Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CKiller Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Cell SeparationCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.ThymidineMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C3HMice, Inbred CBAImmunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Rats, Inbred LewMicronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Mice, Inbred DBANeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
It is also known as the "corona". It contains transient lymphocytes. It is the location of the lymphoma in mantle cell lymphoma ... Mantle zone expansion may be seen in benign, such as Castleman disease, and malignancy, i.e., Mantle cell lymphoma. Tcl-1 is ... The mantle zone (or just mantle) of a lymphatic nodule (or lymphatic follicle) is an outer ring of small lymphocytes ...
Since 2005, she has also served as Director of the Cancer Cell Biology Program at the VCU Massey Cancer Center. Spiegel is ... Spiegel, Sarah; Wilchek, Meir (September 1983). "Grafting of triggering site onto lymphocytes; distribution of grafted ... American Society for Cell Biology. 10: 1179-1190. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.4.1179. PMC 25247 . PMID 10198065. ... April 1999). "Ligand-induced Trafficking of the Sphingosine-1-phosphate Receptor EDG-1". Molecular Biology of the Cell. ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Females had abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes data and both sexes displayed increased bone strength and mineral content. ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Cell. 12 (2): 475-87. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2003.08.007. PMID 14536086. Paces-Fessy M, Boucher D, Petit E, Paute-Briand S, ...
Winoto A, Littman DR (2002). "Nuclear hormone receptors in T lymphocytes". Cell. 109 Suppl (2): S57-66. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674( ... "Dual roles of Nur77 in selective regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle by TPA and ATRA in gastric cancer cells". ... "Novel dimeric Nur77 signaling mechanism in endocrine and lymphoid cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (10): 5946-51. PMC 232442 . PMID ... In addition, subcellular localization of the NGFIB protein appears to play a key role in the survival and death of cells. ...
... cell model of lymphocyte migration CCR9 receptors are presented on the T cells and are involved in forming a more stable ... PP T-cells) compared to other T cell subsets, such as peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes activated T cells. The mechanism of ... such as dendritic cells (DCs). Specific interactions between the naïve T cells and their cognate antigens result in T cell ... B cell homing- There is limited knowledge of this as of late. Mackay (1993). "Homing of naive, memory and effector lymphocytes ...
This protein may also play a role in lymphocyte recirculation by blocking LFA-1-dependent cell adhesion. It mediates adhesive ... Lalor PF, Shields P, Grant A, Adams DH (February 2002). "Recruitment of lymphocytes to the human liver". Immunology and Cell ... Staunton DE, Dustin ML, Springer TA (May 1989). "Functional cloning of ICAM-2, a cell adhesion ligand for LFA-1 homologous to ... ICAM-2 molecules regulate spermatid adhesion on Sertori cell on the apical side of the blood-testis barrier (towards the lumen ...
Cell mediated lympholysis to trinitrophenyl modified autologous lymphocytes: Effector cell specificity to modified cell surface ... Cell-mediated lympholysis of trinitrophenyl-modified autologous lymphocytes. Effector cell specificity to modified cell surface ... T cell subpopulations required for the human cytotoxic and lymphocyte response to influenza virus: Evidence for T cell help. J ... Cell mediated cytotoxicity to trinitrophenyl modified syngeneic lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 4: 527 533, 1974. Clerici M, Stocks ...
... turns off this inhibitory mechanism and allows the lymphocytes to continue to destroy cancer cells. Cancer cells ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can recognize and destroy cancer cells. However, an inhibitory mechanism interrupts this ... T lymphocytes can recognize and destroy cancer cells. However, an inhibitory mechanism interrupts this destruction. ... These antigens are recognized by dendritic cells that present the antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the lymph nodes ...
Ridler, MA; Smith, GA (1968). "The Response of Human Cultured Lymphocytes to Cytochalasin B". Cell Science: 595-602. Smith, G; ... found that CB causes multinucleation in cells and significantly affects cell motility. The multinucleated cells probably arise ... Cells treated with cytochalasin B and control group cells could not be distinguished. This indicated, that CB has no ... These are small nuclei containing one chromosome or part of a chromosome which did not get to one of the cell poles during cell ...
They may resemble lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells. Distribution of cells usually diffuse, they can form small groups ... Tumor cells can be signet-ring type, that have a rounded shape with eccentrically located nucleus, resulting in large amounts ... Pathohistological report of "poorly cohesive carcinoma" is appropriate in case when there is a prevalence of tumor cells with ... characterized by diffuse distribution of tumour cells, isolated from each other or in small groups. According to most recently ...
Lymphocytes are a major target cell for DHOV. DHOV infection in mice resembles experimental influenza infection in mice and ... The virus assembles by the cell membrane and leaves the cell by budding. For THOV grown in baby hamster kidney cells, virus ... Thogotoviruses can replicate in both tick cells and vertebrate cells; one subtype has also been isolated from mosquitoes. A ... The receptor on the vertebrate host cell is sialic acid, which is bound by the viral glycoprotein. Entry is by endocytosis, ...
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after ... It supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. "Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa". Kumar A, Vasquez A, ... "Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell growth factor-mediated B cell proliferation". European ... "Expression and characterization of a B cell growth promoting polypeptide derived from the 12 kDa B cell growth factor gene ( ...
Other uses include: Potent anti-T cell activity. Distinguishing between human lymphocyte subsets. Tumour tissue determination ... The name "peanut agglutinin" originates from its ability to stick together (agglutinate) cells, such as neuramidase-treated ... Because peanut agglutinin specifically binds a particular carbohydrate sequence it finds use in a range of methods for cell ...
1998). "CD101 is expressed by skin dendritic cells. Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi: ... 2001). "Triggering CD101 molecule on human cutaneous dendritic cells inhibits T cell proliferation via IL-10 production". Eur. ... 2000). "CD101 expression by Langerhans cell histiocytosis cells". Histopathology. 36 (3): 229-32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2559.2000. ... Soares LR, Rivas A, Tsavaler L, Engleman EG (1997). "Ligation of the V7 molecule on T cells blocks anergy induction through a ...
The cells of the adaptive immune system are T and B lymphocytes; lymphocytes are a subset of leukocyte. B cells and T cells are ... Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)) are a sub-group of T cells that induce the ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share ... When B cells and T cells are activated some become memory B cells and some memory T cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal ...
Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". J. Cell ... Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (Feb 1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". J. ... Matute JD, Arias AA, Dinauer MC, Patiño PJ (2006). "p40phox: the last NADPH oxidase subunit". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 35 (2): 291 ... This protein is preferentially expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. It interacts primarily with neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 ...
The enclosing mesothelium contains macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells. They are also known as secondary lymphoid organs. ... The milky spots are made up of mesenchymal cells and are covered in a layer of mesothelium. These structures surround the small ... The macrophages are usually located on the edge of the milky spot and the lymphocytes in the middle. Other structural elements ... are plasmocytes and various connective tissue cells including reticular and elastic fibres. There is seen to be a delicate ...
... promotes B cell lymphocytes to differentiate into antibody secreting cells; Inhibits Innate lymphoid cells from releasing pro- ... Mast cells: inhibit their infiltration into inflamed tissues and, in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells ... T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ... gamma delta T cells, and Natural killer T cells. The cited cells then proceeded to neutralize invading organisms, limit tissue ...
"The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2". J. Immunol. 148 (12 ... is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell ... CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can therefore be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line ...
Mouse embryonic stem cells with homozygous Ku70 mutations, that is Ku70−/− cells, have markedly increased sensitivity to ... Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (Feb 1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". ... Goedecke W, Eijpe M, Offenberg HH, van Aalderen M, Heyting C (Oct 1999). "Mre11 and Ku70 interact in somatic cells, but are ... Gu Y, Jin S, Gao Y, Weaver DT, Alt FW (Jul 1997). "Ku70-deficient embryonic stem cells have increased ionizing radiosensitivity ...
Iwata S, Ohashi Y, Kamiguchi K, Morimoto C (2000). "Beta 1-integrin-mediated cell signaling in T lymphocytes". J. Dermatol. Sci ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Jin X, Zhang J, Dai H, et al. (2007). "Investigation of the four cooperative ... 2006). "Identification and characterization of Iporin as a novel interaction partner for rab1". BMC Cell Biol. 6: 15. doi: ... 2002). "MICALs, a family of conserved flavoprotein oxidoreductases, function in plexin-mediated axonal repulsion". Cell. 109 (7 ...
Cell. 128 (1): 45-46, 48-50. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.017. PMC 1885944 . PMID 17218254. Löwe, J.; Li, H.; Downing, K. H.; ... Faruki S, Geahlen RL, Asai DJ (July 2000). "Syk-dependent phosphorylation of microtubules in activated B-lymphocytes". Journal ... Culturing of pheochromocytoma cells with Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) induced differentiation and the development of neuronal ... Dutcher SK (February 2001). "The tubulin fraternity: alpha to eta". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 13 (1): 49-54. doi:10.1016 ...
The cells primarily infected are lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. BIV was discovered in the late 1960s in the search for ... The attached virus enters the cell by one of two ways, receptor mediated endocytosis or viral envelope-cell membrane fusion. ... Once in the cell, the virus is uncoated and the RNA genome is reverse-transcribed into DNA. Some studies have found that ... The first animal studied was an eight-year-old Holstein cow (R-29), her white blood cell count was elevated and her physical ...
Lymphocytes, histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and neutrophils are recruited. The host responses are highly variable, ... cells that resemble those found in chromoblastomycosis. The muriform-like cells isolated from E. dermatitidis infections have ... Cells isolated from cutaneous infections are often spherical, and may form toruloid or moniliform chains. Exophiala ... Exophiala dermatitidis has carotenoid pigments in its cell wall that may serve a role in protecting E. dermatitidis from UV ...
Cell Genet. 73 (1-2): 114-5. doi:10.1159/000134320. PMID 8646877. Caré A, Silvani A, Meccia E, Mattia G, Stoppacciaro A, ... Inamori K, Takeshita K, Chiba S, Yazaki Y, Hirai H (1993). "Identification of homeobox genes expressed in human T-lymphocytes ... Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 4842-51. doi:10.1128/mcb.16.9.4842. PMC 231486 . PMID 8756643. LeBrun DP, Matthews BP, Feldman BJ, Cleary ... The encoded nuclear protein functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in cell proliferation and ...
Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
N2 - The in vitro proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells in the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLC) are thought to ... AB - The in vitro proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells in the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLC) are thought to ... The in vitro proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells in the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLC) are thought to ... Regulation of human mixed lymphocyte culture reactions : augmentation of proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells. / ...
"Feline Immunodeficincy Virus Treatment with Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator." Retrieved 18 November 2016. "Lymphocyte T-Cell ... To attack tumor cells and viruses, CD-4 cells coordinate the overall immune response and help activate CD8 T-lymphocytes. Often ... Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator (LTCI) is an immune regulating polypeptide which is a potent regulator of CD-4 lymphocyte ... LTCI increases the production of CD-4+ T-cells and can subsequently overcome this immunosuppression. Lymphocyte T-Cell ...
Immune cells called the B cells can produce soluble proteins (antibodies) that can accurately target and kill the pathogen. ... Source for information on T Cells or T-Lymphocytes: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... T cells or T-lymphocytes When a vertebrate encounters substances that are capable of causing it harm, a protective system known ... bacterial infected cells, viral infected cells, and tumor cells. Some of the T lymphocytes become memory cells. These cells are ...
B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity.. Alugupalli KR1, Leong JM, Woodland RT, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, ... These data demonstrate that B1b lymphocytes can provide long-lasting T cell-independent IgM memory. ... The resolution of bacteremia coincided with an expansion and persistence of B1b lymphocytes, and purified B1b lymphocytes from ... The B1b lymphocytes in the reconstituted Rag1-/- mice provided long-lasting immunity by rapidly generating B. hermsii-specific ...
There has recently been much work directed towards describing functionally distinct classes of lymphocytes and charting their ... ontogeny from a multipotential stem cell in the bone marrow. The T-cell... ... Bone Marrow Cell Spleen Cell Multipotential Stem Cell FACS Profile Hybrid Culture These keywords were added by machine and not ... Functional Studies on Subpopulations of B-Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow Cells. In: Nieuwenhuis P., van den Broek A.A., Hanna M.G ...
Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immun... kresch831. * *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell ... ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immun... Amani Oakley. * *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator - help marlene melpignano Sat, 28 Oct 2017 13:07:19 -0700 ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-c... Ardy Robertson. * *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte... Amani Oakley ...
... a significant slowing of the cell cycle of lymphocytes in vitro was observed in all FA patients, and possibly in FA ... BrdU-incorporation techniques were used to study the cell cycle in 18 cases of Fanconis anemia (FA). By comparison with ... The slow cell cycle of FA cells is mostly due to a very long G2-phase. A relationship between slow cell cycle and chromatid ... The cell cycle of lymphocytes in Fanconi anemia Hum Genet. 1982;62(4):327-32. doi: 10.1007/BF00304549. ...
F) Cytotoxicity assay using A549-Luc and H441-Luc cells as target cells, with NK92 cells as killer cells. (G) NIH 3T3-Luc cells ... H441-Luc cells (D), and H1299-Luc/A2.1 cells (E) as target cells, with ihv-DC1.2-MAGEA3-activated NK cells as killer cells. ( ... N) Cytotoxicity assay using H1299-Luc/A2.1 cells as target cells, with ihv-DC1.2-MAGEA3-primed, CD3+ T cells as killer cells, ... and H1299 cells, even at low effector cell-to-target cell (E:T) ratios (Fig. 5 C-E). By comparison, the leukemic NK92 cells ...
We model the interaction between naive T cells, effector T cells, and CML cancer cells in the body, using a system of ordinary ... We model the interaction between naive T cells, effector T cells, and CML cancer cells in the body, using a system of ordinary ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemic cells and T-lymphocytes interaction. A mathematical model for the interaction of between cancer cells ... SBML L2V4 representation of Moore2004 - Chronic Myeloid Leukemic cells and T-lymphocyte interaction. 63.13 KB. Preview , ...
LH-2: a LIM/homeodomain gene expressed in developing lymphocytes and neural cells. Y Xu, M Baldassare, P Fisher, G Rathbun, E M ... Expression in B-cell lines was highest in lines that represent early stages of differentiation, whereas in T-cell lines there ... LH-2: a LIM/homeodomain gene expressed in developing lymphocytes and neural cells ... LH-2: a LIM/homeodomain gene expressed in developing lymphocytes and neural cells ...
Characteristics of fetal thymus-derived T cell receptor gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes.. Lin T1, Matsuzaki ... generates a substantial number of T cell receptor (TCR) gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that were of ...
One widely held view is that help for CTLs is mediated by cytokines produced by T-helper cells activated in proximi … ... generally requires the participation of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes, the nature of the help provided to CTLs is unknown. ... Although in vivo priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) ... T-cell help for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is mediated by CD40- ... Ligation of CD40 on the surface of APCs such as dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells greatly increases their antigen- ...
T lymphocytes respond to foreign antigens both by producing protein effector molecules known as lymphokines and by multiplying ... In the absence of the latter signal, the T cell makes only a partial response and, more importantly, enters an unresponsive ... Our current understanding at the molecular level of this modulatory process and its relevance to T cell tolerance are reviewed. ... state known as clonal anergy in which the T cell is incapable of producing its own growth hormone, interleukin-2, on ...
CD4+ T cells are required for the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to mucosal sites of viral infection. The CD4+ T-cell help ... CD4+ T helper cells provide critical signals for the generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vivo as well ... CD4+ T helper cells are well known for their role in providing critical signals during priming of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte ( ... T-cell help is required for the generation of primary CTL responses as well as in promoting protective CD8+ memory T-cell ...
Acute Coronary Syndrome Th17 Cell Atherosclerotic Plaque Treg Cell Cell Subset These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Functions of T cells in asthma: more than just T(H)2 cells. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10(12):838-48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... T-cell-mediated lysis of endothelial cells in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2002;105(5):570-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Dumitriu I.E., Kaski J.C. (2013) The Role of Lymphocytes in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis: Focus on CD4+ T Cell Subsets. ...
Lymphocytes expressing Tg-TCRs were derived from these T cells and specifically recognized HLA-A2+ survivin+ tumor cells. ... We also noted that lymphocytes that expressed survivin-specific Tg-TCRs killed T cell clones of various specificities derived ... To explore survivin as a target antigen for adoptive T cell therapy using lymphocytes expressing survivin-specific transgenic T ... MHC-restricted fratricide of human lymphocytes expressing survivin-specific transgenic T cell receptors. ...
Very recently, FDA approved Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells (CAR T cells) therapy for relapse and refractory CD19+ B cell ... Very recently, FDA approved Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells (CAR T cells) therapy for relapse and refractory CD19+ B cell ... While CAR-T cells are considered as major breakthrough in the field of cancer immunotherapy, the regulation of CAR-T cells ... While CAR-T cells are considered as major breakthrough in the field of cancer immunotherapy, the regulation of CAR-T cells ...
... complement-receptor lymphocytes and theta-bearing lymphocytes are part of nonoverlapping populations of cells. This finding ... Theta-Bearing and Complement-Receptor Lymphocytes Are Distinct Populations of Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded ... although receptors for complement and membrane-bound immunoglobulins coexist on the same lymphoid cells, these markers are ... validates the use of these membrane markers to characterize populations of lymphocytes. In addition, it is probable that, ...
Ag presentation by B cells. Activated B cells can serve as APCs for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (7, 25). Indeed, B cells have an ... as are TLS containing B cells, T cells, and mature DCs (62). TLS containing B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and DCs are also ... tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. TIL-B. tumor-infiltrating B cell. TLS. tertiary lymphoid structure. Treg. regulatory T cell.. ... Activated murine B lymphocytes and dendritic cells produce a novel CC chemokine which acts selectively on activated T cells. J ...
B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). ... CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells ... CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells ... CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells) ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Apoptotic cell death, detected ex vivo in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HIV-1 infected persons. L. F. te Velde,1 I. Vermes,2 ... L. F. te Velde, I. Vermes, C. Haanen, C. P. M. Reutelingsperger, and C. H. H. ten Napel, "Apoptotic cell death, detected ex ... vivo in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HIV-1 infected persons," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 379-381, 1996. ...
... been made in understanding various genetic and epigenetic regulatory processes that are critical for the generation of B cell ... Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. B Cell Biology. Editors: Gupta, S., Alt, F.W., Cooper, M.D., ... Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. Book Subtitle. B Cell Biology. Editors. * Sudhir Gupta ... These were some of the topics of discussion at the 11th International Conference on B cell Biology. These proceedings highlight ...
CTL cells) and the influenza virus infected epithelial cells. Since detailed and definite mechanisms that trigger CTL ... production and cell death are still debatable, we utilize two plausible mathematical models for the CTLs response to influenza ... virus at the epithelium level by modeling and analyzing the interaction of the influenza virus specific cytotoxic T Lymphocytes ... Modeling the interaction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and influenza virus infected epithelial cells. Abdessamad Tridane 1, and ...
The cell nuclei are in blue. In pink, a cytotoxic molecule secreted by CD8 cells to destroy CD4 cells. ... of HIV controller patients in contact with CD4 cells (green) infected with HIV. ... CD8 lymphocytes (red) of HIV controller patients in contact with CD4 cells (green) infected with HIV. The cell nuclei are in ... CD8 Lymphocytes of HIV Controller Patients in Contact with CD4 Cells Infected with HIV (IMAGE) view more ...
Cell Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma Using CD8 Enriched Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes. The safety and scientific validity of ... Cells for treatment will be collected during tumor biopsy or surgery.. *Prior to the start of cell therapy, participants will ... One experimental treatment for certain types of cancer is cell therapy, which involves collecting lymphocytes (white blood ... To determine the safety and effectiveness of cell therapy using IL-12 modified tumor white blood cells to treat metastatic ...
  • Recent studies have clarified the need for disparity at the D-locus-determined antigens between the stimulator and responder cell populations in the allogeneic MLC reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • The ihv-DCs, which are engineered to express MAGEA3 and high levels of 4-1BBL and MICA, induce simultaneous production of both HLA-A2-restricted, MAGEA3-specific CTLs and NK cells from HLA-A2 + donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (pnas.org)
  • Gb 3 is a B cell marker (CD77), but a fraction of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can also express Gb 3 . (mdpi.com)
  • We will first infect the peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a specially produced human virus adenovirus) that carries part of the CMV gene to the monocytes which will stimulate the T cells. (knowcancer.com)
  • Therefore, survivin-specific TCR gene therapy would be limited to application in HLA-A2-mismatched stem cell transplantation. (jci.org)
  • Their rapid diagnosis is fundamental for patient survival and early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Now, treatment of a number of diseases is possible through stem cell transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Pilot studies of autologous stem cell transplantation using peripheral blood have demonstrated rapid engraftment with this technique. (medscape.com)
  • Purpose: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many haematologic cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cells in grafts serve an important role in the pathogenesis of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and immune recovery during HLA matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, the role of T cells in the haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Haplo-PBSCT) is yet to be determined. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - High proportions of CD3+ T cells in grafts delayed lymphocyte recovery and reduced overall survival in haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here, we report the development of immortalized and constitutively activated human primary blood dendritic cell lines (ihv-DCs). (pnas.org)
  • Ridge, J. P., Di Rosa, F. & Matzinger, P. A conditioned dendritic cell can be a temporal bridge between a CD4 + T-helper and a T-killer cell. (nature.com)
  • This trial will assess the feasibility of generation of dendritic cell activated lymphocytes, and toxicity and efficacy of these activated cells given after reinduction chemotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • PO does not affect dendritic cell (DC) viability and increases the expansion of immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC) at 100 μg/ml, and it stimulates expression of several DC co-stimu. (medworm.com)
  • In an autologous setting, the HLA-A2 + ihv-DCs that present hTERT antigen prime autologous T cells to generate hTERT-specific CTLs, inducing cytolysis of hTERT-expressing target cells in an HLA-A2-restricted manner. (pnas.org)
  • Remarkably, ihv-DCs that carry two allogeneic HLA-DRB1 alleles are able to prime autologous T cells to proliferate robustly in generating HLA-A2-restricted, hTERT-specific CTLs. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytes especially autologous T cells have been used for the treatment of numerous indications including cancers, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The capacity of the HBcAg-pulsed DC vaccine to stimulate CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to produce IFN-γ and IL-4 was estimated by intercellular cytokine staining, and the HBcAg-pulsed DCs derived from 10 humam leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 + CHB patients were tested for the induction of HBV-specific CTLs from autologous T cells by pentamer staining. (wiley.com)
  • Barrier cells are recently recognized fibroblastic contractile stromal cells that fuse to form complex branched variform barriers used for such diverse functions as controlling blood flow and blood cell delivery into the circulation, sealing off the hematopoietic/immunologic colonies and regulating their proliferation and differentration through paracrine secretion. (ajtmh.org)
  • Normally present in marrow and spleen in limited numbers, barrier cells are quickly mobilized in hematopoietic/immunologic stess. (ajtmh.org)
  • We report that ARHGAP19, a previously uncharacterized protein, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and is a critical actor of T lymphocyte division. (biologists.org)
  • HTLV-1 has been shown to bind to and infect a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. (asm.org)
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and frequent progression to acute myeloid leukemia. (haematologica.org)
  • In the present study, the role of CD3 + T cells in grafts and impact on hematopoietic and immune recovery, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, GVHD, relapse, progress free survival and overall survival (OS) were evaluated and analyzed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The CD69 protein is induced by TPA in thymocytes and is a type II transmembrane signaling molecule in hematopoietic cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • They include the ability to overcome tumor-specific T-cell tolerance, to efficiently isolate and expand tumor-specific T cells that maintain antigenic specificity, and to grow reasonable numbers of these cells to enable the generation of a clinically meaningful response when infused into the properly prepared host environment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The islet specificity of these diabetic rosettes was confirmed because, compared with controls, lymphocytes from recent-onset type I diabetic subjects also displayed a greater intensity of adherence to normal mouse islets but not to unrelated K562 and TS cell lines. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we report that signalling through CD40 can replace CD4+ T-helper cells in priming of helper-dependent CD8+ CTL responses. (nih.gov)
  • CD4 + T helper cells control the migration of CTL indirectly through the secretion of IFN-γ and induction of local chemokine secretion in the infected tissue. (nature.com)
  • HIV virions in particular weakens the cell function by damaging the helper cells necessary in building a robust immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • These results raise a general question regarding the development of cancer vaccines that target proteins that are also expressed in activated lymphocytes, since induction of high-avidity T cells that expand in lymph nodes following vaccination or later accumulate at tumor sites might limit themselves by self-MHC-restricted fratricide while at the same time inadvertently eliminating neighboring T cells of other specificities. (jci.org)
  • Other factors are easy sampling of the tumor and trouble free homing of the T cells to hematologic organs such as blood, bone marrow and the lymph nodes ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although B cells typically reside in conventional lymphoid tissues such as spleen, lymph node, or blood, they can also be found in nonlymphoid tissues in aggregates with other immune cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD4 cell counts were obtained by using the Becton Dickinson MultiTEST reagent in TrueCOUNT tubes (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, San Jose, CA). Comparison of this method with CD4 counts calculated from CBC absolute lymph counts from fresh whole blood X CD4% from the frozen whole blood resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.9872. (cdc.gov)
  • To fight viral and bacterial infections, circulating white blood cells called lymphocytes make their way towards the lymph nodes(3). (healthcanal.com)
  • These vessels are a very efficient port of entry since at least five million lymphocytes are estimated to enter the lymph nodes every second. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dendritic cells help blood vessels, which formed an impassable barrier to the entry of lymphocytes, acquire the ability to let those enter massively into the lymph nodes. (healthcanal.com)
  • HEVs allow entry of circulating lymphocytes into the lymph node. (healthcanal.com)
  • Lymphatic vessels carry a foreign antigen (often derived from a pathogen) from the tissue to the lymph nodes, triggering a specific immune response by activating T and B lymphocytes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dendritic cells control lymphocyte entry to lymph nodes through high endothelial venules. (healthcanal.com)
  • 11 - 15 However, little attention has been paid to interfollicular large B cells in humans, with the exception of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-positive immunoblast-like B cells seen in reactive lymph nodes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The researchers found that lower lymphocyte levels were associated with a higher tumor grade, a higher pathologic tumor stage, the presence of distant metastases, and a higher TNM stagea combined indicator of tumor stage, spread to regional lymph nodes, and distant metastasis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Many studies have found neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width to be elevated in cases of subclinical infections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width in the first trimester and on admission to labor and delivery was obtained. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly elevated in preterm birth patients when compared to term patients. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recently neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been found to signal the presence of subclinical infections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Under viral attack CD-4+ T-cells fail to mature, fail to produce IL-2 and gamma interferon, and consequently fail to coordinate CD-8 responses to viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ideally, I would like to pulse label stimulated PBMC and lightly fix them to biologically inactivate any potential viral agents present prior their processing on a Tomtec cell harvester. (bio.net)
  • It is characterized by a decrease in the number of CD4 + T-cells and an increase in the viral load. (hindawi.com)
  • Using cocultures of purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an HTLV-1 producing cell line, we measured viral transcription by using Northern (RNA) blot analysis, protein production by using a p24 antigen capture assay and flow cytometric analysis for viral envelope, and proviral integration by using DNA slot blot analysis. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate a higher rate of viral transcription in primary CD4+ T cells than in CD8+ T cells. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that fully helped effector CTLs are themselves not self-sufficient for entry into the infected tissue, but rely on the CD4 + T cells to provide the necessary cue. (nature.com)
  • HBcAg-pulsed DC vaccine derived from CHB patients efficiently induced autologous T cell polarization to Th1 and generation of HBV core 18-27 specific CTLs. (wiley.com)
  • We will then grow these CMV specific CTLs by more stimulation with EBV infected cells (which we will make from the blood of the donor by infecting them with EBV in the laboratory). (knowcancer.com)
  • If this approach is insufficient to stimulate T cells which will kill the pp65 from the CMV virus then we will grow a special type of cell called dendritic cells which will stimulate the T cells and we will put the specially produced human virus (adenovirus) that carries the parts of the CMV gene (called pp65) into the dendritic cells. (knowcancer.com)
  • We will also put the adenovirus that carries the CMV pp65 gene into these EBV infected cells so that they too have CMVpp65. (knowcancer.com)
  • These B cells probably require CD40/CD40 ligand signaling for their generation and have a unique phenotype and a post-germinal center pattern of immunoglobulin gene mutation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Their anatomic location and pattern of gene mutation suggest that these cells may represent the cell of origin of some human large-cell lymphomas. (bloodjournal.org)