Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Esophagogastric Junction: The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Tight Junction Proteins: Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.Holliday Junction Resolvases: Enzymes that recognize CRUCIFORM DNA structures and introduce paired incisions that help to resolve the structure into two DNA helices.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Matrix Metalloproteinase 14: A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.Matrix Metalloproteinase 7: The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA, Cruciform: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated: Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Matrix Metalloproteinase 12: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted: A subclass of matrix metalloproteinases that are secreted into the pericellular space.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neuromuscular Junction Diseases: Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.PhosphoproteinsBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Heptanol: A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Matrix Metalloproteinase 10: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Catenins: A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neuroeffector Junction: The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Matrix Metalloproteinase 11: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Position-Specific Scoring Matrices: Tabular numerical representations of sequence motifs displaying their variability as likelihood values for each possible residue at each position in a sequence. Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are calculated from position frequency matrices.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).MARVEL Domain Containing 2 Protein: A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Matrix Attachment Regions: Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Zonula Occludens Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in TIGHT JUNCTION formation by binding to and anchoring proteins to the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.ElastinUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Matrix Metalloproteinase 20: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.

Matrix attachment regulates Fas-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells: a role for c-flip and implications for anoikis. (1/97)

Survival of endothelial cells is critical for cellular processes such as angiogenesis. Cell attachment to extracellular matrix inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the molecular mechanisms underlying matrix-induced survival signals or detachment-induced apoptotic signals are unknown. We demonstrate here that matrix attachment is an efficient regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. Thus, matrix attachment protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis, whereas matrix detachment results in susceptibility to Fas-mediated cell death. Matrix attachment modulates Fas-mediated apoptosis at two different levels: by regulating the expression level of Fas, and by regulating the expression level of c-Flip, an endogenous antagonist of caspase-8. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade functions as a survival pathway in adherent cells by regulating c-Flip expression. We further show that detachment-induced cell death, or anoikis, itself results from activation of the Fas pathway by its ligand, Fas-L. Fas-L/Fas interaction, Fas-FADD complex formation, and caspase-8 activation precede the bulk of anoikis in endothelial cells, and inhibition of any of these events blocks anoikis. These studies identify matrix attachment as a survival factor against death receptor-mediated apoptosis and provide a molecular mechanism for anoikis and previously observed Fas resistance in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Ezrin interacts with focal adhesion kinase and induces its activation independently of cell-matrix adhesion. (2/97)

Ezrin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, is required for cell morphogenesis, motility, and survival through molecular mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Using the N-terminal domain of ezrin as a bait, we found that p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) interacts with ezrin. We show that the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from cultured cell lysates. However, FAK does not interact with full-length ezrin in vitro, indicating that the FAK binding site on ezrin is cryptic. Mapping experiments showed that the entire N-terminal domain of FAK (amino acids 1-376) is required for optimal ezrin binding. While investigating the role of the ezrin-FAK interaction, we observed that, in suspended kidney-derived epithelial LLC-PK1 cells, overproduction of ezrin promoted phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-397, the major autophosphorylation site, creating a docking site for FAK signaling partners. Treatment of the cells with a Src family kinase inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of Tyr-577 but not that of Tyr-397, indicating that ezrin-mediated FAK activation does not require the activity of Src kinases. Altogether, these observations indicate that ezrin is able to trigger FAK activation in signaling events that are not elicited by cell-matrix adhesion.  (+info)

pp60(c-src) and related tyrosine kinases: a role in the assembly and reorganization of matrix adhesions. (3/97)

Activation of tyrosine kinases during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion is involved both in the regulation of focal contact assembly and in the initiation of signaling processes at the cell-matrix adhesive interface. In order to determine the role of pp60(c-src) and related kinases in these processes, we have compared the dynamic reorganization of phosphotyrosine, vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and tensin in cells with altered expression of Src-family kinases. Both null cells for pp60(c-src) and triple knockout cells for pp60(c-src), pp59(fyn), and pp62(c-yes) exhibited decreased phosphotyrosine levels in focal contacts when compared with wild-type cells. pp60(c-src)-null cells also exhibited faster assembly of cell-matrix adhesions and a more exuberant recruitment of FAK to these sites. Tensin, which normally segregates into fibrillar adhesions was localized in large focal contacts in the two mutant cell lines, suggesting involvement of pp60(c-src) in the segregation of focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions. Moreover, treatment of wild-type cells with tyrphostin AG1007, which inhibits both pp60(c-src) and FAK activity, induced accumulation of tensin in peripheral focal adhesions. These findings demonstrate that Src family kinases, and pp60(c-src) in particular, have a central role in regulating protein dynamics at cell-matrix interfaces, both during early stages of interaction and in mature focal contacts.  (+info)

Members of the Jagged/Notch gene families are expressed in injured arteries and regulate cell phenotype via alterations in cell matrix and cell-cell interaction. (4/97)

The Jagged/Notch signaling pathways control cell fate determination and differentiation, and their dysfunction is associated with human pathologies involving cardiovascular abnormalities. To determine the presence of these genes during vascular response to injury, we analyzed expression of Jagged1, Jagged2, and Notch1 through 4 after balloon catheter denudation of the rat carotid artery. Although low levels of Jagged1, Jagged2, and constitutive expression of Notch1 were seen in uninjured endothelium, expression of all was significantly increased in injured vascular cells. High Jagged1 expression was restricted to the regenerating endothelial wound edge, whereas Notch transcripts were abundant in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. To understand the basis for Jagged/Notch control of cellular phenotype, we studied an in vitro model of NIH3T3 cells transfected with a secreted form of the extracellular domain of Jagged1. We report that the soluble Jagged1 protein caused decreased cell-matrix adhesion and cell migration defects. Cadherin-mediated intercellular junctions as well as focal adhesions were modified in soluble Jagged1 transfectants, demonstrating that cell-cell contacts and adhesion plaques may be targets of Jagged/Notch activity. We suggest that Jagged regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions may contribute to the control of cell migration in situations of tissue remodeling in vivo.  (+info)

Molecular complexity and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions. (5/97)

Currently >50 proteins have been reported to be associated with focal contacts and related ECM adhesions. Most of these contain multiple domains through which they can interact with different molecular partners, potentially forming a dense and heterogeneous protein network at the cytoplasmic faces of the adhesion site. The molecular and structural diversity of this 'submembrane plaque' is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms, including competition between different partner proteins for the same binding sites, interactions triggered or suppressed by tyrosine phosphorylation, and conformational changes in component proteins, which can affect their reactivity. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesions can undergo dynamic changes in structure and molecular properties from dot-like focal complexes to stress-fiber-associated focal contacts, which can further 'mature' to form fibronectin-bound fibrillar adhesions. These changes are driven by mechanical force generated by the actin- and myosin-containing contractile machinery of the cells, or by external forces applied to the cells, and regulated by matrix rigidity.  (+info)

Cdk5 regulates cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in lens epithelial cells. (6/97)

Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, which is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated neurons. Lower levels of Cdk5 are also found in a wide variety of cell types, including the lens. Although Cdk5 has been shown to play an important role in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth, its function in non-neuronal cells is not known. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the role of Cdk5 in the lens. Results showed that, within the adult mouse lens, Cdk5 was localized to the cytoplasm, especially along the lateral membranes of differentiating primary fiber cells, which suggests a role in cell-cell adhesion. Staining at the tips of elongating fiber cells was also particularly strong, suggesting a role in cell-matrix adhesion. To examine the possible role of Cdk5 in lens epithelial cell adhesion, we stably transfected N/N1003A rabbit lens epithelial cells with cDNAs for Cdk5 or a dominant-negative mutation, Cdk5-T33. Attachment to a fibronectin matrix, as measured with substrate-coated cell adhesion strips, was increased by Cdk5 overexpression, while an equivalent overexpression of Cdk5-T33 had no effect. Cdk5 also increased the rate of cell attachment and spreading as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). In addition, Cdk5 overexpression decreased cell-cell adhesion as measured by a cell aggregation assay. These findings suggest that Cdk5 plays a role in regulating both cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in the lens.  (+info)

PLC-gamma1 is required for IGF-I protection from cell death induced by loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. (7/97)

Phospholipase C-gamma1, a tyrosine kinase substrate, hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which act as second messenger moleculesto mobilize intracellular calcium and activate protein kinase C, respectively. We have investigated the role of phospholipase C-gamma1 in anoikis, or cell death, induced by the loss of extracellular matrix adhesion. Spontaneously immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts nullizygous at the Plcg1 locus (Plcg1(-/-)), referred to as Null cells, were derived from targeted gene disruption experiments. Subsequently, phospholipase C-gamma1 was re-expressed in these cells to derive Null+ cells. The Null and Null+ cells were then placed in suspension to induce cell death, which was measured directly as well as by the induction of caspase 3, as an index of programmed cell death or apoptosis. The results demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor can rescue Null+ cells but not Null cells from suspension-induced cell death. This demonstrates that phospholipase C-gamma1 is required for insulin-like growth factor dependent cell survival under these conditions. Lastly, the data demonstrate that insulinlike growth factor stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma1 in both adherent and suspension cells.  (+info)

Fibronectin polymerization regulates the composition and stability of extracellular matrix fibrils and cell-matrix adhesions. (8/97)

Remodeling of extracellular matrices occurs during development, wound healing, and in a variety of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, and angiogenesis. Thus, identifying factors that control the balance between matrix deposition and degradation during tissue remodeling is essential for understanding mechanisms that regulate a variety of normal and pathological processes. Using fibronectin-null cells, we found that fibronectin polymerization into the extracellular matrix is required for the deposition of collagen-I and thrombospondin-1 and that the maintenance of extracellular matrix fibronectin fibrils requires the continual polymerization of a fibronectin matrix. Further, integrin ligation alone is not sufficient to maintain extracellular matrix fibronectin in the absence of fibronectin deposition. Our data also demonstrate that the retention of thrombospondin-1 and collagen I into fibrillar structures within the extracellular matrix depends on an intact fibronectin matrix. An intact fibronectin matrix is also critical for maintaining the composition of cell-matrix adhesion sites; in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin polymerization, neither alpha5beta1 integrin nor tensin localize to fibrillar cell-matrix adhesion sites. These data indicate that fibronectin polymerization is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix organization and stability. The ability of fibronectin polymerization to act as a switch that controls the organization and composition of the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix adhesion sites provides cells with a means of precisely controlling cell-extracellular matrix signaling events that regulate many aspects of cell behavior including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.  (+info)

Cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions are often characterized as functionally distinct adhesion systems within the cell that mediate different proliferative outcomes. In contrast to the widely accepted pro-proliferative effect of cell-matrix adhesion, the proliferative effect of cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion remains unresolved. While the majority of studies demonstrate that cadherins mediate contact inhibition of proliferation, there have also been compelling reports of cadherins stimulating cell cycling. Here, we show that matrix stiffness is the mechanistic basis for crosstalk between N-cadherin at cell-cell junctions and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at cell-matrix adhesions, and that this interplay between adhesive systems modulates the proliferative role of N-cadherin. We demonstrate that N-cadherin is induced in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following vascular injury, an in vivo model of tissue stiffening and proliferation. Complementary experiments on deformable polyacrylamide hydrogels
What kind of message(s) forces a cell to reprogram itself for the flight reaction? Recent years have brought about some intriguing discoveries. On the one hand, cells that have sustained and accumulated a critical level of DNA damage are destined to collapse their focal contacts with the surrounding matrix proteins and undergo apoptotic death (reviewed in Ref. 92). Stress-induced changes in cell-matrix adhesion initiate the flight reaction, which may, eventually, result in anoikis (22, 56). Here, cell adhesion to its matrix serves as a sensor of the severity of stress, triggering cell exfoliation and suicide. Both reactions appear to be "altruistic" in the sense that they protect the organism from the accumulation of genetically compromised cells.. Stress-induced changes in cell-matrix adhesion occur via several routes that invariably lead to the disassembly of the focal adhesion complexes (matrix protein-integrin receptor-recruited adaptor proteins of the focal adhesion-cytoskeleton axis). The ...
In the field of cell-matrix adhesion, an emerging concept is that cells respond differently to matrices that are configured in three-dimensions, compared to the...
The perfect guide to start healing from MTSS.: How Do You Know If Youre Getting Mtss. The MTSS Guide, Tips and treatments for MTSS.
Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30-50 nm) spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We also studied whether wild-type and phospho-deficient or -mimicking mutants of vimentin changed the size and lifetime of focal adhesions (FAs), cell shape, and cell migration, using live-cell total internal reflection imaging and confocal microscopy. We observed that vimentin exists in fragments of different lengths. Short fragments were mostly the size of a unit-length filament and were mainly localized close to small cell-matrix adhesions. Long ...
Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30-50 nm) spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We also studied whether wild-type and phospho-deficient or -mimicking mutants of vimentin changed the size and lifetime of focal adhesions (FAs), cell shape, and cell migration, using live-cell total internal reflection imaging and confocal microscopy. We observed that vimentin exists in fragments of different lengths. Short fragments were mostly the size of a unit-length filament and were mainly localized close to small cell-matrix adhesions. Long
Cells adhere to the surrounding probe and tissues its mechanical properties by forming cell-matrix adhesions. noticed results are triggered by the discharge of talin head-rod autoinhibition. In bottom line, this research provides proof into how the managed talin fishing rod area unfolding works as a essential regulator of adhesion framework and function and therefore handles 36322-90-4 manufacture central mobile procedures such as cell migration and base realizing. Launch Cell-matrix adhesions are active and huge membrane layer spanning proteins processes that physically core pet cells to their environment. These processes connect integrin adhesion receptors to actin fibres offering a mechanised hyperlink between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. In addition to mechanised drive, cell-matrix adhesions transmit biochemical indicators across the plasma membrane layer and they possess an essential function in the regulations of cell anchorage, dispersing and migration. The central role ...
Recent advances in high-resolution microscopy have made it possible to follow the dynamics of single molecules. Establishing the relationship between molecular behaviors and cell-level outputs remains however a major challenge.. We are developing integrated imaging, image analysis, and data analysis frameworks that bridge the gap between the spatial and temporal scales of single-molecule behavior and cell-level events. In collaboration with the Galbraith lab at Oregon Health and Science University, we are applying our analyses to study the dynamics of integrin molecules (key receptors in cell-matrix adhesion) in the context of cell edge protrusion activity. ...
Autor: Volberg, T. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2001-06; Keywords: Animals; Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism; Cell Line; Cell-Matrix Junctions/drug effects/enzymology/*metabolism; Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; Focal Adhesions/drug effects/enzymology/metabolism; Gene Deletion; Mice; Microfilament Proteins/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Phosphorylation/drug effects; Phosphotyrosine/metabolism; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-yes; Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)/antagonists &; inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism; Tyrphostins/pharmacology; src-Family Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism; Titel: pp60(c-src) and related tyrosine kinases: a role in the assembly and reorganization of matrix adhesions
This paper shows that, in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EC) monolayers, the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1, but not other members of the beta 1 subfamily, are located at cell-cell contact borders and not at cellular free edges. Also the alpha v chain, but not its most common partner beta 3, that is widely expressed in EC cell-matrix junctions, is found at cell-cell borders. In EC monolayers, the putative ligands of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 receptors, i.e., laminin, collagen type IV, and fibronectin, are also organized in strands corresponding to cell-cell borders. The location of the above integrin receptors is not an artifact of in vitro culture since it has been noted also in explanted islets of the native umbilical vein endothelium. The integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 play a role in the maintenance of endothelial monolayer continuity in vitro. Indeed, specific antibodies to alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1, and the synthetic ...
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Mechanotransduction - from how cells sense mechanical forces in different tissues to how these mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical signals - is an essential biological process in development, normal physiology and disease. In this exciting area, we are particularly interested in investigate the role of mechano-biological processes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions (e.g. topography and rigidity of the extracellular matrix) in the regulation of collective cell migration. Using a combination of various techniques, from molecular biology to nanotechnology and live cell imaging, for example, we have been accumulating interesting data suggesting that one of the most important factors distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic cells could be their ability to collectively invade and migrate towards blood vessels by physically interacting with the surrounding extracellular matrices. By experimenting with the nanotopographically-defined cell adhesion substratum (i.e. ...
Mechanotransduction - from how cells sense mechanical forces in different tissues to how these mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical signals - is an essential biological process in development, normal physiology and disease. In this exciting area, we are particularly interested in investigating the role of mechano-biological processes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions (e.g. topography and rigidity of the extracellular matrix) in the regulation of collective and directed cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. Using a combination of various techniques, from molecular biology to nanotechnology and live cell imaging, for example, we have been accumulating interesting data suggesting that one of the most important factors distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic cells could be their ability to collectively invade and migrate towards blood vessels by physically interacting with the surrounding extracellular matrices. By experimenting with the ...
The talk is devoted to two different approaches to model and simulate processes occurring during cell migration. Firstly, a discrete computational model in 3D is presented to simulate the formation of cell-matrix adhesions on a single 3D matrix fibre. This model allows to analyse the importance of the alignment between the matrix fibre and the cell protrusion on the size of the focal adhesions. Secondly, a 1D multi-physics model of fluid-structure interaction to simulate the behaviour of a cell confined in a complex microfluidics device is introduced. Cells are modelled as a poroelastic material following recent experimental evidences whereas the fluid is modelled by using the Poiseuille equation, considering it as a laminar incompressible Newtonian fluid ...
The primary goal of the proposed research is to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the coordination of collective cell movements that, in turn, are required f...
Expression of Mtss1 exons 11-13 in human medulloblastomas and medulloblastoma derived cell lines. A: Lanes 1-5: classical medulloblatoma samples D1198, D112
O-Glycosylation in general has impact on a diversity of biological processes covering cellular aspects (targeted transport of glycoproteins), molecular aspects (protein conformation, resistance to proteolysis), and aspects involved in cellular communication (cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction ...
Li, O. (Creator), English, K. (Creator), Tonlorenzi, R. (Creator), Cossu, G. (Creator), Tedesco, F. S. (Creator), Wood, K. J. (Creator), figshare , 25 Jan 2013, 10.6084/m9.figshare.106724. Dataset ...
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Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Single episodes of voluntary exercise induced a functional increase in hippocampal synapses mediated by activity-dependent expression of the BAR protein Mtss1L, acting as a novel early effector of synapse formation.
The proper execution of gastrulation requires that cell signalling, cell adhesion and cell migration are all precisely coordinated and integrated. In their investigations into how this might occur, Latinkic et al. studied Cyr61, a CCN-family, secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)- associated protein. CCN proteins are very versatile - they can mediate cell adhesion and migration, for example, and can induce signalling events - all expected features of candidate gastrulation regulators. The authors now report, on p. 2429, that Cyr61 is an important regulator of gastrulation movements: both its overexpression and inhibition disrupt gastrulation in frog embryos, perhaps because Cyr61 is required for the assembly of a fibronectin-rich ECM and because it regulates cell- cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Intriguingly, Xcyr61 also appears to both stimulate and inhibit Wnt signalling in a context-dependent manner. Future studies into the different domains of Cyr61 should reveal where its many activities ...
The ability of cells to migrate is a fundamental physiological process involved in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance and wound healing. In order for cells to migrate, they must interact with their environment using adhesion receptors, such as integrins, and form specialized adhesion complexes that mediate responses to different extracellular cues. In this review, we discuss the role of integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) in cell migration, highlighting the layers of regulation that are involved, including intracellular signalling cascades, mechanosensing and reciprocal feedback to the extracellular environment. We also discuss the role of IACs in extracellular matrix remodeling and how they impact upon cell migration. ...
Background The dynamic regulation of cell-cell adhesions is crucial for developmental processes, including tissue formation, differentiation and motility. Adherens junctions are important components...
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Putative adhesion receptor, that could be involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions required for normal cell differentiation and migration.
The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed focal adhesions, where bundles of actin filaments are anchored to transmembrane receptors of the integrin family through a multi-molecular complex of junctional plaque proteins. Some of the constituents of focal adhesions participate in the structural link between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, while others are signalling molecules, including different protein kinases and phosphatases, their substrates, and various adapter proteins. Integrin signaling is dependent upon the non-receptor tyrosine kinase activities of the FAK and src proteins as well as the adaptor protein functions of FAK, src and Shc to initiate downstream signaling events. These signalling events culminate in reorganization of the ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), although tenth in cancer incidence, holds the dubious distinction of being the fifth cause of cancer deaths in the Western countries and possibly the deadliest malignancy. Inoperable PDAC is characterized by late diagnosis, extensive metastases, extremely poor response to chemotherapy and, consequently, poor patients prognosis-6.7% 5-year survival. PDAC reflects the failure of the medical profession to significantly prolong patients lives and modest expectations for future cure. PDAC is characterized by extensive desmoplastic reaction, resulting in approximately 50% of tumors volume consisting of non-tumor cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) stroma. These properties imply an important role for cell-ECM interaction, making cell-matrix adhesion molecules, such as integrins, of special interest as possible candidate targets for future anti-PDAC therapies. This review will attempt to overview the status of studies dealing with the involvement of integrins ...
Vascular wall of all sizes from capillaries to the large arterial trunks contain cells and intercellular matrix variable in quantity (cell/matrix ratio), and also in quality (nature and relative...
Binds tightly to hydroxyapatite. Appears to form an integral part of the mineralized matrix. Probably important to cell-matrix interaction.
Im a trained accountant who worked in the field for more than 20 years. With a bad economy and a desire to be there more for my family instead of...
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Enligt United States Census Bureau så har countyt en total area på 1 225 km². 1 201 km² av den arean är land och 24 km² är vatten.. ...
Previous projects 2011-2013:. p53/mouse double minute 2 homolog complex deregulation in Merlin deficient tumours This project involved investigation of the role of p53 deregulation in schwannoma development and targeting pathways involved in p53 degradation. In this project I was first author. Gas6/Axl-family receptors in schwannoma pathological proliferation, adhesion and survival In this project we have investigated the role of Axl receptor in schwannoma pathological proliferation, cell-matrix adhesion and survival. In this project I was first and corresponding author.. 2010-2012: The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF1/2) signaling in Merlin-deficient human schwannomas Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) regulates human schwannoma proliferation, adhesion and survival In these studies we have demonstrated that IGF1/2 and IGFBP-1 are released from schwannoma cells and IGF-I receptor overexpressed leading to increased schwannoma proliferation and cell-matrix adhesion. In ...
Mtss1 encodes an actin-binding protein, dysregulated in a variety of tumors, that interacts with sonic hedgehog/Gli signaling in epidermal cells. Given the prime importance of this pathway for cerebellar development and tumorigenesis, we assessed expression of Mtss1 in the developing murine cerebellum and human medulloblastoma specimens. During development, Mtss1 is transiently expressed in granule cells, from the time point they cease to proliferate to their synaptic integration. It is also expressed by granule cell precursor-derived medulloblastomas. In the adult CNS, Mtss1 is found exclusively in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neuronal differentiation is accompanied by a switch in Mtss1 splicing. Whereas immature granule cells express a Mtss1 variant observed also in peripheral tissues and comprising exon 12, this exon is replaced by a CNS-specific exon, 12a, in more mature granule cells and in adult Purkinje cells. Bioinformatic analysis of Mtss1 suggests that differential exon usage may affect
Celastrol was originally identified from traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii decades ago and used for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Beside its superior antitumor capabilities, the underlying mechanism of the anti-tumor activity of celastrol was also mentioned, including through modulating proteasome activity, heat shock response, and NF-κB signaling pathways.. Some of these reports also mentioned the ability of celastrol to inhibit tumor metastasis; nevertheless, to date, no study has described its anti-metastatic activities comprehensively, or characterized the underlying mechanisms profoundly. In the current study, for the first time, we systematically evaluated the effects of celastrol represented in metastatic-related events including cell-ECM adhesion, migration, invasion, and development of pulmonary metastases in vivo, using corresponding assays and models. Addtionally, we revealed that celastrol inhibited the integrin-mediated Mice melanoma cell ...
Integrins are cell‐surface adhesion molecules formed from eight different β chains and 18 different α chains that assemble as heterodimeric transmembrane receptors to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions
ERIJMAN, Mauricio O. y LITOVSKY, Silvio. Remodeling of the Vascular Extracellular Matrix: Physiopathological and Molecular Aspect. Rev. argent. cardiol. [online]. 2007, vol.75, n.2, pp. 137-144. ISSN 1850-3748.. In arterial remodeling, as well as in various body tissues, the extracellular matrix plays an important role. Remodeling is a phenomenon which is difficult to reproduce experimentally because the makeup of the matrix is complex. In the case of arteries, a key factor is the change in the smooth muscle-matrix relation, which causes the phenotype of the smooth muscle to change from contractile to secretory. For the changes to occur in the matrix and smooth muscle, the activation of protease-encoding genes is essential, since they modify the cell-cell and cell-matrix relations.. Palabras clave : Extracelar Matrix; Remodeling; Arteries. ...
Antimicrobial resistance pattern of UPEC isolates from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI). UPEC = uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
This article describes the function of the endothelial-specific gene, FGD5. We identified expression of FGD5 in EC isolated from diverse sites in the vasculature. In contrast, we did not identify FGD5 expression in lines derived from epithelial cells or fibroblasts. We demonstrated that loss of FGD5 function in human primary ECs impairs VEGF-stimulated angiogenic sprout formation in the robust in vitro sprout outgrowth model, which correlates with altered cell-matrix interaction and increased sensitivity to proapoptotic conditions. Mechanistically, these events are associated with impaired PI3 kinase-mediated Akt activation among FGD5-deficient EC, coupled to signaling from endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases, such as VEGF and insulin receptors.. Angiogenesis and vascular integrity in the embryo and the adult are critically dependent on VEGF stimulation of VEGF-R2 on the EC. Loss of VEGF signaling in the mouse embryo results in failure to develop new vessels,8 and regression of established ...
Presentation - The VDR nuclear receptor is a novel proxy for MTSS1 and MTUS1 in breast, bladder and colorectal cancers Type: Conference presentation Presenter: Prof. Trevor Marshall Conference: 4th China Medicinal Biotech Forum Location: Dailan, ChinaVDRautoimmuneVDRcancersVDRVDRVDRVDROlmesartanVDROlmesartanVDRCancersVDRNuclear ReceptorCancersVDRnuclear receptorcancersinflammationcancerinflammationcancerinflammationautoimmuneallergiesinflammationHuman MicrobiomeHuman MicrobiomeRheumatoid A…
They also participate in some cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions. Nuclear lamina exist in all animals and all tissues. Some ... intermediate filaments form cell-cell connections and anchor the cell-matrix junctions that are used in messaging between cells ... thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. Moreover, it is involved in many cell ... Plant and algae cells are generally larger than many other cells; so cytoplasmic streaming is important in these types of cells ...
... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): ... In non-muscle cells, CAP/Ponsin inhibits cell spreading and focal adhesion turnover, as its siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted ... as overexpression of CAP/Ponsin disrupted normal cell-matrix contact morphology. In a mouse model of viral myocarditis due to ... CAP/Ponsin is part of a small family of adaptor proteins that regulate cell adhesion, growth factor signaling and cytoskeletal ...
... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". J. Cell Biol. 144 (5): 1001-17. doi: ... Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one ... Cell spreading and movement occur through the process of binding of cell surface integrin receptors to extracellular matrix ... stabilising integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus ...
... stabilising integrin-mediated cell-matrix junctions. Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus ... Integrin receptors are involved in the attachment of adherent cells to the extracellular matrix and of lymphocytes to other ... It also allows cells to measure extracellular rigidity, since cells in which talin is prevented from forming mechanical ... Talin-1 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Talin-2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Integrins at the US ...
... that mediate cell-extracellular matrix junctions and are involved in other cellular compartments that control cell-cell ... Therefore, they are responsible for cell to cell crosstalk via cell-cell contacts and integrin mediated cell adhesion through ... "The integrin co-activator Kindlin-3 is expressed and functional in a non-hematopoietic cell, the endothelial cell". J. Biol. ... integrin function depend on both cell type (Natural killer cell or Leukocytes) and the integrin activation stimulus. The ...
... u937 cells MeSH A11.284.149.165 - cell membrane structures MeSH A11.284.149.165.165 - cell-matrix junctions MeSH A11.284. ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... hela cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.400.500 - kb cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.465 - hl-60 cells MeSH A11.251.210.190.475 - ht29 cells ...
... transmembrane junctions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 4: 487-525. doi: ... It seems to be a paradox that FAK is not absolutely required for cell migration, and may play other roles in the cell, ... With the exception of certain types of blood cells, most cells express FAK. FAK tyrosine kinase activity can be activated, ... Haier J, Nicolson GL (February 2002). "PTEN regulates tumor cell adhesion of colon carcinoma cells under dynamic conditions of ...
Spot-like adherens junctions help cells adhere to extracellular matrix both in vivo and in vitro where they are called focal ... Cell junctions are also important in reducing stress placed upon cells. In vertebrates, there are three major types of cell ... Cell junctions consist of multiprotein complexes that provide contact between neighboring cells or between a cell and the ... anchoring junctions) Gap junctions (communicating junction) Tight junctions (occluding junctions) Invertebrates have several ...
... and cell-matrix junctions, mainly mediated by integrins. Cell-cell junctionsEdit. Cell-cell junctions can occur in different ... Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell- ... cell junctions can be categorised into two main types according to what interacts with the cell: cell-cell junctions, mainly ... Cell-matrix junctionsEdit. Cells creates extracellular matrix by releasing molecules into its surrounding extracellular space. ...
Death of some cells and their surrounding matrix may be required for a tissue to reach its final configuration and gap ... Because of the widespread occurrence of gap junctions in cell types other than nerve cells the term gap junction became more ... in gap junctions they were seen at the junction of neighboring nerve cells. The close proximity of the neighboring cell ... Gap junctions were so named because of the "gap" shown to be present at these special junctions between two cells.[88] With the ...
... while leaving the cells largely intact with their supporting matrix and synaptic connections and electrical junctions. However ... The micropipette used to record from each cell contained a dye so that each physiologically identified cell could also be ... Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. The ... In this manner, whole cell patch recording of amacrine neurons in the salamander retina allowed light evoked excitatory post- ...
Cell Surface and Communication Extracellular matrix (including cell walls) Cell adhesion and junctions Signal transduction ... Cell Division, Differentiation and Development Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis Meiosis and gametogenesis Fertilization and ... GRE Subject Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology was a standardized exam provided by ETS (Educational Testing Service) that ... stem cells and polarity) A. Genetic Foundations Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance Transformation, transduction and ...
They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion ... intermediate junction, or "belt desmosome") are protein complexes that occur at cell-cell junctions in epithelial and ... A similar cell junction in non-epithelial, non-endothelial cells is the fascia adherens. It is structurally the same, but ... An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. ...
... with other cells in the bone through gap junctions-coupled cell processes-which pass through small channels in the bone matrix ... Extracellular matrix[edit]. Bones consist of living cells embedded in a mineralized organic matrix. This matrix consists of ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.[13] ... Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.[34] Progenitor cells such ...
... also regulates the integrity of the extracellular matrix and the loss of corresponding cell-cell adhesions (primarily ... Similarly, RhoA's stimulation of PKN2 kinase activity regulates cell-cell adhesion through apical junction formation and ... Wheeler AP, Ridley AJ (2004). "Why three Rho proteins? RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, and cell motility". Exp. Cell Res. 301 (1): 43-9. doi: ... McBeath R, Pirone DM, Nelson CM, Bhadriraju K, Chen CS (2004). "Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stem cell ...
Cell adhesion, mechanical adhesion between cells and/or the extracellular matrix Role of cell adhesions in neural development ... A communicating junction links the intracellular compartments of two adjacent cells, allowing transit of relatively small ... In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling) is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix ... and subsequently another cell can bind it with an appropriate cell surface receptor or cell adhesion molecule. An important ...
Cells of the epithelium are bound basally to a laminal matrix and apically to an extraembryonic matrix. The apical microvilli ... in part driving the movement of cells inward. The apical junctions which bind PMCs to their neighboring epithelial cells become ... as the cells reduce their affinity for the extraembryonic matrix. These cells concurrently increase their affinity for other ... Neighboring epithelial cells are also connected to each other through apical junctions, protein complexes containing adhesion ...
Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin ... signaling between the cell and the matrix. G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, ... "Tendon cells in vivo form a three dimensional network of cell processes linked by gap junctions". Journal of Anatomy. 189 (Pt 3 ... The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond ...
... the cells of the papillary layer of the dermis are attached to the basement membrane by anchoring fibrils, which consist of ... Not to be confused with dentinoenamel junction.. The dermoepidermal junction or dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) is the area of ... "Dermo-epidermal junction zone". Netzwerk Epidermolysis bullosa. 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2011.. ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are diseases where there is a breakdown of the dermoepidermal junction ...
Extraglomerular mesangial cells are in close connection to afferent and efferent arteriolar cells by gap junctions, allowing ... Mesangial cells are separated by intercellular spaces containing extracellular matrix called the mesangial matrix that is ... Communication between mesangial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via gap junctions helps regulate the process of ... The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus. Mesangial cells can be ...
Entotic cells, also referred to as cell-in-cell structures, are triggered by loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix ( ... Adherens junctions bind cells together by linking cadherin transmembrane protein complexes of adjacent cells to the ... "A Nonapoptotic Cell Death Process, Entosis, that Occurs by Cell-in-Cell Invasion". Cell. 131 (5): 966-979. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... forming the trademark cell-in-cell structures. Though cell-in-cell structures commonly refer to the interaction between two ...
This transition occurs through the loss of epithelial cadherin, tight junctions, and adherens junctions on the cell membranes ... This entire matrix of common basal material is called coenenchyme. In order to differentiate the use of the word mesenchyme in ... The first cells of the embryo to undergo EMT and form mesenchyme are the extra-embryonic cells of the trophectoderm. These ... Mesenchymal cells can migrate easily, in contrast to epithelial cells, which lack mobility and are organized into closely ...
Cell junctions are the contact points between plasma membrane and tissue cells. There are mainly 5 different types of cell ... They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, ... junctions: tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions. Tight junctions are a pair of ... They attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane. Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of ...
Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that ... a thin sheet of extracellular matrix proteins that separates the epithelial sheet from underlying cells and connective tissue. ... The basolateral membrane refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the ... Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture ...
... such as muscle cells, contain even more cristae. Cristae membranes are studded on the matrix side with small round protein ... "Formation of cristae and crista junctions in mitochondria depends on antagonism between Fcj1 and Su e/g". The Journal of Cell ... It is much less permeable to ions and small molecules than the outer membrane, creating compartments by separating the matrix ... Cristae and the inner boundary membranes are separated by junctions. The end of cristae are partially closed by transmembrane ...
... tight junctions, and expression of cell-cell adhesion markers such as E-cadherin, mesenchymal cells do not make mature cell- ... cell contacts, can invade through the extracellular matrix, and express markers such as vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, ... iPS cells). iPS cell reprogramming, also known as somatic cell reprogramming, can be achieved by ectopic expression of Oct4, ... These findings are all consistent with previous observations that embryonic stem cells resemble epithelial cells and express E- ...
For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin ... In particular, abnormal interactions between epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix are associated with the over- ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
Fibroblast, endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell proliferation. *Matrix metalloproteinase, fibronectin and hyaluronan ... Activated endothelial cells respond by retracting and reducing cell junctions, loosening themselves from their embedded ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ...
The decrease in AChR clusters in BAPTA-loaded cells was dose-dependent and reversible, and no change in the number or mobility ... since agrin-induced AChR clustering was unaffected in cells loaded with EGTA, a slower-binding calcium chelator. These findings ... Agrin is an extracellular matrix protein that directs neuromuscular junction formation. Early signal transduction events in ... Agrin is an extracellular matrix protein that directs neuromuscular junction formation. Early signal transduction events in ...
β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. ... β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. ...
2. Adhesive junctions:. A. Cell-to-cell B. Cell-to-matrix. 3.Communicating (gap) junctions Types of intercellular junctions: 1 ... Cell-to-matrix junctions. 1. Focal adhesions Cell-to-matrix junctions. 2. Hemidesmosomes Communicating (gap) junctions THANKS. ... The intercellular space in cell-cell junctions is maintained at 20 nm Adhesive junctions Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens ... junction that completely encircles the cell Occluding (tight) junctions. (zonula occludens) : Hold cells together. Control the ...
Study Cell Junctions and Adhesion flashcards from Joel Glotfelty ... during cell locomotion where dynamic cell-cell and cell-matrix ... Cell adhesion does not only happen at stable cell junctions. During cell locomotion, we also need ... Cell Junctions and Adhesion Flashcards Preview BMS , Cell Junctions and Adhesion , Flashcards ... The transmembrane proteins for the cell-cell anchor junctions (belt and spot desmosomes) are?. Cytoskeletal? ...
In multi-layered epithelia tight junctions (TJ) are confined to the most suprabasal viable layer. Here the authors show that ... 6d-f), further confirming that these are cell-cell and not cell-matrix junctions. However, these junctions were strongly ... c Line plot profile of cell contacts, pink arrows: cell-matrix contacts, black arrows: cell-cell contacts. a-c Representative ... resulting in integrin and cell-matrix interaction-dependent stiffening of cells28. However, this study used single cells in ...
... what kind of cells? There are many kinds. Jail cells, hive cells, plant cells, animal cells, blood cells, brain cells. We need ... Thanks! :) 1.) Can we multiply the Matrix A (which is 3 x 4 matrix) by the other matrix, Matrix B (which is 3 x 4 matrix)? True ... science cells. true or false 1 animals cells have cell walls? 2 water and oxygen cannot pass through the cell wall? 1) TRUE 2) ... Tight junctions prevent the movement of the extracellular matrix between cells. A) True B) False Which one is it please :). ...
Extracellular matrix. Junctions between cells; the organisation of cells in tissues. Interaction of organisms with the external ... Eukaryotic cell reproduction: the cell cycle and its control. Uncontrolled cell proliferation: cancer. Comparison between ... The eukaryotic cell and its compartmentalization. Comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Unicellular and multi- ... Viewing of living cells in culture and of fixed and stained cells by light microscopy. ...
... cell junctions and extracellular matrix; cell cycles and apoptosis. ... The Cell (8 lectures) The Cell Concept; cell types and variety; membrane systems structure and function; membrane transport and ... Topics covered include cloning, strategies; the use of plasmid and bacteriophage vectors, transformation of cells with foreign ... isolation of human DNA from cheek cells, restriction enzyme digestion of DNA, agarose gel electrophoresis, the polymerase chain ...
... cell junctions and extracellular matrix; cell cycles and apoptosis. ... The Cell (8 lectures) The Cell Concept; cell types and variety; membrane systems structure and function; membrane transport and ... Plant structure, cells, leaves and needles (KS) 18. Photosynthesis types, pigments, environmental control (KS) 19. ... Topics covered include cloning, strategies; the use of plasmid and bacteriophage vectors, transformation of cells with foreign ...
Partners: Cell Junctions , Extracellular Matrix , Tissue Types Histology is the branch of biological science concerned with the ... E-Histology.net: information, tissues, extracellular matrix, cell junctions, bone, blood,. Healthcare professionals and ... Cells Alive. Large collection of various types of images and video of cells. Also includes information about human cells, ... The Cell Nucleus I. The Cell Nucleus Structure/function correlations The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it ...
X. Genes for cell junctions and extracellular matrix. Dev Genes Evol 213:303-313PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Montell DJ (2003) Border-cell migration: the race is on. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:13-24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Kojima T, Murata M, Go M, Spray DC, Sawada N (2007) Connexins induce and maintain tight junctions in epithelial cells. J Membr ... Epstein ML, Gilula NB (1977) A study of communication specificity between cells in culture. J Cell Biol 75:769-787PubMed ...
Cell Line. Cell-Matrix Junctions / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / cytology, physiology. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / ... the dissolution of cell junctions and formation of cell-matrix contacts. The EMT response to TGF-β involves a complex ... TGF-β regulates cell adhesion and matrix receptors (integrins) in various cell types (Heino et al., 1989; Ignotz et al., 1989; ... TGF-β-mediated dissolution of cell junctions requires JunB. (A-D) NMuMG and MCT cells were transfected with siRNA to JunB ( ...
They are linked together by cell junctions and are supported by... ... Cells are the small parts of human body. They are organized to form tissues. ... "Specialized cell junctions occur at points of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact in all tissues, and they are particularly ... The connection between cells is called cell junction. Cell junctions have any various kinds of junctions. Generally, it can be ...
Cell-Matrix Junctions; Connective Tissue Diseases; Education, Medical; Endothelial Cells; Inflammation; Pathology; T- ... Animal Experimentation; Cell Fusion; Education, Medical; Extracellular Matrix; Foreign Bodies; Inflammation; Nanomedicine; ... Apoptosis; Cell Death; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress; Genes, bcl-2; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Stem Cells ... Cells; Central Nervous System; Central Nervous System Diseases; Embryonic Structures; Hemic and Immune Systems; Musculoskeletal ...
Force loading VE-cadherin receptors triggers cell-matrix junction remodeling. Local, VE-cadherin force transduction signals at ... Cell-cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell-cell junction organization, organism-specific ... Cell-Cell communication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell-Cell communication, organism-specific biosystemCell- ... Cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cell junction organization, organism-specific biosystem ...
Link adjacent cells together by membrane junctions; Anchor cells to the extracellular matrix ... What is one of the advantages of having tight junctions in, say, the epithelial cells of the intestinal lumen? ... What kind of cell type is most often joined by tight junction? ... The muscle cells of the heart, where they transmit electrical ... Proteins involved in linking the cytosols of two adjacent cells in gap junction connections ...
Matrix stiffness alters cell-cell junction organization. (A) Confocal images showing ECs seeded on compliant (0.2 kPa) or stiff ... 2010) Substrate Stiffness and Cell Area Predict Cellular Traction Stresses in Single Cells and Cells in Contact. Cell Mol ... Our previous data indicate that increased matrix stiffness disrupts cell-cell junctions (20, 21, 26), suggesting that stiffness ... both our current and previous work indicate that matrix stiffness can disrupt VE-cadherin cell-cell junctions and increase ...
They also participate in some cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions. Nuclear lamina exist in all animals and all tissues. Some ... intermediate filaments form cell-cell connections and anchor the cell-matrix junctions that are used in messaging between cells ... thereby deforming the cell and the cells environment and allowing cells to migrate. Moreover, it is involved in many cell ... Plant and algae cells are generally larger than many other cells; so cytoplasmic streaming is important in these types of cells ...
The Cell Cycle. 18. Cell Death. CELLS IN THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT. 19. Cell Junctions and the Extracellular Matrix. 20. Cancer. 21 ... WAYS OF WORKING WITH CELLS. 8. Analyzing Cells, Molecules, and Systems. 9. Visualizing Cells. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL ... INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL. 1. Cells and Genomes. 2. Cell Chemistry and Bioenergetics. 3. Proteins. BASIC GENETIC MECHANISMS. 4. ... Cell Explorer Slides This application teaches cell morphology through interactive micrographs that highlight important cellular ...
Keywords: extracellular matrixcell adhesions/cell junctions • wound healing © 2007, The Association for Research in Vision ... Cell proliferation was more active in KO mice as compared with WT mice at day 1 and 2, but not at day 5 and 10. ... Conclusions:: OPN is required for activation of Smad2/3 signal in an injured lens epithelium and lens cell EMT. ... Cell proliferation was assayed by examining uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). ...
To determine the effect of an ANGPTL7-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) in HTM cell adhesion, HEK-293 cells were ... Increased expression of ANGPTL7 in both cells and isolated matrices seems to induce a diminished adherence in the HTM cells. A ... At 2.5 h, adhered HTM cells were calculated as above. Results: : Overexpression of ANGPTL7 in HTM cells caused a decrease and ... ANGPTL7, a Gene Highly Induced by Elevated IOP, Affects Adhesion of Trabecular Meshwork Cells to their Extracellular Matrix ...
Products , Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics , Cell_Adhesion_and_Extracellular_Matrix , Tight_Junction_Associated_Protein. ... is recruited to tight junctions and incorporated at a late stage of junction formation. Tight-junction-associated protein 1 ... In vertebrate organisms, tight junctions are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a ... It is also known as protein incorporated later into tight junctions (PILT), and tight junction protein 4 (TJP4). ...
4. Cytoskeleton, Cell Junctions, Fibroblasts, and Extracellular Matrixes. 5. Development of the Tooth and Its Supporting ...
4. Cytoskeleton, Cell Junctions, Fibroblasts, and Extracellular Matrixes. 5. Development of the Tooth and Its Supporting ...
... and the Extracellular Matrix. A cross-sectional view of part of the wall of the intestine. Cell junctions to adjacent cells or ... Cell junctions: Occluding junctions--seal cells together, prevent even small Slideshow... ... Cell junctions to adjacent cells or Basal lamina. Rich in ECM. Cell junctions: Occluding junctions--seal cells together, ... Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion, and the Extracellular Matrix. A cross-sectional view of part of the wall of the intestine. ...
  • Septate junctions are a special variety of occluding junction that is found in invertebrates, including insects, but not restricted to them. (coursehero.com)
  • As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. (garlandscience.com)
  • Professors, lecturers, and instructors will find the fifth edition of the book Molecular Biology of the Cell and its accompanying Problems Book to be an excellent choice for guiding their students through the maze of the cell's molecular structures and biochemical processes. (garlandscience.com)
  • As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell - The Problems Book Molecular Biology of the Cell - The Problems Book helps students appreciate. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-depth text reference in cell biology. (textbooks.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell not only sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (updated as of Fall 2001), but also explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of that which remains unknown. (textbooks.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition: A Problems Approach by John Wilson and Tim Hunt is a comprehensive book that provides research-oriented problems derived from the scientific literature, now covering Chapters 1-8 and 10-18 of the main text. (textbooks.com)
  • Alberts is one of the principal authors of 'The Molecular Biology of the Cell,' now in its third edition, considered the leading advanced textbook in this field and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. (textbooks.com)
  • The Problems Book has been designed to correspond with the first twenty chapters of Molecular Biology of the Cell , Sixth Edition. (garlandscience.com)
  • Includes the solutions to the end-of-chapter problems in the textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition. (garlandscience.com)
  • We constructed a comprehensive gene functional association network or interactome by transcript profiling an in vitro angiogenesis model, in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) formed capillary structures when co-cultured with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under our experimental conditions, TC and fibroblasts (cell line L929) behaved differently in terms of adherence, spreading, and prolongation extension. (springer.com)
  • The values for final cell surface area after spreading were between 200 and 400 μm 2 for fibroblasts and 800-2,000 μm 2 for TC. (springer.com)
  • An extremely low capacity to extend prolongations with lengths shorter than cell bodies was noted for fibroblasts, while TC extended prolongations longer than the cell body length, with a moniliform appearance. (springer.com)
  • Cytoplasm Cellular Biology Cells are the structural units of all living things (with the possible exceptions of viruses and prions). (einet.net)
  • Cell junctions are best visualizedusing either conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, which reveals that the interacting plasma membranes (and often the underlying cytoplasm and the intervening intercellular space as well) are highly specialized in these regions. (ukessays.com)
  • Others are more like 'spot welds' that tie two cells together at a specific region or form a tunnel connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Microtubules are involved in maintaining the columnar shape of Sertoli cells, with transporting organelles in the cytoplasm, with secreting seminiferous tubule fluid, and in intercellular communication. (citizendium.org)
  • In essence, both desmosome-like junctions and basal ESs are known to coexist between Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier where they cofunction with the well-studied tight junction in maintaining the immunological barrier. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Connexin 36 and rod bipolar cell independent rod pathways drive retinal ganglion cells and optokinetic reflexes. (harvard.edu)
  • Gap junction-mediated death of retinal neurons is connexin and insult specific: a potential target for neuroprotection. (harvard.edu)
  • Connexin-43 (CX43) and connexin-40 work together to form cell junctions that are essential for proper heart atrium cell function (Figure 1) . (thermofisher.com)
  • Allows for direct electrical communication between cells, although different connexin subunits can impart different single channel conductances, from about 30 pS to 500 pS. (wikipedia.org)
  • We then describe the molecular players that regulate the targeting of muscles to tendons and the formation of the myotendinous junction in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Some of the key oncogenic events in cancer and their signaling pathways that regulate cell division cycle progression will be described considering prospects for using such knowledge in advanced cancer therapy. (springer.com)
  • Taken together these data highlight the benefits of fluorescent in vivo imaging approaches along with the use of optical window chambers in the preclinical evaluation of potential chemotherapeutic agents, and suggest that the anti-invasive properties of small molecular inhibitors targeting Src and FAK may be mediated in part by their ability to regulate cell-cell adhesion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tight junctions are barriers that regulate the paracellular movement of solutes down their electro-osmotic gradients. (thermofisher.com)
  • Tight junctions are multiprotein complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesion and regulate transportation through the extra-cellular matrix. (davidson.edu)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell junction research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Large Pore Ion and Metabolite-Permeable Channel Regulation of Postnatal Ventricular Zone Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells: Interplay between Aquaporins, Connexins, and Pannexins? (hindawi.com)
  • Dual Regulation of Telomerase Activity Through C-Myc-dependent Inhibition and Alternative Splicing of HTERT Journal of Cell Science. (jove.com)
  • Thus, regulation of telomerase activity could be an important mechanism to limit growth of normal and cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • These results identify an important function for Crim1 in the regulation of integrin- and FAK-mediated LE cell adhesion during lens development. (biologists.org)
  • Structure and functions of the eukaryotic cell. (unimi.it)
  • It functions to: Store genes on chromosomes Organize genes into chromosomes to allow cell division. (einet.net)
  • Cell junctions have many functions in our human body and another live creatures. (ukessays.com)
  • The types of junction have each functions in human body and another live creatures. (ukessays.com)
  • H. A. Dbouk, R. M. Mroue, M. E. El-Sabban, and R. S. Talhouk, "Connexins: a myriad of functions extending beyond assembly of gap junction channels," Cell Communication and Signaling , vol. 7, article 4, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell sheet transplantation improves the tissue functions in various animal models, and cell sheets have already been used clinically, and the feasibility of the therapy has been demonstrated . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The functions of gap-junction channels and CxHcs have been difficult to separate, but synthetic peptides that mimic short sequences in the Cx subunit are emerging as promising tools to determine the role of CxHcs in physiology and pathology. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using quantitative whole-mount imaging, genetic ablation, and traction force microscopy and atomic force microscopy, we find that ubiquitously localized E-cadherin coordinates tissue polarization of tension-bearing adherens junction (AJ) and F-actin organization to allow formation of an apical TJ network only in the uppermost viable layer. (nature.com)
  • The book is organized into five major sections such as basic genetic mechanisms and internal organization of the cell. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The nonliving matrix of the connective tissue through which the blood cells freely flow is the? (jiskha.com)
  • Disruption of PGA26 caused hypersensitivity to cell wall-perturbing compounds (Calcofluor white and Congo red) and to zymolyase, which degrades the cell wall β-1,3-glucan network. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used gene disruption to isolate two talin (−/−) ES cell mutants that contain no intact talin. (rupress.org)
  • These cells share functional properties with vertebrate tendons, including their elastic nature and the induction of a myotendinous junction (see Glossary, Box 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • In vertebrate organisms, tight junctions are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier. (clontech.com)
  • Our goal was to investigate whether this highly force-responsive gene affects cell-substrate adhesion of trabecular meshwork cells, which could in turn affect outflow facility. (arvojournals.org)
  • A loosening of the HTM cells to their ECM during an elevated presence of ANGPTL7 would suggest a beneficial effect of this gene in aqueous humor outflow, which could potentially be used in the treatment of glaucoma patients with elevated IOP. (arvojournals.org)
  • ABfinity™ antibodies are recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies that are produced on a large scale by expressing the immunogen-specific antibody gene in mammalian cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • TGFβi (also known as βig-h3) is a gene cloned from TGF-β-stimulated A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In cancer, EMT leads to generation of more aggressive and invasive carcinoma cells as well as cancer stem cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells. (cytoo.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • Unique expression and localization of aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 in murine and human neural stem cells and in their glial progeny," Glia , vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 167-181, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well known that isolated islets lose their morphologic integrity after several days of culture, followed by β-cell apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Note: The gap junctions of vertebrates & vertebrates are similar in both structure & function. (prezi.com)