIR expression, and this may be related to synovial T cell function. (bmj.com)
  • Activated T cells can release inflammatory mediators and procoagulants to improve the rupture and local thrombosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, assuming that anti-T44 mimicks the effect of a still undefined natural ligand our data suggest that T cells expressing the gamma-gene surface product may be signalled by stimuli which differ, at least in part, from those acting on CD3+ WT31+ T lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Help to B cells by invariant NKT cells is CD1d-dependent and delivered also in the absence of α-galactosylceramide, suggesting that NKT cells recognize an endogenous ligand presented by CD1d on B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Blimp-1 expression goes hand in hand with B-cell maturation antigen and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator (TACI) and cyclophilin ligand interactor, suggestive of its role in promoting plasma cell survival and antibody production. (ajtmh.org)
  • ab106163 - Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody. (abcam.com)
  • The majority (approximately 90%) of human NK cells are CD56 dim and express high levels of FcγRIII (CD16), whereas a minority (approximately 10%) are CD56 bright and CD16 dim/neg . (bloodjournal.org)
  • The participants with high aflatoxin B1 levels had non-significantly lower percentages of CD3+, CD8+, CD19+, CD14+, mature cytotoxic T cells, CD3-CD56+CD16- NK cells, perforin+ NK cells and monocyte phagocytoses than those with low aflatoxin B1 levels. (progressivegardening.com)
  • Unwanted cells are targeted for removal with Tetrameric Antibody Complexes recognizing CD16, CD36, CD66b and glycophorin A on red blood cells (RBCs). (stemcell.com)
  • A trend for increased percentage of circulating CD3-/CD16+CD56+ NK cells was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tim-3 protein is expressed on essentially all mature CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells and is expressed heterogeneously in the immature CD56 bright CD16 - NK-cell subset in blood from healthy adults and in cord blood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 , 2 Functionally distinct NK-cell subsets can be defined based on the level of CD56 and CD16 coexpression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 4 CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells are considered mature NK cells and are differentiated from the immature CD56 bright CD16 - NK-cell subset. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The majority of human NK cells (approximately 90%) have dim expression of CD56 and moderate to high levels of CD16, as well as perforin and granzymes (2 proteins mediating cytolytic activity), and are therefore high in cytotoxic capability. (testcatalog.org)
  • We have investigated IEL and NK cells in mice deficient for IL-2Rβ and describe here striking defects in the development of these cells. (rupress.org)
  • These cytotoxic lymphocytes suppress lung metastasis of A549/A2.1 lung cancer cells in NSG mice. (pnas.org)
  • The stem cell and T memory cell properties of the prepared CD8+ T SCM were observed in NOD-SCID mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fourth, colitis can be induced in immunodeficient mice by transfer of naïve T cells [ 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans, several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice ) and in three common monkey species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yap and Ada, "Transfer of specific sytitoxic T lymphocytes protects mice inoculated with influenza virus," Nature 273: 238-239, 1978. (patentgenius.com)
  • The important role of T cells in cancer immunosurveillance is now strongly supported by genetic studies in mice [ 1 , 2 ] and human studies [ 3 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, in a subset of treated mice, these levels of NNY-RANTES rapidly selected viruses with mutations in the V3 loop of envelope that altered coreceptor usage. (asm.org)
  • SCID mice repopulated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBL-SCID mice) are highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection by a variety of isolates, including R5, R5X4, and X4 viruses with minimal sequence differences ( 26-28 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Incited by the role of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody by B-lymphocytes, subsequent studies in the late 1980s demonstrated that they are also involved in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma 2 , 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The presence of CD3 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has been shown to correlate with favorable outcome in patients with several types of cancer including ovarian and colorectal carcinomas ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phenotyping of lymphocytes in breast cancer showed that CD8+ T cells were predominant in the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of invasive breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • In this article, we highlight interactions between NK cells and OC and their potential to change the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and participate in durable immune control of OC. (frontiersin.org)
  • To study the effects in systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) of B cell directed therapy with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at CD20+ B cells, without concomitant immunosuppressive therapy in mild to moderate SLE. (bmj.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the impact of temozolomide on various components of the immune system, including effector cells, antigen presentation, and immunosuppressive cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Anti-CD11a treatment improved visual function, reduced macular thickness, and increased the level of CD56 bright regulatory NK cells in patients with uveitic macular edema refractory to other immunosuppressive medications. (arvojournals.org)
  • L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte recirculation is required for maintaining the appropriate tissue distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations including naïve and effector subsets such as regulatory T cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • 3 12 - 18 Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, a B cell-specific surface marker. (bmj.com)
  • The chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 recognizes the CAIX/MN antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We will discuss the available effect of T cells subsets in adaptive immune system associated with the procession of T2DM, which may unveil several potential strategies that could provide successful therapies in the future. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies, however, suggest adaptive immune system, especially T lymphocyte, also plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. (hindawi.com)
  • FK506 mechanism of nephrotoxicity: stimulatory effect on endothelin secretion by cultured kidney cells. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Among the latter is the large virulence plasmid encoding for a type three secretion system (T3SS), which enables translocation of virulence proteins (effectors) from the bacterium directly into the host cell cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • By using subcutaneous chambers inoculated with F. nucleatum we demonstrate that immune cells, including NK cells, rapidly accumulate in the chambers and that this leads to a fast and transient, NCR1-dependant TNF-α secretion. (prolekare.cz)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmunity in normal physiological conditions by suppressing self-reactive T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although CD4 + T cells are present in the human prostate, it is not yet clear whether these cells mediate an antitumor effector function, or whether they serve to dampen or regulate a CD8 + T-cell-mediated antitumor response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Very late antigen-4 and CD11/CD18 integrins mediated passage of the T cells across both resting and stimulated HUVEC, and the endothelium-derived chemokine CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was responsible for the enhanced migration of T cells across stimulated HUVEC. (asm.org)
  • The presence of lymphocytes correlated with the expression of defined chemokine genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Screening by chemokine protein array identified a subset of melanoma cell lines that produced a similar broad array of chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemokine blockade with specific antibodies inhibited migration of CD8 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Confirmatory and functional assays together suggest that an optimal chemokine profile in the melanoma tumor microenvironment may be critical for improved recruitment of CD8 + effector T cells into metastatic tumor sites, and imply that one level of tumor escape from immune destruction may be the lack of expression of such chemokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In Immunology of Human Infection. (springer.com)
  • Further development of engineered T cell therapies requires advances in immunology, synthetic biology, manufacturing processes, and government regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among recent advances in cancer immunology are reports of relatively successful adoptive T-cell therapy with selected forms of cancer [ 7 ] and better designs of cancer vaccines and treatments that improve the development of endogenous anti-tumor CD8 + T-cell effectors [ 8 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human NK cell subsets can be distinguished by CD56 surface density expression (ie, CD56 bright and CD56 dim ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1-4 Human NK cells comprise approximately 10% of all peripheral blood lymphocytes and are characterized phenotypically by the presence of CD56 and the lack of CD3. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 There are 2 distinct subsets of human NK cells identified by cell surface density of CD56. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 7 Resting CD56 dim NK cells are more cytotoxic against NK-sensitive targets than CD56 bright NK cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Blood was sampled to assess the levels of CD56 bright regulatory NK cells before initiation and after termination of the study. (arvojournals.org)
  • Anti-CD11a antibody treatments resulted in an increase in the CD56 bright regulatory NK cell population in the peripheral blood of the patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • Because it is well known that T cells are a heterogeneous population, and a balance between functionally different T cell subsets is crucial in immune regulation, a series of studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal disease progression. (springer.com)
  • Most risk variants affect regulation of transcription, but a critical challenge is to identify which genes and which cell types these variants affect. (bmj.com)
  • In particular, we discuss current clinical applications of T cell therapies, government regulation of the development of new T cell therapies, sources of cells for T cell therapies, genetic engineering technologies, recent advances in synthetic biology of T cells, and safety mechanisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One little research of Crohns sufferers prospectively analyzed the impact of azathioprine on resistant cell subsets over a season, and discovered it to decrease total lymphocyte matters, but with no significant impact upon the percent of these lymphocytes revealing the NK indicators Compact disc16 and Compact disc56[19]. (acancerjourney.info)
  • The RosetteSep™ Human Total Lymphocyte Enrichment Cocktail is designed to enrich lymphocytes from whole blood by negative selection. (stemcell.com)
  • Here, we report the development of immortalized and constitutively activated human primary blood dendritic cell lines (ihv-DCs). (pnas.org)
  • Here we summarize the immune modulating role of temozolomide alone and in combination with immunotherapies such as dendritic cell vaccines, T-cell therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with GBM. (deepdyve.com)
  • An association to variations in the dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) gene with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was recently shown. (bmj.com)
  • The corresponding human gene cluster contains five genes, including the dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) gene, and we demonstrated association of the gene cluster and of DCIR with RA susceptibility. (bmj.com)
  • These cells also expressed PD-1 and CD153 and displayed characteristics of cellular senescence [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • As the engineering and manufacturing of T cell therapeutics become more complex, physicians trained in pathology and transfusion medicine will oversee the collection and manufacturing of these cellular products and assist clinical teams with the selection and administration of appropriate T cell therapies ( Figure 1a ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)