A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Enzymes that recognize CRUCIFORM DNA structures and introduce paired incisions that help to resolve the structure into two DNA helices.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.
The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subclass of matrix metalloproteinases that are secreted into the pericellular space.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Tabular numerical representations of sequence motifs displaying their variability as likelihood values for each possible residue at each position in a sequence. Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are calculated from position frequency matrices.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A family of proteins that play a role in TIGHT JUNCTION formation by binding to and anchoring proteins to the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Matrix attachment regulates Fas-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells: a role for c-flip and implications for anoikis. (1/97)

Survival of endothelial cells is critical for cellular processes such as angiogenesis. Cell attachment to extracellular matrix inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the molecular mechanisms underlying matrix-induced survival signals or detachment-induced apoptotic signals are unknown. We demonstrate here that matrix attachment is an efficient regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. Thus, matrix attachment protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis, whereas matrix detachment results in susceptibility to Fas-mediated cell death. Matrix attachment modulates Fas-mediated apoptosis at two different levels: by regulating the expression level of Fas, and by regulating the expression level of c-Flip, an endogenous antagonist of caspase-8. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade functions as a survival pathway in adherent cells by regulating c-Flip expression. We further show that detachment-induced cell death, or anoikis, itself results from activation of the Fas pathway by its ligand, Fas-L. Fas-L/Fas interaction, Fas-FADD complex formation, and caspase-8 activation precede the bulk of anoikis in endothelial cells, and inhibition of any of these events blocks anoikis. These studies identify matrix attachment as a survival factor against death receptor-mediated apoptosis and provide a molecular mechanism for anoikis and previously observed Fas resistance in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Ezrin interacts with focal adhesion kinase and induces its activation independently of cell-matrix adhesion. (2/97)

Ezrin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, is required for cell morphogenesis, motility, and survival through molecular mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Using the N-terminal domain of ezrin as a bait, we found that p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) interacts with ezrin. We show that the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from cultured cell lysates. However, FAK does not interact with full-length ezrin in vitro, indicating that the FAK binding site on ezrin is cryptic. Mapping experiments showed that the entire N-terminal domain of FAK (amino acids 1-376) is required for optimal ezrin binding. While investigating the role of the ezrin-FAK interaction, we observed that, in suspended kidney-derived epithelial LLC-PK1 cells, overproduction of ezrin promoted phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-397, the major autophosphorylation site, creating a docking site for FAK signaling partners. Treatment of the cells with a Src family kinase inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of Tyr-577 but not that of Tyr-397, indicating that ezrin-mediated FAK activation does not require the activity of Src kinases. Altogether, these observations indicate that ezrin is able to trigger FAK activation in signaling events that are not elicited by cell-matrix adhesion.  (+info)

pp60(c-src) and related tyrosine kinases: a role in the assembly and reorganization of matrix adhesions. (3/97)

Activation of tyrosine kinases during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion is involved both in the regulation of focal contact assembly and in the initiation of signaling processes at the cell-matrix adhesive interface. In order to determine the role of pp60(c-src) and related kinases in these processes, we have compared the dynamic reorganization of phosphotyrosine, vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and tensin in cells with altered expression of Src-family kinases. Both null cells for pp60(c-src) and triple knockout cells for pp60(c-src), pp59(fyn), and pp62(c-yes) exhibited decreased phosphotyrosine levels in focal contacts when compared with wild-type cells. pp60(c-src)-null cells also exhibited faster assembly of cell-matrix adhesions and a more exuberant recruitment of FAK to these sites. Tensin, which normally segregates into fibrillar adhesions was localized in large focal contacts in the two mutant cell lines, suggesting involvement of pp60(c-src) in the segregation of focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions. Moreover, treatment of wild-type cells with tyrphostin AG1007, which inhibits both pp60(c-src) and FAK activity, induced accumulation of tensin in peripheral focal adhesions. These findings demonstrate that Src family kinases, and pp60(c-src) in particular, have a central role in regulating protein dynamics at cell-matrix interfaces, both during early stages of interaction and in mature focal contacts.  (+info)

Members of the Jagged/Notch gene families are expressed in injured arteries and regulate cell phenotype via alterations in cell matrix and cell-cell interaction. (4/97)

The Jagged/Notch signaling pathways control cell fate determination and differentiation, and their dysfunction is associated with human pathologies involving cardiovascular abnormalities. To determine the presence of these genes during vascular response to injury, we analyzed expression of Jagged1, Jagged2, and Notch1 through 4 after balloon catheter denudation of the rat carotid artery. Although low levels of Jagged1, Jagged2, and constitutive expression of Notch1 were seen in uninjured endothelium, expression of all was significantly increased in injured vascular cells. High Jagged1 expression was restricted to the regenerating endothelial wound edge, whereas Notch transcripts were abundant in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. To understand the basis for Jagged/Notch control of cellular phenotype, we studied an in vitro model of NIH3T3 cells transfected with a secreted form of the extracellular domain of Jagged1. We report that the soluble Jagged1 protein caused decreased cell-matrix adhesion and cell migration defects. Cadherin-mediated intercellular junctions as well as focal adhesions were modified in soluble Jagged1 transfectants, demonstrating that cell-cell contacts and adhesion plaques may be targets of Jagged/Notch activity. We suggest that Jagged regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions may contribute to the control of cell migration in situations of tissue remodeling in vivo.  (+info)

Molecular complexity and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions. (5/97)

Currently >50 proteins have been reported to be associated with focal contacts and related ECM adhesions. Most of these contain multiple domains through which they can interact with different molecular partners, potentially forming a dense and heterogeneous protein network at the cytoplasmic faces of the adhesion site. The molecular and structural diversity of this 'submembrane plaque' is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms, including competition between different partner proteins for the same binding sites, interactions triggered or suppressed by tyrosine phosphorylation, and conformational changes in component proteins, which can affect their reactivity. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesions can undergo dynamic changes in structure and molecular properties from dot-like focal complexes to stress-fiber-associated focal contacts, which can further 'mature' to form fibronectin-bound fibrillar adhesions. These changes are driven by mechanical force generated by the actin- and myosin-containing contractile machinery of the cells, or by external forces applied to the cells, and regulated by matrix rigidity.  (+info)

Cdk5 regulates cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in lens epithelial cells. (6/97)

Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, which is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated neurons. Lower levels of Cdk5 are also found in a wide variety of cell types, including the lens. Although Cdk5 has been shown to play an important role in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth, its function in non-neuronal cells is not known. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the role of Cdk5 in the lens. Results showed that, within the adult mouse lens, Cdk5 was localized to the cytoplasm, especially along the lateral membranes of differentiating primary fiber cells, which suggests a role in cell-cell adhesion. Staining at the tips of elongating fiber cells was also particularly strong, suggesting a role in cell-matrix adhesion. To examine the possible role of Cdk5 in lens epithelial cell adhesion, we stably transfected N/N1003A rabbit lens epithelial cells with cDNAs for Cdk5 or a dominant-negative mutation, Cdk5-T33. Attachment to a fibronectin matrix, as measured with substrate-coated cell adhesion strips, was increased by Cdk5 overexpression, while an equivalent overexpression of Cdk5-T33 had no effect. Cdk5 also increased the rate of cell attachment and spreading as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). In addition, Cdk5 overexpression decreased cell-cell adhesion as measured by a cell aggregation assay. These findings suggest that Cdk5 plays a role in regulating both cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in the lens.  (+info)

PLC-gamma1 is required for IGF-I protection from cell death induced by loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. (7/97)

Phospholipase C-gamma1, a tyrosine kinase substrate, hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which act as second messenger moleculesto mobilize intracellular calcium and activate protein kinase C, respectively. We have investigated the role of phospholipase C-gamma1 in anoikis, or cell death, induced by the loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. Spontaneously immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts nullizygous at the Plcg1 locus (Plcg1(-/-)), referred to as Null cells, were derived from targeted gene disruption experiments. Subsequently, phospholipase C-gamma1 was re-expressed in these cells to derive Null+ cells. The Null and Null+ cells were then placed in suspension to induce cell death, which was measured directly as well as by the induction of caspase 3, as an index of programmed cell death or apoptosis. The results demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor can rescue Null+ cells but not Null cells from suspension-induced cell death. This demonstrates that phospholipase C-gamma1 is required for insulin-like growth factor dependent cell survival under these conditions. Lastly, the data demonstrate that insulinlike growth factor stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma1 in both adherent and suspension cells.  (+info)

Fibronectin polymerization regulates the composition and stability of extracellular matrix fibrils and cell-matrix adhesions. (8/97)

Remodeling of extracellular matrices occurs during development, wound healing, and in a variety of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, and angiogenesis. Thus, identifying factors that control the balance between matrix deposition and degradation during tissue remodeling is essential for understanding mechanisms that regulate a variety of normal and pathological processes. Using fibronectin-null cells, we found that fibronectin polymerization into the extracellular matrix is required for the deposition of collagen-I and thrombospondin-1 and that the maintenance of extracellular matrix fibronectin fibrils requires the continual polymerization of a fibronectin matrix. Further, integrin ligation alone is not sufficient to maintain extracellular matrix fibronectin in the absence of fibronectin deposition. Our data also demonstrate that the retention of thrombospondin-1 and collagen I into fibrillar structures within the extracellular matrix depends on an intact fibronectin matrix. An intact fibronectin matrix is also critical for maintaining the composition of cell-matrix adhesion sites; in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin polymerization, neither alpha5beta1 integrin nor tensin localize to fibrillar cell-matrix adhesion sites. These data indicate that fibronectin polymerization is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix organization and stability. The ability of fibronectin polymerization to act as a switch that controls the organization and composition of the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix adhesion sites provides cells with a means of precisely controlling cell-extracellular matrix signaling events that regulate many aspects of cell behavior including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.  (+info)

Types of NMJ Diseases:

1. Myasthenia Gravis (MG): An autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and fatigue due to the immune system attacking the NMJs.
2. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS): A rare autoimmune disorder that affects the NMJ and can cause muscle weakness, fatigue, and other symptoms.
3. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes (CMS): A group of rare genetic disorders that affect the development and function of the NMJ, leading to muscle weakness and other symptoms.
4. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL): A group of rare genetic disorders that affect the nervous system and can cause muscle weakness, seizures, and vision loss.
5. Inflammatory Myopathies: A group of muscle disorders caused by inflammation, such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis, which can affect the NMJ and cause muscle weakness.

Symptoms of NMJ Diseases:

1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Fatigue and exhaustion
3. Difficulty swallowing or breathing (in severe cases)
4. Droopy eyelids or double vision
5. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
6. Weakness in the arms and legs
7. Muscle wasting and loss of muscle mass
8. Seizures or fits
9. Vision loss or blurred vision
10. Cramps or spasms

Diagnosis of NMJ Diseases:

1. Medical history and physical examination
2. Electromyography (EMG) to test muscle activity and strength
3. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) to test nerve function
4. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans to rule out other conditions
5. Blood tests to check for autoantibodies or other signs of inflammation
6. Genetic testing to diagnose inherited forms of NMJ diseases

Treatment of NMJ Diseases:

1. Medications such as steroids, immunosuppressants, and anticonvulsants to reduce inflammation and muscle weakness
2. Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function
3. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills
4. Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties
5. Surgery to relieve compression or repair damaged nerves or muscles
6. Plasmapheresis (plasma exchange) to remove harmful antibodies from the blood
7. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system
8. Immunoadsorption therapy to remove antibodies from the blood and restore immune balance
9. Stem cell transplantation to replace damaged cells with healthy ones
10. Gene therapy to repair genetic defects causing NMJ diseases.

It's important to note that the treatment of NMJ diseases is highly individualized and may vary depending on the specific diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and overall health of the patient. A multidisciplinary approach involving neurologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and other specialists may be necessary to provide comprehensive care.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.

There are many different types of fibrosis, including:

* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.

Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.

There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:

* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.

It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.

Treatment for ureteral obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery. In some cases, a temporary drainage catheter may be placed in the ureter to help relieve symptoms until the blockage can be fully treated.

Ureteral obstruction can be acute or chronic, and may occur in adults or children. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated ureteral obstruction can lead to complications such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Causes of Ureteral Obstruction:

Ureteral obstruction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Kidney stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the urine and can block the flow of urine through the ureters.
2. Tumors: Cancerous or non-cancerous growths that can block the ureters.
3. Scar tissue: Scarring from previous surgeries or injuries can cause narrowing or blockages in the ureters.
4. Prostate enlargement: In men, an enlarged prostate gland can press on the urethra and ureters, causing blockages.
5. Bladder neck obstruction: A condition where the bladder neck is narrow or blocked, preventing urine from flowing through the urethra.
6. Trauma: Injuries to the ureters or bladder can cause blockages.
7. Inflammation: Inflammation in the ureters or kidneys can cause swelling and blockages.
8. Congenital conditions: Some people may be born with abnormalities that cause blockages in the urinary tract.
9. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or spinal cord injuries can affect the nerves that control the bladder and ureters, leading to blockages.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as certain antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause damage to the ureters and lead to blockages.

Myeloid Cells. Myeloid Progenitor Cells. Cellular Structures. Cell Membrane Structures. Cell-Matrix Junctions. Focal Adhesions ... Adherens Junctions. Membrane Microdomains. Cell Nucleus Structures. Chromosome Structures. Euchromatin. Nuclear Pore. Cell ... 3. A11 - Cells. This vocabulary was reorganized to group the various components of a cell together under Cell Structures ( ... A11.284) and add 27 new cell structure terms. ...
Budding epithelial morphogenesis driven by cell-matrix versus cell-cell adhesion Shaohe Wang et al. Cell. 2021. . ... Cell-Matrix Junctions / metabolism* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.015. Epub 2021 Jun 15. Budding epithelial morphogenesis driven by cell-matrix versus cell-cell ... is driven by an overall combination of strong cell-matrix adhesion and weak cell-cell adhesion by peripheral epithelial cells. ...
Enhanced Contacts for Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using Carbon Nanotube Metal Matrix Composites ... Incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into a copper matrix to improve conductivity and mechanical performance is not a new idea ... uniform copper layer and to allow diffusion of copper into the CNT matrix. Using this method, the scientists created a copper- ... resulting in a metal-matrix composite material with better current handling capacity and mechanical properties than copper ...
The extracellular matrix protein betaIG-H3 is expressed at myotendinous junctions and supports muscle cell adhesion.. Ferguson ... Extracellular matrix protein betaig-h3/TGFBI promotes metastasis of colon cancer by enhancing cell extravasation.. Ma C; Rong Y ... TL1A induces the expression of TGF-β-inducible gene h3 (βig-h3) through PKC, PI3K, and ERK in THP-1 cells.. Lee SH; Kim EJ; Suk ... Adipose stem cells from chronic pancreatitis patients improve mouse and human islet survival and function.. Song L; Sun Z; Kim ...
Cell Membrane [A11.284.149] * Cell Membrane Structures [A11.284.149.165] * Cell-Matrix Junctions [A11.] * ... Cell-Matrix Junctions Preferred Concept UI. M0356299. Scope Note. Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches ... Cell-Matrix Adhesions Previous Indexing. Cell Adhesion (1991-2000). Extracellular Matrix (1991-2000). See Also. Cell Adhesion. ... Cell-Matrix Junctions Preferred Term Term UI T406003. Date01/31/2000. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2001). ...
The N-terminus of this protein contains elements for localization to cell-extracellular matrix junctions. The C-terminus ... From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein that is concentrated in areas of cell-substratum and cell-cell ... with integrins in the cell surface membrane in order to assist in the attachment of adherent cells to extracellular matrices ... The encoded protein plays a significant role in the assembly of actin filaments and in spreading and migration of various cell ...
... metalloproteinases are proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix as well as tight junctions between endothelial cells and ... In the central nervous system, cells connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells via connexin (Cx)-assembled gap junction channels ... Abstract: Prion infection leads to neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, and the accumulation of misfolded prion proteins ... Scrapie infection-induced Cx43 formed aggregated plaques within the cytoplasmic compartments at the cell-cell interfaces. The ...
Cell Matrix Adhesions Cell Matrix Junctions Cell-Matrix Adhesions Cell-Matrix Junction Junction, Cell-Matrix Junctions, Cell- ... Cell-Matrix. Cell Matrix Adhesions. Cell Matrix Junctions. Cell-Matrix Adhesions. Cell-Matrix Junction. Junction, Cell-Matrix. ... Cell-Matrix Junctions - Preferred Concept UI. M0356299. Scope note. Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell ... Cell-Matrix Junctions Entry term(s). Adhesions, Cell-Matrix ... Cell-Matrix Junctions [A11.] Cell-Matrix ...
Cell Membrane [A11.284.149] * Cell Membrane Structures [A11.284.149.165] * Cell-Matrix Junctions [A11.] * ... Cell-Matrix Junctions Preferred Concept UI. M0356299. Scope Note. Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches ... Cell-Matrix Adhesions Previous Indexing. Cell Adhesion (1991-2000). Extracellular Matrix (1991-2000). See Also. Cell Adhesion. ... Cell-Matrix Junctions Preferred Term Term UI T406003. Date01/31/2000. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2001). ...
... including cell-cell/matrix junctions at the plasma membrane, mitochondria and mitochondria-associated-membranes of the ER (MAMs ... Additionally, matrix deposition and inflammation further contribute to disease progression and renal functional decline.. Our ... Molecular Basis of Cystic Disorders Unit, Division of Genetics and Cell Biology. San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, ... Work from our lab has demonstrated that Polycystin-1 regulates cell migration, polarity and cytoskeletal organization, events ...
... accompanied by varying amounts of deposited extracellular matrix and differences in cell-to-cell junctions within each biofilm ... During host colonization GAS-cell aggregates or microcolonies are observed in tissues. GAS biofilm, which is an in vitro ... Differences in architecture and cell-surface morphology were observed in biofilms formed by the M1- and M41-wild-type strains, ... Slawomir Lukomski, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, ...
... co-exposure to boscalid and TiO2 significantly regulated expression of cell-matrix junction focal adhesion-related genes, e.g ... Title: Co-exposure to boscalid and TiO2 (E171) or SiO2 (E551) downregulates cell junction gene expression in small intestinal ... In this companion study, mRNA expression of genes related to cell junctions in a small intestinal epithelial cellular model ... Results showed that exposure to boscalid alone has no significant effect on cell junction genes, however, ...
keywords = "cell adhesion, cell biology, cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, intercellular adhesion molecules, ... cell-cell force exchange depended on the cell position within a cluster, and was adaptive to reconfigurations due to cell ... cell-cell force exchange depended on the cell position within a cluster, and was adaptive to reconfigurations due to cell ... cell-cell force exchange depended on the cell position within a cluster, and was adaptive to reconfigurations due to cell ...
Scalable Technologies and Tools for Brain Cell Census (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-MH-21-140. NIMH ... neuron-glia junctions, extracellular matrix, axons, dendrites, and soma ... brain cell sorting technologies to enable enrichment of rare cell types and single-cell omics characterization of brain cell ... The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN). The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Program awarded 9 projects in 2017, 5 in ...
In each cell, connections between IW cells and JCT cells/matrix were quantified; IW/IW connectivity was measured by cell border ... The mean number of IW/JCT cell-cell connections per cell significantly decreased (P < 0.01) while the summed GV volume per cell ... Endothelial cells lining SC elaborate tight junctions (TJs), down-regulation of which may widen paracellular spaces between ... Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as ...
... in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Moreover, ColQ interacts with perlecan/dystroglycan and the muscle-specific receptor ... plays an important structural role at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) by anchoring and accumulating ... ColQ−/− cells (a, b) as well as wt (c, d) and C2C12 cells (e, f) overexpressing GFP-ColQ (white arrows) were nearly devoid of ... cells compared to wt cells. B, Western blot of total α-AChR subunit, MuSK and rapsyn proteins in ColQ−/− cells compared to wt ...
TGF-β1 strongly enhances the expression of the gene TGFBI that encodes a cell-adhesion class, proapoptotic ECM protein called ... Macrophages induced a two-fold increase in BIGH3 expression and an 86% increase in renal proximal tubule epithelial cell ... and BIGH3 protein promotes renal cell death. To investigate this hypothesis, we used our mouse model of diabetic complications ... The Extracellular Matrix Protein Betaig-h3 Is Expressed at Myotendinous Junctions Andsupports Muscle Cell Adhesion. Cell and ...
... by brain endothelial cells separated by tight junctions, adherens junctions, and gap junctions; pericytes; the foot processes ... although genes that are crucial for extracellular matrix reorganization, along with genes that negatively regulate myostatin, ... With regard to changes that do affect cell function and then spread from stem cells into a sizable fraction of cells in a ... Somatic mosaicism arises from random mutational damage to stem cells and progenitor cells. Daughter somatic cells resulting ...
Cell-Matrix Interactions. Stavros Garantziotis, M.D. Medical Director, NIEHS Clinical Research Unit Tel 984-287-4412 Fax 919- ... Extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells are in a constant feedback relationship during development and in the tissue response to ... The group studies cell-matrix interactions in the response to environmental lung injury. ... Cells actively modify their ECM in the course of development, differentiation and inflammation. On the other hand, ECM can be ...
Assisted by the shear flow under shaking and inhibition of cell-to-extracellular matrix junctions by dispase, the cell sheets ... HCT-116 cells are used as a model cell line. Individual tumor cells are sparsely seeded onto petri-dishes. After a few days of ... as such NK cells can be activated rapidly to target virus-infected cells and tumor cells without prior sensitization. The human ... Natural killer cells activity against multiple myeloma cells is modulated by osteoblast-induced IL-6 and IL-10 production. ...
Light microscopic immunohistochemistry showed that this lectin is localized in such places as cell-cell junctions, basement ... extracellular matrix, or secretory substances in several organs, indicating that this galectin is mainly distributed ... Light microscopic immunohistochemistry showed that this lectin is localized in such places as cell-cell junctions, basement ... Light microscopic immunohistochemistry showed that this lectin is localized in such places as cell-cell junctions, basement ...
... but Tyr326Phe substitution alters the function of CAP during cell spreading. This is the first demonstration of phosphorylation ... regulate the function of CAP and reveal a functional role especially for the Src-mediated Tyr phosphorylation of CAP in cell ... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions. J Cell Biol. 1999, 144 (5): 1001-1017. ... Cell spreading assay. Cell spreading assays were carried out as described before [32], except that only 50.000 cells per well ...
These findings bring the role of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion in the development and function of the UVJ into the ... adhesion and dysregulate the extracellular matrix and tensile forces needed to close the vesicoureteric junction as part of the ... Reduced cell motility and expression of phosphorylated FAK in a fibroblast cell line of an individual with T3257I mutation. (A ... Fibroblast cell lines isolated from an individual with the T3257I mutation displayed reduced cell motility in response to PDGF ...
Site-specific binding to unprocessed RNA junctions or noncoding RNA could then ensure the controlled release of mature mRNAs to ... In the absence of a clear membrane delineation within the mitochondrial matrix, mitochondria appear to have developed ... They have been observed in the nucleus and cytosol of somatic cells, neurons, and germ cells and are implicated in a variety of ... All work on MRGs to date has been performed using human or mouse cells, and thus it is legitimate to ask whether they also ...
... revealed intact cell-matrix interactions (arrows in Figure 3D) and defects in tight junctions between type 1 and type 2 AECs. ... Rather than the normal dark stranded seal demarcating tight junctions at the apical cell-cell junction, β1rtTA lungs had a deep ... but clefts at the cell-cell junctions in β1rtTA lungs (junctions marked by asterisks in E). (F) Representative Western blot for ... cell count (1.8 × 105 ± 0.2 × 105 cells/mL from β1rtTA lungs compared with 0.8 × 105 ± 0.1 × 105 cells/ml from β1f/f lungs; ...
When the mucus layer was not intact, LPS was found to damage the tight junctions of Caco-2/HT29 co-cultured cells. Furthermore ... Subsequently, a Gaussian process model is used to characterize the spatial correlation within the error matrix. Finally, the ... Intestinal epithelial cells are protected by a mucus layer that contains MUC2 as its main structural component. However, a ... Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Caco2/HT-29 cells; lipopolysaccharide(LPS); ...
In this work, I learned that tissues are not only composed of cells that adhere to each other via cell-cell junctions, they are ... Extracellular matrix controls myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell contractility through modulation of cell shape and ... we found that cell shape distortion does in fact control cell fate switching. The cells progress through the cell cycle and ... Conversely, tensile forces generated within the cytoskeleton and transmitted across cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions will ...
  • Differences in architecture and cell-surface morphology were observed in biofilms formed by the M1- and M41-wild-type strains, accompanied by varying amounts of deposited extracellular matrix and differences in cell-to-cell junctions within each biofilm. (cdc.gov)
  • Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases are proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix as well as tight junctions between endothelial cells and have been implicated in … blood-brain barrier breakdown in neurodegenerative diseases. (iospress.com)
  • Fibroblast cell lines carrying the T3257I mutation exhibited a reduction in both cell motility and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression, suggesting a defect in the focal adhesions that link the cell cytoplasm to the extracellular matrix. (lww.com)
  • These structures consist of protein complexes and induce connectivity between adjacent epithelial cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Plectin is recruited into hemidesmosomes, multiprotein complexes that facilitate adhesion of epithelia to the basement membrane, thereby providing linkage between the intracellular keratin filaments to the laminins of the extracellular matrix. (embl.de)
  • Plectin binds to hemidesmosomes through association of its actin-binding domain with the first pair of fibronectin type III repeats and a small part of the connecting segment of the integrin-beta4 subunit, the latter (integrin-alpha6,beta4) acting as a receptor for the extracellular matrix component laminin-5. (embl.de)
  • He has researched Neuromuscular junction in several fields, including Laminin, Extracellular matrix, Molecular biology and Postsynaptic potential. (research.com)
  • The study incorporates disciplines such as Laminin, Extracellular matrix and Gene isoform in addition to Agrin. (research.com)
  • It's composed of endothelial cells which connected by tight junctions, and together with astrocytes, pericytes, neurons and the extracellular matrix, constitute the "neurovascular unit" that is essential for proper function of the CNS. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Many of these genes are involved in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, cell-growth promoting and transforming activity, modulation of the cancer microenvironment and extracellular matrix components, and cellular proliferation and differentiation. (oncotarget.com)
  • Background Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. (zfin.org)
  • This protein is found in the extracellular matrix, which is the intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically, it is found in part of the extracellular matrix called the basement membrane, which is a thin, sheet-like structure that separates and supports cells in many tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some examples of the major types of cell junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Tight junctions are transmembrane proteins fused on outer plasma membrane. (pressbooks.pub)
  • The neurovascular unit, which consists of astrocytic end-feet, neurons, pericytes, and endothelial cells, plays a key role in maintaining brain homeostasis by forming the blood-brain barrier and carefully controlling local cerebral blood flow. (iospress.com)
  • Importantly, force transmission through a cell required coordinated modulation of cell-matrix adhesion and actomyosin contractility in the cell and its neighbors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • TGF-β1 strongly enhances the expression of the gene TGFBI that encodes a cell-adhesion class, proapoptotic ECM protein called BIGH3. (scirp.org)
  • Ablation of βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells disrupted the paranodal cell adhesion complex in both peripheral and CNSs, resulting in muscle weakness and sciatic nerve conduction slowing in juvenile and middle-aged mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The plectin repeat is also seen in the cell adhesion junction plaque proteins, desmoplakin, envoplakin, and bullous pemphigoid antigen. (embl.de)
  • Following RNase A treatment, we detected an upregulation of carbohydrate metabolism, inositol phosphate cascade and oxidative phosphorylation, re-arrangement of cell adhesion, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and transcription. (oncotarget.com)
  • Membrane palmitoylated proteins (MPPs) are a class of cell polarity-associated proteins that function in both cell-cell junction and adhesion. (amegroups.com)
  • Applying this technology to spontaneously-forming adherent epithelial cell clusters, we found that basal force fluctuations were coupled to E-cadherin localization at the level of individual cell-cell junctions. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Macrophages induced a two-fold increase in BIGH3 expression and an 86% increase in renal proximal tubule epithelial cell apoptosis. (scirp.org)
  • Hemidesmosomes are similar to desmosomes in terms of function, however, they attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane rather than to an adjacent cell. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and allow for the passage of molecules freely between cells. (pressbooks.pub)
  • They have been observed in the nucleus and cytosol of somatic cells, neurons, and germ cells and are implicated in a variety of different functions. (rupress.org)
  • Further, the vast majority of somatic cell mutations occur in unused areas of DNA, and should not change cell behavior via altered or missing proteins. (fightaging.org)
  • Covers exciting breakthroughs such as SMC motor proteins actively organizing chromosomal DNA, TOR kinases regulating metabolism, new types of immunotherapy for cancer treatment, mechanisms regulating fast axonal transport and their relation to neurodegenerative diseases, how completion of DNA replication sets the time for cells to enter mitosis, how a cascade of signals specifies the site of cell division, and newly understood pathways of normal and pathological cell death. (books-express.ro)
  • Integral membrane proteins are those proteins that are a part of the cell membrane structure. (ukessays.com)
  • These fibrous proteins present may span the entire length of the cell membrane. (ukessays.com)
  • Some of the proteins of the cell membrane may also enter the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • Furthermore, other integral proteins serve as channel proteins as well to aid in selective transport of ions in and out of the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • These structures include globular proteins, which are peripherally placed and are only at times associated with the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • It is concluded that dermal application of a contact allergen, as exemplified by OX and HCA, may induce cell proliferation in the neighboring lymph nodes and spleen indicative of hapten and/or haptenated proteins diffusing through the skin to periph- eral nodes and the blood to produce systemic sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • Reader-friendly Cell Biology, 4th Edition, provides a concise but comprehensive foundation for students entering research or health care career paths. (books-express.ro)
  • Knowledge of cell biology has led to new treatments for cancer, heart failure, cystic fibrosis, and many other diseases. (books-express.ro)
  • His primary areas of study are Cell biology, Agrin, Neuromuscular junction, mTORC1 and Internal medicine. (research.com)
  • Markus A. Rüegg interconnects Receptor and Cellular differentiation in the investigation of issues within Cell biology. (research.com)
  • Markus A. Rüegg mainly focuses on Cell biology, mTORC1, mTORC2, Skeletal muscle and Internal medicine. (research.com)
  • His Cell biology study incorporates themes from Receptor, Neuromuscular junction, Cellular differentiation and Downregulation and upregulation. (research.com)
  • Markus A. Rüegg mainly investigates mTORC1, Cell biology, mTORC2, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and Internal medicine. (research.com)
  • His Cell biology research incorporates elements of Biochemistry, Cell growth and Cellular differentiation. (research.com)
  • The study of cell is one of the vital parts of biology. (isrgrajan.com)
  • It offers an amazing way to learn fundamental cell biology by providing study guides, flashcards and random practice tests. (isrgrajan.com)
  • It is an app good for college students or anyone who already has a basic level of idea of Cell Biology. (isrgrajan.com)
  • He has included themes like Motor neuron, Gene expression, Anatomy and Agrin in his Neuromuscular junction study. (research.com)
  • MPP7 expression was associated with multiple types of immune cells and correlated with the enrichment of these cells. (amegroups.com)
  • Force transduction at cell-cell adhesions regulates tissue development, maintenance and adaptation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Daughter somatic cells resulting from mutated cells also bear these mutations, and so a pattern of differently mutated somatic cell populations spreads throughout a tissue over years and decades. (fightaging.org)
  • With regard to changes that do affect cell function and then spread from stem cells into a sizable fraction of cells in a tissue, evidence is sparse when it comes to clear connections between this somatic mosaicism and specific issues in aging, however. (fightaging.org)
  • Cell junctions are the contact points between plasma membrane and tissue cells. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Pulp tissue was collected from permanent third molars and digested and then the cells were seeded onto plates containing HDMEM medium. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cells isolated from dental pulp exhibited characteristics compatible with those expected for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are good candidates for cell therapy applications and tissue bioengineering. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pulp stem cells (PSCs) are able to form ectopic dentin in vitro and in vivo and also to generate a dentine-pulp complex composed of a mineralized matrix, with dentinal tubules that are aligned and fi lled with odontoblastic prolongations, containing vascularized pulp tissue, in a similar arrangement to that observed in natural dental structures (3,6). (bvsalud.org)
  • βII spectrin is expressed in diverse cells and is an essential part of the submembranous cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that a spectrin-based cytoskeleton in myelinating glia contributes to formation and maintenance of paranodal junctions. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that a submembranous spectrin cytoskeleton is highly enriched at paranodes in Schwann cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of novel driver mutations of the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene in squamous cell lung cancer of Chinese patients. (cdc.gov)
  • A cell is the basic unit of life, and the cell membrane is an important structure present in all cells, irrespective of whether they are plant cells or animal cells. (ukessays.com)
  • Cell membrane functions include maintaining the boundaries of the cells, thus supporting the contents of the cell, maintaining proper cell to cell contact, regulating the entry and exit of molecules in and out of the cell, etc. (ukessays.com)
  • Thus, to understand how the cell membrane manages to carry out this procedure, one needs to understand the cell membrane structure. (ukessays.com)
  • Given below are the various components that comprise the structure of the cell membrane according to the Fluid Mosaic model. (ukessays.com)
  • The first layer of cell membrane consists of a phosphid bilayer. (ukessays.com)
  • Certain other elements may also be present along the length of the cell membrane, depending on the location and needs of the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • These cholesterol molecules also stabilize the membrane and provide the cell with a 'cushion effect', which prevents it from suffering any major injuries due to trauma and impact forces. (ukessays.com)
  • Cell membrane is the outer covering of a cell, which keep the ingredients of a cell intact. (ukessays.com)
  • Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes allow for strong attachment between cells or to a basement membrane. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Results We show that laminin polymerization indirectly promotes Fn downregulation at the MTJ, via a matrix metalloproteinase 11 (Mmp11)-dependent mechanism. (zfin.org)
  • A functional polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene promoter (-1306C/T) is associated with risk of development but not metastasis of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • These data provide insights into mechanisms that could control mechanical stress homeostasis in dynamic epithelial tissues, and highlight our methods as a resource for the study of mechanotransduction in cell-cell adhesions [corrected]. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Phosphorylation of CAP was not necessary for its localization to focal adhesions and stress fibers, but Tyr326Phe substitution alters the function of CAP during cell spreading. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metastasis is a major negative prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). (amegroups.com)
  • Evidence-based recommendations on lenvatinib (Kisplyx) with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma in adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Otherwise, one must accept that near all mutations (a) affect few cells, as somatic cells are limited in their ability to replicate, and (b) occur in cells that will be destroyed on some timescale, as they hit the Hayflick limit. (fightaging.org)
  • Tumor development is accompanied by a variety of disorders, such as fast unlimited proliferation, resistance to tumor suppressors, loss of the initial differentiation, cell death resistance, replicative immortality, reprogramming of energy metabolism, evasion from immune surveillance, induction of angiogenesis, infiltrated growth and dissemination [ 1 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • 5-HT interacts with its receptors, which alters cell metabolism and influences several stages of organogenesis 7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma and of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia, and idiopathic hypoglycemia. (cdc.gov)
  • A reduced amount of functional perlecan at the neuromuscular junction likely alters the balance of other molecules that signal when muscles should contract and when they should relax. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Major new themes in the 4th edition include the roles of intrinsically disordered polypeptides and phase separation in cellular functions, the influence of new molecular structures on understanding mechanisms, and the impact of exciting new methods¿from single cell RNA sequencing to second generation super resolution fluorescence microscopy¿on advancing our understanding. (books-express.ro)
  • Serotonergic neurotransmission modulates cell proliferation in several tissues, but is involved mainly in the morphogenesis of the craniofacial region 8 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Extensive renovation of the epithelium, cell proliferation, apoptosis and changes in the shape and positioning of cell groups are determined by morphogenetic gradients that play critical roles during the morphogenesis of teeth 13 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell proliferation in proper axillary and renal nodes, as well as in the spleen was also assessed. (cdc.gov)
  • Even with modern therapeutic interventions, dysregulated cell signaling, changes in ECM turnover, and apoptosis promote kidney damage and end-stage renal disease, highlighting a need for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy. (scirp.org)
  • The objective of this study is to isolate and characterize stem cells from the pulp of permanent third molars and analyze the cells obtained in terms of their morphology and chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic cell differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 8 increase recurrence and mortality risk by regulating enzyme activity in gastric adenocarcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the phosphate lipid bilayer is one of the main factors responsible for regulating the entry and exit of molecules in and out of the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • These molecules have important functions, as they serve as receptors for the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • These kind of protein molecules act as carriers for active transport of substances in and out of the cell. (ukessays.com)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • Clear, readable explanations provide a concise story about how cells function at the molecular level. (books-express.ro)
  • which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), where hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) clones and their progeny expand in the circulating blood cell population, occurs following the acquisition of somatic driver mutations. (fightaging.org)
  • Individuals diagnosed with clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) carry somatic mutations in hematological malignancy-associated driver genes, historically at or above a variant allele frequency of 2%, but do not exhibit abnormal blood cell counts or any other symptoms of hematologic disease. (fightaging.org)
  • We developed computational and experimental approaches to quantify, with both sub-cellular and multi-cellular resolution, the dynamics of force transmission in cell clusters. (elsevierpure.com)
  • At the multi-cellular scale, cell-cell force exchange depended on the cell position within a cluster, and was adaptive to reconfigurations due to cell divisions or positional rearrangements. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Paternal Occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals and Welding Fumes and Testicular Germ Cell Tumours in Sons in France. (who.int)
  • Parental occupational exposures in wood-related jobs and risk of testicular germ cell tumours in offspring in NORD-TEST a registry-based case-control study in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. (who.int)
  • To characterize pulp stem cells and evaluate their capacity for expansion and differentiation in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • It was observed that the pulp stem cells exhibited the capacity to adhere to plastic and a high rate of expansion and, after detection with specifi c stains, it was shown that the cells were capable of differentiation into osteoblasts and chondroblasts, but not into adipocytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Stem cells are cells with a low degree of differentiation that have the capacity to reproduce and can generate differentiated cells of several different types of tissues (1). (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic polymorphisms at TIMP3 are associated with survival of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. (cdc.gov)
  • Next Evidence-based recommendations on nivolumab (Opdivo) with platinum- and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for untreated HER2-negative advanced gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction or oesophageal adenocarcinoma in adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic biomarkers of pediatric sepsis and the function of immune cell infiltration in the development of this illness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings suggest that coordinated action of Src and Abl might regulate the function of CAP and reveal a functional role especially for the Src-mediated Tyr phosphorylation of CAP in cell spreading. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These junctions contribute to node formation and maintenance and are essential for proper nervous system function. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of these cover the structure and function of a particular cell. (isrgrajan.com)
  • One such shift involves the replacement of Fibronectin (Fn)-rich matrix, which is essential for both somite and early muscle development, with laminin-rich matrix essential for normal function of the myotome. (zfin.org)
  • His mTORC1 research integrates issues from Sirolimus, Endocrinology, Internal medicine, Skeletal muscle and Cell growth. (research.com)
  • One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. (zfin.org)
  • The Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database was used to investigate the correlation between MPP7 and the infiltration patterns of immune cells. (amegroups.com)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating glia form paranodal axoglial junctions that flank both sides of the nodes of Ranvier. (jneurosci.org)
  • Somatic mosaicism arises from random mutational damage to stem cells and progenitor cells. (fightaging.org)
  • His study in mTORC2 is interdisciplinary in nature, drawing from both Regulator, Embryonic stem cell and Stem cell. (research.com)
  • Flanking each node, paranodal junctions (paranodes) are formed between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or oligodendrocytes in the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, citric acid cycle intermedi- ates are not used for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and are shuttled out of the mitochondria, providing precursors for nucleotide, amino acid, and lipid synthesis path- ways for the dividing cell [13]. (who.int)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that the antitumor activity and decreased invasion potential of tumor cells caused by RNase A are associated with enhanced energy cascade functioning, rearrangement of cancer-related events regulating cell growth and dissemination, and attenuation of signaling pathways having tumor-promoting activity. (oncotarget.com)
  • In the USA, obesity has recent- obesity is associated with progres- aberrations of cancer cells, summa- ly surpassed tobacco use as the sion but not incidence [9]. (who.int)
  • Paranodal junctions contribute to both node assembly and maintenance. (jneurosci.org)
  • A increasing number of studies have proved that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway and restoring the immune killing inhibition of T cells can produce better therapeutic effects on tumors and chronic infectious diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, the inflammatory and immune status of pediatric sepsis was assessed using cell-type identification by estimating relative subsets of RNA transcripts (CIBERSORT). (bvsalud.org)
  • Within one scientific family, he focuses on topics pertaining to Postsynaptic potential under Neuromuscular junction, and may sometimes address concerns connected to Synapse. (research.com)
  • Temporal changes of the incidence of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. (who.int)
  • It is a common fact that cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. (ukessays.com)
  • which is the area between the ends of nerve cells and muscle cells where signals are relayed to trigger muscle contraction. (medlineplus.gov)

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