A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Enzymes that recognize CRUCIFORM DNA structures and introduce paired incisions that help to resolve the structure into two DNA helices.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.
The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subclass of matrix metalloproteinases that are secreted into the pericellular space.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Tabular numerical representations of sequence motifs displaying their variability as likelihood values for each possible residue at each position in a sequence. Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are calculated from position frequency matrices.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A family of proteins that play a role in TIGHT JUNCTION formation by binding to and anchoring proteins to the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Matrix attachment regulates Fas-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells: a role for c-flip and implications for anoikis. (1/97)

Survival of endothelial cells is critical for cellular processes such as angiogenesis. Cell attachment to extracellular matrix inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the molecular mechanisms underlying matrix-induced survival signals or detachment-induced apoptotic signals are unknown. We demonstrate here that matrix attachment is an efficient regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. Thus, matrix attachment protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis, whereas matrix detachment results in susceptibility to Fas-mediated cell death. Matrix attachment modulates Fas-mediated apoptosis at two different levels: by regulating the expression level of Fas, and by regulating the expression level of c-Flip, an endogenous antagonist of caspase-8. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade functions as a survival pathway in adherent cells by regulating c-Flip expression. We further show that detachment-induced cell death, or anoikis, itself results from activation of the Fas pathway by its ligand, Fas-L. Fas-L/Fas interaction, Fas-FADD complex formation, and caspase-8 activation precede the bulk of anoikis in endothelial cells, and inhibition of any of these events blocks anoikis. These studies identify matrix attachment as a survival factor against death receptor-mediated apoptosis and provide a molecular mechanism for anoikis and previously observed Fas resistance in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Ezrin interacts with focal adhesion kinase and induces its activation independently of cell-matrix adhesion. (2/97)

Ezrin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, is required for cell morphogenesis, motility, and survival through molecular mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Using the N-terminal domain of ezrin as a bait, we found that p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) interacts with ezrin. We show that the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from cultured cell lysates. However, FAK does not interact with full-length ezrin in vitro, indicating that the FAK binding site on ezrin is cryptic. Mapping experiments showed that the entire N-terminal domain of FAK (amino acids 1-376) is required for optimal ezrin binding. While investigating the role of the ezrin-FAK interaction, we observed that, in suspended kidney-derived epithelial LLC-PK1 cells, overproduction of ezrin promoted phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-397, the major autophosphorylation site, creating a docking site for FAK signaling partners. Treatment of the cells with a Src family kinase inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of Tyr-577 but not that of Tyr-397, indicating that ezrin-mediated FAK activation does not require the activity of Src kinases. Altogether, these observations indicate that ezrin is able to trigger FAK activation in signaling events that are not elicited by cell-matrix adhesion.  (+info)

pp60(c-src) and related tyrosine kinases: a role in the assembly and reorganization of matrix adhesions. (3/97)

Activation of tyrosine kinases during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion is involved both in the regulation of focal contact assembly and in the initiation of signaling processes at the cell-matrix adhesive interface. In order to determine the role of pp60(c-src) and related kinases in these processes, we have compared the dynamic reorganization of phosphotyrosine, vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and tensin in cells with altered expression of Src-family kinases. Both null cells for pp60(c-src) and triple knockout cells for pp60(c-src), pp59(fyn), and pp62(c-yes) exhibited decreased phosphotyrosine levels in focal contacts when compared with wild-type cells. pp60(c-src)-null cells also exhibited faster assembly of cell-matrix adhesions and a more exuberant recruitment of FAK to these sites. Tensin, which normally segregates into fibrillar adhesions was localized in large focal contacts in the two mutant cell lines, suggesting involvement of pp60(c-src) in the segregation of focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions. Moreover, treatment of wild-type cells with tyrphostin AG1007, which inhibits both pp60(c-src) and FAK activity, induced accumulation of tensin in peripheral focal adhesions. These findings demonstrate that Src family kinases, and pp60(c-src) in particular, have a central role in regulating protein dynamics at cell-matrix interfaces, both during early stages of interaction and in mature focal contacts.  (+info)

Members of the Jagged/Notch gene families are expressed in injured arteries and regulate cell phenotype via alterations in cell matrix and cell-cell interaction. (4/97)

The Jagged/Notch signaling pathways control cell fate determination and differentiation, and their dysfunction is associated with human pathologies involving cardiovascular abnormalities. To determine the presence of these genes during vascular response to injury, we analyzed expression of Jagged1, Jagged2, and Notch1 through 4 after balloon catheter denudation of the rat carotid artery. Although low levels of Jagged1, Jagged2, and constitutive expression of Notch1 were seen in uninjured endothelium, expression of all was significantly increased in injured vascular cells. High Jagged1 expression was restricted to the regenerating endothelial wound edge, whereas Notch transcripts were abundant in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. To understand the basis for Jagged/Notch control of cellular phenotype, we studied an in vitro model of NIH3T3 cells transfected with a secreted form of the extracellular domain of Jagged1. We report that the soluble Jagged1 protein caused decreased cell-matrix adhesion and cell migration defects. Cadherin-mediated intercellular junctions as well as focal adhesions were modified in soluble Jagged1 transfectants, demonstrating that cell-cell contacts and adhesion plaques may be targets of Jagged/Notch activity. We suggest that Jagged regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions may contribute to the control of cell migration in situations of tissue remodeling in vivo.  (+info)

Molecular complexity and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions. (5/97)

Currently >50 proteins have been reported to be associated with focal contacts and related ECM adhesions. Most of these contain multiple domains through which they can interact with different molecular partners, potentially forming a dense and heterogeneous protein network at the cytoplasmic faces of the adhesion site. The molecular and structural diversity of this 'submembrane plaque' is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms, including competition between different partner proteins for the same binding sites, interactions triggered or suppressed by tyrosine phosphorylation, and conformational changes in component proteins, which can affect their reactivity. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesions can undergo dynamic changes in structure and molecular properties from dot-like focal complexes to stress-fiber-associated focal contacts, which can further 'mature' to form fibronectin-bound fibrillar adhesions. These changes are driven by mechanical force generated by the actin- and myosin-containing contractile machinery of the cells, or by external forces applied to the cells, and regulated by matrix rigidity.  (+info)

Cdk5 regulates cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in lens epithelial cells. (6/97)

Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, which is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated neurons. Lower levels of Cdk5 are also found in a wide variety of cell types, including the lens. Although Cdk5 has been shown to play an important role in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth, its function in non-neuronal cells is not known. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the role of Cdk5 in the lens. Results showed that, within the adult mouse lens, Cdk5 was localized to the cytoplasm, especially along the lateral membranes of differentiating primary fiber cells, which suggests a role in cell-cell adhesion. Staining at the tips of elongating fiber cells was also particularly strong, suggesting a role in cell-matrix adhesion. To examine the possible role of Cdk5 in lens epithelial cell adhesion, we stably transfected N/N1003A rabbit lens epithelial cells with cDNAs for Cdk5 or a dominant-negative mutation, Cdk5-T33. Attachment to a fibronectin matrix, as measured with substrate-coated cell adhesion strips, was increased by Cdk5 overexpression, while an equivalent overexpression of Cdk5-T33 had no effect. Cdk5 also increased the rate of cell attachment and spreading as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). In addition, Cdk5 overexpression decreased cell-cell adhesion as measured by a cell aggregation assay. These findings suggest that Cdk5 plays a role in regulating both cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in the lens.  (+info)

PLC-gamma1 is required for IGF-I protection from cell death induced by loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. (7/97)

Phospholipase C-gamma1, a tyrosine kinase substrate, hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which act as second messenger moleculesto mobilize intracellular calcium and activate protein kinase C, respectively. We have investigated the role of phospholipase C-gamma1 in anoikis, or cell death, induced by the loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. Spontaneously immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts nullizygous at the Plcg1 locus (Plcg1(-/-)), referred to as Null cells, were derived from targeted gene disruption experiments. Subsequently, phospholipase C-gamma1 was re-expressed in these cells to derive Null+ cells. The Null and Null+ cells were then placed in suspension to induce cell death, which was measured directly as well as by the induction of caspase 3, as an index of programmed cell death or apoptosis. The results demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor can rescue Null+ cells but not Null cells from suspension-induced cell death. This demonstrates that phospholipase C-gamma1 is required for insulin-like growth factor dependent cell survival under these conditions. Lastly, the data demonstrate that insulinlike growth factor stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma1 in both adherent and suspension cells.  (+info)

Fibronectin polymerization regulates the composition and stability of extracellular matrix fibrils and cell-matrix adhesions. (8/97)

Remodeling of extracellular matrices occurs during development, wound healing, and in a variety of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, and angiogenesis. Thus, identifying factors that control the balance between matrix deposition and degradation during tissue remodeling is essential for understanding mechanisms that regulate a variety of normal and pathological processes. Using fibronectin-null cells, we found that fibronectin polymerization into the extracellular matrix is required for the deposition of collagen-I and thrombospondin-1 and that the maintenance of extracellular matrix fibronectin fibrils requires the continual polymerization of a fibronectin matrix. Further, integrin ligation alone is not sufficient to maintain extracellular matrix fibronectin in the absence of fibronectin deposition. Our data also demonstrate that the retention of thrombospondin-1 and collagen I into fibrillar structures within the extracellular matrix depends on an intact fibronectin matrix. An intact fibronectin matrix is also critical for maintaining the composition of cell-matrix adhesion sites; in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin polymerization, neither alpha5beta1 integrin nor tensin localize to fibrillar cell-matrix adhesion sites. These data indicate that fibronectin polymerization is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix organization and stability. The ability of fibronectin polymerization to act as a switch that controls the organization and composition of the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix adhesion sites provides cells with a means of precisely controlling cell-extracellular matrix signaling events that regulate many aspects of cell behavior including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.  (+info)

Cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions are often characterized as functionally distinct adhesion systems within the cell that mediate different proliferative outcomes. In contrast to the widely accepted pro-proliferative effect of cell-matrix adhesion, the proliferative effect of cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion remains unresolved. While the majority of studies demonstrate that cadherins mediate contact inhibition of proliferation, there have also been compelling reports of cadherins stimulating cell cycling. Here, we show that matrix stiffness is the mechanistic basis for crosstalk between N-cadherin at cell-cell junctions and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at cell-matrix adhesions, and that this interplay between adhesive systems modulates the proliferative role of N-cadherin. We demonstrate that N-cadherin is induced in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following vascular injury, an in vivo model of tissue stiffening and proliferation. Complementary experiments on deformable polyacrylamide hydrogels
TY - GEN. T1 - Intelligent Modelling for Benign Tumour Growth with Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Adhesion and Movement. AU - Kazmi, N.. AU - Hossain, M. A.. AU - Phillips, R.. N1 - Conference code: 10. PY - 2010/9/16. Y1 - 2010/9/16. N2 - Tumours can be benign or malignant based upon their behavior, growth and invasion capability. Various mathematical models have been developed to capture different dynamics of tumours. Our aim was to model the growth dynamics of the benign tumour at cellular level with and without the extracellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and finally the movement of the cells. We developed an artificial Neural Network based intelligent model to demonstrate the tumour growth dynamics and cell movement and compression based upon its adhesion capabilities. In our model, we considered the heterogeneity in cell proliferation, death, degradation of the matrix and cell movement. We counted the total number of tumour cells at the end of every phase and presented it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by Β 1-integrins. AU - Osada, Takashi. AU - Gu, Yu Huan. AU - Kanazawa, Masato. AU - Tsubota, Yoshiaki. AU - Hawkins, Brian T.. AU - Spatz, Maria. AU - Milner, Richard. AU - Del Zoppo, Gregory J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - The hypothesis tested by these studies states that in addition to interendothelial cell tight junction proteins, matrix adhesion by Β 1-integrin receptors expressed by endothelial cells have an important role in maintaining the cerebral microvessel permeability barrier. Primary brain endothelial cells from C57 BL/6 mice were incubated with Β 1-integrin function-blocking antibody (Ha2/5) or isotype control and the impacts on claudin-5 expression and microvessel permeability were quantified. Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the interendothelial claudin-5 expression by confluent endothelial cells was significantly decreased in a ...
Cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory …
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
What kind of message(s) forces a cell to reprogram itself for the flight reaction? Recent years have brought about some intriguing discoveries. On the one hand, cells that have sustained and accumulated a critical level of DNA damage are destined to collapse their focal contacts with the surrounding matrix proteins and undergo apoptotic death (reviewed in Ref. 92). Stress-induced changes in cell-matrix adhesion initiate the flight reaction, which may, eventually, result in anoikis (22, 56). Here, cell adhesion to its matrix serves as a sensor of the severity of stress, triggering cell exfoliation and suicide. Both reactions appear to be altruistic in the sense that they protect the organism from the accumulation of genetically compromised cells.. Stress-induced changes in cell-matrix adhesion occur via several routes that invariably lead to the disassembly of the focal adhesion complexes (matrix protein-integrin receptor-recruited adaptor proteins of the focal adhesion-cytoskeleton axis). The ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
In the field of cell-matrix adhesion, an emerging concept is that cells respond differently to matrices that are configured in three-dimensions, compared to the...
The perfect guide to start healing from MTSS.: How Do You Know If Youre Getting Mtss. The MTSS Guide, Tips and treatments for MTSS.
Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30-50 nm) spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We also studied whether wild-type and phospho-deficient or -mimicking mutants of vimentin changed the size and lifetime of focal adhesions (FAs), cell shape, and cell migration, using live-cell total internal reflection imaging and confocal microscopy. We observed that vimentin exists in fragments of different lengths. Short fragments were mostly the size of a unit-length filament and were mainly localized close to small cell-matrix adhesions. Long ...
Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30-50 nm) spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We also studied whether wild-type and phospho-deficient or -mimicking mutants of vimentin changed the size and lifetime of focal adhesions (FAs), cell shape, and cell migration, using live-cell total internal reflection imaging and confocal microscopy. We observed that vimentin exists in fragments of different lengths. Short fragments were mostly the size of a unit-length filament and were mainly localized close to small cell-matrix adhesions. Long
Cells adhere to the surrounding probe and tissues its mechanical properties by forming cell-matrix adhesions. noticed results are triggered by the discharge of talin head-rod autoinhibition. In bottom line, this research provides proof into how the managed talin fishing rod area unfolding works as a essential regulator of adhesion framework and function and therefore handles 36322-90-4 manufacture central mobile procedures such as cell migration and base realizing. Launch Cell-matrix adhesions are active and huge membrane layer spanning proteins processes that physically core pet cells to their environment. These processes connect integrin adhesion receptors to actin fibres offering a mechanised hyperlink between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. In addition to mechanised drive, cell-matrix adhesions transmit biochemical indicators across the plasma membrane layer and they possess an essential function in the regulations of cell anchorage, dispersing and migration. The central role ...
Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one of several interacting proteins involved in anchoring F-actin to the membrane. Defects in VCL are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1W. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Recent advances in high-resolution microscopy have made it possible to follow the dynamics of single molecules. Establishing the relationship between molecular behaviors and cell-level outputs remains however a major challenge.. We are developing integrated imaging, image analysis, and data analysis frameworks that bridge the gap between the spatial and temporal scales of single-molecule behavior and cell-level events. In collaboration with the Galbraith lab at Oregon Health and Science University, we are applying our analyses to study the dynamics of integrin molecules (key receptors in cell-matrix adhesion) in the context of cell edge protrusion activity. ...
Dr. Manninen gained strong training in cell biology during his post-doc in the laboratory of Kai Simons, Max Planck Institute, Dresden, Germany.
Autor: Volberg, T. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2001-06; Keywords: Animals; Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism; Cell Line; Cell-Matrix Junctions/drug effects/enzymology/*metabolism; Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; Focal Adhesions/drug effects/enzymology/metabolism; Gene Deletion; Mice; Microfilament Proteins/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Phosphorylation/drug effects; Phosphotyrosine/metabolism; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-yes; Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)/antagonists &; inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism; Tyrphostins/pharmacology; src-Family Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism; Titel: pp60(c-src) and related tyrosine kinases: a role in the assembly and reorganization of matrix adhesions
This paper shows that, in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EC) monolayers, the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1, but not other members of the beta 1 subfamily, are located at cell-cell contact borders and not at cellular free edges. Also the alpha v chain, but not its most common partner beta 3, that is widely expressed in EC cell-matrix junctions, is found at cell-cell borders. In EC monolayers, the putative ligands of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 receptors, i.e., laminin, collagen type IV, and fibronectin, are also organized in strands corresponding to cell-cell borders. The location of the above integrin receptors is not an artifact of in vitro culture since it has been noted also in explanted islets of the native umbilical vein endothelium. The integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 play a role in the maintenance of endothelial monolayer continuity in vitro. Indeed, specific antibodies to alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1, and the synthetic ...
The establishment of neuronal connections during development is a critical process for the correct function of central nervous system and for their regeneration during adult stages. Axon extension and guidance toward their targets are a complex process involving several signals provided by extracellular milieu where secreted factors, other cells, axons, and extracellular matrix proteins are interacting to establish the wiring of the brain. The expression of those signals at specific time and space, and their mechanisms of action during axon projection are the subject of numerous studies. This knowledge had contributed to understand the complex panorama of brain wiring during development and the origin and possible cure of central nervous system diseases. In this chapter, we focus on cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as two important signals during axon guidance, and how these interactions impact the response to diffusible guidance cues. We emphasize the need and the challenge to understand the
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Mechanotransduction - from how cells sense mechanical forces in different tissues to how these mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical signals - is an essential biological process in development, normal physiology and disease. In this exciting area, we are particularly interested in investigate the role of mechano-biological processes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions (e.g. topography and rigidity of the extracellular matrix) in the regulation of collective cell migration. Using a combination of various techniques, from molecular biology to nanotechnology and live cell imaging, for example, we have been accumulating interesting data suggesting that one of the most important factors distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic cells could be their ability to collectively invade and migrate towards blood vessels by physically interacting with the surrounding extracellular matrices. By experimenting with the nanotopographically-defined cell adhesion substratum (i.e. ...
Mechanotransduction - from how cells sense mechanical forces in different tissues to how these mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical signals - is an essential biological process in development, normal physiology and disease. In this exciting area, we are particularly interested in investigating the role of mechano-biological processes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions (e.g. topography and rigidity of the extracellular matrix) in the regulation of collective and directed cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. Using a combination of various techniques, from molecular biology to nanotechnology and live cell imaging, for example, we have been accumulating interesting data suggesting that one of the most important factors distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic cells could be their ability to collectively invade and migrate towards blood vessels by physically interacting with the surrounding extracellular matrices. By experimenting with the ...
The talk is devoted to two different approaches to model and simulate processes occurring during cell migration. Firstly, a discrete computational model in 3D is presented to simulate the formation of cell-matrix adhesions on a single 3D matrix fibre. This model allows to analyse the importance of the alignment between the matrix fibre and the cell protrusion on the size of the focal adhesions. Secondly, a 1D multi-physics model of fluid-structure interaction to simulate the behaviour of a cell confined in a complex microfluidics device is introduced. Cells are modelled as a poroelastic material following recent experimental evidences whereas the fluid is modelled by using the Poiseuille equation, considering it as a laminar incompressible Newtonian fluid ...
The tiny GTPase Rac1 continues to be implicated in the dissemination and formation of tumours. and invasion play a significant role in a variety of physiological functions such as for example embryonic development immune system cell replies and wound recovery. Furthermore aberrant legislation of cell motility is certainly associated with tumour progression with an increase of cell migration and invasion marking an integral part of metastasis the main cause of loss of life in cancer sufferers1 2 Research centered on deciphering the root mechanisms involved with cell migration and invasion possess identified five crucial guidelines that govern the mesenchymal-mode of single-cell motility: (1) front-rear polarization; (2) membrane protrusion on the industry leading; (3) cell-extra-cellular matrix (ECM) adhesion; (4) actomyosin contractility; and (5) detachment from the cell back3 4 Provided the mandatory interplay between your actin cytoskeleton cell-ECM adhesions and myosin electric motor ...
The primary goal of the proposed research is to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the coordination of collective cell movements that, in turn, are required f...
Expression of Mtss1 exons 11-13 in human medulloblastomas and medulloblastoma derived cell lines. A: Lanes 1-5: classical medulloblatoma samples D1198, D112
O-Glycosylation in general has impact on a diversity of biological processes covering cellular aspects (targeted transport of glycoproteins), molecular aspects (protein conformation, resistance to proteolysis), and aspects involved in cellular communication (cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction ...
Structure, function and organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. Biogenesis of membranes and the transport and sorting of lipids and proteins. The role of biomembranes in signal transduction via membrane receptors, cell-cell-, and cell-matrix interactions. ...
Structure, function and organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. Biogenesis of membranes and the transport and sorting of lipids and proteins. The role of biomembranes in signal transduction via membrane receptors, cell-cell-, and cell-matrix interactions. ...
Li, O. (Creator), English, K. (Creator), Tonlorenzi, R. (Creator), Cossu, G. (Creator), Tedesco, F. S. (Creator), Wood, K. J. (Creator), figshare , 25 Jan 2013, 10.6084/m9.figshare.106724. Dataset ...
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Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Single episodes of voluntary exercise induced a functional increase in hippocampal synapses mediated by activity-dependent expression of the BAR protein Mtss1L, acting as a novel early effector of synapse formation.
The proper execution of gastrulation requires that cell signalling, cell adhesion and cell migration are all precisely coordinated and integrated. In their investigations into how this might occur, Latinkic et al. studied Cyr61, a CCN-family, secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)- associated protein. CCN proteins are very versatile - they can mediate cell adhesion and migration, for example, and can induce signalling events - all expected features of candidate gastrulation regulators. The authors now report, on p. 2429, that Cyr61 is an important regulator of gastrulation movements: both its overexpression and inhibition disrupt gastrulation in frog embryos, perhaps because Cyr61 is required for the assembly of a fibronectin-rich ECM and because it regulates cell- cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Intriguingly, Xcyr61 also appears to both stimulate and inhibit Wnt signalling in a context-dependent manner. Future studies into the different domains of Cyr61 should reveal where its many activities ...
The ability of cells to migrate is a fundamental physiological process involved in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance and wound healing. In order for cells to migrate, they must interact with their environment using adhesion receptors, such as integrins, and form specialized adhesion complexes that mediate responses to different extracellular cues. In this review, we discuss the role of integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) in cell migration, highlighting the layers of regulation that are involved, including intracellular signalling cascades, mechanosensing and reciprocal feedback to the extracellular environment. We also discuss the role of IACs in extracellular matrix remodeling and how they impact upon cell migration. ...
Background The dynamic regulation of cell-cell adhesions is crucial for developmental processes, including tissue formation, differentiation and motility. Adherens junctions are important components...
Vinculin (VCL) is a cytoskeleton protein that is closely related to cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell junctions. VCL is a membrane-cytoskeleton protein in focal ...
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Putative adhesion receptor, that could be involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions required for normal cell differentiation and migration.
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The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), although tenth in cancer incidence, holds the dubious distinction of being the fifth cause of cancer deaths in the Western countries and possibly the deadliest malignancy. Inoperable PDAC is characterized by late diagnosis, extensive metastases, extremely poor response to chemotherapy and, consequently, poor patients prognosis-6.7% 5-year survival. PDAC reflects the failure of the medical profession to significantly prolong patients lives and modest expectations for future cure. PDAC is characterized by extensive desmoplastic reaction, resulting in approximately 50% of tumors volume consisting of non-tumor cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) stroma. These properties imply an important role for cell-ECM interaction, making cell-matrix adhesion molecules, such as integrins, of special interest as possible candidate targets for future anti-PDAC therapies. This review will attempt to overview the status of studies dealing with the involvement of integrins ...
Vascular wall of all sizes from capillaries to the large arterial trunks contain cells and intercellular matrix variable in quantity (cell/matrix ratio), and also in quality (nature and relative...
Binds tightly to hydroxyapatite. Appears to form an integral part of the mineralized matrix. Probably important to cell-matrix interaction.
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They also participate in some cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions. Nuclear lamina exist in all animals and all tissues. Some ... intermediate filaments form cell-cell connections and anchor the cell-matrix junctions that are used in messaging between cells ... Biology portal Nuclear matrix Cell cortex Hardin J, Bertoni G, Kleinsmith LJ (2015). Becker's World of the Cell (8th ed.). New ... thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. Moreover, it is involved in many cell ...
... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): ... Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one ... Cell spreading and movement occur through the process of binding of cell surface integrin receptors to extracellular matrix ... stabilising integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus ...
... stabilising integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus ... Integrin receptors are involved in the attachment of adherent cells to the extracellular matrix and of lymphocytes to other ... It also allows cells to measure extracellular rigidity, since cells in which talin is prevented from forming mechanical ... Talin-1 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Talin-2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Integrins at the US ...
... transmembrane junctions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 4: 487-525. doi: ... Focal adhesions form and dissipate as cells attach and detach from matrix during cell adhesion and cell migration. The FAK ... allowing FAK to regulate cell adhesion and migration by localizing its protein kinase activity at the junction of internal ... through the cell membrane via transmembrane integrin proteins, to the extracellular matrix. ...
... that mediate cell-extracellular matrix junctions and are involved in other cellular compartments that control cell-cell ... Therefore, they are responsible for cell to cell crosstalk via cell-cell contacts and integrin mediated cell adhesion through ... FERMT3 deficiency on β(2) integrin function depend on both cell type (Natural killer cell or Leukocytes) and the integrin ... "The integrin co-activator Kindlin-3 is expressed and functional in a non-hematopoietic cell, the endothelial cell". The Journal ...
... u937 cells MeSH A11.284.149.165 - cell membrane structures MeSH A11. - cell-matrix junctions MeSH A11.284. ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... hela cells MeSH A11. - kb cells MeSH A11. - hl-60 cells MeSH A11. - ht29 cells ...
Combined with cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix, cell junctions help hold animal cells together. Cell junctions ... anchoring junctions) Gap junctions (communicating junction) Tight junctions (occluding junctions) Invertebrates have several ... elegans apical junction. In multicellular plants, the structural functions of cell junctions are instead provided for by cell ... junctions. Cell junctions are also important in reducing stress placed upon cells. In plants, similar communication channels ...
... and cell-matrix junctions, mainly mediated by integrins. Cell-cell junctionsEdit. Cell-cell junctions can occur in different ... Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell- ... cell junctions can be categorised into two main types according to what interacts with the cell: cell-cell junctions, mainly ... Cell-matrix junctionsEdit. Cells creates extracellular matrix by releasing molecules into its surrounding extracellular space. ...
... transmembrane junctions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 4: 487-525. doi: ... It seems to be a paradox that FAK is not absolutely required for cell migration, and may play other roles in the cell, ... With the exception of certain types of blood cells, most cells express FAK. FAK tyrosine kinase activity can be activated, ... Haier J, Nicolson GL (February 2002). "PTEN regulates tumor cell adhesion of colon carcinoma cells under dynamic conditions of ...
Death of some cells and their surrounding matrix may be required for a tissue to reach its final configuration and gap ... Because of the widespread occurrence of gap junctions in cell types other than nerve cells the term gap junction became more ... in gap junctions they were seen at the junction of neighboring nerve cells. The close proximity of the neighboring cell ... Gap junctions were so named because of the "gap" shown to be present at these special junctions between two cells.[90] With the ...
... with other cells in the bone through gap junctions-coupled cell processes-which pass through small channels in the bone matrix ... Extracellular matrix[edit]. Bones consist of living cells embedded in a mineralized organic matrix. This matrix consists of ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.[13] ... Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.[34] Progenitor cells such ...
Cell Surface and Communication Extracellular matrix (including cell walls) Cell adhesion and junctions Signal transduction ... Cell Division, Differentiation and Development Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis Meiosis and gametogenesis Fertilization and ... GRE Subject Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology was a standardized exam provided by ETS (Educational Testing Service) that ... After learning that test content from editions of the GRE® Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology (BCM) Test has been ...
They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion ... intermediate junction, or "belt desmosome") are protein complexes that occur at cell-cell junctions in epithelial and ... A similar cell junction in non-epithelial, non-endothelial cells is the fascia adherens. It is structurally the same, but ... An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. ...
Conversely, cell-cell adhesion via tight and adherens junctions, along with anchoring to extra cellular matrix (ECM) via ... Within the cells, MYLK provides an inward pulling force, phosphorylating myosin light chain causing a contraction of the myosin ... Some pulmonary disorders have been found to arise due to an inability of MYLK to function properly in lung cells. Over-activity ... Cell Physiology. 290 (4): C1031-40. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00602.2004. PMID 16306123. Connell LE, Helfman DM (June 2006). "Myosin ...
... while leaving the cells largely intact with their supporting matrix and synaptic connections and electrical junctions. However ... The micropipette used to record from each cell contained a dye so that each physiologically identified cell could also be ... Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. The ... In this manner, whole cell patch recording of amacrine neurons in the salamander retina allowed light evoked excitatory post- ...
"The Contribution of the Extracellular Matrix to Gravisensing in Characean Cells" (PDF). Journal of Cell Science. 101: 611-623. ... This gravitational pressure activates the gravitational receptors at the plasma membrane-extracellular matrix junction, which ... For example, two daughter cells never go through a reverse mitosis to merge into one mother cell; four pollen grains never go ... Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology, 2009, Elsevier/Academic Press. (ISBN 9780123742339) Plant Cell Biology: From ...
... cell-cell junctions, mainly mediated by cadherins, and cell-matrix junctions, mainly mediated by integrins. Cell-cell junctions ... Occluding junctions (tight junctions), which seal gaps between cells through cell-cell contact, making an impermeable barrier ... According to their functions, the cell junctions can be classified as: Anchoring junctions (adherens junctions, desmosomes and ... Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell ...
RhoA also regulates the integrity of the extracellular matrix and the loss of corresponding cell-cell adhesions (primarily ... Similarly, RhoA's stimulation of PKN2 kinase activity regulates cell-cell adhesion through apical junction formation and ... This inhibitor specifically targets Rho GTPases to prevent cell growth related to cancer. When tested on breast cancer cells, ... We have used a stable retroviral RNA interference approach to generate invasive breast carcinoma cells (SUM-159 cells) that ...
Cell adhesion, mechanical adhesion between cells and/or the extracellular matrix Role of cell adhesions in neural development ... A communicating junction links the intracellular compartments of two adjacent cells, allowing transit of relatively small ... In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling) is a type of cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix ... and subsequently another cell can bind it with an appropriate cell surface receptor or cell adhesion molecule. An important ...
Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin ... signaling between the cell and the matrix. G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, ... "Tendon cells in vivo form a three dimensional network of cell processes linked by gap junctions". Journal of Anatomy. 189 (Pt 3 ... The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond ...
... containing proteins serve many specific functions in cells such as adherens junction, cytoarchitecture, ... are usually associated with actin cytoskeletal structures involved in connecting cells together and to the surrounding matrix, ... In animal cells, LIM domain-containing proteins often shuttle between the cell nucleus where they can regulate gene expression ... regulation of plant cell development, cell lineage specification, and regulation of gene transcription. LIM proteins are also ...
... the cells of the papillary layer of the dermis are attached to the basement membrane by anchoring fibrils, which consist of ... Not to be confused with dentinoenamel junction.. The dermoepidermal junction or dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) is the area of ... "Dermo-epidermal junction zone". Netzwerk Epidermolysis bullosa. 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2011.. ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are diseases where there is a breakdown of the dermoepidermal junction ...
Extraglomerular mesangial cells are in close connection to afferent and efferent arteriolar cells by gap junctions, allowing ... Mesangial cells are separated by intercellular spaces containing extracellular matrix called the mesangial matrix that is ... Communication between mesangial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via gap junctions helps regulate the process of ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Schlondorff, D; Banas, B (2009). "The Mesangial Cell Revisited: No Cell ...
"Focal adhesions: transmembrane junctions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Cell Biology ... negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of cell migration. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • ... regulation of endothelial cell migration. • establishment of cell polarity. • regulation of focal adhesion assembly. • リン酸化. • ... "Differential regulation of cell motility and invasion by FAK". The Journal of Cell Biology 160 (5): 753-67. (March 2003). doi: ...
... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". J. Cell Biol. (UNITED STATES) 144 (5 ... Goldmann, W.H.; Ingber, D.E. (2001). "Intact vinculin protein is Require for control of cell shape, cell mechanics, and rac- ... 1997). Vinclin promotes cell spreading by mechanically coupling integrins to the cytoskeleton. Experimental Cell Research. 231( ... Mazaki, Y; Hashimoto S; Sabe H (March 1997). "Monocyte cells and cancer cells express novel paxillin isoforms with different ...
Cell junctions are the contact points between plasma membrane and tissue cells. There are mainly 5 different types of cell ... They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, ... junctions: tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions. Tight junctions are a pair of ... They attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane. Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of ...
Entotic cells, also referred to as cell-in-cell structures, are triggered by loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix ( ... Adherens junctions bind cells together by linking cadherin transmembrane protein complexes of adjacent cells to the ... "A Nonapoptotic Cell Death Process, Entosis, that Occurs by Cell-in-Cell Invasion". Cell. 131 (5): 966-979. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... After cell-cell adhesions are mediated, the engulfed cells promote their own uptake into the neighbor cell. Additionally, they ...
For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin ... In particular, abnormal interactions between epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix are associated with the over- ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Veins successively branching into equally sized veins from a common point, forming a Y junction, fanning out. Amongst temperate ... A Fractal Analysis Approach to Tune Mechanical Rigidity of Scaffolding Matrix in Thin Films". Advanced Materials Research. 1141 ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • condensed chromosome. • ... four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • endodeoxyribonuclease activity. • ATP binding. • single-stranded ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ...
cell-cell adherens junction. • мембрана. • клеточная мембрана. • поверхность клетки. • аксон. • neuron projection. • neuronal ... negative regulation of matrix metallopeptidase secretion. • negative regulation of macrophage migration. • negative regulation ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • homophilic cell adhesion via ... heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ...
Cells and Extracellular Matrices of Dentin and Pulp: A Biological Basis For Repair and Tissue Engineering, M. Goldberg and A.J ... The dentinal tubules extend from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in the crown area, or dentinocemental junction (DCJ) in the ... The cell bodies of the odontoblasts are aligned along the inner aspect of dentin against a layer of predentin where they also ... Dentin is a bone-like matrix that is porous and yellow-hued material. It is made up of 70% inorganic materials (mainly ...
cell cortex. • focal adhesion. • extracellular matrix. • cytosol. • cell nucleus. • neuron projection. • neuronal cell body. ... "Nephrocystin-conserved domains involved in targeting to epithelial cell-cell junctions, interaction with filamins, and ... epithelial cell morphogenesis. • multicellular organism development. • cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane. • cell ... 2001). "Filamins as integrators of cell mechanics and signalling". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (2): 138-45. doi:10.1038/ ...
Main article: Multi-junction solar cell. Multi-junction cells consist of multiple thin films, each essentially a solar cell ... In addition, fluoroindate glasses have low phonon energy and have been proposed as suitable matrix doped with Ho3+. ions.[81] ... Perovskite solar cells[edit]. Main article: Perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cells are solar cells that include a ... Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell. Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films ...
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... extracellular matrix organization. • positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • ... negative regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • positive regulation of protein complex disassembly. • regulation ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ...
X. Zhang, D. Golberg, Y. Bando and N. Fukata : «n-ZnO/p-Si 3D heterojunction solar cells in Si holey arrays» NANOSCALE 4[3] ( ... J. A. RodrÃguez-Manzo, M. Wang, F. Banhart, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «Multibranched Junctions of Carbon Nanotubes via Cobalt ... Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes fabricated by a high-pressure torsion technique ... L. Li, H. Wang, X. Fang, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «High-performance Schottky solar cells using ZrS2 nanobelt networks ...
A whole cell may also be magnetically manipulated by attaching a magnetic bead to the extracellular matrix via fibronectin- ... such as DNA Holliday junctions, DNA hairpins, or entire nucleosomes and chromatin. By acting upon the magnetic bead with the ... "In Wang, Yu-li; Discher, Dennis E. (eds.). Cell Mechanics. Methods in Cell Biology. 83. Elsevier Inc. pp. 473-493. ISBN 978-0- ... The technique involves attaching beads to the extracellular matrix and manipulating the cell from the outside of the membrane ...
Through the bloodstream, oxytocin makes its way to myoepithelial cells, which lie between the extracellular matrix and luminal ... During lactation, prolactin is the main factor maintaining tight junctions of the ductal epithelium and regulating milk ... When oxytocin binds to the myoepithelial cells, the cells contract. The increased intra-aveolar pressure forces milk into the ... called tract cells, in the posterior dorsal horn. The tract cells then decussate via the anterior white commissure to the ...
Therefore, red blood cells have a pivotal role in maintaining the health of the periodontium, meaning haematological disorders ... This area of tissue is non keratinized and is located beyond the mucogingival junction. It is less firmly attached and is ... Bacteria contained within the biofilm are protected by an slimy extracellular polysaccharide matrix which helps to protect them ... Damage to epithelial cells releases cytokines which attract leukocytes to assist with the inflammatory response. The balance ...
... where outward forces must be produced to round up against surrounding cells and/or the extracellular matrix. Generation of ... Nakajima Y, Meyer EJ, Kroesen A, McKinney SA, Gibson MC (August 2013). "Epithelial junctions maintain tissue architecture by ... Related cell processes[edit]. Cell rounding[edit]. Cell shape changes through mitosis for a typical animal cell cultured on a ... In animal cells, a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. In plant cells, a ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... This matrix is the computer equivalent to the centre-surround structure. In this example, each box (element) within this matrix ... Qureshi, T. A.; Hunter, A.; Al-Diri, B. (June 2014). A Bayesian Framework for the Local Configuration of Retinal Junctions. ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
An active p-n diode junction is required, and either type of dopant can be the etch-resistant ("etch-stop") material. Boron is ... "MEMS technology is transforming high-density switch matrices". evaluationengineering.com. 2019-06-24. Retrieved 2019-08-06.. ... Accelerometers in consumer electronics devices such as game controllers (Nintendo Wii), personal media players / cell phones ( ...
Cementoenamel junction[edit]. Main article: Cementoenamel junction. The cementum joins the enamel to form the cementoenamel ... The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna, similar to the ... Dentinocemental junction[edit]. When the cementoid reaches the full thickness needed, the cementoid surrounding the ... The dentinocemental junction (DCJ) is a relatively smooth area in the permanent tooth, and attachment of cementum to the dentin ...
망막색소상피세포(Retinal Pigment Epithelium cells, RPE cells)는 망막 감각신경 부분의 바깥에 존재하며, 색소가 있는 세포들을 지칭한다. [1] ... 이 두 층은 루멘(lumen)에 의해 서로 분리되는데, 루멘에 Interphotoreceptor matrix(IPM)이 채워진다. [2] IPM에 의하여 망막색소상피 전구체가 망막색소상피세포로 성숙된다.[3] ... 망막색소상피세포는 세포 간에 밀착연접 (tight junction)으로 연결된 상태이며, 이러한 결합을 통하여 다른 신체 조직들에 의한 영향으로부터 분리되어 있다. [8] ... J Cell Sci Suppl 17: 189-195, 1993. *↑ Tanihara H, Inatani M, and Honda Y. Growth factors and their receptors in the retina and ...
One locus, the LPP or lipoma-preferred partner gene, is involved in the adhesion of extracellular matrix to the cell surface, ... of the intestine to allow larger molecules around the sealant between cells. Disruption of tight junctions allow peptides ... Dewar D, Pereira SP, Ciclitira PJ (2004). "The pathogenesis of coeliac disease". Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 36 (1): 17-24. doi: ... This increases the likelihood that the DQ2 isoform will bind and stay bound to peptide when recognised by T-cells.[75] Gliadin ...
In cellular biology, AFM can be used to attempt to distinguish cancer cells and normal cells based on a hardness of cells, and ... Thus, each different type of atom can be identified in the matrix as the tip is moved across the surface. ... for example using index matching fluids between optical fibre junctions), with very stable lasers. For these reasons optical ... AFM can also be used to indent cells, to study how they regulate the stiffness or shape of the cell membrane or wall. ...
On the most heavily traveled 14-mile (23 km) section (junction 10 to 16) of the M25 variable speed limits combined with ... If these sensors are interconnected they are able to calculate travel time and provide data for origin and destination matrices ... By measuring and analysing network data using triangulation, pattern matching or cell-sector statistics (in an anonymous format ...
The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell ... diseased cells, or invading organisms. Included in the glycocalyx are cell-adhesion molecules that enable cells to adhere to ... The term was initially applied to the polysaccharide matrix coating epithelial cells, but its functions have been discovered to ... In 1970, Martinez and Palomo discovered the cell coat in animal cells, which is known as the glycocalyx. ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.02.063. PMID 27087445.. *^ Garg A, Xing C (2014). "De novo heterozygous FBN1 mutations in the extreme C ... Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defect(s) in the Double Holliday junction DNA ... This leads to mislocalisation of heterochromatin, which normally lie in close proximity, or with, the nuclear matrix, nuclear ... "J Cell Biol. 199 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1083/jcb.201207072. PMC 3461511 . PMID 23027899.. ...
cell junction. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive ... cell adhesion. • extracellular matrix organization. • response to drug. • cellular response to indole-3-methanol. • ... cell-cell adherens junction. • apical junction complex. • trans-Golgi network. • extracellular region. • perinuclear region of ... In epithelial cells, E-cadherin-containing cell-to-cell junctions are often adjacent to actin-containing filaments of the ...
The cells are often attached to each other and also to their nearby epithelial cells mainly by gap junctions and hemidesmosomes ... in which several types of cells are lodged in their extracellular matrices. The parenchymal cells include myocytes, and many ... The other main type of liver cells are non-parenchymal. Non-parenchymal cells constitute 40% of the total number of liver cells ... Kmieć Z (2001). Cooperation of liver cells in health and disease. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. Advances in Anatomy Embryology ...
Deshane, Jessy, Craig C. Garner, and Harald Sontheimer (2003) "Chlorotoxin Inhibits Glioma Cell Invasion via Matrix ... "Capsaicin Protects Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions from the Neuroparalytic Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin A." Journal of ... Stanfield, Peter R (1983) "Tetraethylammonium Ions and the Potassium Permeability of Excitable Cells." Reviews of Physiology, ... Gil-Mohapel, Joana, Fanny Boehme, Leah Kainer, and Brian R. Christie (2010) "Hippocampal Cell Loss and Neurogenesis after Fetal ...
The organic matrix of dental plaque and calcified tissues undergo a series of chemical and morphological changes that lead to ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn:[9] This disease occurs when a newborn's red blood cells are being attacked by antibodies from ... however can produce a pink appearance at the amelocemental junction.[21] ...
cell-cell junction. • focal adhesion. • microtubule organizing center. • spindle midzone. • neuron projection. • storage ... The cancer cells then spread out on this extracellular matrix so that the endothelial cells retract, and allow the invaders to ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... Normal cancer cells and Cdc42-deficient cancer cells have also been compared in vivo. When both types of cells were injected ...
They are repeatedly branched, with a slight swelling present at the junctions of the tubes. The burrows are cylindrical and ... Note that the boring on the far right cuts through a shell in the matrix. ...
β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. ... β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. ...
... collagen connective tissue connexin desmosome differentiated extracellular matrix (ECM) epithelial tissue fibroblast ... Terms adherens junction adhesive junction adhesive glycoprotein basal lamina cadherin cell adhesion molecule (CAM) ... The polarized nature of epithelial cells. *The cell junctions of epithelial cells, including tight junctions, gap junctions and ... The Organization of Cells in Tissue- The Extracellular Matrix, Cell Junctions and Cell Adhesion. Skip to end of metadata ...
2. Adhesive junctions:. A. Cell-to-cell B. Cell-to-matrix. 3.Communicating (gap) junctions Types of intercellular junctions: 1 ... Cell-to-matrix junctions. 1. Focal adhesions Cell-to-matrix junctions. 2. Hemidesmosomes Communicating (gap) junctions THANKS. ... The intercellular space in cell-cell junctions is maintained at 20 nm Adhesive junctions Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens ... junction that completely encircles the cell Occluding (tight) junctions. (zonula occludens) : Hold cells together. Control the ...
Study Cell Junctions and Adhesion flashcards from Joel Glotfelty ... during cell locomotion where dynamic cell-cell and cell-matrix ... Cell adhesion does not only happen at stable cell junctions. During cell locomotion, we also need ... Cell Junctions and Adhesion Flashcards Preview BMS , Cell Junctions and Adhesion , Flashcards ... The transmembrane proteins for the cell-cell anchor junctions (belt and spot desmosomes) are?. Cytoskeletal? ...
Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory … ... extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two- ... Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Movement * Cell-Matrix Junctions / chemistry * Cell-Matrix Junctions / physiology* ... Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory ...
In multi-layered epithelia tight junctions (TJ) are confined to the most suprabasal viable layer. Here the authors show that ... 6d-f), further confirming that these are cell-cell and not cell-matrix junctions. However, these junctions were strongly ... c Line plot profile of cell contacts, pink arrows: cell-matrix contacts, black arrows: cell-cell contacts. a-c Representative ... resulting in integrin and cell-matrix interaction-dependent stiffening of cells28. However, this study used single cells in ...
... what kind of cells? There are many kinds. Jail cells, hive cells, plant cells, animal cells, blood cells, brain cells. We need ... Thanks! :) 1.) Can we multiply the Matrix A (which is 3 x 4 matrix) by the other matrix, Matrix B (which is 3 x 4 matrix)? True ... science cells. true or false 1 animals cells have cell walls? 2 water and oxygen cannot pass through the cell wall? 1) TRUE 2) ... Tight junctions prevent the movement of the extracellular matrix between cells. A) True B) False Which one is it please :). ...
Extracellular matrix. Junctions between cells; the organisation of cells in tissues. Interaction of organisms with the external ... Eukaryotic cell reproduction: the cell cycle and its control. Uncontrolled cell proliferation: cancer. Comparison between ... The eukaryotic cell and its compartmentalization. Comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Unicellular and multi- ... Viewing of living cells in culture and of fixed and stained cells by light microscopy. ...
Effects of monocrotaline pyrrole and thrombin on pulmonary endothelial cell junction and matrix adhesion proteins. ... Effects of monocrotaline pyrrole and thrombin on pulmonary endothelial cell junction and matrix adhesion proteins. Together ...
... cell junctions and extracellular matrix; cell cycles and apoptosis. ... The Cell (8 lectures) The Cell Concept; cell types and variety; membrane systems structure and function; membrane transport and ... Topics covered include cloning, strategies; the use of plasmid and bacteriophage vectors, transformation of cells with foreign ... isolation of human DNA from cheek cells, restriction enzyme digestion of DNA, agarose gel electrophoresis, the polymerase chain ...
... cell junctions and extracellular matrix; cell cycles and apoptosis. ... The Cell (8 lectures) The Cell Concept; cell types and variety; membrane systems structure and function; membrane transport and ... Plant structure, cells, leaves and needles (KS) 18. Photosynthesis types, pigments, environmental control (KS) 19. ... Topics covered include cloning, strategies; the use of plasmid and bacteriophage vectors, transformation of cells with foreign ...
Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability to differentiate along several lineages including those of bone, ... Cell Differentiation * Cell-Matrix Junctions / chemistry* * Collagen / chemistry* * Glycosaminoglycans * Mesenchymal Stem Cells ... While the initial response of the cells in 3-D seemed to be faster than cells cultured in 2-D, as evidenced by collagen type I ... Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability to differentiate along several lineages including those of bone, ...
Partners: Cell Junctions , Extracellular Matrix , Tissue Types Histology is the branch of biological science concerned with the ... E-Histology.net: information, tissues, extracellular matrix, cell junctions, bone, blood,. Healthcare professionals and ... Cells Alive. Large collection of various types of images and video of cells. Also includes information about human cells, ... The Cell Nucleus I. The Cell Nucleus Structure/function correlations The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it ...
HK-2 cell, altered epithelial cell morphology into spindlelike shape and loss cell-cell contact junctions, these phenomena ... Tight junctions (TJs) are a component of the epithelial junctional complex enables epithelial cells to create cellular sheets ... The extracellular matrix protein, nephronectin (NPNT) was expressed on the regenerating renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC) ... Investigation the Functional Role of Extracellular Matrix Protein, Nephronectin, in the Renal Proximal Tubular Cell Tight ...
X. Genes for cell junctions and extracellular matrix. Dev Genes Evol 213:303-313PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Montell DJ (2003) Border-cell migration: the race is on. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:13-24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Kojima T, Murata M, Go M, Spray DC, Sawada N (2007) Connexins induce and maintain tight junctions in epithelial cells. J Membr ... Epstein ML, Gilula NB (1977) A study of communication specificity between cells in culture. J Cell Biol 75:769-787PubMed ...
Cell Line. Cell-Matrix Junctions / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / cytology, physiology. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / ... the dissolution of cell junctions and formation of cell-matrix contacts. The EMT response to TGF-β involves a complex ... TGF-β regulates cell adhesion and matrix receptors (integrins) in various cell types (Heino et al., 1989; Ignotz et al., 1989; ... TGF-β-mediated dissolution of cell junctions requires JunB. (A-D) NMuMG and MCT cells were transfected with siRNA to JunB ( ...
They are linked together by cell junctions and are supported by... ... Cells are the small parts of human body. They are organized to form tissues. ... "Specialized cell junctions occur at points of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact in all tissues, and they are particularly ... The connection between cells is called cell junction. Cell junctions have any various kinds of junctions. Generally, it can be ...
Cell-Matrix Junctions; Connective Tissue Diseases; Education, Medical; Endothelial Cells; Inflammation; Pathology; T- ... Animal Experimentation; Cell Fusion; Education, Medical; Extracellular Matrix; Foreign Bodies; Inflammation; Nanomedicine; ... Apoptosis; Cell Death; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress; Genes, bcl-2; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Stem Cells ... Cells; Central Nervous System; Central Nervous System Diseases; Embryonic Structures; Hemic and Immune Systems; Musculoskeletal ...
Force loading VE-cadherin receptors triggers cell-matrix junction remodeling. Local, VE-cadherin force transduction signals at ... Cell-cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell-cell junction organization, organism-specific ... Cell-Cell communication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell-Cell communication, organism-specific biosystemCell- ... Cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem ...
Link adjacent cells together by membrane junctions; Anchor cells to the extracellular matrix ... What is one of the advantages of having tight junctions in, say, the epithelial cells of the intestinal lumen? ... What kind of cell type is most often joined by tight junction? ... The muscle cells of the heart, where they transmit electrical ... Proteins involved in linking the cytosols of two adjacent cells in gap junction connections ...
Cell junctions, cell adhesion, and the extracellular matrix. In: The biology of the cell. 3rd ed. New York: Garland; 1994. p. ... The semi-quantitative study of the collagen synthesized by the cells present in the extracellular matrix revealed that there ... The mononuclear cells, like the lymphocytes and plasma cells, were sparsely distributed in the wounded area. On the surface of ... A preliminary study of the effects of laser radiation on collagen metabolism in cell culture. Aust Dent J 1996;41:188-92. [ ...
Matrix stiffness alters cell-cell junction organization. (A) Confocal images showing ECs seeded on compliant (0.2 kPa) or stiff ... 2010) Substrate Stiffness and Cell Area Predict Cellular Traction Stresses in Single Cells and Cells in Contact. Cell Mol ... Our previous data indicate that increased matrix stiffness disrupts cell-cell junctions (20, 21, 26), suggesting that stiffness ... both our current and previous work indicate that matrix stiffness can disrupt VE-cadherin cell-cell junctions and increase ...
2012) Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(5): ... 2015) Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing. Nat Commun 6:7525. ... Unlike conventional flow cells, in which a layer of the active gel is confined in a thin gap between two glass plates, this ... Active Nematic Cell.. The active nematic/passive liquid crystal interface was prepared in a cylindrical pool of diameter 5 mm ...
Cell differentiation and body tissues: tissue types; extracellular matrix; cell junctions.. Organ systems of the body including ... Cell structure and function: cell organelles; cytoskeleton; DNA/RNA structure; introduction to transcription and translation; ... Circulatory system: overview of circulation; composition of blood; cells of blood.. Immune system: infectious agents; lymphatic ... Cell division: mitosis; meiosis; mechanisms of creating genetic variation.. ...
The Cell Cycle. 18. Cell Death. CELLS IN THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT. 19. Cell Junctions and the Extracellular Matrix. 20. Cancer. 21 ... WAYS OF WORKING WITH CELLS. 8. Analyzing Cells, Molecules, and Systems. 9. Visualizing Cells. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL ... INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL. 1. Cells and Genomes. 2. Cell Chemistry and Bioenergetics. 3. Proteins. BASIC GENETIC MECHANISMS. 4. ... Cell Explorer Slides This application teaches cell morphology through interactive micrographs that highlight important cellular ...
Keywords: extracellular matrixcell adhesions/cell junctions • wound healing © 2007, The Association for Research in Vision ... Cell proliferation was more active in KO mice as compared with WT mice at day 1 and 2, but not at day 5 and 10. ... Conclusions:: OPN is required for activation of Smad2/3 signal in an injured lens epithelium and lens cell EMT. ... Cell proliferation was assayed by examining uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). ...
To determine the effect of an ANGPTL7-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) in HTM cell adhesion, HEK-293 cells were ... Increased expression of ANGPTL7 in both cells and isolated matrices seems to induce a diminished adherence in the HTM cells. A ... At 2.5 h, adhered HTM cells were calculated as above. Results: : Overexpression of ANGPTL7 in HTM cells caused a decrease and ... ANGPTL7, a Gene Highly Induced by Elevated IOP, Affects Adhesion of Trabecular Meshwork Cells to their Extracellular Matrix ...
Combined with cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix, cell junctions help hold animal cells together. Cell junctions ... anchoring junctions) Gap junctions (communicating junction) Tight junctions (occluding junctions) Invertebrates have several ... elegans apical junction. In multicellular plants, the structural functions of cell junctions are instead provided for by cell ... junctions. Cell junctions are also important in reducing stress placed upon cells. In plants, similar communication channels ...
Products , Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics , Cell_Adhesion_and_Extracellular_Matrix , Tight_Junction_Associated_Protein. ... is recruited to tight junctions and incorporated at a late stage of junction formation. Tight-junction-associated protein 1 ... In vertebrate organisms, tight junctions are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a ... It is also known as protein incorporated later into tight junctions (PILT), and tight junction protein 4 (TJP4). ...
Antonio Nanci, a world-renowned leader in cell biology, the new ninth edition of Ten Cates Oral Histology covers all ... 4. Cytoskeleton, Cell Junctions, Fibroblasts, and Extracellular Matrixes 5. Development of the Tooth and Its Supporting Tissues ... Antonio Nanci, a world-renowned leader in cell biology, the new ninth edition of Ten Cates Oral Histology covers all the ...
  • You will learn about the mechanisms by which cells adhere to an extracellular network and to each other, and how they become organized into functional units. (psu.edu)
  • Connective tissue is distinct from the other primary tissues because it consists of cells that are surrounded by a large amount of extracellular material. (psu.edu)
  • Composition of the animal extracellular matrix (ECM). (psu.edu)
  • All of these tissues have large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) , composed of both proteins and carbohydrates. (psu.edu)
  • They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion plaques). (prezi.com)
  • 2. Hemidesmosomes Communicating (gap) junctions THANKS for your attention :) Prof. Dr. Wael Abu Zaid Prof. Dr. Mohamed Zayed Prof. Dr. Nehad Samir Specialized junctions form when cells come into contact with one another and with the extracellular matrix at specific sites on the contacting cell membranes. (prezi.com)
  • Cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular matrix protein, nephronectin (NPNT) was expressed on the regenerating renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC) after AKI. (elsevier.com)
  • Tissue Types Histology is the branch of biological science concerned with the study of cells and the extracellular matix of animal and plant tissues. (einet.net)
  • This calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule is comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. (nih.gov)
  • Generally, it can be divided into two types : those that link cells together and those that link cells to the extracellular matrix. (ukessays.com)
  • Anchoring junctions mechanically attach cells (and their cytoskletons) to their neighbors or to the extracellular matrix. (ukessays.com)
  • The study of low-level laser therapy upon extracellular matrix elements is important to understand the wound healing process under this agent. (scielo.br)
  • Repair is a dynamic state, comprising different processes, among which, inflammation, cellular proliferation and synthesis of the elements that constitute the extracellular matrix, such as collagen, elastic and reticular fibers 15 . (scielo.br)
  • To determine the effect of an ANGPTL7-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) in HTM cell adhesion, HEK-293 cells were transfected with pWH1 or pEmpty and allowed to lay out their matrices. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion, and the Extracellular Matrix. (slideserve.com)
  • Cell junctions (or intercellular bridges) are a class of cellular structures consisting of multiprotein complexes that provide contact or adhesion between neighboring cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined with cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix, cell junctions help hold animal cells together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells within tissues and organs must be anchored to one another and attached to components of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemidesmosomes form rivet-like links between cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components such as the basal laminae that underlie epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, their transmembrane anchors are composed of cadherins in those that anchor to other cells and integrins in those that anchor to extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spot-like adherens junctions help cells adhere to extracellular matrix both in vivo and in vitro where they are called focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thinking of the bands of actin filaments as being similar to 'drawstrings' allows one to envision how contraction of the bands within a group of cells would distort the sheet into interesting patterns Communicating junctions, or gap junctions allow for direct chemical communication between adjacent cellular cytoplasm through diffusion without contact with the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst variation in gap junction channels do occur, their structure remains relatively standard, and this interaction ensures efficient communication without the escape of molecules or ions to the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolyses extracellular matrix proteins, and disrupts tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells. (genome.jp)
  • Its primary function is to give the cell its shape and mechanical resistance to deformation, and through association with extracellular connective tissue and other cells it stabilizes entire tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, it is involved in many cell signaling pathways and in the uptake of extracellular material (endocytosis), the segregation of chromosomes during cellular division, the cytokinesis stage of cell division, as scaffolding to organize the contents of the cell in space and in intracellular transport (for example, the movement of vesicles and organelles within the cell) and can be a template for the construction of a cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adhesive proteins of the extracellular matrix bind matrix molecules to one another and to cell surfaces. (britannica.com)
  • Molecules intimately associated with the cell membrane link cells to the extracellular matrix. (britannica.com)
  • The cellular aggregates then produce an extracellular matrix, which holds the cells together in a specific structural form. (britannica.com)
  • The ability of the cells to distinguish cells of their own species from those of others is mediated by proteoglycan molecules in the extracellular matrix. (britannica.com)
  • A systems-level approach to parental genomic imprinting: the imprinted gene network includes extracellular matrix genes and regulates cell cycle ex. (nih.gov)
  • These control the extracellular matrix composition, cell adhesion, cell junction, and extracellular matrix-activated and growth factor-activated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Think of it as a matrix of stuff that envelops the cells, which is fitting since this net-like material is known as the extracellular matrix . (ubc.ca)
  • Furthermore, the extracellular matrix can also organize the cells themselves. (ubc.ca)
  • 2) a cell can interact with another cell indirectly, in a way where they are not really touching each other, but communicating to each other via this aforementioned extracellular matrix - we call this a cell-matrix junction . (ubc.ca)
  • If you can imagine these differing ways of interaction, as well as consider the amount of cells compared to the volume of extracellular matrix, you can see how this is one way to introduce diversity into structures. (ubc.ca)
  • For example, bones or tendons are made of connective tissue where the extracellular matrix is plentiful and cells are sparsely distributed within. (ubc.ca)
  • The part outside the cell is the one that attaches to elements in the extracellular matrix, while the part inside the cell binds to the cell's internal skeleton (this is called the cytoskeleton by the way). (ubc.ca)
  • T he interaction between animal cells and the adhesive glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules, the cytoplasmic domains of which are thought to be linked in many, but not all cases, to the actin cytoskeleton (Burridge et al. (rupress.org)
  • This process can occur either through direct contact between cell surfaces or indirect interaction, where cells attach to surrounding extracellular matrix , a gel-like structure containing molecules released by cells into spaces between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of CAMs are membrane proteins that mediate cell-cell adhesion through its extracellular domains and require extracellular Ca 2+ ions to function correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adherens junctions, classical cadherins between neighbouring cells interact through their extracellular domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their physiologic environment, cells are in contact with surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and with neighboring cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This work focuses on two aspects of epithelia: cell junctions and the apical Extracellular Matrix (ECM). (upenn.edu)
  • I have also shown that extracellular leucine-rich repeat protein LET-4 has a role in organization of the apical ECM, and junction maintenance in both the excretory system and epidermis of C. elegans. (upenn.edu)
  • They are essential in the organisation of focal adhesions that mediate cell-extracellular matrix junctions and are involved in other cellular compartments that control cell-cell contacts and nucleus functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which of the following cell junctions is involved with anchoring the extracellular matrix to the cell? (varsitytutors.com)
  • Of the choices, only adherens junctions and hemidesmosomes are responsible for anchoring the extracellular matrix. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Integrins interact with the extracellular matrix. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gap junctions prevent molecules and ions from traveling between cells in the extracellular space. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gap junctions prevent molecules and ions from traveling between cells in the extracellular space" is incorrect because this describes the function of tight junctions. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Differences in architecture and cell-surface morphology were observed in biofilms formed by the M1- and M41-wild-type strains, accompanied by varying amounts of deposited extracellular matrix and differences in cell-to-cell junctions within each biofilm. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell junctions are subcellular macromolecular structures connecting cells to each other or to the extracellular matrix (ECM). (qiagen.com)
  • 3 different types of cell junctions I. ANCHORING JUNCTIONS: attach cells to each other or to extracellular matrix. (coursehero.com)
  • It codistributes with integrins in the cell surface membrane in order to assist in the attachment of adherent cells to extracellular matrices and of lymphocytes to other cells. (bio-rad.com)
  • The N-terminus of this protein contains elements for localization to cell-extracellular matrix junctions. (bio-rad.com)
  • Integrins are cell surface adhesion receptors which mediate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes related to collagen type IV and the extracellular matrix, along with the adult CEC markers ATP1A1, ATP1B1, COL8A2, GPC4, and TJP1, were highly expressed in RestM. (molvis.org)
  • A functional analysis of the 308 human annotated differentially expressed genes revealed around 13 functional clusters related to important biological terms, such as extracellular matrix, collagen type 4, immune responses, cell proliferation, and wound healing. (molvis.org)
  • Confluently cultured cells are harvested from the dish as a continuous cell sheet by decreasing the culture temperature, which preserves the cell-cell junctions and extracellular matrix (ECM) [5]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis are regulated by an interconnecting network of cellular signaling pathways involving extracellular ligands, transmembrane receptors, intracellular signaling protein kinases, and transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cells of an organism interact not only with each other but with the extracellular matrix that surrounds them. (phys.org)
  • A new study published in eLife and headed by Jordi Casanova and Sofía J. Araújo, both scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and the Instituto de Biología Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC), describes a cell communication mechanism that allows the organisation of the extracellular matrix and how this structure affects cells through a feedback system. (phys.org)
  • This system has an extracellular matrix that covers the inside of the trachea, forming a structure that is comparable to the hose of a vacuum cleaner. (phys.org)
  • When we modify only the extracellular matrix, the cytoskeleton is also altered. (phys.org)
  • Casanova considers that the study explains one of the many mechanisms that allow communication between the extracellular matrix and cells. (phys.org)
  • The interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix is also very important in inflammatory and cancer processes. (phys.org)
  • Cathepsin G is a serine protease with a broad range of catalytic activities, including production of angiotensin II, degradation of extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions, modulation of chemotactic responses, and induction of apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1989 ) The extracellular matrix architecture relating to myotendinous pattern formation in the distal part of the developing chick limb: an ultrastructural, histochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. (biologists.org)
  • There were no detectable changes in the ubiquitous structural protein actin or the extracellular matrix protein laminin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Collectively, MMPs are extracellular proteases that are capable of modifying almost all components of the extracellular matrix. (jneurosci.org)
  • During both aging and atherosclerosis progression, the blood vessel wall stiffens owing to alterations in the extracellular matrix. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using in vitro and ex vivo models of vessel wall stiffness and aging, we show that stiffening of extracellular matrix within the intima promotes endothelial cell permeability-a hallmark of atherogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results suggest that extracellular matrix stiffening alone, which occurs during aging, can lead to endothelial monolayer disruption and atherosclerosis pathogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • RhoA/ROCK-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling is central to the disease as it causes unbalanced cell adhesion towards increased cell-extracellular matrix adhesions and destabilized cell-cell junctions. (biologists.org)
  • Focal adhesions are the connections that form between a cell and its extracellular matrix and are mediated primarily through integrins. (cellsignal.com)
  • Within minutes of its production, H 2 O 2 activates endothelial cell-associated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix and endothelial cell surface receptors in cell junctions. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cell junctions regulate small-molecule trafficking between cells, the organization of cells into tissues, and the adherence of cells to each other and the extracellular matrix. (thermofisher.com)
  • Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes are specialized in cell−cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, respectively 7 . (thermofisher.com)
  • The intracellular portion of integrin is associated with the cytoskeleton, thereby anchoring the cell. (psu.edu)
  • An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. (prezi.com)
  • This positioning necessitates tissue-level polarization of junctions and the cytoskeleton through unknown mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • For example, apico-basolateral polarity promotes the asymmetric positioning of intercellular junctions and the cytoskeleton within the cell to drive functional barrier formation in simple epithelia 1 . (nature.com)
  • All junctions in this category anchor the cytoskeleton to the cell surface. (ukessays.com)
  • Living cells sense the mechanical features of their environment and adapt to it by actively remodeling their peripheral network of filamentary proteins, known as cortical cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • The cytoskeleton is a complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments present in the cytoplasm of all cells, including bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeleton can also contract, thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure, function and dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton can be very different, depending on organism and cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even within one cell, the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the previous history of the network. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1903, Nikolai K. Koltsov proposed that the shape of cells was determined by a network of tubules that he termed the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeleton provides the cell with structure and shape, and by excluding macromolecules from some of the cytosol, it adds to the level of macromolecular crowding in this compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin (VCL) is a cytoskeleton protein that is closely related to cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell junctions. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Vinculin is a cytoskeleton protein associated with cell-cell and matrix-cell junctions, where it is believed to function as one of several interacting proteins involved in anchoring F-actin to the membrane. (selfgrowth.com)
  • These molecules, called matrix receptors , bind selectively to specific matrix components and interact, directly or indirectly, with actin protein fibres that form the cytoskeleton inside the cell. (britannica.com)
  • This association of actin fibres with matrix components via receptors on the cell membrane can influence the organization of membrane molecules as well as matrix components and can modify the shape and function of the cytoskeleton. (britannica.com)
  • Changes in the cytoskeleton can lead to changes in cell shape, movement, metabolism , and development . (britannica.com)
  • As a cytoskeletal protein, vinculin is associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions through the link between the integrin adhesion molecules and the actin cytoskeleton [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • FERMT3 functions as a stabilizer of the cytoskeleton and regulates its dynamics in cell and organelle motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adherens junctions are formed by linking the actin cytoskeleton to transmembrane proteins known as cadherins. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Desmosomes are another type of cell junction that link the intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton to cadherins. (varsitytutors.com)
  • This is accomplished by associating the actin cytoskeleton (for adherens junctions) or the intermediate filament cytoskeleton (for hemidesmosomes) with transmembrane proteins known as integrins. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Originally believed to be a stable component of E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes and to mediate the linkage of cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton at adherens junctions. (genecards.org)
  • The cytoskeleton and cell movement: microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • First actin filaments , a very important component of the cytoskeleton, serve as a mould for the deposition of the chitin of the matrix. (phys.org)
  • Next, the matrix itself stabilises the cytoskeleton, anchoring actin in place. (phys.org)
  • The internal scaffolding of the eukaryotic cell, known as the cytoskeleton, includes actin filaments (or microfilaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. (qiagen.com)
  • Dysregulation of cytoskeleton dynamics most severely affects cells whose shape plays a critical role in their function, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes, contributing to neurological disorders and cardiomyopathies, respectively. (qiagen.com)
  • The connection between cell junctions and the cytoskeleton may be more dynamic than originally considered and may rely on multiple, weak associations between the cadherin-catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton or rely on other membrane-associated proteins (i.e. nectin and afadin). (cellsignal.com)
  • Tight junctions are composed of claudin and occludin transmembrane proteins, which join the junctions to the cytoskeleton. (cellsignal.com)
  • Integrin is a transmembrane protein that can bind to a variety of proteins in the ECM, as well as on the surface of adjacent cells (see Figure 5). (psu.edu)
  • Inside the cell E-cadherin binds to catenin, which in turn binds to other proteins in a protein complex with actin filaments Desmosomes connect two cells together structure: thickening of adjacent cell membrane, a pair of attachment plaques, transemembrane protein and tonofilaments. (prezi.com)
  • Binding of integrin to extra cellular matrix proteins. (prezi.com)
  • The transmembrane proteins for the cell-cell anchor junctions (belt and spot desmosomes) are? (brainscape.com)
  • Depletion of JunB by small interfering ribonucleic acid abrogates TGF-β-induced disruption of cell-cell junctions, formation of actin fibers, focal adhesions, and expression of fibrotic proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In tissue fibrosis and wound healing, EMT is thought to contribute to generation of myofibroblasts and myofibroblast-like cells that mediate deposition of ECM proteins, such as collagens and fibronectin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The adhesion belts are directly apposed in adjacent epithelial cells, with the interacting plasma membranes held together by the cadherins that serve here as transmembrane adhesion proteins. (ukessays.com)
  • Describes powerful new methods, many invented since the last edition, that scientists use to visualize subcellular structures and analyze genes and proteins-with a new section emphasizing the need for mathematics to unravel the complexities of cell function. (garlandscience.com)
  • The cytoskeletal actin filaments that tie into adherens junctions are contractile proteins and in addition to providing an anchoring function, adherens junctions are thought to participate in folding and bending of epithelial cell sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • It extends from the cell nucleus to the cell membrane and is composed of similar proteins in the various organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The barriers formed by tight junction proteins restrict the flow of molecules between cells and the diffusion of proteins (and lipids) from the apical to the basolateral domain and vice versa. (coursehero.com)
  • The active form then binds various proteins that have signaling and structural functions that are essential for cell adhesion. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Journal Article] Regulation by afadin of cyclical activation and inactivation of Rap1, Rac1, and RhoA small G proteins at leading edges of moving NIH3T3 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Matrix proteins are large molecules tightly bound to form extensive networks of insoluble fibres. (britannica.com)
  • The structural proteins, collagen and elastin , are the dominant matrix proteins. (britannica.com)
  • When forming complicated structures, cells are enclosed in a sort of three-dimensional fishing net, made of proteins, sugars and other molecules all released by the cells themselves. (ubc.ca)
  • We know that cells use special proteins to interact and attach to neighbouring cells and/or the matrix. (ubc.ca)
  • These proteins reside on the cell surface and are collectively known as cell-adhesion molecules ( CAMs ). (ubc.ca)
  • Adherens junctions are specified by transmembrane linker proteins, the cadherins, which mediate the calcium-dependent, homophilic cell-cell adhesion in a wide variety of tissues and species. (rupress.org)
  • [1] Cells adhesion occurs from the interactions between cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), [2] transmembrane proteins located on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cell junctions consist of conserved junction proteins that connect cells to each other, serve as a barrier, and separate the apical and basal domains of the cells. (upenn.edu)
  • Therefore, they are responsible for cell to cell crosstalk via cell-cell contacts and integrin mediated cell adhesion through focal adhesion proteins and as specialised adhesion structures of hematopoietic cells they are also present in podosome's F actin surrounding ring structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junctions form channels that are comprised of connexin proteins. (varsitytutors.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the catenin family of proteins that play an important role in cell adhesion process by connecting cadherins located on the plasma membrane to the actin filaments inside the cell. (genecards.org)
  • Fibroblasts showed lower spreading on the matrix proteins used. (springer.com)
  • TC showed a more than three times higher ability to spread on the tested matrix proteins. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, TC behave differently than fibroblasts in terms of adherence, spreading, and cell prolongation extension when seeded on various matrix proteins in cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Students will have insight into how cells produce and export proteins, and how material is endocytosed. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Differential expression of three gap junction proteins in developing and mature brain tissues," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 86, no. 24, pp. 10148-10152, 1989. (hindawi.com)
  • Adherens junctions are dynamic structures that form, strengthen and spread, degrade, and then re-form as their associated proteins create ephemeral connections with counterparts from adjacent cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • Together, this collection of structural proteins, enzymes, and adaptor proteins create dynamic cell-cell junctions necessary for temporary associations during morphogenesis and maintains the integrity of complex tissues and structures following development. (cellsignal.com)
  • They function in regulation of paracellular permeability and in the maintenance of cell polarity, blocking the movement of transmembrane proteins between the apical and the basolateral cell surfaces. (cellsignal.com)
  • Differential phosphorylation of occludin at various residues may regulate its interaction with other tight junction proteins such as ZO-1. (cellsignal.com)
  • Organic components of the cell - Biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) - Cell metabolism, enzymes and biological reactions. (unimi.it)
  • Proteins such as ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, MUPP-1, and PATJ colocalize with claudin proteins and together form tight junctions (Figure 2) . (thermofisher.com)
  • These proteins form cell−cell junctions (Figure 3), and can facilitate signaling pathways such as AKT, Wnt, and MAPK to govern morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and intercellular communication 5. . (thermofisher.com)
  • Hemidesmosomes employ integrins as their primary cell adhesion proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • The two main kinds of cell-cell adhesive junctions are adherens junction and desmosomes. (ukessays.com)
  • Desmosomes are button-like points of strong adhesion between adjacent cells in a tissue. (ukessays.com)
  • Desmosomes give the tissue structural integrity, enabling cells to function as a unit and to resist stress. (ukessays.com)
  • In vertebrates, there are three major types of cell junction: Adherens junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes (anchoring junctions) Gap junctions (communicating junction) Tight junctions (occluding junctions) Invertebrates have several other types of specific junctions, for example septate junctions or the C. elegans apical junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmosomes, also termed as maculae adherentes, can be visualized as rivets through the plasma membrane of adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, both partners develop a series of highly specific, morphologically well defined structures, i.e., tight junctions, cell-cell adherens junctions, and desmosomes ( Koch and Franke, 1994 ). (rupress.org)
  • Anchoring junctions ( adherens junctions , desmosomes and hemidesmosomes ), which maintain cells together and strengthens contact between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In anchoring junctions between cells such as adherens junctions and desmosomes, the main CAMs present are the cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the normal architecture of intact epithelium is lost, in epithelial cancer, the frequent finding of desmosomes and occasionally tight junctions (1) indicate that the malignant epithelium may at least partially retain its function as a barrier, e.g. , against drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although cell-matrix adhesions are largely integrin-based, cell-cell junctions are mediated by adherens junctions (AJ), tight junctions, and desmosomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Desmosomes are responsible for anchoring adjacent cells to one another by connecting their intermediate filament cytoskeletons with cadherins. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Cadherin cell-cell contacts are connected to actin and intermediate filaments by adherens junctions and desmosomes. (qiagen.com)
  • Through cDNA microarray analysis, we had found NPNT was participated in pathways in cancer, cell adhesion molecules, transcriptional misregulation in cancer, ECM-receptor interaction. (elsevier.com)
  • Title: Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Activated Endothelium after Interaction with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. (nih.gov)
  • The specificity is due to a set of cell-surface glycoproteins called cell adhesion molecules (CAM). (britannica.com)
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules, and introducing the Integrins. (ubc.ca)
  • The main components of tight junctions are claudins, occludins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). (thermofisher.com)
  • 3.Communicating (gap) junctions Types of intercellular junctions: 1. (prezi.com)
  • Intercellular junctions are polarized across and within epidermal layers. (nature.com)
  • Loss of CCM1 produces excessive ROCK1-dependent actin stress fibers and destabilizes intercellular junctions. (biologists.org)
  • The intercellular space in cell-cell junctions is maintained at 20 nm Adhesive junctions Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens, intermediate junction, or 'belt desmosome'[1]) are protein complexes that occur at cell-cell junctions in epithelial tissues, usually more basal than tight junctions. (prezi.com)
  • General aspects of methods for studying cells and tissues. (unimi.it)
  • the organisation of cells in tissues. (unimi.it)
  • They linked together and because of that, cells can form into tissues, tissues can form into organs, organs can form into systems and finally systems can form into organism. (ukessays.com)
  • Specialized cell junctions occur at points of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact in all tissues, and they are particularly plentiful in epithelia. (ukessays.com)
  • Adhesive junctions link cells together into tissues, therby enabling the cells to function as a unit. (ukessays.com)
  • In many nonepithelial tissues, they take the form of small punctate or streaklike attachments that indirectly connect the cortical actin filaments beneath the plasma membranes of two interacting cells. (ukessays.com)
  • Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system. (garlandscience.com)
  • Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of anchoring junctions are observed, and differ from one another in the cytoskeletal protein anchor as well as the transmembrane linker protein that extends through the membrane: Anchoring-type junctions not only hold cells together but provide tissues with structural cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These junctions are most abundant in tissues that are subject to constant mechanical stress such as skin and heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thought-provoking end-of-chapter questions have been expanded to all chapters, including questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, the immune system, and pathogens. (nhbs.com)
  • He is currently a Principal Scientist at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, with research interests in the development of sense organs and in the role of the Notch signaling pathway in controlling the fine-grained patterns of cell types that form the tissues of the vertebrate body. (textbooks.com)
  • The formation of complex tissues during embryonic development requires continuous bidirectional communication between cells of different origins to allow precise tissue assembly. (biologists.org)
  • The tendons integrate with the muscle and skeletal tissues through specialized structures termed the myotendinous junction and the enthesis, respectively, that provide flexible but robust and resilient anchor points. (biologists.org)
  • Some multicellular animals or tissues can be dissociated into suspensions of single cells that show the same cellular recognition and adhesion as do aggregates of single-cell organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Cells from tissues of vertebrate animals can, like sponge cells, be dissociated and allowed to reaggregate. (britannica.com)
  • For example, when vertebrate embryonic cells from two different tissues are dissociated and then rotated together in culture, the cells form a multicellular aggregate within which they sort according to the type of tissue , a sorting that occurs regardless of whether the cells are from the same or different species. (britannica.com)
  • The lymphomas did not express the mutant collagen XIII, indicating that its influence on tumorigenesis was B-cell extrinsic and likely to be associated with collagen XIII-positive tissues drained by the MLN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When cells do form tissues, they are essentially clumping together in a very organized manner. (ubc.ca)
  • Contrast that to tissues that make parts of your gut or your skin tissue, where cells generally adhere together into sheets. (ubc.ca)
  • In other words, the architecture, shape and strength of tissues depends a lot on the way cells come together, but beyond that, how cells function (i.e. what they can do) as well as how they keep healthy, will depend not on just how they "meet" but also in how they communicate with each other. (ubc.ca)
  • Comparisons of the Hydra genome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann-Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. (nature.com)
  • [2] Cadherins forms homophilic attachment between themselves, which results in cells of a similar type sticking together and can lead to selective cell adhesion, allowing vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adherens junctions mainly function to maintain shape of tissues and hold cells together. (wikipedia.org)
  • During host colonization GAS-cell aggregates or microcolonies are observed in tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell sheet stacking technology enables the transplantation of enormous numbers of cells in thicker 3D tissues and offers hope for more efficient therapies and a wider range of applications in regenerative medicine. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, we reported about an OCT system for observing cell sheet-tissues [14,15]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • then the structure and function of the cell-layered cardiac tissues were observed by two OCT systems. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The regulation of tumor growth, like other tissues, relies on cell-cell paracrine and endocrine signaling systems that coordinate tumor and vascular growth. (ahajournals.org)
  • In our lab, we address how such communication allows cells to arrange themselves in such a way as to form tissues. (phys.org)
  • The teaching of Human Anatomy and General Biology aims to provide students with an overall view of how the peculiarities and basic mechanisms present in eukaryotic cells contribute to the integration of the various cell types in the formation of the different tissues and organs present in the human body. (unimi.it)
  • They include engagement of the B-cell receptor (BCR) by self or microbial antigens ( 6 ), influences mediated by T cells activated by microbial pathogens ( 7 ), host inflammatory responses ( 8 - 10 ), and the interface between tumor cells and stromal elements such as collagen interactions with integrins and other receptors ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although there are many different types of CAMs, those know as integrins play an especially crucial role, because integrins are in charge of cell-matrix interactions. (ubc.ca)
  • Integrins span the cell membrane so that a part of the protein is outside the cell and another part is in the interior. (ubc.ca)
  • If you think about it, this means that integrins link the exterior of the cell to the interior of a cell. (ubc.ca)
  • which colocalize with integrins in the specialized cell-matrix junctions or focal adhesions formed when cultured cells are grown on rigid supports. (rupress.org)
  • Cadherins and immunoglobulins are homophilic CAMs, as they directly bind to the same type of CAMs on another cell, while integrins and selectins are heterophilic CAMs that bind to different types of CAMs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, cell junctions can be categorised into two main types according to what interacts with the cell: cell-cell junctions, mainly mediated by cadherins, and cell-matrix junctions, mainly mediated by integrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrins are a functionally significant family of metazoan cell surface adhesion receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since cell adhesion and the production of a collagen-based ECM are essential characteristics of metazoa, it is not surprising that integrins have been detected throughout the multicellular animal kingdom, from the simplest and most primitive phyla (sponge and cnidarians) [ 6 ] to higher vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integrins are α/β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that play a pivotal role in cell adhesion and migration. (cellsignal.com)
  • While the initial response of the cells in 3-D seemed to be faster than cells cultured in 2-D, as evidenced by collagen type I expression, later markers showed that osteogenic differentiation of MSCs took longer in the 3-D environment of the collagen GAG scaffold compared to standard 2-D culture conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) are a component of the epithelial junctional complex enables epithelial cells to create cellular sheets that separate compartments with different compositions, the formation of TJs may represent the status of epithelial cell differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • It is of note that tumor cells frequently show abnormal TJ function, decreased differentiation and cell polarity. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of VE-cadherin in breast cancer cells modulates cell dynamics as a function of tumor differentiation and promotes tumor-endothelial cell interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Specialized cells of ectodermal origin, which upon differentiation express arrays of polarized microtubules that stretch between the basal side of the tendon at the myotendinous junction and the apical side facing the cuticle. (biologists.org)
  • In the present work, we show that imprinted genes are coexpressed in a network that is regulated at the transition from proliferation to quiescence and differentiation during fibroblast cell cycle withdrawal, adipogenesis in vitro, and muscle regeneration in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Both talin (−/−) ES cell mutants formed embryoid bodies, but differentiation was restricted to two morphologically distinct cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Perpetual epithelial renewal is facilitated by stem and progenitor cells that balance proliferation and differentiation signals to continuously replace terminally differentiated or dying cells. (jci.org)
  • Cell junctions regulate many normal biological processes, such as cell and metabolite transport across epithelial layers, development and differentiation programs, excitable cell contraction, immune responses, and neural activity. (qiagen.com)
  • May play a crucial role in cell differentiation. (genecards.org)
  • This underscores the complex role of the E2F protein family in the control of both cell proliferation and differentiation. (labome.org)
  • AQP4 knockout impairs proliferation, migration and neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem cells," Journal of Cell Science , vol. 121, no. 24, pp. 4029-4036, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Role of L-type Ca 2+ channels in neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation," European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 935-944, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in the properties of gap junctions during neuronal differentiation of hippocampal progenitor cells," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1753-1762, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • induced the differentiation of pancreatic cancer cell lines, both of hamster and human origin, by morphological study and cell-kinetic analysis using BrdU cumulative labeling method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This result indicates that differentiation-induction by basement membrane matrix is reversible. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kuniko Taguchi, Seiji Saito, Kunio Yamazaki, Nobuyuki Nishimura, Nan-yo Moto-o, and Akiharu Watanabe: 'Effects of basalmembrane matrix on growth and differentiation of a hamster pancreatic duct cancer cell line in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Functioning as a classical cadherin by imparting to cells the ability to adhere in a homophilic manner, this protein plays a role in endothelial adherens junction assembly and maintenance. (nih.gov)
  • VE-cadherin internalization from tensile adherens junctions is inhibited by Pacsin2 protein. (nih.gov)
  • Title: The F-BAR protein pacsin2 inhibits asymmetric VE-cadherin internalization from tensile adherens junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Explains recent insights into how low-complexity protein sequences help organize the cell interior. (garlandscience.com)
  • Describes how the latest discoveries in cytoskeletal protein dynamics apply to key questions in cell structure and polarity. (garlandscience.com)
  • Cell junctions are also especially important in enabling communication between neighboring cells via specialized protein complexes called communicating (gap) junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junction-associated protein 1, encoded by the TJAP1 gene, is recruited to tight junctions and incorporated at a late stage of junction formation. (clontech.com)
  • Tight-junction-associated protein 1 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and may function in vesicle trafficking. (clontech.com)
  • It is also known as protein incorporated later into tight junctions (PILT), and tight junction protein 4 (TJP4). (clontech.com)
  • This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes rat tight junction-associated protein 1. (clontech.com)
  • It can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of rat tight junction-associated protein 1. (clontech.com)
  • Puts the latest hot topics sensibly in context - including genomics, protein structure, array technology, stem cells and genetic diseases. (textbooks.com)
  • Actin filament-binding protein (F-actin) involved in cell-matrix adhesion and cell-to-cell adhesion. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Ferritin is a cytosolic protein that stores excess iron, thereby protecting cells from iron toxicity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The C. albicans gene PGA26 encodes a small cell wall protein and is upregulated during de novo wall synthesis in protoplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In epithelial cells, α-, β-, and γ-catenin are involved in linking the peripheral microfilament belt to the transmembrane protein E-cadherin. (rupress.org)
  • α-Catenin exhibits sequence homologies over three regions to vinculin, another adherens junction protein. (rupress.org)
  • We found that exposing isolated rat brain capillaries to glutamate increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein and activity levels, and decreased tight junction protein levels, which resulted in barrier leakage. (jneurosci.org)
  • We demonstrate that seizures trigger a pathway that involves glutamate signaling through cytosolic phospholipase A 2 , which increases MMP levels and decreases tight junction protein expression levels, resulting in barrier leakage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The long flexible talin rod domain contains a number of binding sites for vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein important in stabilizing integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we describe the use of optical window chambers in combination with photobleaching, photoactivation, and photoswitching to quantitatively measure collective tumor cell movement, proliferation, and protein dynamics in squamous cell carcinoma cells within a tumor mass in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Characterization of the LET-4 protein has indicated that it localizes apically in epithelial cells, but is not enriched at junctions. (upenn.edu)
  • non-primary source needed] It has also been found that FERMT3 lowers Natural Killer cell's activation threshold, such that a loss of FERMT3 affects single receptor activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity but has no impact on multiple receptors, where the protein deficiency is overcome and target cells are killed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphorylation of VASP was dependent on cell spreading, as VASP was expressed as a dephosphorylated protein in round adherent cells and was phosphorylated at the onset of changes in cell shape from round to spread cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein that is concentrated in areas of cell-substratum and cell-cell contacts. (bio-rad.com)
  • The encoded protein plays a significant role in the assembly of actin filaments and in spreading and migration of various cell types including fibroblasts and osteoclasts. (bio-rad.com)
  • This protein probably also functions as part of a signal transduction cascade in the imaginal neuroepithelium, where cells have to choose between epidermal and neural fates. (labome.org)
  • Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The Src protein was highly expressed in tumor cells, but expression did not correlate with survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cxs (connexins), the protein subunits forming gap junction intercellular communication channels, are transported to the plasma membrane after oligomerizing into hexameric assemblies called connexin hemichannels (CxHcs) or connexons, which dock head-to-head with partner hexameric channels positioned on neighbouring cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Defects of VCL, which encodes a cytoskeletal protein present in cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 15. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • H 2 O 2 also diffuses through membranes at 100 μm/sec to oxidize and transiently activate endothelial cell protein kinase C-α (PKCα). (omicsonline.org)
  • Already know your cell junction protein target of interest? (thermofisher.com)
  • Generation of a barrier in multi-layered epithelia like the epidermis requires restricted positioning of functional tight junctions (TJ) to the most suprabasal viable layer. (nature.com)
  • But the prototypical examples of adherens junctions occur in epithelia, where they often form a continuous adhesion belt (or zonula adherens) just below the tight junctions, encircling each of the interacting cells in the sheet. (ukessays.com)
  • TIGHT JUNCTIONS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF EPITHELIA DEFINITIONS 19-22 Polarized 19-23 Septate junction 19-24 Tight junction 19-25 Apical TRUE/FALSE 19-26 True. (coursehero.com)
  • A ) In simple epithelia, TJs seal the apical end of the lateral cell membrane. (jci.org)
  • F ormation of epithelia depends critically on the physical interaction between cells. (rupress.org)
  • epithelia and cell junctions. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes monocyte transendothelial migration by increasing vascular endothelial cell permeability via the tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin. (nih.gov)
  • Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dabigatran abrogates brain endothelial cell permeability in response to thrombin. (keio.ac.jp)
  • When cultured on hydrogels fabricated to match the elasticity of young and aging intima, endothelial monolayers exhibit increased permeability and disrupted cell-cell junctions on stiffer matrices. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the presence and composition of adhesions. (nih.gov)
  • Although there is a general consensus that discrete cell-matrix adhesions exist in various 3D matrix environments, there are specific exceptions, particularly in cells undergoing amoeboid migration. (nih.gov)
  • for example, over-expression of a cytoskeletal cell adhesion component can potentially cloud the visualization of adhesions and even alter the mode of cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Properties such as stiffness and local matrix topography may also affect the composition of cell-matrix adhesions. (nih.gov)
  • For example, even though cells contain integrin-based 3D adhesions, there can be substantial variability within these adhesions in the presence of force-dependent cytoskeletal components such as vinculin. (nih.gov)
  • These new findings and ideas provide promising new leads for understanding the regulation and function of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D matrix. (nih.gov)
  • Focal Adhesions anchor the cell to its substrate and are a major site of force sensation and mechanotransduction. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD155 localizes in cell-matrix adhesions and cell-cell junctions. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In contrast, α-catenin697-906 fragments were recruited to cell-cell contacts, focal adhesions, and stress fibers. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), two non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are key regulators of integrin-dependent matrix adhesions, have been linked to the control of AJs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For cells to metastasize to distant sites they must undergo a number of phenotypic changes, including changes in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions, migration, and invasive capacity, but these have been difficult to monitor in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that VASP was localized at the cell cortex in round cells and redistributed to focal adhesions at the ventral surface of the cell body during cell spreading. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dual labeling of spread cells indicated that VASP was colocalized with F-actin in filopodia and in focal adhesions, suggesting that the phosphorylation of VASP during cell spreading may be involved in focal adhesion complex organization and actin dynamics. (jimmunol.org)
  • The phosphorylation of VASP by cGK-1 promotes detachment of VASP and zyxin from focal adhesions in endothelial cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation state of VASP may alter the composition and functional integrity of these structures ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, the prolonged effects of 8-pCPT-cGMP, a direct activator of cGK, causes a reduction of the actin microfilament system and vinculin at focal adhesions in endothelial cells ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • VASP is predominately localized in cells at areas of membrane activity, focal adhesions, stress fibers, cell-matrix, and cell-cell adherens junctions ( 1 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • c-Src contributes to the regulation of both focal adhesions (cell-matrix interactions) and adherens junctions (cell-cell interactions), which are essential mediators of cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells can form a number of connections with the cells and matrix in their surrounding environment: adherens junctions (cell-cell), tight junctions (impermeable cell-cell), and focal adhesions (cell-matrix). (cellsignal.com)
  • Cell movement is a sequential series of steps initiated by establishing actin-rich protrusions and stabilizing the leading edge by nascent focal adhesions, followed by F-actin contraction, disassembling focal adhesion at the cell rear, and detaching the tail of the cell, all of which cause forward movement of the cell ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These evidences supported NPNT may promote RPTEC cellular TJ formation, and by increasing intracellular junction formation, cell migration ability may be suppressed. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the role of NPNT in regulating intracellular junctions may largely increase our knowledge in the mechanisms of RCC metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • The demonstrated commanding strategy should be compatible with other viable active biomaterials at interfaces, and we envision its use to probe the mechanics of the intracellular matrix. (pnas.org)
  • Constant coordination between these cell types is orchestrated by secreted and intracellular signals, many of which are generated as byproducts or effectors of regulated cell death (RCD). (frontiersin.org)
  • To elucidate, whether vinculin is part of the cell-cell junctional complex, we investigated complex formation and intracellular targeting of vinculin and α-catenin. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, when the transport rate across the plasma membrane is low in combination with strong intracellular binding, drug transport through the cells can be slowed down even more drastically. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because drug transport through the plasma membrane at the back of the cell (toward the neighboring cell) depends on this intracellular free drug concentration, it will also be slow and rise slowly (the latter is due to strong intracellular binding). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Uncontrolled cell proliferation: cancer. (unimi.it)
  • Cell proliferation was assayed by examining uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). (arvojournals.org)
  • Cell proliferation was more active in KO mice as compared with WT mice at day 1 and 2, but not at day 5 and 10. (arvojournals.org)
  • It was found that abnormalities of cell movement, proliferation, and adhesion in cancer cells play important roles in this disorganization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • miR-126 inhibits proliferation of small cell lung cancer cells by targeting SLC7A5. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since miR-126 is under-expressed in the majority of SCLC tumors, we investigated the effect of miR-126 overexpression on the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of H69 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Are Calcium Channels More Important Than Calcium Influx for Cell Proliferation? (springer.com)
  • The book will discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer diseases, stem cell proliferation and transformation into cancer cells beyond the physiological processes that occur in normal stem cell biology. (springer.com)
  • Glioblastoma cells release factors (G-TsF) which inhibit T-cell proliferation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Extracelluar nucleotide signaling in adult neural stem cells: synergism with growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation," Development , vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 675-684, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • One potential therapeutic target, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src, causes changes in proliferation, motility, invasion, survival, and angiogenesis in cancer cells and may be a valid therapeutic target in MPM. (aacrjournals.org)
  • it also creates cell proliferation, tumor suppression, cell death propagation, and survival-modulating signals 2 . (thermofisher.com)
  • Inhibiting endothelial cell contractility reverses the deleterious effects of age-related matrix stiffening on normal cell function, which could help prevent the development of atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • A) Crosslinking of VCAM-1 activates calcium fluxes and Rac-1 which then activates endothelial cell NOX2. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nervous tissue consists of neurons, cells specialized for the conductance and transmission of electrochemical impulses, as well as support cells (review Tutorial on Membrane Potential, Ion Transport and Nerve Impulse ). (psu.edu)
  • Cadherin molecules form the actual anchor by attaching to the cytoplasmic plaque, extending through the membrane and binding strongly to cadherins coming through the membrane of the adjacent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The band-type of adherens junctions is associated with bundles of actin filaments that also encircle the cell just below the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connexon complexes stretches across the cell membrane and when two adjacent cell connexons interact, they form a complete gap junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that this effect is mediated through structural contributions to the subepithelial basement membrane (BM) as a previously unappreciated component of immune responses mediated by cells of the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subjects range from membrane structure to the cell cycle. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Cadherins are capable of interacting with other cadherins from neighboring cells on the exoplasmic face of the cell membrane. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Various whole cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Talin-1 antibody [C3], C-term (GTX102215) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • 3) The differentiated cancer cells induced by basement membrane matrix showed increased number of gap junctions by electron-microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 5) In vivo growth characteristics of the differentiated hamster pancreatic cancer cells by basement membrane matrix, showed no significant difference compared with control cells, when injected into syngeneic animals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The double membrane channel or gap junction generated directly couples the cytoplasms of interacting cells and underpins the integration and co-ordination of cellular metabolism, signalling and functions, such as secretion or contraction in cell assemblies. (portlandpress.com)
  • The transition from branched actin networks to bundled actin filaments correlates with the creation of mature, strong adherens junctions and a decrease in membrane lamellipodia. (cellsignal.com)
  • Membrane-bound and cytosolic tyrosine kinases phosphorylate β-catenin at weak or nascent junctions, while phosphatases remove added phosphates from β-catenin and δ-catenin at established junctions. (cellsignal.com)
  • General aspects of bacteria and viruses and their interactions with eukaryotic cells. (unimi.it)
  • These two controls encourage the idea that the interactions be- tween the cells and the synthetic lipid bilayer are due to the specific binding of P-selectin to its ligand. (coursehero.com)
  • Tyr-1133 phosphorylation in activated platelets affects head-tail interactions and cell propagation but has no effect on actin-binding or localization on focal adhesion plates. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In this Review we focus on epithelial and innate immune cell interactions that mediate wound healing and restoration of tissue homeostasis in the skin and intestine. (jci.org)
  • Interactions with actin filaments can also promote clustering of cadherins, involved in assembly of adherens junctions, as cadherin clusters promotes actin filaments polymerisation which in turn assembles adherens junctions by binding to cadherin-catenin complexes forming at the junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many tumors can adapt their mode of movement in response to external stimuli, and several lines of evidence support the idea of cross-talk between integrin-mediated cell-ECM interactions and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions that may be key to the plasticity observed in tumor cells ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • J:74183 Kieffer-Combeau S, Meyer JM, Lesot H, Cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell junctions during epithelial histo-morphogenesis in the developing mouse incisor. (jax.org)
  • From Molecules to Cells introduces molecular cell biology: the study of the interactions between molecules and systems in a cell. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Endothelial integrity relies on a mechanical crosstalk between intercellular and cell-matrix interactions. (biologists.org)
  • Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occluding junctions seal cells together in an epithelium in a way that prevents even small molecules from leaking from one side of the sheet to the other. (ukessays.com)
  • Septate junctions are a special variety of occluding junction that is found in invertebrates, including insects, but not restricted to them. (coursehero.com)
  • Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces cytoskeletal changes and surface blebbing in HT-29 cells. (genome.jp)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain three main kinds of cytoskeletal filaments: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinculin is very critical for the control of the cytoskeletal mechanics [ 2 ], cell spreading and lamellipodia formation [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • They are important in cytoskeletal organization, cell signaling, and tissue patterning. (thermofisher.com)
  • [1] Cadherins are essential for cell-cell adhesion and cell signalling in multicellular animals and can be separated into two types: classical cadherins and non-classical cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to be of primary importance for cadherins cell-adhesion properties. (genecards.org)
  • Contact between cells that mediate the exchange of small molecules.3. (prezi.com)
  • Communicating junctions mediate the passage of chemical or electrical signals from one interacting cell to its partner. (ukessays.com)
  • Using quantitative whole-mount imaging, genetic ablation, and traction force microscopy and atomic force microscopy, we find that ubiquitously localized E-cadherin coordinates tissue polarization of tension-bearing adherens junction (AJ) and F-actin organization to allow formation of an apical TJ network only in the uppermost viable layer. (nature.com)
  • g SG2 projections from apical to subapical cell-cell junctions stained for vinculin, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 showing an basolateral AJs network and an apical TJ network. (nature.com)
  • The specialized apical ECM of epithelial cells serves to protect the cells and interact with the outside environment. (upenn.edu)
  • I have characterized the apical domains of epithelial cells and their junctions in the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory system in order to develop the organ as a model for epithelial development and maintenance. (upenn.edu)
  • The let-4 analysis suggests that epithelial junction maintenance requires an intact apical ECM. (upenn.edu)
  • However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There are also a number of adhesive glycoproteins, such as fibronectin and laminin, which attach cells to the ECM by binding to collagen in the ECM and to integrin on the cell surface. (psu.edu)
  • Mice heterozygous for a transgene Col13a1 del expressing a mutant collagen XIII developed clonal mature B-cell lineage lymphomas originating in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transmembrane collagen XIII is localized in cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions ( 15 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, cortical actin was found to be much more dynamic than E-cadherin/catenin complexes and CTNNA1 was shown not to bind to F-actin when assembled in the complex suggesting a different linkage between actin and adherens junctions components. (genecards.org)
  • 1 Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. (nih.gov)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology Online, an informational resource for cell and molecular biologists. (einet.net)
  • Cytoplasm Cellular Biology Cells are the structural units of all living things (with the possible exceptions of viruses and prions). (einet.net)
  • As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. (garlandscience.com)
  • The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. (garlandscience.com)
  • Incorporates important new discoveries into a logical and cohesive narrative that provides a conceptual framework for cell biology. (garlandscience.com)
  • Features an extensively revised and expanded treatment of stem cell biology and technology-including nuclear reprogramming, ES cells, and iPS cells. (garlandscience.com)
  • A quarter of a century after the first edition revolutionised cell biology textbooks, the new edition is as fresh, comprehensive and above all, as readable as ever. (garlandscience.com)
  • Professors, lecturers, and instructors will find the fifth edition of the book Molecular Biology of the Cell and its accompanying Problems Book to be an excellent choice for guiding their students through the maze of the cell's molecular structures and biochemical processes. (garlandscience.com)
  • Written by Dr. Antonio Nanci, a world-renowned leader in cell biology, the new ninth edition of Ten Cate's Oral Histology covers all the latest research and trends in oral histology, embryology, physiology, oral biology, and postnatal growth and development that is essential to success in oral health! (elsevier.com)
  • As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell - The Problems Book Molecular Biology of the Cell - The Problems Book helps students appreciate. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-depth text reference in cell biology. (textbooks.com)
  • By extracting fundamental concepts and meaning from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. (textbooks.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell not only sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (updated as of Fall 2001), but also explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of that which remains unknown. (textbooks.com)
  • Cell Biology Interactive a CD-ROM is packaged with every copy of the book. (textbooks.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition: A Problems Approach by John Wilson and Tim Hunt is a comprehensive book that provides research-oriented problems derived from the scientific literature, now covering Chapters 1-8 and 10-18 of the main text. (textbooks.com)
  • This second edition of 'Essential Cell Biology' contains basic, core knowledge about how cells work. (textbooks.com)
  • It has a proven track record in providing students with a conceptual and accessible grounding in cell biology. (textbooks.com)
  • Alberts is one of the principal authors of 'The Molecular Biology of the Cell,' now in its third edition, considered the leading advanced textbook in this field and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. (textbooks.com)
  • His most recent text, 'Essential Cell Biology,' is intended to present this subject matter to a wider audience. (textbooks.com)
  • Alexander Johnson received his PhD from Harvard University and is Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Director of the Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Genetics, and Developmental Biology Graduate Program at the University of California, San Francisco. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Martin Raff received his MD from McGill University and is at the Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the Biology Department at University College London. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The book is written for advanced undergraduates and graduate students taking a year-long course in cell biology. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Analyzing the expression, regulation, and sequence of cell junction genes can help determine their relative importance to the biology of the cellular or disease processes under study. (qiagen.com)
  • The Problems Book helps students appreciate the ways in which experiments and simple calculations can lead to an understanding of how cells work by introducing the experimental foundation of cell and molecular biology. (garlandscience.com)
  • The Problems Book has been designed to correspond with the first twenty chapters of Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition. (garlandscience.com)
  • Includes the solutions to the end-of-chapter problems in the textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition. (garlandscience.com)
  • To provide a general introduction to molecular cell biology for students in Biological Sciences. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • To demonstrate how molecular cell biology explains cell function at the level of an individual cell, and as part of a tissue or organism. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • The role of connexins in controlling cell growth and gene expression," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology , vol. 94, no. 1-2, pp. 245-264, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • While little is known about the biology of the desmosome-like junction in the testis, we have a relatively good understanding of the molecular architecture and the regulation of the ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These results should contribute to the further progress in the research of pancreatic cancer cell biology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Content is selected carefully, is integrated to illustrate the connections between concepts, and follows six themes that are crucial to biology: the scientific method, chemical and physical principles, cells, evolution, ecological systems, and human impact. (bfwpub.com)
  • Trends in Cell Biology. (elsevier.com)
  • Link the basal domain of an epithelial cell to the basal lamina. (brainscape.com)
  • Cell junctions to adjacent cells or Basal lamina. (slideserve.com)
  • Respiratory epithelial basal cells are stem cell-like cells which are long-lived and slowly dividing. (frontiersin.org)
  • In essence, both desmosome-like junctions and basal ESs are known to coexist between Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier where they cofunction with the well-studied tight junction in maintaining the immunological barrier. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Adherens junctions share the characteristic of anchoring cells through their cytoplasmic actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin filaments also contribute to cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, cytokinesis, cytoplasmic streaming, and muscle contraction. (qiagen.com)
  • b Newborn epidermal whole-mount immunofluorescence analysis for tension-high (vinculin) adherens junctions (E-cadherin). (nature.com)
  • Note that vinculin-positive junctions are primarily present in the granular layer 2 (SG2). (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, these differentiated talin (−/−) ES cells were able to spread and form focal adhesion-like structures containing vinculin and paxillin on fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • Once a shortage of the vinculin has occurred, various functions of the cell will be affected, such as the disruption of the focal adhesion complex [ 5 ] and the prevention of cell adhesion and spreading. (mdpi.com)
  • While vinculin is found in cell-matrix and cell-cell contacts, α-catenin is restricted to the latter. (rupress.org)
  • We show that α-catenin colocalizes at cell-cell contacts with endogenous vinculin and also with the transfected vinculin head domain forming immunoprecipitable complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Complex formation of vinculin and α-catenin was challenged in transfected cells. (rupress.org)
  • A portion of the CAM that extends from the surface of a cell adheres to identical molecules on the surface of adjacent cells. (britannica.com)
  • This tends to be through specific molecules belonging to one cell being sent and/or making contact with another cell. (ubc.ca)
  • Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and allow the free flow of small molecules between them. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gap junctions permit the travel of small molecules back and forth between adjacent cells. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Other adjacent cells communicate via cytosolic ions and small molecules through gap junctions. (qiagen.com)
  • Gap junctions are clusters of tightly packed channels that allow small molecules (metabolites, second messengers, and ions) to travel between adjoining cells 1 . (thermofisher.com)
  • We constructed a comprehensive gene functional association network or interactome by transcript profiling an in vitro angiogenesis model, in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) formed capillary structures when co-cultured with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, cells are actually incredibly complex, and they can organize in ways to form many types of structures and ultimately whole living organisms like a tree, a bird, or even our own bodies! (ubc.ca)
  • Understanding how these cells interact and get together is key to understanding how different cells make different structures - like how bones are different from skin for instance. (ubc.ca)
  • In multicellular organisms, bindings between CAMs allow cells to adhere to one another and creates structures called cell junctions . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Cell Junction PathwayFinder RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes encoding components of various subcellular macromolecular structures connecting cells to each. (qiagen.com)
  • In animals, there are three common kinds of junctions.There are adhesive junctions, tight junctions, and gap junctions. (ukessays.com)
  • One of the three mainly junctions in animal cells is the adhesive (or anchoring) junction. (ukessays.com)
  • At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Intermediate filaments arrange the three-dimensional cell structure by anchoring organelles in place. (qiagen.com)
  • Cell junctions are best visualizedusing either conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, which reveals that the interacting plasma membranes (and often the underlying cytoplasm and the intervening intercellular space as well) are highly specialized in these regions. (ukessays.com)
  • Adherens junctions connect bundles of actin filaments from cell to cell. (ukessays.com)
  • Note: The gap junctions of vertebrates & vertebrates are similar in both structure & function. (prezi.com)
  • The analogues of communicative cell junctions in plants are called plasmodesmata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the many types of cells found in blood are also considered connective tissue surrounded by plasma. (psu.edu)
  • The nonliving matrix of the connective tissue through which the blood cells freely flow is the? (jiskha.com)
  • Immunoglobulin superfamily receptors and adherens junctions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ATP activates purinergic receptors on neighbouring cells and forms the basis of intercellular Ca 2+ signal propagation, complementing that occuring more directly via gap junctions. (portlandpress.com)
  • Connexin 36 and rod bipolar cell independent rod pathways drive retinal ganglion cells and optokinetic reflexes. (harvard.edu)
  • Gap junction-mediated death of retinal neurons is connexin and insult specific: a potential target for neuroprotection. (harvard.edu)
  • Connexin-43 (CX43) and connexin-40 work together to form cell junctions that are essential for proper heart atrium cell function (Figure 1) . (thermofisher.com)
  • Most ECM is made and secreted by cells called fibroblasts , which are dispersed throughout the matrix. (psu.edu)
  • Under our experimental conditions, TC and fibroblasts (cell line L929) behaved differently in terms of adherence, spreading, and prolongation extension. (springer.com)
  • The values for final cell surface area after spreading were between 200 and 400 μm 2 for fibroblasts and 800-2,000 μm 2 for TC. (springer.com)
  • An extremely low capacity to extend prolongations with lengths shorter than cell bodies was noted for fibroblasts, while TC extended prolongations longer than the cell body length, with a moniliform appearance. (springer.com)
  • We then describe the molecular players that regulate the targeting of muscles to tendons and the formation of the myotendinous junction in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Some of the key oncogenic events in cancer and their signaling pathways that regulate cell division cycle progression will be described considering prospects for using such knowledge in advanced cancer therapy. (springer.com)
  • In the context of pulmonary infection, both hosts and pathogens have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to regulate the process of host cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together these data highlight the benefits of fluorescent in vivo imaging approaches along with the use of optical window chambers in the preclinical evaluation of potential chemotherapeutic agents, and suggest that the anti-invasive properties of small molecular inhibitors targeting Src and FAK may be mediated in part by their ability to regulate cell-cell adhesion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The interaction between c-Src and its substrate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is essential for normal focal adhesion turnover as well as downstream signaling, which can regulate metalloproteinase production required for cancer cell invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tight junctions are barriers that regulate the paracellular movement of solutes down their electro-osmotic gradients. (thermofisher.com)
  • In vertebrate organisms, tight junctions are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier. (clontech.com)
  • These cells share functional properties with vertebrate tendons, including their elastic nature and the induction of a myotendinous junction (see Glossary, Box 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • Cells with similar properties can be categorized as part of the same tissue . (psu.edu)
  • Epithelial tissue consists of cells that form membranes that cover and line the body surface and cavities, and cells that form glands that secrete hormones and other substances. (psu.edu)
  • Muscle tissue consists of cells specialized for contraction. (psu.edu)
  • Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability to differentiate along several lineages including those of bone, cartilage, tendon and muscle, thus offering huge potential for the field of tissue engineering. (nih.gov)
  • Intriguingly, tendon-like cells develop within the ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo and play an active role in musculoskeletal tissue assembly ( Volk, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • Based on accumulating lines of evidence concerning cancer cells, it was systematically investigated in this project how 'the initiation and progression of cancer' are induced in terms of the disorganization of cell and tissue systems in cancer. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Laser-based microdissection facilitates the isolation of specific cell populations from clinical or animal model tissue specimens for molecular analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Limiting such pathology requires precise orchestration of tissue cells, tissue resident immune cells, and infiltrating immune cells when responding to infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both tissue cells and immune cells undergo RCD processes during infections, with dysregulation of these complex RCD signaling networks often underlying the pathogenesis of pulmonary infectious disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • [1] [3] Other cellular processes regulated by cell adhesion include cell migration and tissue development in multicellular organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • You will learn how cells function individually and as part of a tissue or organism. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Cell Tissue Res. (labome.org)
  • We investigated the impact of mitogenic and resting culture systems on the identity of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) for tissue engineering purposes. (molvis.org)
  • Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, tissue engineering methodology and cell-based regenerative therapy have been progressing rapidly and are attracting attention worldwide [1-3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Our laboratory has developed a scaffold-free tissue engineering methodology, cell sheet technology, with a temperature-responsive culture dish [4]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A three-dimensional (3D) tissue can be easily engineered by stacking multiple cell sheets, and the resulting tissue with an intact ECM can be engrafted onto a target tissue efficiently without suturing [5-8]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cell sheet transplantation improves the tissue functions in various animal models, and cell sheets have already been used clinically, and the feasibility of the therapy has been demonstrated [8]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, we reported the rapid fabrication technique of a double-layered cell sheet-tissue by the combination of cell sheet stacking technology and centrifugation [9]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, the cross-sectional analysis of 3D tissue is difficult, while the analysis of two-dimensionally cultured cells is relatively easy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of c-Src inhibition in MPM cell lines and examined c-Src expression and activation in tissue samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adherens junctions are the building blocks of tissue architecture. (thermofisher.com)
  • Silencing NPNT in RPTEC cell line, HK-2 cell, altered epithelial cell morphology into spindlelike shape and loss cell-cell contact junctions, these phenomena mimic to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process in the progression of cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • The book is organized into five major sections such as basic genetic mechanisms and internal organization of the cell. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Similar and differential behaviour between the nectin-afadin-ponsin and cadherin-catenin systems during the formation and disruption of the polarized junctional alignment in epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was found that the levels of integrin alpha1 and VE-cadherin mRNA increased during co-culturing of activated endothelium cells with mesenchymal stromal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Regulates the expression of E-cadherin on the cell surface and enhances mechanosensitivity through the E-cadherin complex. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Cadherin-based AJs provide the initial means of cell-cell contact and have key roles during the development and maintenance of epithelial polarity ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that inhibiting the Src/FAK signaling axis prevents the collective movement of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo , and identify a novel role for this pathway in the regulation of E-cadherin internalization, cell-cell adhesion strength, and modulation of E-cadherin dynamics downstream of β1-integrin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Formation of adherens junctions are mediated through a cadherin-catenin complex composed of cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (cellsignal.com)
  • Thus, it enables physicians to delineate the group of tumor cell colonization. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor cell motility is important for its invasion and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disruption of adherens junctions promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis 6 . (thermofisher.com)
  • Disruption of PGA26 caused hypersensitivity to cell wall-perturbing compounds (Calcofluor white and Congo red) and to zymolyase, which degrades the cell wall β-1,3-glucan network. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used gene disruption to isolate two talin (−/−) ES cell mutants that contain no intact talin. (rupress.org)
  • Interaction with CTNNB1 is necessary for its localization at cell-cell junctions. (selfgrowth.com)
  • I characterized the let-4 loss of function phenotype with molecular markers, electron microscopy, and genetic interaction experiments, and have detected no defect in initial formation of junctions. (upenn.edu)
  • This interaction forms a physical link essentially connecting the actin cytoskeletons of the two adjacent cells, thus promoting force transduction. (varsitytutors.com)
  • What are the types of cell junctions? (brainscape.com)
  • Large collection of various types of images and video of cells. (einet.net)
  • They have three general types of junctions. (ukessays.com)
  • The types of junction have each functions in human body and another live creatures. (ukessays.com)
  • The musculoskeletal system, which comprises muscles, tendons (see Box 1 ) and bones, represents a fascinating example in which the accurate assembly of distinct cell types is crucial for the efficient movement, as well as for the stability, of the entire organism. (biologists.org)
  • For example, when starved, several types of single-cell organisms band together to develop the specialized cells needed for reproduction. (britannica.com)
  • At homeostasis, the pulmonary system remains a tightly regulated environment with resident cell types performing highly specialized functions to maintain a pathogen-free space with unimpeded respiratory function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiplexed peroxidase-based electron microscopy labeling enables simultaneous visualization of multiple cell types. (harvard.edu)
  • Although specific cell junctions predominate in certain cell types, all cells interact with their environment via more than one, or even all, of these junctions. (qiagen.com)
  • Here, we discuss recent findings relating to these two junction types in the testis, highlighting prospective areas that should be investigated in future studies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Invitrogen antibodies include antibodies to study all five types of cell junctions, exclusive ABfinity rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibodies, and antibody-labeled conjugates to visualize a broad target range, with high specificity. (thermofisher.com)
  • During contraction of a muscle, within each muscle cell, myosin molecular motors collectively exert forces on parallel actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research interests include the mechanisms used by cells to switch their genes on and off, as well as the molecular genetics of Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen. (textbooks.com)
  • The last 20 years have witnessed remarkable progress in understanding the cellular origins and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of B-cell lineage neoplasms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is well established that these B-cell-intrinsic molecular changes are not sufficient to fully induce transformation ( 5 ) and that secondary genetic mutations and other factors have important roles in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multitude of ways that hosts and bacteria engage in a molecular tug of war to modulate cell death dynamics during infection emphasizes its relevance in host responses and pathogen virulence at the host pathogen interface. (frontiersin.org)
  • The addition of a stabilization step during CEC culture improves the cells' morphology and molecular identity, which agrees with transcriptome data. (molvis.org)
  • Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Respiratory epithelial cells form a barrier between the outside environment and sterile zones in the body such as the blood ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the physical barrier of tight cell-cell junctions formed between epithelial cells and underlying stroma is critical to barrier integrity ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The skin's barrier function has three elements: the stratum corneum (air-liquid barrier), tight junctions (liquid-liquid barrier), and the Langerhans cell network (immunological barrier). (jci.org)
  • In this review, we describe the barrier system of the epidermis, which is far more sophisticated than previously thought ( 13 , 14 ), and attempt to discuss its function with special focus on antigen penetration through these barriers and antigen capture by dendritic cells in the context of AD. (jci.org)
  • Tight junctions as a liquid-liquid interface barrier. (jci.org)
  • they exhibit ion and size selectivity and their barrier function varies significantly in tightness, depending on cell type and physiological requirements, enabling dynamic regulation of substances that traffic between compartments. (jci.org)
  • Based on our preliminary data, we hypothesized that glutamate released during seizures mediates an increase in matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity levels, thereby contributing to barrier leakage. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rapid self-renewal also supports epithelial cells' essential role in barrier regulation and wound repair. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved by focusing on relevant MMP-9 substrates in blood-brain barrier, matrix, and white matter. (jneurosci.org)
  • Tight junctions are impermeable cell-cell junctions that form a continuous barrier to fluids across the epithelium and endothelium. (cellsignal.com)
  • Tight junctions seal adjacent epithelial cells together. (qiagen.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell junction research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Large Pore Ion and Metabolite-Permeable Channel Regulation of Postnatal Ventricular Zone Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells: Interplay between Aquaporins, Connexins, and Pannexins? (hindawi.com)
  • By harnessing this system, researchers can study the effects of gene silencing and transcription regulation, and they can potentially alleviate genetic disorders in diseased cells 5 . (moleculardevices.com)