The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Ependymal derivative located at the junction of the THIRD VENTRICLE and the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT; and the SOMATOSTATIN SECRETING CELLS.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/8706)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/8706)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (3/8706)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (4/8706)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (5/8706)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional evidence for the expression of CXCR4 receptor during megakaryocytopoiesis. (6/8706)

The identification of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha as a chemoattractant for human progenitor cells suggests that this chemokine and its receptor might represent critical determinants for the homing, retention, and exit of precursor cells from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of CXCR4 receptor and the biological activity of SDF-1alpha during megakaryocytopoiesis. CD34(+) cells from bone marrow and cord blood were purified and induced to differentiate toward the megakaryocyte lineage by a combination of stem-cell factor (SCF) and recombinant human pegylated megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rhuMGDF). After 6 days of culture, a time where mature and immature megakaryocytes were present, CD41(+) cells were immunopurified and CXCR4mRNA expression was studied. High transcript levels were detected by a RNase protection assay in cultured megakaryocytes derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as in peripheral blood platelets. The transcript levels were about equivalent to that found in activated T cells. By flow cytometry, a large fraction (ranging from 30% to 100%) of CD41(+) cells showed high levels of CXCR4 antigen on their surface, its expression increasing in parallel with the CD41 antigen during megakaryocytic differentiation. CXCR4 protein was also detected on peripheral blood platelets. SDF-1alpha acts on megakaryocytes by inducing intracellular calcium mobilization and actin polymerization. In addition, in in vitro transmigration experiments, a significant proportion of megakaryocytes was observed to respond to this chemokine. This cell migration was inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating coupling of this signal to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Although a close correlation between CD41a and CXCR4 expession was observed, cell surface markers as well as morphological criteria indicate a preferential attraction of immature megakaryocytes (low level of CD41a and CD42a), suggesting that SDF-1alpha is a potent attractant for immature megakaryocytic cells but is less active on fully mature megakaryocytes. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that SDF-1alpha induced the migration of colony forming unit-megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK) and the expression of activation-dependent P-selectin (CD62P) surface antigen on early megakaryocytes, although no effect was observed on mature megakaryocytes and platelets. These results indicate that CXCR4 is expressed by human megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, based on the lower responses of mature megakaryocytes and platelets to SDF-1alpha as compared with early precursors, these data suggest a role for this chemokine in the maintenance and homing during early stages of megakaryocyte development. Moreover, because megakaryocytes are also reported to express CD4, it becomes important to reevaluate the role of direct infection of these cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in HIV-1-related thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Reduced folate carrier expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a mechanism for ploidy but not lineage differences in methotrexate accumulation. (7/8706)

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most active and widely used agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To elucidate the mechanism for higher accumulation of MTX polyglutamates (MTX-PG) in hyperdiploid ALL and lower accumulation in T-lineage ALL, expression of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in ALL blasts isolated from newly diagnosed patients. RFC expression exhibited a 60-fold range among 29 children, with significantly higher expression in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL (median, 11.3) compared with nonhyperdiploid ALL (median, 2.1; P <.0006), but no significant difference between nonhyperdiploid B-lineage and T-lineage ALL. Furthermore, mRNA levels of RFC (mapped by FISH to chromosome 21) were significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number (P =.0013), with the highest expression in hyperdiploid ALL blasts with 4 copies of chromosome 21. To assess the functional significance of gene copy number, MTX-PG accumulation was compared in ALL blasts isolated from 121 patients treated with either low-dose MTX (LDMTX; n = 60) or high-dose MTX (HDMTX; n = 61). After LDMTX, MTX-PG accumulation was highest in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL with 4 copies of chromosome 21 (P =.011), but MTX-PG accumulation was not significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number after HDMTX (P =.24). These data show higher RFC expression as a mechanism for greater MTX accumulation in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL and indicate that lineage differences in MTX-PG accumulation are not due to lower RFC expression in T-lineage ALL.  (+info)

Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (8/8706)

The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM.  (+info)

Three researchers from Caltech-Michael Elowitz, professor of biology and bioengineering, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and executive officer for biological engineering; Long Cai, research professor; and Carlos Lois, research professor-have received funding to create the Allen Discovery Center for Cell Lineage Tracing in collaboration with the University of Washington in Seattle and Harvard University. Support for the establishment of the center comes from the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, which will provide $10 million over four years with the potential for $30 million over eight years.. The goal of the Allen Center will be to use newly developed technologies to create global maps of cellular development, tracing cells as they divide, move, and differentiate throughout an organisms development, and revealing the relationships between the vast number of diverse cells that make up a single organism.. Last year, Elowitz and Cai collaborated on a gene-editing technique called ...
The somatic mutations present in the genome of a cell accumulate over the lifetime of a multicellular organism. These mutations can provide insights into the developmental lineage tree, the number of divisions that each cell has undergone and the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we describe whole genomes of clonal lines derived from multiple tissues of healthy mice. Using somatic base substitutions, we reconstructed the early cell divisions of each animal, demonstrating the contributions of embryonic cells to adult tissues. Differences were observed between tissues in the numbers and types of mutations accumulated by each cell, which likely reflect differences in the number of cell divisions they have undergone and varying contributions of different mutational processes. If somatic mutation rates are similar to those in mice, the results indicate that precise insights into development and mutagenesis of normal human cells will be possible.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Genetic lineage tracing demonstrates in vivo reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cellsa, Quantification of FACS analyses for Thy1+ cells
The BAP1 tumor suppressor is mutated in many human cancers such as uveal melanoma, leading to poor patient outcome. It remains unclear how BAP1 functions in normal biology or how its loss promotes cancer progression. Here, we show that Bap1 is critical for commitment to ectoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest lineages during Xenopus laevis development. Bap1 loss causes transcriptional silencing and failure of H3K27ac to accumulate at promoters of key genes regulating pluripotency-to-commitment transition, similar to findings in uveal melanoma. The Bap1-deficient phenotype can be rescued with human BAP1, by pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity or by specific knockdown of Hdac4. Similarly, BAP1-deficient uveal melanoma cells are preferentially vulnerable to HDAC4 depletion. These findings show that Bap1 regulates lineage commitment through H3K27ac-mediated transcriptional activation, at least in part, by modulation of Hdac4, and they provide insights into how BAP1 loss ...
The Drosophila central brain is composed of thousands of neurons that derive from approximately 100 neuroblasts per hemisphere. Functional circuits in the brain require precise neuronal wiring and tight control of neuronal numbers. How this accurate control of neuronal numbers is achieved during neural development is largely unclear. Specifically, the role of programmed cell death in control of cell numbers has not been studied in the central brain neuroblast lineages. Here, we focus on four postembryonic neuroblast lineages in the central brain identified on the basis that they express the homeobox gene engrailed (en). For each lineage, we determine the total number of adult-specific neurons generated as well as number and pattern of en-expressing cells. We then demonstrate that programmed cell death has a pronounced effect on the number of cells in the four lineages; approximately half of the immature adult-specific neurons in three of the four lineages are eliminated by cell death during ...
Developmental commitment involves activation of lineage-specific genes, stabilization of a lineage-specific gene expression program, and permanent inhibition of inappropriate characteristics. To determine how these processes are coordinated in early T cell development, the expression of T and B lineage-specific genes was assessed in staged subsets of immature thymocytes. T lineage characteristics are acquired sequentially, with germ-line T cell antigen receptor-beta transcripts detected very early, followed by CD3 epsilon and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, then pT alpha, and finally RAG1. Only RAG1 expression coincides with commitment. Thus, much T lineage gene expression precedes commitment and does not depend on it. Early in the course of commitment to the T lineage, thymocytes lose the ability to develop into B cells. To understand how this occurs, we also examined expression of well defined B lineage-specific genes. Although lambda 5 and Ig-alpha are not expressed, the mu(0) and I mu ...
From Cell Stem CellBy Stuart P. Atkinson Direct conversion of one somatic cell to another somatic cell type, completely bypassing the pluripotent stage through the forced expression of lineage specific transcription factors has emerged as a large
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TY - JOUR. T1 - REST and CoREST are transcriptional and epigenetic regulators of seminal neural fate decisions. AU - Qureshi, Irfan A.. AU - Gokhan, Solen. AU - Mehler, Mark F.. N1 - Funding Information: We regret that space constraints have prevented the citation of many relevant and important references. M.F.M. is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NS38902, MH66290, NS071571), as well as by the Roslyn and Leslie Goldstein, the Mildred and Bernard H. Kayden, the F.M. Kirby and the Alpern Family Foundations.. PY - 2010/11/15. Y1 - 2010/11/15. N2 - Complementary transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory factors (e.g., histone and chromatin modifying enzymes and non-coding RNAs) regulate genes responsible for mediating neural stem cell maintenance and lineage restriction, neuronal and glial lineage specification and progressive stages of lineage maturation. However, an overall understanding of the mechanisms that sense and integrate developmental signals at the genomic ...
We present a Minimal Event Distance Aneuploidy Lineage Tree (MEDALT) algorithm that infers the evolution history of a cell population based on single-cell copy number (SCCN) profiles, and a statistical routine named lineage speciation analysis (LSA), whichty facilitates discovery of fitness-associated alterations and genes from SCCN lineage trees. MEDALT appears more accurate than phylogenetics approaches in reconstructing copy number lineage. From data from 20 triple-negative breast cancer patients, our approaches effectively prioritize genes that are essential for breast cancer cell fitness and predict patient survival, including those implicating convergent evolution. The source code of our study is available at .
Deletion of master regulators of the B cell lineage reprograms B cells into T cells. Here we found that the transcription factor Hoxb5, which is expressed in uncommitted hematopoietic progenitor cells but is not present in cells committed to the B cell or T cell lineage, was able to reprogram pro-pre-B cells into functional early T cell lineage progenitors. This reprogramming started in the bone marrow and was completed in the thymus and gave rise to T lymphocytes with transcriptomes, hierarchical differentiation, tissue distribution and immunological functions that closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. Hoxb5 repressed B cell master genes, activated regulators of T cells and regulated crucial chromatin modifiers in pro-pre-B cells and ultimately drove the B cell fate-to-T cell fate conversion. Our results provide a de novo paradigm for the generation of functional T cells through reprogramming in vivo.. ...
The present study will contribute not only to progress in regenerative medicine, but also to basic liver biology. Between 2013 and 2014, there was a sensational finding in liver biology4-7. In liver with chronic injury, proliferating LPCs are often observed both in humans and rodents. Given that MHs decrease their proliferative capacity during continuous injury, it was believed for several decades that chronic injury activates the proliferation of a small population of LPCs which are kept dormant in normal livers. Contrary to this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that such LPCs are derived from MHs which are reprogrammed during regeneration under chronic liver injury4-7. Our in vitro study has provided direct evidence for this observation. In addition, considering that in vitro experimental setting makes it easier to manipulate gene expression (e.g. knockdown / overexpression) or intracellular signaling activity (e.g. pathway inhibition), our study may help mechanistic understanding ...
Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation...
I am posting this for Wolfgang Driever (driever at ) ********************************************************************* Applications are invited for participation at the EMBO Practical Course on DEVELOPMENT, GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF ZEBRAFISH AND MEDAKA March 20-29, 1998, Biologie 1, Freiburg, FRG Organized by: W. Driever, M. Schartl, A. Shima, M. Westerfield EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME * Maintenance of zebrafish and medaka, embryo culture * Embryonic stem cells and chimera production * Production of genetic mosaics by cell transplantation, cell lineage tracing * Gene expression analysis by whole mount in-situ hybridization * Gene transfer by microinjection into the cytoplasm of early embryos and into the oocyte nucleus * Overexpression utilizing synthetic mRNAs * Ploidy manipulation * Mutagenesis screens * Genetic mapping LECTURE PROGRAMME Strategies for mutagenesis screens Genetic mapping and positional cloning strategies Mesoderm development Development of the nervous system ...
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is secreted by a certain subset of CD4+ T cells, called T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, also characterized by the expression of CXCR5 and ICOS and the lineage-specific transcription factor BCL6. But IL-21 production can also be found in other T helper (Tʜ) cell lineages and natural killer T (NKT) cells. IL-21 acts in a autocrine manner on Tfh cells and is critical for antibody production by B cells, it enhances natural killer (NK) cell functions, and promotes proliferation of CD8+ T cells. - Nederland
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
The immune system may be divided into populations of cells that are functionally and kinetically distinct: long-lived progenitor cells with the capacity to produce many progeny and end-stage effector cells destined to die quickly. As is the case in epithelial tissues or the remainder of the hematopoietic system, progenitor cells are necessary for the maintenance of tissue mass in the face of continuous loss of differentiated progeny. T cell progenitors are found at varying levels of the differentiation tree and include multilineage hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, T lineage-restricted progenitors in the thymus, and naive and true memory T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. In vivo studies in rodents have documented the presence of kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells, including long-lived populations of cells that retain tritiated thymidine (26, 27), but analogous T cell subpopulations had not previously been demonstrated in humans. ...
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Tuomela S, Rautio S, Ahlfors H, Öling V, Salo V, Ullah U, Chen Z, Hämälistö S, Tripathi SK, Äijö T, Rasool O, Soueidan H, Wessels L, Stockinger B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2016) Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming. Oncotarget. 7(12):13416-28.. Kanduri K, Tripathi S, Larjo A, Mannerström H, Ullah U, Lund R, Hawkins RD, Ren B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2015) Identification of global regulators of T-helper cell lineage specification. Genome Med. 7:122. Heinonen MT, Laine AP, Söderhäll C, Gruzieva O, Rautio S, Melén E, Pershagen G, Lähdesmäki HJ, Knip M, Ilonen J, Henttinen TA, Kere J, Lahesmaa R; Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Registry. (2015) GIMAP GTPase family genes: potential modifiers in autoimmune diabetes, asthma, and allergy. J Immunol. 194(12):5885-94.. Moulder R, Bhosale SD, Erkkilä T, Laajala E, Salmi J, Nguyen EV, Kallionpää H, Mykkänen J, Vähä-Mäkilä M, Hyöty H, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell T, Toppari J, Knip M, Goodlett ...
Guangdun Peng, Shengbao Suo, Guizhong Cui, Fang Yu, Ran Wang, Jun Chen, Shirui Chen, Zhiwen Liu, Guoyu Chen, Yun Qian, Patrick P. L. Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han & Naihe Jing. Molecular architecture of lineage allocation and tissue organization in early mouse embryo. Nature, 2019 August. 1-5.572(7770):528-532 Guangdun Peng, Shengbao Suo, Jun Chen, Weiyang Chen, Chang Liu, Fang Yu, Ran Wang, Shirui Chen, Na Sun, Guizhong Cui, Lu Song, Patrick P.L. Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han, Naihe Jing. Spatial Transcriptome for the Molecular Annotation of Lineage Fates and Cell Identity in Mid-gastrula Mouse Embryo. Developmental Cell, 2016 Mar. 36: 681-697.. Jun Chen, Shengbao Suo, Patrick PL Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing. Spatial transcriptomic analysis of cryosectioned tissue samples with Geo-seq. Nature Protocols, 2017 Feb. 12: 566-580.. ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Mardaryev, AN, et al. (2016) Cbx4 maintains the epithelial lineage identity and cell proliferation in the developing stratified epithelium. J. Cell Biol.. 2016 Jan 4; 212(1):77-89. PM ID: ...
PE anti-mouse Lineage Cocktail with Isotype Ctrl - The mouse lineage panel has been designed to react with cells from the major hematopoietic cell lineages, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, NK cells, and erythrocytes.
Pacific Blue™ anti-mouse Lineage Cocktail with Isotype Ctrl - The mouse lineage panel has been designed to react with cells from the major hematopoietic cell lineages, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, NK cells, and erythrocytes.
In this new paper Itay tested OSKM trans-differenitation method using genetic lineage tracing for expression of endogenous Nanog and Oct4 and for X chromosome reactivation. He found that the vast majority of reprogrammed cardiomyocytes or neural stem cells obtained from mouse fibroblasts by this method pass through a transient pluripotent state, and that their derivation is molecularly coupled to iPSC formation mechanisms.. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Cell Lineage and Developmental Studies in Hearing and Balance (R01) PA-07-127. NIDCD
Русская база знаний Lineage II, все Lineage II - квесты, описания, прохождения, статьи, вещи, классы, пособия, Lineage 2 по-русски, квесты руоффа, база знаний руоффа, локализация Lineage 2.
Molecular profile of CD34-lineage- cells differentiated with IL-15 plus IL-21. Panel A: Molecular features of cytokine-differentiated CD34-lineage- cells. The e
Hematopoietic cells have been reported to convert into a number of non-hematopoietic cells types after transplantation/injury. Here, we have used a lineage tracing approach to determine whether hematopoietic plasticity is relevant for the normal deve
Software lineages arise through purchase and reproduction. Lineages are tracked by storing lineage-relevant information in variable regions of software instances and/or in a central database according to methods disclosed.
Transcription is thought to have a major role in the regulation of cell fate; the importance of translational regulation in this process has been less certain. Recent findings demonstrate that translational regulation contributes to cell-fate specification. The evolutionarily conserved, neural RNA-b …
The second point focuses on how best to differentiate the cells into the many mature cell types that are essential for the prospective treatment of distinct…
Function: May play a role in the response to environmental stress. Appears to act upstream of the JUN N-terminal pathway. May play a role in hematopoietic lineage decisions and growth regulation ...
I thought you might be interested in looking at ZTE Axon 7 Lineage OS 14.1 High Res Output not working.. ...
Biology is the study of living organisms: their structure, function, organization, origin, and evolution. Tillys lab seeks to promote a deeper understanding of the genetic and epigenetic drivers of cell lineage...
Moto G7 Plus - Your warranty is now void. - You have been warned. - Use at your own risk. Introduction: This is the Official Lineage OS 18.1 thread for...
What is the difference between Fate and Destiny? Fate is believed to be inevitable and unchangeable whereas destiny can be changed by an individual.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess two fundamental characteristics, the capacity for self-renewal and the sustained production of all blood cell lineages. The fine balance between HSC expansion and lineage specification is dynamically regulated by the interplay between external and internal stimuli. This review introduces recent advances in the roles played by the stem cell niche, regulatory transcriptional networks, and metabolic pathways in governing HSC self-renewal, commitment, and lineage differentiation. We will further focus on discoveries made by studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. RECENT FINDINGS: HSCs require the support of an interactive milieu with their physical position within the perivascular niche dynamically regulating HSC behavior. In these microenvironments, transcription factor networks and nutrient-mediated regulation of energy resources, signaling pathways, and epigenetic status govern HSC quiescence and differentiation. Once HSCs begin ...
CiteWeb id: 20050000212. CiteWeb score: 2801. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.01.016. Regulatory T cell-mediated dominant tolerance has been demonstrated to play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. Here, we present data arguing that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 acts as the regulatory T cell lineage specification factor and mediator of the genetic mechanism of dominant tolerance. We show that expression of Foxp3 is highly restricted to the subset αβ of T cells and, irrespective of CD25 expression, correlates with suppressor activity. Induction of Foxp3 expression in nonregulatory T cells does not occur during pathogen-driven immune responses, and Foxp3 deficiency does not impact the functional responses of nonregulatory T cells. Furthermore, T cell-specific ablation of Foxp3 is sufficient to induce the identical early onset lymphoproliferative syndrome observed in Foxp3-deficient mice. Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is ...
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Ascl1+ progenitors did not significantly generate RGCs at any time point. Although we cannot formally rule out that a biologically relevant, rare RGC subtype(s) derives from the Ascl1 lineage, our data strongly argue against this possibility. First, Ascl1-GFP and pan-Brn3 co-expression data suggests that this putative subtype would have to be exceedingly rare during development (one cell or fewer per retina) (binomial distribution, P,0.00001, see Table S5 in the supplementary material). Second, whereas Brn3a/b/c expression might not label all ganglion cell subtypes (Badea and Nathans, 2011), retrograde dextran uptake labels all RGCs; nonetheless, we did not observe a significant number of Brn3+ or dextran-labeled RGCs in the Ascl1 lineage.. Retroviral lineage-tracing studies have shown that all seven retinal cell types derive from a common progenitor population (Turner and Cepko, 1987; Turner et al., 1990). However, throughout most of retinal development, several cell types are being formed ...
With the work in this thesis I have aimed to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of different blood cell lineages with a specific focus on B cell development.. To understand the interplay between extracellular signaling and transcription factor networks in early lymphoid development we investigated the functional collaborations of FLT3 and IL7R. We found that signaling via FLT3 and IL7R act in powerful synergy on proliferation of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). In addition to a role in expansion of progenitor cells we provided evidence for that IL7R signaling play a crucial role in B-cell commitment. IL7 deficient mice display a dramatic block in development before functional lineage restriction in the Ly6D+ CLP-compartment. The few Ly6D+CLPs that do develop have reduced mRNA levels of transcription factor EBF1, a protein with crucial functions in lineage restriction and activation of the B-lymphoid program. One crucial function of EBF1 is to activate Pax5. Even ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification ...
The present study uses highly purified T cells, Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, and analyses at the cellular and molecular level to reexamine the paradigm of local immune privilege in the eye. Our current data considerably extend what has been known about the suppressive ability of ocular fluids and provide new information on the likely fate of a T cell that enters the eye and undergoes TCR ligation in the ocular environment. The entire differentiation program for Th1 as well as for Th17 was shut down and diverted toward de novo Foxp3+ Treg induction. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of STAT1 and its target, the Th1 lineage-specific transcription factor T-bet, were both inhibited, phosphorylation of STAT3, which is triggered by IL-6R ligation and induces the Th17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt (29), was not affected, and neither was expression of IL-6Rα. This suggests that inhibition of RORγt by AH was not through the IL-6-induced STAT3 pathway. Because Foxp3 was shown to bind to ...
T, B, and NK lymphocytes are generated from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells through a successive series of lineage restriction processes. Many regulatory components, such as transcription factors, cytokines/cytokine receptors, and signal transduction molecules orchestrate cell fate specification and determination. In particular, transcription factors play a key role in regulating lineage-associated gene programs. Recent findings suggest the involvement of epigenetic factors in the maintenance of cell fate. Here, we review the early developmental events during lymphocyte lineage determination, focusing on the transcriptional networks and epigenetic regulation. Finally, we also discuss the developmental relationship between acquired and innate lymphoid cells. ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41467_2018_6176_MOESM1_ESM. StatementRNA sequences for the single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses reported with this paper have been deposited in the GEO database under accession code type:entrez-geo,attrs:text:GSE101099″,term_id:101099″GSE101099. The authors declare that all data assisting the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary information Foxd1 documents or from your corresponding author upon reasonable request. Abstract Organogenesis requires the complex relationships of multiple cell lineages that coordinate their growth, differentiation, and maturation over time. Here, we profile the cell types within the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the murine pancreas across developmental time using a combination of single-cell RNA sequencing, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and genetic lineage tracing. We determine previously underappreciated cellular heterogeneity of the ...
Vertebrate hematopoiesis first produces primitive (embryonic) lineages and ultimately generates the definitive (adult) blood. Whereas definitive hematopoiesis may produce many diverse blood types via a common multipotent progenitor, primitive hematopoiesis has been thought to produce only erythrocytes or macrophages via progenitors that are unipotent for single blood lineages. Using a variety of in vivo cell-tracing techniques, we show that primitive blood in zebrafish derives from two different progenitor types. On the dorsal gastrula, blood progenitors are unipotential cells that divide infrequently, populate the rostral blood islands, and differentiate into macrophages. In contrast, on the ventral gastrula, blood progenitors are multipotential cells with rapid cell cycles; populate the intermediate cell mass; and differentiate into erythrocytes, neutrophils, and thrombocytes. Our results demonstrate the existence of primitive hematopoietic progenitors that are segregated very early in ...
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We originally defined Lgr5 as a Wnt target gene, transcribed in colon cancer cells. Two knock-in alleles revealed exclusive expression of Lgr5 in cycling, columnar cells at the crypt base. Using an inducible Cre knock-in allele and the Rosa26-LacZ reporter strain, lineage tracing experiments were performed in adult mice. The Lgr5+ve crypt base columnar cells (CBC) generated all epithelial lineages throughout life, implying that it represents the stem cell of the small intestine and colon. Similar obserations were made in hair follicles and stomach epithelium.. Single sorted Lgr5+ve stem cells can initiate ever-expanding crypt-villus organoids in 3D culture. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5+ve stem cell hierarchy is maintained in these organoids. We conclude that intestinal crypt-villus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial ...
Lineage determination is an important part of the analysis of viral sequence data. Previously this has depended on phylogenetic analysis in order to identify distinct clades within the phylogenetic trees. This method is time consuming and dependent on a set of empirical rules for clade identification. An alternative approach is to use clustering. Clustering is commonly used to identify operational taxonomic units in next generation sequencing data. In this paper we use clustering in order to rapidly identify viral segment lineages and clades without the need for tree construction.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lineage determination in mixed phenotype acute leukemia. T2 - Response to marcondes et al.. AU - Fuda, Franklin. AU - Chen, Weina. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. DO - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24470224. AN - SCOPUS:84898544513. VL - 86. SP - 150. EP - 151. JO - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. JF - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. SN - 1552-4949. IS - 3. ER - ...
Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited. ...
EBF1 is a crucial regulator of B lymphocyte lineage specification and commitment. In mice lacking EBF1 (encoded by the Ebf1 gene), B cell development is arreste...
Here we present our protocol for producing induced erythroid progenitors (iEPs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using transcription...
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A Neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells such as neurons. It allows detection and identification of cells by using different techniques. A neuronal lineage marker can be either DNA, mRNA or RNA expressed in a cell of interest. It can also be a protein tag, as a partial protein, a protein or an epitope that discriminates between different cell types or different states of a common cell. An ideal marker is specific to a given cell type in normal conditions and/or during injury. Cell markers are very valuable tools for examining the function of cells in normal conditions as well as during disease. The discovery of various proteins specific to certain cells led to the production of cell-type-specific antibodies that have been used to identify cells. The techniques used for its detection can be immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, methods that utilize transcriptional modulators and site-specific recombinases ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in epithelial cell fate determination, open tracheal system pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
This paradigm is especially obvious in the lung after influenza infection, where areas of regeneration and remodeling are coincident, even in nearby regions of the same lung. At a cellular level, one can envision how these injury repair outcomes are actually dictated by progenitor cell fate choices within the injured tissue. We have several projects aimed at increasing our understanding of molecular rheostats affecting this balance. In one project, we are studying the role of vascular-derived bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signals that impact progenitor cell fate choices, wherein boosting BMP levels seems to promote more appropriate fate choices. Building upon previous work, we are also continuing to study how the Notch pathway impacts cell fate as well as optimizing orthotopic progenitor cell transplants for cell therapy approaches.. We have a number of other ongoing projects for which we are actively recruiting new scientists. These projects include investigating the role of Eph / Ephrin ...
As described above, gene knockout approaches have so far provided insights into the roles of the epigenetic machinery in regulating lineage choice and later in lineage maintenance during T-lymphocyte development. Despite an assumption of dramatic effects because of their global roles in gene regulation, a lack of one factor does not result in an apparent developmental arrest or severe lineage skewing in most cases. It is likely that this reflects redundant functions among related factors and pathways, which in turn secure robustness in regulating lineage-specific gene programmes. The majority of the factors described above have at least one homologue or functionally similar molecule, which may compensate and mask the true impact of a single ablated repressive pathway. In addition, there is an alternative possibility that co-activators and co-repressors recruited directly by transcription factors are sufficient to guide cells to their appropriate lineages. If that is the case, what is the role of ...
Martti Ahtisaari discusses his life and work as a worldwide peacemaker and the challenges that face peace negotiators in todays conflict zones. In summary, although all MED KO mice are embryonic lethal, they die at totally different developmental phases with distinctive phenotypes, suggesting important and particular roles for particular person Mediator subunits throughout growth. General, as a grasp coordinator, Mediator coordinates transcription and cell lineage specification/improvement to ensure that the correct genes are expressed at the right time and place and with the required intensity and period. Since a mediator is neutral, unhealthy information from the mediator is generally not met with the identical reactive devaluation as would greet that same dangerous news if damaged by a litigation adversary.. Following his/her appointment, the mediator will contact the parties or their counsel to repair a date for the holding of the primary assembly. Then again, Mediator can leverage Observer ...
Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We agree with Tang et al7 that …the fate of mature or contractile SMCs requires direct in vivo lineage tracing. Although Nemenoff et al11 did not provide data elucidating the ultimate fate of phenotypically modulated SMCs, neither did Tang et al,7 despite their claims. Surprisingly, Tang et al7 only presented data at a single 5-day time point after wire injury in their smMHCCre/eGFP Rosa26-EGFP mice (Figure 7D and Online Figure XIV in Tang et al7), and then, for reasons that are not clear, they switch to use of nonlineage tracing rats for all subsequent time points. Because the authors do not analyze cell fates beyond 5 days of injury and because their lineage tracing mouse is noninducible such that any cell that transiently expresses SM MHC will activate their lineage tracing gene and be labeled, they cannot draw any conclusions as to whether or not resident differentiated medial SMCs contributed to vascular remodeling after wire injury. In addition, it is unclear whether Tang et al7 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gut microbiota amplifies host-intrinsic conversion from the CD8 T cell lineage to CD4 T cells for induction of mucosal immune tolerance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Two defining characteristics of stem cells are their multilineage differentiation potential (multipotency or pluripotency) and their capacity for self-renewal. Growth factors are well-established regulators of stem cell ...
Quantifying the frequency of GMP pedigrees without cell death in single-cytokine conditions allowed us to identify the lineage-instructive effect of M- and G-CSF. In 88 ± 2% (M-CSF) and 87 ± 6% (G-CSF) of pedigrees leading exclusively to M and G cells, respectively, no cell death occurred (Fig. 2B). These percentages far exceed those of colonies that could have been generated from unilineage-restricted precursors potentially contaminating the GMP population that we used (P , 0.000006 and P , 0.0008 for M- and G-CSF, respectively). M- and G-CSF therefore instructed at least 65% and 34% of bipotent GMPs to differentiate into the M and G lineage, respectively (Fig. 2, A and B). Moreover, depending on the cytokines present, around 90% of the identical GMP population differentiates exclusively into different lineages, which demonstrates that these GMPs are bipotent. Thus, our assumption of maximally 23% (M) and 53% (G) contaminating unilineage-restricted progenitors in the starting GMP population ...
Heterokaryons provide a model system in which to examine how tissue-specific phenotypes arise and are maintained. When muscle cells are fused with nonmuscle cells, muscle gene expression is activated in the nonmuscle cell type. Gene expression was studied either at a single cell level with monoclonal antibodies or in mass cultures at a biochemical and molecular level. In all of the nonmuscle cell types tested, including representatives of different embryonic lineages, phenotypes, and developmental stages, muscle gene expression was induced. Differences among cell types in the kinetics, frequency, and gene dosage requirements for gene expression provide clues to the underlying regulatory mechanisms. These results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm. The isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible. ...
A robust protocol to monitor neural populations by time-lapse video-microscopy followed by software-based post-processing is described. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
I want to perform lineage analysis on my microbial samples. I came across one platform TGS-TB which do this for tuberculosis, but it has the limitation of data uploading. I want to know is there any tool, package which help me perform this type of analysis for my samples ?? ...
Myeloid Lineage, 0.25 mg. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the precursor cells found in the bone marrow which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the Myeloid and lymphoid lineages, which include monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils,
Differential synergy of Notch and T cell receptor signaling determines ,IMG SRC=/math/agr.gif ALT={alpha} BORDER=0,ß versus ,IMG SRC=/math/ggr.gif ALT={gamma} BORDER=0,,IMG SRC=/math/dgr.gif ALT={delta} BORDER=0, lineage ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Modern Kohanim claim descent from a biblical person, Aaron, in direct lineage from Levi, great-grandson of Abraham. Learn how to tell if you are a kohanim.
Here are the research highlights from the current issue of Development: Getting to the heart of Flk1 expression The Flk1 gene, which encodes a VEGF-A receptor, is expressed in the multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells of mouse embryos that give rise to various haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages. FLK1 expression also marks haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages in differentiating human[…] ...
A multispecies continuum model is developed to simulate the dynamics of cell lineages in solid tumors. The model accounts for spatiotemporally varying cell proliferation and death mediated by the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen and soluble chemical factors. Together, these regulate the rates of self-renewal and differentiation of the different cells within the lineages. As demonstrated in the talk, the feedback processes are found to play a critical role in tumor progression and the development of morphological instability.. ...
Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M. (2012). "Lineage Tracing". Cell. 148 (1-2): 33-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.002. PMID ... Due to the clonal nature of the growth of the normal skin cells, it appears the patient is covered with confetti, hence the ...
"Bower Academic Lineage". Neuro-tree. 2013-07-31. MBL (2013-06-22). "History of the Marine Biological Laboratory". Methods in ... "Purkinje cell model". YouTube Video. 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2007-12-25. "Who's News: Renowned Computational Neurobiologist James ...
The cell body varies in size from 5-20 micrometers in diameter and contain 40-60 cell processes per cell, with a cell to cell ... Noble, SN (2008). "The osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 473 (2): 106-111. doi:10.1016/ ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Tate, M. L.; Adamson, J. R.; Tami, A. E.; Bauer, T. W. (2004). "Cells in ... The cell undergoes a dramatic transformation from a polygonal shape to a cell that extends dendrites toward the mineralizing ...
... cell LINeage defective; glp, Germ Line Proliferation defective. sel-12 gene summary (WormBase) Diane Levitan, Iva Greenwald ( ...
Oestreich, KJ; Weinmann, AS (November 2012). "Master regulators or lineage-specifying? Changing views on CD4+ T cell ... Cell. 117 (7): 927-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.06.006. PMID 15210113. S2CID 16181905. Long, JC; Caceres, JF (1 January 2009). " ... Cell. 128 (6): 1089-103. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.043. PMID 17346786. S2CID 2246942. ... that fails to account for the multifactorial influences on some cell fates. Mattick, JS; Taft, RJ; Faulkner, GJ (January 2010 ...
"Cell lineage of zebrafish blastomeres. I. Cleavage pattern and cytoplasmic bridges between cells". Developmental Biology. 108 ( ... reducing gene expression in only cells descended from that cell. However, cells in the early embryo (less than 32 cells) are ... Pancreatic PP cells that produce polypeptides, and β-cells that produce insulin are two examples of those such cells. This ... "MIO-M1 cells and similar muller glial cell lines derived from adult human retina exhibit neural stem cell characteristics". ...
... whereas cell lineage shows the relationships between cells at each division. A cell lineage can be used to generate a fate map ... "Analysis of Cell Fate from Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiles in C. elegans". Cell. 139 (3): 623-633. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... For example, the development of the complete cell lineage of C. elegans can be described as the fate maps of each cell division ... When carried out at single-cell resolution, this process is called cell lineage tracing. It is also used to trace the ...
Blood cell lineage "What Are Agranulocytes? - Definition & Function - Video & Lesson Transcript ,". ... The blood has three types of lymphocytes: B cells, T cells and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells make antibodies that ... T cells and natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that are infected by a virus. T cells are crucial to the ... The other type of white blood cells are known as granulocytes. Agranular cells are noted by the absence of granules in their ...
The N and Q lineages contribute two blast cells for each segment, while the M, O, and P lineages only contribute one cell per ... Weisblat DA; Shankland M (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 312 (1153): ... Annelids such as the leech use smaller blast cells budded off from large teloblast cells to define segments. Although ... Early divisions within the leech embryo result in teloblast cells, which are stem cells that divide asymmetrically to create ...
"Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification". Cell. 126 (4): 677-689. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.044. PMID ... In one such experiment on adult heart cells, whole cell recordings were taken on cells being squeezed with two pipettes at 1 Hz ... One type of mechanically sensitive ion channel activates specialized sensory cells, such as cochlear hair cells and some touch ... In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and ...
When the cell body is slightly mechanically disturbed in a lab setting, the filopodia retract close to the cell body. This ... Dumack, Kenneth; Schuster, Julia; Bass, David; Bonkowski, Michael (June 2016). "A Novel Lineage of 'Naked Filose Amoebae'; ... These bacteria then glide through or along the filopodia to the cell body for digestion. The cell body does not have any ... The filopodium can grip the substrate and carry the cell body above the surface by a swaying locomotive action. The cell body ...
... modulates the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells". Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 25 (1 ... Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (August 1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 ... Journal of Cell Science. 112 (19): 3361-71. PMID 10504341. Gogate N, Verma L, Zhou JM, Milward E, Rusten R, O'Connor M, Kufta C ... of the oligodendrocyte lineage, along with a closely related CCHC zinc finger, is expressed in developing neurons in the ...
... tissue and cell) from microarrays, SAGE analysis and GFP promoter fusions; The complete cell lineage of the worm; The wiring ...
The O, P, and M lineages contribute one blast cell per segment, but the contributions from each blast cell spans a segmental ... These segmental boundaries were discovered by injecting teloblasts with cell lineage tracers after a few blast cells have ... 105: 105-118.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Weisblat DA, Shankland M (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in ... Only the teloplasm gets passed onto the daughter stem cells after cell division. The O and P teloblasts are specified from two ...
Doherty, P. C. (1999). "Burnet Oration: Living in the Burnet lineage". Immunology and Cell Biology. 77 (2): 167-176. doi: ... In 1958 Gustav Nossal and Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first evidence for ... Nossal, G. J. V. (1995). "One Cell - One Antibody". In Gallagher, R. B.; Gilder, J.; Nossal, G. J. V.; Salvatore, G. (eds.). ... Cruse, J. M.; Lewis, R. E. (1994). "David W. Talmage and the advent of the cell selection theory of antibody synthesis". ...
Weisblat, D. A.; Shankland, M. (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ... of embryonic stem cells that form segmented columns of cells (germinal band) in the surface of the embryo. The M-derived cells ... Each segment of the body of the leech is generated from one M, O, P cell types and two N and two Q cells types. The ectoderm ... As a consequence, it creates a large D cell on the left and a smaller C cell to the right. This unequal division process is ...
Cell. 121 (2): 167-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.020. PMID 15851025. S2CID 15638573. Sistayanarain A, Tsuneyama K, Zheng H, ... Slany RK (2016). "The molecular mechanics of mixed lineage leukemia". Oncogene. 35 (40): 5215-5223. doi:10.1038/onc.2016.30. ... Soria-Valles C, Osorio FG, López-Otín C (2015). "Reprogramming aging through DOT1L inhibition". Cell Cycle. 14 (21): 3345-3346 ... Cell. 112 (5): 711-23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00114-4. PMID 12628190. S2CID 17822742. Jikuya H, Takano J, Kikuno R, Hirosawa ...
A melanoblast is a precursor cell of a melanocyte. These cells migrate from the trunk neural crest cells (in terms of axial ... "The melanocyte lineage in development and disease". Development. 142 (4): 620-632. doi:10.1242/dev.106567. ISSN 0950-1991. PMC ... Biological pigment List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Mort, Richard L.; Jackson, Ian J.; Patton, E. ...
"Enlarged Adenoids". Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P. (2013). "B-lymphocyte lineage cells ... M cells) that allow for the uptake of antigens produced by pathogens. These M cells then alert the B cells and T cells in the ... The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called Microfold cell ( ... B cells are activated and proliferate in areas called germinal centers in the tonsil. These germinal centers are places where B ...
Civitelli, R (2008). "Cell-cell communication in the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... In non-excitable cells, the resting potential across the plasma membrane (Vmem) of individual cells propagate across distances ... Robinson, K. R (1985). "The responses of cells to electrical fields: A review". The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (6): 2023-7. ... Adams, Dany S; Levin, Michael (2012). "Endogenous voltage gradients as mediators of cell-cell communication: Strategies for ...
"Lineage relationship analysis of RORgammat+ innate lymphoid cells". Science. 330 (6004): 665-669. Bibcode:2010Sci...330..665S. ... "A Multiscale Map of the Stem Cell State in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma". Cell. 177 (3): 572-586.e22. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.03. ... It is mainly expressed in immune cells (Th17 cells) and it also regulates circadian rhythms. It may be involved in the ... Eberl G, Littman DR (July 2004). "Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells". ...
"Nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas are more frequently T rather than NK lineage based on T-cell receptor gene, RNA, and protein ... To this end, lymphoid leukemias can also be divided by the type of cells affected: B-cell leukemia T-cell leukemia NK-cell ... T cells, B cells and NK cells are nearly impossible to distinguish under a microscope, therefore one must use a flow cytometer ... In some cases, NK cell therapy is a choice. NK cells are known for their ability to eradicate tumor cells without any prior ...
p63, conserved across vertebrate lineages. p63 is an essential regulator of stem cell maintenance in stratified epithelial ... Also, expression of miR-203 in HCC cells lacking their expression inhibited cell growth and downregulated a set of other ... Blanpain C, Fuchs E (2009). "Epidermal homeostasis: a balancing act of stem cells in the skin". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... miR-203 mediated downregulation of DKK1 appears to make lung cancer cells easier to kill, suggesting that cancer cells ...
Graf, Thomas; Enver, Tariq (2009). "Forcing cells to change lineages". Nature. 462 (7273): 587-594. doi:10.1038/nature08533. ... He is a pioneer in cell reprogramming, showing that blood cells can be transdifferentiated by transcription factors. He is also ... In 1995 he pioneered this technique permitting the transdifferentiation of white blood cells into red blood cell precursors and ... Xie, Huafeng; Ye, Min; Feng, Ru; Graf, Thomas (2004-05-28). "Stepwise Reprogramming of B Cells into Macrophages". Cell. 117 (5 ...
Examples of such findings are in embryonic stem cells, chicken embryos, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, diffuse large b-cell ... Chen, C.-Z. (2004). "MicroRNAs Modulate Hematopoietic Lineage Differentiation" (PDF). Science. 303 (5654): 83-86. Bibcode: ... Cell. 126 (6): 1203-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.031. PMID 16990141. S2CID 12749133. Lewis, BP; Burge CB; Bartel DP (Jan 14, ... Cell. 120 (1): 15-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.12.035. PMID 15652477. S2CID 17316349. Grimson, A; Farh, KK; Johnston, WK; ...
... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ... Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent ...
Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, known as Plasma Cells (for B cells), Cytotoxic T cells, and ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Janeway's Immunobiology, 9th edition, Chapter 1, ... Blood cell lineage See also[edit]. *Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. * ... Helper T cells.[1] Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] ...
Any ANC , 1500 cells / mm3 is considered neutropenia, but ,500 cells / mm3 is considered severe.[46] There is also new research ... More complete lineages References[edit]. *^ Actor J (2012). Elsevier's Integrated Review Immunology and Microbiology (Second ... HSC=Hematopoietic stem cell, Progenitor=Progenitor cell, L-blast=lymphoblast, Lymphocyte, Mo-blast=Monoblast, Monocyte, ... Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a ...
... cells are pleomorphic and lack a cell-wall. All known members of the genera are acidophiles that thrive in ... nov., comprising a distinct lineage of the Archaea". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 Pt 3 ... Golyshina OV, Timmis KN (September 2005). "Ferroplasma and relatives, recently discovered cell wall-lacking archaea making a ... nov., an acidophilic, autotrophic, ferrous-iron-oxidizing, cell-wall-lacking, mesophilic member of the Ferroplasmaceae fam. ...
Though lacking a cell wall, F. acidiphilum cell membranes contain caldarchaetidylglycerol tetraether lipids, which effectively ... Nov., comprising a distinct lineage of the Archaea". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (3 ... The differing cell membranes in archaea compared to the bacteria may hold part of the explanation; ether lipids that link ... Acidophiles harness the strong proton motive force (PMF), caused by the pH gradient across their cell membrane, for ATP ...
Immature plasma cells[edit]. The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast.[3] ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... This occurred independently in several separate lineages of vascular plants, in progymnosperms like Archaeopteris, in ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... Endosymbiotic gene transfer is how we know about the lost chloroplasts in many chromalveolate lineages. Even if a chloroplast ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
However, recent research has shown that such lineage infidelity does not occur as a normal phenomenon[citation needed]. ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
The positioning of the osteoprogenitor cell condensations determines the cell lineage before the signalling molecules can. This ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will undergo differentiation into certain cell lineages. However the exact mechanism ... are necessary for osteochondroprogenitor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast cell lineage. These factors also have a ...
A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a ... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... lineages become simpler or more complicated according to whatever forms had a selective advantage.[27] ... "Relationship between genome size and organismal complexity in the lineage leading from prokaryotes to mammals". Paleontological ...
Note: The DNA from a single human cell has a length of ~1.8 m (but at a width of ~2.4 nanometers). ... Software that maps an Artificial Genome sequence to a Network and to a Lineage tree ...
This virus has a both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 ( ... Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets ... or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, malaria, typhoid fever, and ... These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ...
"The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis" (PDF). The American ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... eventually leaving only one surviving lineage - the hippopotamus.[29] ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... Whales do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual pigments in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for ...
Brysse, K. (2008). "From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna". Studies in ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... Early in the period, the modern reptiles, or crown-group reptiles, evolved and split into two main lineages: the ... According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria ("first lizards") in which he included ...
The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... "Detection of a new yellow fever virus lineage within the South American genotype I in Brazil". J Med Virol. 82 (1): 175-185. ... After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called ... After transmission from a mosquito, the viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and infect dendritic cells in particular. From ...
Zhang Y, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, et al. (2003). "Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing ... "Lineage-specific loss of function of bitter taste receptor genes in humans and nonhuman primates.". Genetics 170 (1): 313-26. ... Cell 127 (3): 635-48. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. ... similar signaling pathways.". Cell 112 (3): 293-301. DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID 12581520. ...
Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... A lineage of archaea discovered in 2015, Lokiarchaeum (of proposed new Phylum "Lokiarchaeota"), named for a hydrothermal vent ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
... but are rapidly required after differentiation into some lineages. Once the cell starts to differentiate, these bivalent ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ... "Cell. 153 (3): 590-600. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.025. PMC 3641580. PMID 23622243.. ...
1999). "The mixed lineage kinase DLK utilizes MKK7 and not MKK4 as substrate". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (15): 10195-202. doi:10.1074/ ... The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as ... Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 20 (7): 2334-42. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.7.2334-2342.2000. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 85399 . PMID 10713157. Ito ... Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 19 (11): 7539-48. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.11.7539. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 84763 . PMID 10523642. Matsuura, ...
... by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • homophilic cell adhesion via ... Hoek R.M., Ruuls S.R., Murphy C.A. et al. Down-regulation of the macrophage lineage through interaction with OX2 (CD200) (англ ... heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ... cell adhesion molecule binding. • protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • glycosylated region protein ...
nov., a cell-fusing hyperthermophilic archaeon from Suiyo Seamount". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 6): 2507-14. PMID ... nov., comprising a distinct lineage of the Archaea". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 (3): 997-1006. PMID 10843038.. ... Bernander R (1998). "Archaea and the cell cycle". Mol. Microbiol. 29 (4): 955-61. PMID 9767564. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998. ... Baker, B.J., Tyson, G.W., Webb, R.I., Flanagan, J., Hugenholtz, P. and Banfield, J.F. (2006). "Lineages of acidophilic Archaea ...
Sturtevant, A. H. (1929). "The claret mutant type of Drosophila simulans: a study of chromosome elimination and cell-lineage". ... The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal number of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total ... After further rounds of replication, this cell would result in a patch, or "clone" of cells mutant for the allele being studied ... they can be used to determine the tissue or cell type in which a given gene is required and to determine whether a gene is cell ...
Cartmill, M.; Smith, F. H. (2011). The Human Lineage. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-21145-8.. ... Instead, it has sensitive touch receptors (Merkel cells). The rhinarium, upper lip, and gums are tightly connected by a fold of ... Using this molecular clock, divergence dates for the major primate lineages have suggested that primates evolved more than 80- ... geneticists and primatologists have used genetic analyses to determine the relatedness between primate lineages and the amount ...
T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment. • regulation of immune response. • natural killer cell differentiation. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 5026-35. PMC 231504. . PMID 8756661. *Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is ... 2 and reduces adherence of natural killer cells, thereby protecting HTLV-1-infected primary CD4+ T cells from autologous ... natural killer cell proliferation. • immune system process. • positive regulation of interferon-gamma production. • positive ...
myeloid cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process. • GO:0022415 viral process. • signal ... MDL-1 is highly expressed on myeloid lineages like neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage and also osteoclast, microglia and ... 1 is a cell surface receptor involved in the activation of myeloid cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... cell surface. • specific granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • cytosol. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • ...
Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... Ogasawara K, Bannai M, Saitou N, et al. (1996). "Extensive polymorphism of ABO blood group gene: three major lineages of the ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ... O வகையல்லாத குருதி வகைகளுடன் (A, B, AB) ஒப்பிடும்போது, O குருதி வகையானது squamous cell carcinoma வருவதற்கான சூழிடர் 14% ...
... beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean ... Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) have their center of ... Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen can ... They are the most ancient extant lineage of honey bees, maybe diverging in the Bartonian (some 40 million years ago or slightly ...
... of cells in the cell cycle.[253]. *Mark Oliphant (1901-2000): Australian physicist and humanitarian. He played a fundamental ... "There is no clear record that he was professionally restricted in Russia because of his lineage, but he sympathized with the ... She is the George Barth Geller Professor of Research in Molecular Biology and Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at Duke ... Brigid Hogan FRS (1943-): British developmental biologist noted for her contributions to stem cell research and transgenic ...
The orphan nuclear receptor ROR-γ directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell 126:1121- ... 17 lineage". Nature 441 (7090): 231-4. PMID 16648837. doi:10.1038/nature04754. ... Aggarwal S, Ghilardi N, Xie MH, de Sauvage FJ, Gurney AL (2003). "Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation ... "Selective regulatory function of Socs3 in the formation of IL-17-secreting T cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (21): ...
"Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis for the origin of ... This is done in modern cells by ribosomes, a complex of several RNA molecules known as rRNA together with many proteins. The ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... For two, rather than one, viable daughter cells to be produced would require an extra replication of the intact RNA gene ...
56,0 56,1 56,2 Fitt WK, Trench RK (1983) The relation of diel patterns of cell division to diel patterns of motility in the ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... Markell DA, Trench RK, Iglesias-Prieto R (1992) Macromolecules associated with the cell-walls of symbiotic dinoflagellates. ...
Lineage analysis of intestinal epithelial cells. We have developed a method for single cell extraction of epithelial cells from ... In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be ... The reconstructed cell lineage trees of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients demonstrated that leukemia cells at relapse were ... Quantifying the ability to reconstruct a cell-lineage tree using somatic mutations. The development of cells within a multi- ...
This causes the cell lineage and cell fate to be highly correlated. Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and ... Giurumescu, Claudiu A.; Chisholm, Andrew D. (2011). "Cell Identification and Cell Lineage Analysis". Methods in Cell Biology. ... is activated and permanently labels the cell of interest and its offspring cells, thus the name cell lineage tracing. With the ... "Building a lineage from single cells: genetic techniques for cell lineage tracking". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 18 (4): 230-244 ...
... stochastic priming of multipotent progenitor cells in cell fate decision. (See Nature Reports Stem Cells). Phenotypic cell-to- ... Even in clonal populations of cells, there is significant phenotypic variation from cell to cell: Huang and colleagues analyse ... Such non-genetic cell individuality7 can arise from the slow fluctuations of protein levels8 in mammalian cells. These ... Preference in lineage choice was associated with increased expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, such as a ,200 ...
Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array The Human Cell Lineage EpiTect Chip qPCR Array profiles the histone ...
View the latest Lineage Cell Therapeutics Inc. (BT3.DE) stock price, news, historical charts, analyst ratings and financial ... Research & Ratings Lineage Cell Therapeutics Inc.BT3. Per-Share Earnings, Actuals and Estimates. ... Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. operates as a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing new cellular therapies for ...
NYSE American and TASE: BTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs, ... Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. - 8-K, Current Report. 08.05.. Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (LCTX) CEO Brian Culley on Q1 ... Aktien»Nachrichten»LINEAGE CELL THERAPEUTICS AKTIE»BioTime Announces Name Change to Lineage Cell Therapeutics ... "Our new brand defines us within our field: we control the lineage of pluripotent cells and transplant those differentiated cell ...
Lineage Cell Therapeutics (AMEX:LCTX) announces its next round of earnings this Thursday, March 11. Here is Benzingas ... Lineage Cells Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cell Therapy Associated With Stable Or Improved Vision ... Earnings Outlook for Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Benzinga Insights , Benzinga Staff Writer {{following ? "Following" : "Follow ... Shares of Lineage Cell Therapeutics were trading at $2.26 as of March 09. Over the last 52-week period, shares are up 249.95%. ...
Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-14. "Cell Therapy". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-14. "Safety and ... Californias Stem Cell Agency. Retrieved 2020-12-16. "VAC2". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-16. "Lineage Cell ... "Board of Directors". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-22. Official website Business data for Lineage Cell ... Lineage is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. Lineages focus is ...
i, Overlay of g and h revealed that Tbx18-lineage-traced cells in heart were cardiac-troponin-T-positive cells. In g-i, lower ... For Tbx18-lineage-traced cells at E13.5, see . g, β-galactosidase antibody staining on Tbx18-lineage-traced tissue at E11.5. h ... e-g, Real-time Ca2+ transients of cells derived from single Tbx18-lineage-traced proepicardial cells after myocytic ... c, Tbx18-lineage-traced proepicardial cells (Tbx18:Cre/R26REYFP) were disassociated and single cells were expanded in ...
... may well serve as future therapeutic options to rescue mature oligodendrocytes and/or promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell ... Oligodendrocytes are supporting glial cells that ensure the metabolism and homeostasis of neurons with specific synaptic ... Oligodendroglial Lineage Cells in Thyroid Hormone-Deprived Conditions,. Stem Cells International,. vol. 2019. ,. Article ID ... Oligodendroglial Lineage Cells in Thyroid Hormone-Deprived Conditions. Min Joung Kim. 1 and Steven Petratos. 1. 1Department of ...
... cells to undergo differentiation in vitro complements their ability to contribute to numerous tissues in vivo and provides a ... Embryonic Stem Cell Tissue Culture Dish Vascular Development Cell Clump Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation These keywords were ... Bautch V.L. (2002) Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and the Vascular Lineage. In: Turksen K. (eds) Embryonic Stem Cells. ... a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. J. Cell Biol. 114, 1059-1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
A histone-YFP marker was used to allow identification of cell lineages and easy counting of cells. Constitutive expression of a ... and the fate of the marked cells can be followed non-invasively. We have used the system to map cell lineages originating from ... Marking cell lineages in living tissues.. Kurup S1, Runions J, Köhler U, Laplaze L, Hodge S, Haseloff J. ... The lineage marking technique enabled us to measure the differential contribution of primary root pericycle cell files to ...
... or the presence of multiple different cell populations within the same tumor that have distinct characteristics such as gene ... Study: Mammary basal cell lineage contributes to breast cancer heterogeneity. *Download PDF Copy ... The team identified that the mammary basal cell lineage contributes to breast cancer heterogeneity, fueling the outgrowth of ... Tags: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Carcinomas, Cell, Education, Evolution, Gene, Gene Expression, Genetic, Kinase, Medicine, ...
Here we present a stochastic continuum model for cell lineages to investigate how both layer thickness and layer stratification ... The layer stratification usually deteriorates as the noise level increases in the cell lineage systems. Interestingly, the ... We find that the cell-intrinsic noise often causes reduction and oscillation of layer size whereas the cell-extrinsic noise ... lineages of cells differentiate and proliferate in a coordinated way to provide the desirable size and spatial organization of ...
... cell lineage include Co-localization of Cell Lineage Markers and the Tomato Signal, Cell Lineage Analyses and Gene Function ... Mouse Naïve CD4+ T Cell Isolation and In vitro Differentiation into T Cell Subsets, Ablation of a Single Cell From Eight-cell ... Live Imaging Followed by Single Cell Tracking to Monitor Cell Biology and the Lineage Progression of Multiple Neural ... Cell Sorting of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone and Live-imaging of their Cell Cycle ...
... hematopoietic lineages analyzed in blood (erythrocytes, platelets, myeloid cells, T cells, and B cells). Here, we chose to ... myeloid cells, T cells, and B cells in all recipient mice. These reconstituted hematopoietic cells were still readily ... Distinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Eliver Eid Bou Ghosn, Ryo Yamamoto ... 2006) Phenotypically distinct B cell development pathways map to the three B cell lineages in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
... the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and ... Inner Cell Mass Asymmetric Division Cell Fate Decision Lineage Bias Inner Cell Mass Cell These keywords were added by machine ... Johnson MH, Ziomek CA (1981) The foundation of two distinct cell lineages within the mouse morula. Cell 24:71-80PubMedCrossRef ... 2012) Cell Lineage Allocation Within the Inner Cell Mass of the Mouse Blastocyst. In: Kubiak J. (eds) Mouse Development. ...
NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medic ... About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell ... Vice President and Head of Global Development at Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Early data from Lineages Vision Restoration ... Lineage Cell Therapeutics Awarded NIH Grant for Innovative Vision Restoration Program August 13, 2019 08:00 AM Eastern Daylight ...
... Martin Raff, Yasu Tokumoto, and Dean Tang ... MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ...
Transcription Factors and Helper T Cell Lineage Determination Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B ... Hematopoietic cell lineage - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , User data ... Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular ... A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and ...
... have published a comprehensive lineage tree of a whole adult animal in the journal Science. This was made possible by a ... From one stem cell to many differentiated body cells: Scientists from the MDC in Berlin, along with collaborating researchers ... sequencing of purified stem cells and cells from stem cell-depleted animals; gene expression changes; unsupervised lineage tree ... 2018): "Cell type atlas and lineage tree of a whole complex animal by single-cell transcriptomics,", Science. Advance Online ...
Here the authors analyze the B cell repertoire in macaques and knock-in mice in response to sequential immunization with Env ... Macaque memory B cell single-cell sorting and phenotyping. We performed single-cell isolation of macaque memory B cells ... in order to provide a survival advantage to bnAb B cell lineages over "off-target" B cell lineages. It will also be critical to ... Gao, F. et al. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies. Cell 158, 481-491 (2014). ...
Many of these genes are mutated in human diseases that affect crest-derived lineages. At the same time, decades of work on the ... Cellular and molecular biology of neural crest cell lineage determination Trends Genet. 1997 Jul;13(7):276-80. doi: 10.1016/ ... Many of these genes are mutated in human diseases that affect crest-derived lineages. At the same time, decades of work on the ... generating new insights into the segregation of different lineages and the role played by environmental signals in the lineage- ...
Osteoblast-lineage cells expressed Wnt5a, whereas osteoclast precursors expressed Ror2. Mice deficient in either Wnt5a or Ror2 ... Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling between osteoblast-lineage cells and osteoclast precursors enhances osteoclastogenesis Nat Med. 2012 Feb ... We showed that Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling between osteoblast-lineage cells and osteoclast precursors enhanced osteoclastogenesis. ... and those with either osteoclast precursor-specific Ror2 deficiency or osteoblast-lineage cell-specific Wnt5a deficiency showed ...
Lineage Relationship Analysis of RORγt+ Innate Lymphoid Cells By Shinichiro Sawa, Marie Cherrier, Matthias Lochner, Naoko Satoh ... Lineage Relationship Analysis of RORγt+ Innate Lymphoid Cells By Shinichiro Sawa, Marie Cherrier, Matthias Lochner, Naoko Satoh ... Lineage Relationship Analysis of RORγt+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We show here that LTi cells are part of a larger family of proinflammatory RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that ...
Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B ... Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular ... A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and ...
Mesenchymal cell contributions to the stem cell niche. Cell Stem Cell. 2015;16(3):239-253.. View this article via: PubMed ... PGC-1α controls skeletal stem cell fate and bone-fat balance in osteoporosis and skeletal aging by inducing TAZ. Cell Stem Cell ... The dead cells were marked by using a fixable dead cell stain kit (Molecular Probes), and living cells were gated for lack of ... Sensory nerves regulate mesenchymal stromal cell lineage commitment by tuning sympathetic tones. Bo Hu,1,2 Xiao Lv,1,3 Hao Chen ...
Whereas CD4+ T cells have a predominantly regulatory role, CD8+ T cells are essentially responsible for killing infected cells- ... cells than on CD8+ T cells (13). This indicates a special sensitivity of the CD4+ lineage to Lck signaling beyond what was ... specifies CD8 lineage choice and promotes the differentiation of cytotoxic-lineage T cells. Nat. Immunol. 11, 257-264 (2010).. ... lineage. In the absence of a strong Lck signal, DP2 cells differentiate into DP3 cells, a process that is accompanied by the ...
Specification of T cell lineage in the thymus is controlled by the timing and strength of signaling of the tyrosine kinase ... Specification of T cell lineage in the thymus is controlled by the timing and strength of signaling of the tyrosine kinase ... Two Receptors, Two Kinases, and T Cell Lineage Determination Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... lineages, enables us to propose that a balance between the activation of these two kinases by the TCR determines lineage ...
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (2020-07-14). (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. operates as a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing new cellular therapies for degenerative retinal diseases, neurological conditions associated with demyelination, and aiding the body in detecting and combating cancer. (
  • ALAMEDA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--BioTime, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: BTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs, today announced it is launching a new corporate brand, including a change of its corporate name to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., effective August 12, 2019. (
  • The new website for Lineage Cell Therapeutics will be (
  • Our new brand defines us within our field: we control the lineage of pluripotent cells and transplant those differentiated cell types into patients as therapeutics. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics EPS loss is expected to be around $0.05, according to sell-side analysts. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics EPS in the same period a year ago totaled $0.03. (
  • Shares of Lineage Cell Therapeutics were trading at $2.26 as of March 09. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics is scheduled to hold the call at 16:30:00 ET and can be accessed here . (
  • CARLSBAD, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs, today announced that it has been awarded a new $670,621 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to advance its Vision Restoration Program, the Company's proprietary and innovative program generating 3-dimensional human retinal tissue derived from pluripotent cells. (
  • Grants for ophthalmology research from the NIH are highly competitive and we believe this new award and funding of our Vision Restoration Program serves as external validation of the potential of our approach to restore retinal tissue and provides continued proof of progress which builds upon prior SBIR grant awards received to date," stated Francois Binette, Ph.D., Sr. Vice President and Head of Global Development at Lineage Cell Therapeutics. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics was awarded a grant worth more than $500,000 for the development of a bio-retinal patch for the treatment of retinal diseases, according to a press release. (
  • The patch is being developed by Cell Cure Neurosciences, a subsidiary of Lineage Cell Therapeutics, in partnership with Precise Bio. (
  • The clinical data we are generating from our OpRegen program is increasing our confidence in the use of cell transplants to treat serious retinal conditions such as dry AMD," Brian M. Culley , CEO of Lineage Cell Therapeutics, said in the release. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics received the CE Mark for its Renevia resorbable matrix, a Class III device used in treating facial lipoatrophy. (
  • CARLSBAD, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing three novel cell therapies for serious medical conditions, today announced positive interim results from the ongoing 24-patient Phase 1/2a clinical study of Lineage's lead product candidate, OpRegen ® . (
  • Elucidation of Signaling Regulatory Networks can augment and complement GRNs in characterizing cell identities, which may in turn contribute to the design of improved therapeutics tailored to primary and relapsing neuroblastoma. (
  • iii) these muscle-bound primordial stem-cells first part to individual muscles and then differentiate into myogenic and non-myogenic stem cells. (
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (
  • These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells. (
  • During epithelium tissue maintenance, lineages of cells differentiate and proliferate in a coordinated way to provide the desirable size and spatial organization of different types of cells. (
  • the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs), which produce the larval skeleton, and the secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs), which differentiate into a variety of cell types but do not participate in skeletogenesis. (
  • For understanding how cells differentiate, we need to compare gene expression profiles from cells at various differentiation stages, like the ones we find in planarians," says Dr. Mireya Plass from the MDC. (
  • We show here that LTi cells are part of a larger family of proinflammatory RORγt + innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that differentiate from distinct fetal liver RORγt + precursors. (
  • The ability to quickly grow large numbers of ADSCs from patient samples and to rapidly differentiate them into distinct lineages will open the door to multiple therapeutic and regenerative approaches supported in our ongoing university and corporate collaborations. (
  • While some cells in a typical tissue may persist indefinitely, many more live only briefly and are replaced by processes of repair and renewal that require new cells to arise and differentiate. (
  • In summury, type IV cells differentiate into dark and light cells and type III cells differentiate to type II cells within the light cell line. (
  • This study was undertaken to guide human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) to differentiate along the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) lineage, aiming at producing appropriate cellular material for RGC regeneration. (
  • Our DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A/ Atoh7 -based RGC-induction regime could efficiently direct TiPSCs to differentiate along RGC lineage in a stage-specific manner, which may provide a benefit to develop possible cell therapies to treat retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. (
  • These ES cells were able to differentiate in vitro to form cystic embryoid bodies (CEB) that contain endothelial cells determined by PECAM immunohistochemistry. (
  • In recent years, in vivo Cre/ IoxP -based direct cell tracing experiments show that (i) all pancreatic cells differentiate from pdx1 -expressing precursors, (ii) p48 is involved in the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic lineages, (iii) islet endocrine cells derive from ngn3 -expressing progenitor cells, and (iv) insulin cells do not derive from glucagon-expressing progenitors. (
  • Lineage analyses allow the identification of progenitor cells from which mature cell types differentiate. (
  • Also, cells do not trans-differentiate, as in the case of pit1 mutants, but display morphological features characteristic for nonsecretory cells. (
  • Multipotent stem cells are clonal cells that self-renew as well as differentiate to regenerate adult tissues. (
  • Adult stem cells can differentiate toward lineage specific cell types of the tissue or organ in which they reside. (
  • They also have the ability to differentiate into mature cells of mesenchymal tissues, such as cartilage, fat and bone. (
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies (EB), but there are many differences and controversies regarding the nature of the differentiated cells. (
  • The goal of the Allen Center will be to use newly developed technologies to create global maps of cellular development, tracing cells as they divide, move, and differentiate throughout an organism's development, and revealing the relationships between the vast number of diverse cells that make up a single organism. (
  • Once HSCs begin their lineage specification, single-cell analyses show that they do not become oligopotent but rather, differentiate directly into committed unipotent progenitors. (
  • This causes the cell lineage and cell fate to be highly correlated. (
  • After mapping various sections of the C. elegans' cell lineage, Dr. Brenner and his associates were able to piece together the first complete and reproducible fate map of cell lineage. (
  • This high correlation between cell lineage and cell fate was thought to be determined by segregating factors within the dividing cells. (
  • Perhaps the most popular method of cell fate mapping in the genetic era is through site-specific recombination mediated by the Cre-Lox or FLP-FRT systems. (
  • With the system, researchers could investigate the function of their favorite gene in determining cell fate by designing a genetic model where within a cell one recombination event is designed for manipulating the gene of interest and the other recombination event is designed for activating a reporter gene. (
  • However, it remains unknown whether this heterogeneity may account for the stochasticity of cell fate decisions in stem cells. (
  • Thus, clonal heterogeneity of gene expression level is not due to independent noise in the expression of individual genes, but reflects metastable states of a slowly fluctuating transcriptome that is distinct in individual cells and may govern the reversible, stochastic priming of multipotent progenitor cells in cell fate decision. (
  • The reason for this failure is that stalled differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is a common fate for these cells around demyelinated lesions [ 4 ]. (
  • and ( ii ) manipulated differentiation begins with the removal of differentiation inhibitory factors, but at some point the cells are usually disaggregated and cultured with specific added factors to purify or to increase the proportion of cells that acquire a particular developmental fate. (
  • Marked lineages can be induced from specific cells within the organism by targeted laser irradiation, and the fate of the marked cells can be followed non-invasively. (
  • Bruce AW, Zernicka-Goetz M (2010) Developmental control of the early mammalian embryo: competition among heterogeneous cells that biases cell fate. (
  • The fate of RORγt + ILCs is determined by mouse age, and after birth, favors the generation of cells involved in intestinal homeostasis and defense. (
  • Multipotent hematopoietic cells gain access to the T cell developmental pathway and then confirm that choice of fate by "burning their bridges" to other pathways. (
  • The best understood of these signals are effects of Notch1 engagement with Delta ligands provided in the environment of the thymus, which are needed for T cell specification throughout the lineage-choice process and only become dispensable after T cell fate is confirmed ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Potential" is not the same as the default fate that a cell adopts in an undisturbed condition. (
  • Fate" is the intersection between the cell's potential and the permissive or nonpermissive circumstances in which a cell finds itself. (
  • At the point where potential, rather than environment, becomes limiting for fate, the cell is committed. (
  • Interestingly, one of the few cases where a "fate" assay approaches a "potential" assay is in the case of hematopoietic stem cells, where extremely long assay times are conventionally used, extremely large numbers of progeny are generated before the end point, and the intermediates include highly motile cells that can sample an unusually large number of in vivo environments before differentiating as scored at the assay end point. (
  • Chakrabarti S, Paek AL, Reyes J, Lasick KA, Lahav G, Michor F. Hidden heterogeneity and circadian-controlled cell fate inferred from single cell lineages. (
  • However, unexpected observation of a developmental plasticity retained in mature T lymphocytes, in particular in CD4 + T-cell subsets, by recent studies is accelerating studies that focus on roles of each epigenetic pathway in cell fate decisions of T lymphocytes. (
  • Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (
  • We combined a genetic fate mapping approach with single cell expression analysis in a murine model of atherosclerosis. (
  • Tapetal cell fate, lineage and proliferation in the Arabidopsis anther. (
  • Cx43's role in neuronal differentiation was explored by cloning lentiviral vectors (LV) coding for Cx43 or anti-Cx43 shRNA constructs and the protein knockdown resulted in an increase in neurons and a decrease in astrocytes, suggesting a role for Cx43 in human stem cell differentiation and neuronal fate. (
  • Here we characterize the molecular and biological requirements for OCT4 plasticity induction in human skin derived fibroblasts (hFibs) that allows direct conversion of cell fate without iPSC formation. (
  • In response to changes in the extracellular environment, plastic OCT4-expressing hFibs further activate genes involved in hematopoietic as well as tripotent neural progenitor biology that allow cell fate conversion. (
  • Our study provides a working definition of hFib-induced plasticity using OCT4 and a deconvoluted system to elucidate the process of direct cell fate reprogramming. (
  • Although this signaling pathway is known to be critical in regulating stemness, cell fate, differentiation and proliferation ( Nusse and Clevers, 2017 ), much remains unclear about its role in neuroblastoma. (
  • In this thesis, I demonstrate that REST is an important regulator in oligodendrocyte differentiation and OPC cell fate determination. (
  • To track the cellular fate of stem and progenitor cells, which express C/EBPα, we developed a mouse model expressing Cre recombinase from the Cebpa promoter and a conditional EYFP allele. (
  • Methodology and Principal Findings: To determine developmental pathways of TCR-transgenic thymocytes, we used Cre-LoxP-mediated fate mapping and show here that premature expression of a transgenic \(TCR\alpha\beta\) diverts some developing thymocytes to a developmental pathway which resembles that of gamma delta cells. (
  • DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms which is known to play a role in embryonic stem cell fate, but its function in somatic stem cells is not well understood. (
  • Whereas stem cells and their fates are known by unique genetic marker studies, the fate and function of these cells are best studied by their prospective isolation. (
  • In addition, we will develop new strategies so that cells can write in their genomes a record of the molecular signals that control their fate. (
  • The Discovery Center will allow us to answer fundamental questions about cell fate decision-making, which like real life involves many dimensions and is context dependent, by reading out the MEMOIR of those cells. (
  • These results provide a comprehensive stem cell proteomic resource and enable new approaches to interrogate the mechanisms that regulate cell fate specification. (
  • Many regulatory components, such as transcription factors, cytokines/cytokine receptors, and signal transduction molecules orchestrate cell fate specification and determination. (
  • Recent findings suggest the involvement of epigenetic factors in the maintenance of cell fate. (
  • Our work demonstrates, for the first time, the dynamic role of Notch signaling in binary cell fate determination in Drosophila spermathecae and the role of ECs and ACs in secretory unit formation. (
  • Specification of the Cell Lineages: Determinants of Cell and Positional Fate in Ascidian Embryos, W.R. Jeffery. (
  • Mechanisms to Establish Polarity and Initiate Cell Fate Determination: Defining Cis-Acting Elements and Trans-Acting Factors in RNA Localization, K. Yaniv and J.K. Yisraeli. (
  • The Company's new identity reflects its commitment to becoming an innovative, leading cell therapy company and highlights its extensive cell therapy platform. (
  • Later on, lineage segregation and likely commitment are completed with the sequestration of PrE cells to the surface of the ICM, which lies at the blastocyst cavity roof. (
  • Arnold SJ, Robertson EJ (2009) Making a commitment: cell lineage allocation and axis patterning in the early mouse embryo. (
  • Commitment is the cell-intrinsic regulatory transformation through which a cell's alternative potentials are eliminated. (
  • As the cell progresses toward commitment, its potential shrinks. (
  • During B-lineage commitment, T cell potential is excluded by Pax5's silencing of the expression of Notch1 ( 6 ). (
  • Ultimately, commitment to a lineage is the readout for the gene-regulatory network that links positive differentiation in one pathway with the controlled silencing of particular transcription factors and signaling receptors needed for other pathways. (
  • Hence, nuclear machinery that is involved in activation or repression of genes constitutes an integral part of lineage commitment. (
  • determine the lineage commitment of hepatoblasts by negatively and positively regulating the expression of a common target gene, TGFBR2, respectively. (
  • This disruption of tissue organization appears to trigger a profound change in cellular commitment, which leads to hepatocyte differentiation in the "oval cells" in the periductal interstitium and the epithelial cells lining the small pancreatic ductules. (
  • The magnitude of hepatocyte differentiation in this model should facilitate studies on the molecular events regulating changes in cell lineage or differentiation commitment within the pancreas. (
  • Hematopoiesis is tightly controlled by transcription regulatory networks, but how and when specific transcription factors control lineage commitment are still largely unknown. (
  • Hematopoiesis exemplifies how multilineage diversity originates from a common stem cell through lineage commitment and subsequent differentiation. (
  • TCR transgenic models have been used to study thymic selection and lineage commitment. (
  • Wang Y, Sul HS (2009) Pref-1 regulates mesenchymal cell commitment and differentiation through Sox9. (
  • These cells are believed retain the combined potentials for B, T and NK cells and it has been presumed that commitment of CLPs to B lineage is associated with expression of CD19 and B220 on progenitor B-cells. (
  • Induction of adipocyte lineage commitment from C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells by BMP2/4. (
  • This review introduces recent advances in the roles played by the stem cell niche, regulatory transcriptional networks, and metabolic pathways in governing HSC self-renewal, commitment, and lineage differentiation. (
  • We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. (
  • Lineage analysis of muscle-bound primordial stem cells from myofiber-associated myogenic and nonmyogenic progenitors. (
  • Moreover, manipulation of cardiac myocyte progenitors has potential for cell-based repair strategies for various myocardial disorders. (
  • Tbx18-expressing cardiac progenitors also give rise to cardiac fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells. (
  • The pluripotency of Tbx18 proepicardial cells provides a theoretical framework for applying these progenitors to effect cardiac repair and regeneration. (
  • Megakaryocyte progenitors (MkPs), derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), play major roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, inflammation, and vascular biology through generating platelets. (
  • Here, we have shown that lineage-labeled lung MPCs expressing the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCG2 (ABCG2 + ) are pericyte progenitors that participate in microvascular homeostasis as well as adaptive angiogenesis. (
  • We show that Cebpa/EYFP + cells represent a significant subset of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which predominantly give rise to myeloid cells in steady-state hematopoiesis. (
  • In addition, Cebpa/EYFP + cells compose a fraction of early thymic progenitors with robust myeloid potential. (
  • However, Cebpa/EYFP + multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and early thymic progenitors retained the ability to develop into erythroid and T-lymphoid lineages, respectively. (
  • These findings support an instructive but argue against a lineage-restrictive role of C/EBPα in multipotent hematopoietic and thymic progenitors. (
  • In the classic hierarchical model, common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) arise from MPPs and can form all cells of the lymphoid lineage but have lost all myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic potential. (
  • IFN-γ alone leads to aplastic anemia by disrupting the generation of common myeloid progenitors and lineage differentiation. (
  • The data suggest that AA occurs when IFN-γ inhibits the generation of myeloid progenitors and prevents lineage differentiation, as opposed to infiltration of activated T cells. (
  • This review is about the properties of various highly purified tissue-specific multipotent stem cells and purified oligolineage progenitors. (
  • It is interesting that in the hematopoietic system the only long-term self-renewing cells in the stem and progenitors pool are the hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • Identified markers also allowed prospective isolation and characterization of viable lineage progenitors from blastocysts by flow cytometry. (
  • Blood cell production from HSCs occurs in a stepwise manner through development of intermediate progenitors that gradually loose lineage potentials. (
  • The ability of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to undergo differentiation in vitro complements their ability to contribute to numerous tissues in vivo and provides a unique model system for aspects of early mammalian development. (
  • Schmitt, R. M., Bruyns, E., and Snodgrass, H. R. (1991) Hematopoietic development of embryonic stem cells in vitro: cytokine and receptor gene expression. (
  • Wang, R., Clark, R., and Bautch, V. L. (1992) Embryonic stem cell-derived cystic embryoid bodies form vascular channels: an in vitro model of blood vessel development. (
  • Hidaka, M., Stanford, W. L., and Bernstein, A. (1999) Conditional requirement for the Flk-1 receptor in the in vitro generation of early hematopoietic cells. (
  • Micromolar fluoride alters ameloblast lineage cells in vitro. (
  • Mouse mesenchymal stem cells can support human hematopoiesis both in vitro and in vivo: the crucial role of neural cell adhesion molecule. (
  • However, these in vitro differentiated endothelial cells did not express the LacZ reporter gene. (
  • NK cells expressing these receptors showed powerful anti-leukemic activity against CD19+ ALL cells in vitro and in an animal model of leukemia. (
  • Salucci S, Burattini S, Battistelli M, Baldassarri V, Maltarello MC, Falcieri E. Ultraviolet B (UVB) Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis in Various Cell Lineages in Vitro . (
  • 14 Additional alternatives of lineage branching based on these results have been proposed, 15 , 16 but differences in markers chosen for cell isolation and the use of different in vitro assays to test lineage restriction make these studies difficult to reconcile. (
  • Chijimatsu R, Kobayashi M, Ebina K, Iwahashi T, Okuno Y, Hirao M, Fukuhara A, Nakamura N, Yoshikawa H (2018) Impact of dexamethasone concentration on cartilage tissue formation from human synovial derived stem cells in vitro. (
  • Hence, the thermosensitive p(NIPAAm-AA) microgel can be potentially used in an in vitro model for cell differentiation or in vivo transplantation of pre-differentiated human mesenchymal stromal cells into patients for specific lineage differentiation. (
  • Chambers I, Smith A (2004) Self-renewal of teratocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells. (
  • Regulation of mesodermal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by basement membranes. (
  • In this study, we have successfully directed the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through posterior primitive streak and IM under fully chemically defined monolayer culture conditions using growth factors used during normal embryogenesis. (
  • Thereafter, lineage-specific transcription factors display a mutually exclusive salt-and-pepper distribution that reflects cell specification of the EPI or PrE fates. (
  • Specification of T cell lineage in the thymus is controlled by the timing and strength of signaling of the tyrosine kinase Zap70. (
  • Here we review the roles of critical transcription factors that are required for specific aspects of epicardial development, EMT, and EPDC lineage specification in development and disease. (
  • Abnormal pericyte lineage specification and microvascular dysfunction accompanied by loss of distal lung tissue structure in vivo via deregulation of BMPR2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in lung MPCs. (
  • These cell fates are known to be determined by gene regulatory networks (GRNs) acting at various stages of NC development, such as induction, specification, and migration. (
  • Within the hematopoietic stem cell (Lin − Sca-1 + c-Kit + ) compartment these lineage-specific transcription factors are expressed at low levels but are up-regulated with the process of lineage specification. (
  • In addition, Notch signaling both suppresses and activates transcription factors Hindsight (Hnt) and Cut during spermathecal lineage specification, supporting the notion that Notch signaling can have opposite biological outcomes in different cellular environments. (
  • The fine balance between HSC expansion and lineage specification is dynamically regulated by the interplay between external and internal stimuli. (
  • Avilion AA, Nicolis SK, Pevny LH, Perez L, Vivian N, Lovell-Badge R (2003) Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function. (
  • However, this exception proves the rule that multipotent cells can only show the subset of their potentials that their environments support. (
  • The current understanding of adult MPCs and their roles in homeostasis versus disease has been limited by a lack of genetic markers with which to lineage label multipotent mesenchyme and trace the differentiation of these MPCs into vascular lineages. (
  • The neural crest (NC), which has been referred to as the fourth germ layer, comprises a multipotent cell population which will specify diverse cells and tissues, including craniofacial cartilage and bones, melanocytes, the adrenal medulla and the peripheral nervous system. (
  • The consecutive descendants of LT-HSCs, the short-term (ST)-HSCs and multipotent progenitor cells (MPPs), have limited or no self-renewal potential. (
  • ii) myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct from bone marrow MSCs. (
  • 1994) Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM/CD31): alternatively spliced, functionally distinct isoforms expressed during mammalian cardiovascular development. (
  • A key hurdle in treating breast cancers is intratumoral heterogeneity, or the presence of multiple different cell populations within the same tumor that have distinct characteristics such as gene expression, metabolism and ability to divide, spread and grow. (
  • These differences in B-cell reconstitution capabilities of adult versus neonatal BM underlie the idea that B-1 and B-2 belong to distinct developmental lineages derived from distinct HSCs ( 13 ). (
  • At the time of implantation, the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and trophectoderm (TE). (
  • Different combinations of transcription factors (TFs) function at each stage of hematopoiesis, leading to distinct expression patterns of lineage-specific genes. (
  • The program and its award are distinct from OpRegen ® , the Company's clinical-stage cell therapy program which features the sub-retinal delivery of retinal pigment epithelium cells for the treatment of dry-AMD. (
  • Mature T cells with an αβ TCR are classified according to two major distinct subsets based on the mutually exclusive presence of the co-receptors CD4 and CD8, which play essential roles in recognition of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and I ligands, respectively, and in the recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Lck to the TCR complex. (
  • Notch1), and expression of distinct homing receptors separately contribute to confirmation of T cell identity. (
  • Dr. Michael Moeller, Chief Scientist at American CryoStem, stated, "The development of rapid, efficient and reproducible methods of differentiating distinct mature cells from adipose tissue will prove invaluable to the Regenerative Medicine industry. (
  • Molecularly distinct models of zebrafish Myc-induced B cell leukemia. (
  • Montarras D, Lindon C, Pinset C, Domeyne P. Cultured myf5 null and myoD null muscle precursor cells display distinct growth defects. (
  • Using a number of newly available, distinct, immunohistochemical markers, such as OCT3/4, VASA and TSPY, the occurrence of germ cells was investigated in a number of germ cell tumours. (
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that distinct levels of DNA methylation are required to control different functional programs such as self-renewal and alternative lineage choices in HSCs, thus uncovering a previously unrecognized function for DNMT1 activity. (
  • Furthermore, LEP-derived epithelial cells (ECs) and ACs show distinct cellular morphology and are essential for securing secretory units to the epithelial lumen. (
  • We discovered that in the reconstructed lineage trees oocytes cluster distinctly from cells of bone marrow origin, show no lineage barrier between ovaries and increase in depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote) with mouse age, an increase accelerated after unilateral ovariectomy. (
  • Single-cell analyses confirmed that sialoadhesin selectively bound myeloid cells in complex cell mixtures obtained from the bone marrow and blood. (
  • Studies here finally demonstrate that individual HSCs sorted from adult bone marrow and transferred to lethally irradiated recipients clearly give rise to B-2, MZ B, and B-1b, but does not detectably reconstitute B-1a cells. (
  • The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) derived from adult bone marrow (BM) is commonly thought to have multilineage potential, meaning that the HSC is considered capable of reconstituting all lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages of the immune system ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • We have previously shown that both mature and UCA gp41 MPER bnAb heavy- (HC) and light-chain (LC) gene-rearranged (V H DJ H /V L J L ) KI mice have severe bone marrow (BM) deletion, and the few remaining B cells in the periphery are anergic, resulting in massive reduction in BM precursor frequency of MPER bnAbs 16 . (
  • Furthermore, specific ablation of Nfil3 in either immature NK cells in the bone marrow or mature peripheral NK cells had no observable effect on NK cell lineage maintenance or homeostasis. (
  • In the bone marrow, expression of eGFP moderately increases in the transition from Pro- to Pre-B-cells, however in the periphery eGFP significantly increases in the B-1 stage of differentiation. (
  • In these mice, we did not detect infiltration of T cells in bone marrow (BM), and the existing T cells seemed to be hyporesponsive. (
  • Bone marrow analysis revealed an almost complete absence of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in DNMT1 ablated primary mice as well as in secondary chimeric mice. (
  • Preparation of whole bone marrow for mass cytometry analysis of neutrophil-lineage cells" Journal of Visual Experiments (2019): doi: 10.3791/59617. (
  • The blood consist of many different specialized cells that all derive from rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) located in the bone marrow in mice and humans. (
  • With this platform Lineage develops and manufactures specialized, terminally differentiated human cells from its pluripotent and progenitor cell starting materials. (
  • Therefore, analyses throughout cellular lineage progression, from pluripotent stem cells through progenitor cells to terminally differentiated cells, yield insights into normal and pathophysiological developmental processes. (
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells. (
  • The data presented provided evidence that retinal tissue produced in Lineage's laboratory from pluripotent cell lines was able to engraft tumor-free in a rat model for severe retinal degeneration and showed evidence of functional improvement. (
  • In a separate presentation, Lineage demonstrated the ability to generate high quality retinal organoid tissue with a high number of maturing rod and cone photoreceptors from our highly characterized cGMP-grade pluripotent cell lines. (
  • They possess a large number of adult pluripotent stem cells that constantly renew all tissues and cell types. (
  • A new assay method for late CFU-S formation and long-term reconstituting activity using a small number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. (
  • As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. (
  • The clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) techniques to cell-based regenerative therapies in human degenerative diseases has been made a priority worldwide. (
  • Such hESC-derived components show broad renal potential ex vivo, illustrating the potential for pluripotent-stem-cell-based renal regeneration. (
  • OpRegen is currently being evaluated a Phase 1/2a open-label, dose escalation safety and efficacy study of a single injection of human retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from an established pluripotent cell line and transplanted subretinally in patients with advanced dry AMD with GA. The study will enroll patients into 4 cohorts, with 18 of 21 expected patients enrolled to date. (
  • T, B, and NK lymphocytes are generated from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells through a successive series of lineage restriction processes. (
  • C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells were plated at low density, cultured without or with BMP2 or BMP4 until postconfluence, and then subjected to the adipocyte differentiation protocol (MDI: adipocyte differentiation cocktail, 1 μ m dexamethasone, 1 μg/ml insulin and 0.5 m m isobutylmethyl-xanthine). (
  • These findings place B-2, MZ, and B-1b in a single adult developmental lineage and place B-1a in a separate lineage derived from HSCs that are rare or missing in adults. (
  • However, more detailed examination of the reconstituted B cells derived from HSCs taken at different times during development reveals differences in reconstitution efficiency for the four currently recognized murine B-cell subsets, [i.e. (
  • Importantly, however, because the Dorshkind studies are based on transfers of sorted HSC populations (roughly 1,000 sorted cells per recipient), they are not informative with respect to the potential of individual HSCs in the transferred population to give rise to each of the B-cell subsets (B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and MZ). (
  • This new assay method using a small number of cells would be of great advantage for clarifying which cells are truly P-HSCs. (
  • The most primitive LSK cells, the long-term repopulating (LT)-HSCs, possess the capacity of life-long self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential and do not express CD34. (
  • Detailed phenotypical and functional analysis of the hypomethylated hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) compartment revealed an impaired homeostasis and self-renewal capacity. (
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess two fundamental characteristics, the capacity for self-renewal and the sustained production of all blood cell lineages. (
  • Other organisms had stereotyped patterns of cell division and produced sublineages which were the progeny of particular precursor cells. (
  • We report the first vascular endothelial cell lineage-specific (including angioblastic precursor cells) 1.2 kb promoter in transgenic mice. (
  • That a null mutation in either gene reduces the proliferative potential of cultured myoblasts raises the possibility that Myf-5 and MyoD serve proliferation of muscle precursor cells. (
  • Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation or over-expression (to assess gene function) and genetic labeling of precursor cells (to determine cell lineages). (
  • Although their unique gene expression profiles eventually reverted to that of the median cells, revealing an attractor state, they lasted long enough to confer a greatly different proclivity for choosing either the erythroid or the myeloid lineage. (
  • A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. (
  • Expression profiling of stem and myeloid progenitor cells unexpectedly demonstrated that reduced DNA methylation forces the HSC to adopt a myeloid lineage identity. (
  • Studying stem cell lineages over time also provides the key to understanding stem cell potency, lifetime, replacement, interconversion, and aging. (
  • The advent of reprogramming and its impact on stem cell biology has renewed interest in lineage restriction in mammalian embryos, the source of embryonic (ES), epiblast (EpiSC), trophoblast (TS), and extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cell lineages. (
  • We used extensive measurements of somatic mutations in individual single cells isolated from different healthy and diseased tissues from mice and humans. (
  • Marking cell lineages in living tissues. (
  • We have generated a novel genetic system to visualize cell lineages in living tissues at high resolution. (
  • It opens the door to powerful new approaches to study the cell composition of organs, tissues, and developmental stages and to understand the molecular mechanisms of regeneration," says Professor Nikolaus Rajewsky, head of Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology (BIMSB), at the MDC, and senior author of the study. (
  • Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells initiate the development of lymphoid tissues through the activation of local stromal cells in a process similar to inflammation. (
  • Tissues contain so many different cells and cell types, in complex three-dimensional relationships, and undergoing complex movements that it is generally impossible to identify stem cells histologically. (
  • How this intricate array of tissues, each containing relatively few cells, is established in an organ possessing no formal meristems is poorly understood. (
  • Because TTF1-expressing neoplasms are generated from organs and tissues that normally express TTF1, such as the thyroid follicular epithelium and peripheral lung airway epithelium, TTF1 is widely used as a cell lineage-specific and diagnostic marker for thyroid carcinomas and for lung adenocarcinomas with terminal respiratory unit (TRU) differentiation. (
  • Eya1 is required for lineage-specific differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells, but not for their survival, thereby uncoupling the differentiation-promoting and anti-apoptotic effects of Eya proteins seen in other tissues. (
  • A reliable method to track cell lineages in human tissues has the potential to greatly contribute to the fields of oncogenesis, tissue renewal, ageing as well as wound healing. (
  • Similarly, somatic mitochondrial mutations have been used to study the patters of cell division and renewal in some human tissues. (
  • An in-depth understanding of overlap and discrepancy between these two mesenchymal tissues in lineage differentiation would benefit regeneration of high-quality cartilage tissues and adipose tissues for clinical applications. (
  • One of the fundamental questions in biology is to understand how a single-celled embryo gives rise to a complex animal with hundreds of different cell types organized into highly complex organs and tissues," says Lois, who will be one of the center's principal investigators. (
  • The cornea is one of the few human tissues where the in situ locations of stem cells (SCs), transient-amplifying (TA) cells and terminally-differentiated (TD) cells have been relatively well localised and characterised. (
  • Interrogation of human hematopoiesis at single-cell and single-variant resolution. (
  • These findings suggest that neural cell adhesion molecules expressed on FMS/PA6-P cells play a crucial role in the human hematopoiesis-supporting ability of the cell line. (
  • These results unveiled a previously unknown role of HDAC11 in hematopoiesis, regulating leukocyte lineage differentiation and expansion. (
  • The inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on hematopoiesis is intrinsic to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (
  • One of the fundamental questions in hematopoiesis relates to how the maturation of the cells is controlled and driven towards defined cell fates. (
  • We will further focus on discoveries made by studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. (
  • The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes for cellular differentiation. (
  • Promising candidate genes were generated from a microarray platform gene expression commons and individually manipulated in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). (
  • Our data confirmed that MDA-MB-435 cells indeed originated from breast epithelium, although they expressed melanocyte-specific genes, indicating that the MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells underwent lineage infidelity during tumor progression. (
  • Analyzing mutant genes within stem cell clones represents the critical test of whether and how particular genetic pathways control stem cell behavior. (
  • Further analysis at the single cell level showed that SM-derived CD68(+) cells expressed higher levels of inflammatory markers such as cyclooxygenase 2 (Ptgs2, p = 0.02), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (Vcam1, p = 0.05), as well as increased mRNA levels of genes related to matrix synthesis such as Col1a2 (p = 0.01) and Fn1 (p = 0.04), than non SM-derived CD68(+) cells. (
  • These results demonstrate that smooth muscle cells within atherosclerotic lesions can switch to a macrophage-like phenotype characterized by higher expression of inflammatory and synthetic markers genes that may further contribute to plaque progression. (
  • It will also allow us to deliver genes specifically into this cell type in vivo to test specifically molecules that have been implicated in cardiovascular development. (
  • 1993 ) Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse Tie and Tek receptor tyrosine kinase genes and their expression in hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • Human Fib-derived OCT4 plastic cells display elevated levels of developmentally related genes associated with multiple lineages, but not those associated with pluripotency. (
  • Via an interactive app scientists can interrogate the data and look at the changes in gene expression of specific genes during cell differentiation and regeneration. (
  • The RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) regulates the expression of neural specific genes by acting as a transcriptional repressor in non-neuronal cells. (
  • RE1s are located on a large number of genes that are required for the development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype and are normally repressed in non-neural cells. (
  • The two forms were equally immunogenic, but only the latter elicited neutralizing antibodies by stimulating a more restricted expansion of B cells to a narrower set of IGH/IGK/IGL-V genes that represented a small fraction (0.003-0.02%) of total B cells. (
  • Transcriptome analysis and immunocytochemistry of EYFP+ cells revealed up-regulation of CPC markers including Mesp1, Mef2c, Irx4, Gata6, Tbx5, Tbx 20 accompanied by downregulation of fibroblast-specific genes such as Fsp1 and Thy1. (
  • Yet, there was up-regulation of several genes associated with mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm, strongly suggesting that differentiation to trophoblast-like cells under the conditions used does not yield a homogeneous cell type. (
  • Gene expression by EB was characterized by an up-regulation of a number of genes associated with trophoblast, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, and the production of hCG and progesterone confirmed that trophoblast-like cells were formed. (
  • Due to functional enhancement of cell spheroids, hMSCs within the 3D microgel-formed constructs were induced for multi-lineage differentiation as evidenced by significant up-regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of chondrogenic and osteogenic genes even in the absence of induction media on day 9. (
  • They later received the 2002 Nobel prize for their work in genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. (
  • More recently, researchers have begun using synthetic biology approaches and the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer new genetic systems that enable cells to autonomously record lineage information in their own genome. (
  • Such 'non-genetic cell individuality' 7 can arise from the slow fluctuations of protein levels 8 in mammalian cells. (
  • Spudich, J. L. & Koshland, D. E. Non-genetic individuality: chance in the single cell. (
  • Using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that part of the mesenteric lymphatic vasculature develops from cKit lineage cells of hemogenic endothelial origin through a process we define as lymphvasculogenesis. (
  • These seemingly conflicting findings led us to hypothesize that MDA-MB-435 cells are of breast epithelium origin but have undergone dedifferentiation to a melanocyte phenotype as a result of genetic instability. (
  • According to it, a tumor is derived from a single founder cell that has acquired a growth advantage over normal cells by a genetic modification. (
  • Sometimes researchers change the DNA (genetic material in cells) of donated T cells (white blood cells that support the immune system) using a process called 'gene transfer. (
  • The gene transfer involves drawing blood, separating out T cells (white blood cells that fight infection and disease), changing the T cells' DNA (genetic material) in a specific way, and returning the changed T cells back to the body. (
  • In summary I demonstrated the active role of Cx43 in mechanisms that govern neurogenesis and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, furthermore we highlighted the importance of the internal promoter in LV constructs for genetic manipulation of embryonic ES cells. (
  • Dulauroy S, Di Carlo S, Langa F, Eberl G, Peduto L. Lineage tracing and genetic ablation of ADAM12(+) perivascular cells identify a major source of profibrotic cells during acute tissue injury. (
  • Cell lineage denotes the developmental history of a tissue or organ from the fertilized embryo. (
  • g , β-galactosidase antibody staining on Tbx18 -lineage-traced tissue at E11.5. (
  • The majority of cells in an emerging lateral root primordium derive from the central file of pericycle founder cells while off-centre founder cells contribute only a minor proliferation of tissue near the base of the root. (
  • We find that the cell-intrinsic noise often causes reduction and oscillation of layer size whereas the cell-extrinsic noise increases the thickness, and sometimes, leads to uncontrollable growth of the tissue layer. (
  • The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma. (
  • Here, we apply the method to cancer and reconstruct, for the first time, a lineage tree of neoplastic and adjacent normal cells obtained by laser microdissection from tissue sections of a mouse lymphoma. (
  • EATONTOWN, N.J., April 24, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- American CryoStem Corporation (OTCQB:CRYO), a leading biotechnology developer and licensor of patented adipose tissue-based adult stem cell technologies, today announced that its ACS Laboratory division has completed its quarterly laboratory R&D program ahead of schedule, yielding new intellectual property and positive results for expanding and differentiating adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). (
  • A biotechnology pioneer in the fields of Regenerative and Personalized Medicine, American CryoStem operates a state-of-the-art, FDA-registered, clinical laboratory dedicated to processing, bio-banking and development of cellular applications using autologous adipose (fat) tissue and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). (
  • Finally, using basic knowledge of the target tissue and the guidelines discussed herein, we explain how raw lineage information can be converted into sound conclusions about the number, location, behavior and regulation of tissue stem cells. (
  • Although stem cells are critically important for tissue health and homeostasis, finding these cells and characterizing their cellular properties is difficult. (
  • Patterns of gene expression, like classical histological stains, are essential markers in the quest to understand tissue biology, but are entirely insufficient to reliably identify stem cells or to understand tissue dynamics. (
  • Lineage analysis, a technique originally developed to study early embryos, represents by far the most powerful and reliable tool for identifying stem cells and for deciphering other aspects of tissue behavior. (
  • In the absence of extensive cell mixing, a thorough analysis of all the clonal types produced by a tissue allows the complexity of its component cell types and their movements to be determined. (
  • Finally, clonally analyzing stem cells is an essential prerequisite for discovering and characterizing the tissue niches that play an equal role with stem cells in ensuring a stable supply of replacement cells throughout the life of a tissue. (
  • In this hypothetical tissue, four stem cells (highlighted in dark blue at the beginning of the movie) are maintained in a niche (blue gradient highlighted in light blue at the beginning of the movie) produced by a population of non-dividing niche-generating cells (purple, highlighted in red at the beginning of the movie). (
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (
  • In addition, generating multilayered mature retinal tissue may not be required for future cell-therapy strategies that are based on purified retinal specific cells. (
  • This unexpected autonomy of the tapetal 'lineage' is discussed in the context of tissue development in complex plant organs, where constancy in size, shape and cell number is crucial. (
  • Recently, Lineage reported the first known finding of retinal tissue regeneration in a patient receiving OpRegen for the treatment of atrophic dry AMD. (
  • Background: The binding of the T cell receptor (TCR) to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the thymus determines fates of \(TCR\alpha\beta\) lymphocytes that subsequently home to secondary lymphoid tissue. (
  • Most TCR transgenic mice express the rearranged \(TCR\alpha\beta\) prematurely at the double negative stage and abnormal TCRαβ populations of T cells that are not easily detected in non-transgenic mice have been found in secondary lymphoid tissue of TCR transgenic mice. (
  • Likewise, DN \(TCR\alpha\beta\) cells in lymphoid tissue of female mice were not derived from DP thymocytes. (
  • Analysing the results from19 layers gave the three dimensional reconstruction of a tumor lineage in a tissue volume. (
  • The three dimensional reconstruction of a primary tumor lineage through a metastasis is therefore the reconstruction of the patters of metastasis growth in its host tissue. (
  • Observing that most of the metastasis volume is not composed of tumor derived cells suggests that metastatic cells grow by diffusing through their host tissue and conditioning it to assume its abnormal morphology. (
  • Adult stem cells, also termed as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells, detected among differentiated cells in a tissue or an organ. (
  • these cells would tend to be the most proliferative within a tissue. (
  • Lineage Cell (LCTX) to Post Q1 Earnings: What's in the Cards? (
  • Analysis of specific cellular markers or activation of specific transcription factors involved in a differentiation process identify intermediately or terminally differentiated cells. (
  • These progenitor cells, which express the T-box transcription factor Tbx18, migrate onto the outer cardiac surface to form the epicardium, and then make a substantial contribution to myocytes in the ventricular septum and the atrial and ventricular walls. (
  • However, it is now believed that the EPI and PrE lineages are defined both by their position and by the expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. (
  • Interestingly, these lineage-specific transcription factors are initially co-expressed in early ICM cells, suggesting an initial multi-lineage priming state. (
  • Artus J, Piliszek A, Hadjantonakis AK (2011) The primitive endoderm lineage of the mouse blastocyst: sequential transcription factor activation and regulation of differentiation by Sox17. (
  • Potential" reveals what the regulatory machinery of the cell itself, transcription factors and signal receptors, contributes to its identity. (
  • Epicardial formation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation are precisely regulated by complex interactions among signaling molecules and transcription factors. (
  • Epicardial cells and subepicardial EPDCs express transcription factors including Wt1, Tcf21, Tbx18, and Nfatc1. (
  • EPDC differentiation into SMC and fibroblast lineages is precisely regulated by a complex network of transcription factors, including Tcf21 and Tbx18. (
  • These and other transcription factors also regulate epicardial EMT, EPDC invasion, and lineage maturation. (
  • Development of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage is dependent on the transcription factor Nfil3 (or E4BP4), which is thought to act downstream of IL-15 signaling. (
  • 1992 ) Cell-specific transcription of the peripherin gene in neuronal cell lines involves a cis -acting element surrounding the TATA box. (
  • We propose that Wnt signaling is a major determinant of regulatory networks that underlie mesenchymal/neural crest cell (NCC)-like cell identities through PRRX1 and YAP/TAZ transcription factors. (
  • Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell-cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits. (
  • To clarify how SCLCs express TTF1, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of its expression using cultivated lung cancer cells and focusing upon neural cell-specific transcription factors. (
  • Both SCLC cells and lung adenocarcinoma cells predominantly expressed isoform 2 of TTF1, and TTF1 promoter assays in SCLC cells revealed that the crucial region for activation of the promoter, which is adjacent to the transcription start site of TTF1 isoform 2, has potent FOX-, LHX-, and BRN2-binding sites. (
  • The homeodomain transcription factor Six1 and its modulator, the protein phosphatase Eya1, cooperate to promote cell differentiation and survival during mouse organ development. (
  • In particular, transcription factors play a key role in regulating lineage-associated gene programs. (
  • We remind investors that Lineage Cell acquired Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. in March 2019 as a result of which, two additional cell therapy product candidates, namely OPC1 and VAC2 along with other assets were added to its product portfolio. (
  • Stochastic gene expression in a single cell. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell lineage research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • J Clin Pathol Mol Pathol 2002;55:294-9) suggested that the MDA-MB-435 cell line, a cell line extensively used for studying breast cancer biology, has a gene expression pattern most compatible with melanocyte origin. (
  • Epigenetics has often been discussed in the context of the maintenance of cell identity because of the heritable nature of gene expression status. (
  • 1994 ) Endothelial-cell-specific regulation of von Willebrand factor gene expression. (
  • By regulating gene expression, REST participates in the orderly developmental transition from a neuroepithelial precursor or stem cell to a functional neuron. (
  • Our goals herein were to determine if BG02 cells form trophoblast-like cells (a) in the presence of BMP4-plus-basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and (b) upon EB formation, and (c) whether the BMP4 antagonist noggin elicits direct effects on gene expression and hormone production in the cells. (
  • Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. (
  • The development of cells within a multi-cellular organism has similarities to the development of populations, and hence is amenable to study using concepts and tools of population genetics. (
  • Yet, cell populations possess unique features that are absent or rare in organism populations (e.g. the presence of stem cells and a small number of generations since the zygote). (
  • Furthermore, some fluorescent reporters have such an extremely low recombination threshold that they may label cell populations at undesired time-points in the absence of induction. (
  • In all assays, sialoadhesin exhibited specific, differential binding to various murine cell populations of hemopoietic origin. (
  • In contrast, B-1a cells are relatively well reconstituted by transfers of HSC populations sorted from "neonatal" BM (2.5 wk of age), although the sorted cells still predominantly reconstitute B-2 and B-1b ( 5 ). (
  • Normally, developmental potentials of two populations are compared by testing cells under uniform conditions that are clearly permissive for the fates being assayed. (
  • Although the model is still widely accepted today ( 18 , 19 ), several aspects of it, such as the monoclonal origin of tumors and the late onset of metastases from rare tumor cell populations, are increasingly being challenged ( 20 - 25 ). (
  • Cx43 has been detected within immature neural populations, but only in astrocytes in the adult brain and investigations have shown that Cx43 channel and adhesive properties largely influence neuronal differentiation of mouse neural progenitor (NP) cells. (
  • We validated 27 antibodies against lineage-specific cell-surface markers, which enabled investigation of specific cell populations during ES-EpiSC reprogramming and ES-to-XEN differentiation. (
  • For example, major challenges currently faced within regenerative medicine include the assessment of purity of stem cells or stem cell-derived populations, the former to confirm faithful cellular reprogramming and the latter to eliminate the risk posed by introduction of undifferentiated stem cells in vivo. (
  • We have discovered new neutrophil-lineage cell populations based on this protocol. (
  • This protocol of fresh whole BM preparation may be used for 1), CyTOF analysis to discover unidentified cell populations from whole BM, 2), investigating whole BM defects for patients with blood disorders such as leukemia, 3), assisting optimization of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry protocols that utilize fresh whole BM. (
  • The understanding of these processes is largely facilitated by isolation of intermediate populations of cells at defined stages of development. (
  • Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). (
  • We have challenged this understanding by defining an adult pulmonary mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) that regulates both microvascular function and angiogenesis. (
  • Meanwhile, OPC1, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy, is being evaluated in a phase I/IIa study for acute spinal cord injuries. (
  • a - c , X-gal staining on whole-mount embryos (E9.5-E11.5) shows Tbx18 -lineage-traced cells in the proepicardium and epicardium (arrows in a - c ). d - f , X-gal staining on cryosections from E10.5 to E12.5. (
  • We demonstrate by microsurgical and cell marking experiments that the appearance of skeletogenic cells in such PMC-deficient embryos is due exclusively to the conversion of other cells to the PMC phenotype. (
  • Time-lapse video recordings of PMC-deficient embryos indicate that the converting cells are a subpopulation of late-ingressing SMCs. (
  • Moreover, deletion analysis of this promoter region in transgenic embryos revealed multiple elements that are required for the maximum endothelial cell lineage-specific expression. (
  • Embryos of higher crustaceans (Malacostraca) show a highly stereotypic cell division pattern in the ectoderm of the trunk region while forming paired rows of lateral cells and an unpaired median row of midline cells. (
  • Isolation of specific cell types during stem cell differentiation and reprogramming, and also directly from embryos, is a major technical challenge because few cell-surface proteins are known that can distinguish each cell type. (
  • This finding, together with the known importance of Lck in the determination of CD4 + and CD8 + lineages, enables us to propose that a balance between the activation of these two kinases by the TCR determines lineage decisions. (
  • In this review, the developmental and transcriptional crosstalk of chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages are briefly explored, followed by elucidation of signaling pathways and external factors guiding lineage determination between chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. (
  • Here, we review the early developmental events during lymphocyte lineage determination, focusing on the transcriptional networks and epigenetic regulation. (
  • This volume brings together current information on the localization and roles of RNAs in cell-lineage determination and subsequent patterning in embryonic development. (
  • RNA Localization and Germ Cell Determination in Xenopus, M. Kloc, S. Bilinski, A. P-Y. Chan, L.H. Allen, N.R. Zearfoss, and L.D. Etkin. (
  • Asymmetric Germ Cell Division and Oocyte Determination during Drosophila Oogenesis, W. Deng and H. Lin. (
  • In vivo, expression of Notch ligand with supportive cytokines, such as IL-7 and Kit ligand, gives the thymus its T cell inductive activity ( 3 ). (
  • For a typical uncommitted cell, the fates that its progeny actually adopt in vivo may be only a slice of the uncommitted cell's full potential, because environmental conditions are limiting. (
  • We developed a method based on this principle, showed its precision in an ex vivo system ( 10 ), and implemented it in vivo by reconstructing mouse cell lineage trees ( 11 ). (
  • These putative inducers are presumably important for in vivo differentiation of vascular endothelial cells. (
  • In this same cohort, we also intend to study the in vivo lifespan and phenotype of genetically modified NK cells and explore the efficacy of NK cells in patients with B-lineage ALL. (
  • An in vivo model for cell lineage in pancreas of adult rat. (
  • Mouse hematopoietic stem-cell antigen Sca-1 is a member of the Ly-6 antigen family. (
  • The question of whether a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gives rise to all of the B-cell subsets [B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and marginal zone (MZ) B cells] in the mouse has been discussed for many years without resolution. (
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory Lund University, Sweden. (
  • Cells were cultured in the presence of fluoride, and proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation. (
  • Fluoride had a biphasic effect on cell proliferation, with enhanced proliferation at 16 microM, and reduced proliferation at greater than 1 mM F. Flow cytometry showed that both 10 microM and 20 microM NaF significantly increased the apoptotic index of ameloblast-lineage cells. (
  • Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, either autonomously or downstream of decreased BMP receptor signaling, enhanced ABCG2 + MPC proliferation but suppressed MPC differentiation into a functional pericyte lineage. (
  • Thus, expression of Nfil3 is crucial only early in the development of NK cells, and signals through activating receptors and proinflammatory cytokines during viral infection can bypass the requirement for Nfil3, promoting the proliferation and long-term survival of virus-specific NK cells. (
  • We analyze acquired somatic mutations to reconstruct lineage trees of hundreds of oocytes and other cells, sampled from mismatch-repair deficient mice at various ages. (
  • The funding from the Allen Discovery Center will allow us to develop new methods with which to reconstruct lineage trees over many generations. (
  • The team identified that the mammary basal cell lineage contributes to breast cancer heterogeneity, fueling the outgrowth of multiple aggressive tumor subpopulations. (
  • Revealing the lineage relations among cancer cells can shed light on tumor growth patterns and metastasis formation, yet cell lineages have been difficult to come by in the absence of a suitable method. (
  • Analysis of the reconstructed tree reveals that the tumor initiated from a single founder cell, ∼5 months before diagnosis, that the tumor grew in a physically coherent manner, and that the average number of cell divisions accumulated in cancerous cells was almost twice than in adjacent normal lung epithelial cells but slightly less than the expected figure for normal B lymphocytes. (
  • Despite several decades of scientific research, basic properties of the growth and spread of tumor cells remain controversial ( 1 ). (
  • The progeny of the founder cell expands in an evolutionary pattern, in which more aggressive cells and their descendants become increasingly predominant in the tumor cell population, eventually giving rise to drug-resistant and metastatic subclones. (
  • The validity of the classic model of tumorigenesis could be easily investigated by cell lineage reconstruction because the model implies lineage relationships that should be readily apparent in the topology of a tumor cell lineage tree. (
  • NK cells have historically been considered components of the innate immune system, recognizing virally infected and tumor cells through germline-encoded receptors, and rapidly eliminating these targets through the secretion of lytic granules. (
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation acts as a strong apoptotic trigger in many cell types, in tumor and normal cells. (
  • Lineage tracing in human tumors was achieved by scanning the mitochondrial DNA for mutations in samples extracted from macro-anatomical samples taken across surgically removed and freshly frozen tumor pieces. (
  • The first attempt consisted in taking 286 samples across a slice of a Leydig cell tumor, in which two separate mutations were identified at a high enough fraction to justify further investigation. (
  • Under the assumption that a metastasis is seeded by a single tumor cell, the presence of the same mtDNA mutation in both primary tumor and metastasis guarantees that only cells carrying the mutation are tumor-derived. (
  • Similarly, immunization of rhesus macaques with Env immunogens has initiated bnAb-like lineages that have been controlled either by deletion or affinity reversion (maturation off-target) due to selection of non-bnAb HCDR3 regions 19 . (
  • CH103, a prototype of the HCDR3-binder class of CD4-binding site bnAbs, is one of the only two bnAb lineages whose complete virus-Ab co-evolution pathway has been comprehensively characterized 6 , and whose co-evolved Env maturation pathway, from which sequential immunogens have been derived for this study, can now also be investigated in SHIV CH505-infected non-human primates 20 . (
  • This process involves three levels of regulatory change, in which the cells' intrinsic transcriptional regulatory factors, expression of signaling receptors (e.g. (
  • Yutzey, K.E. Transcriptional Control of Cell Lineage Development in Epicardium-Derived Cells. (
  • REST is expressed in glial cells and functions as a transcriptional repressor in OPCs. (
  • Our lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells, to reconstruct cell lineage trees among cells of multi-cellular organisms and applied it to various questions of biological and medical importance. (
  • In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be attempted by applying algorithms and techniques of population genetics to somatic mutations accumulated during cell division. (
  • We applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofiber that were cultured at clonal density. (
  • In the current study, a high-throughput method that utilizes neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. (
  • We previously developed a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from genomic variability caused by somatic mutations. (
  • We recently showed that quantitative analysis of somatic mutations could be used for reconstructing cell lineages ( 10 ). (
  • OPCs are highly plastic cells that share a common lineage with some classes of neurons, have some properties usually associated with neurons, and are capable of being reprogrammed to act as neural stem-like cells that can develop into functional neurons. (
  • Lescroart F, Kelly R, Le Garrec J, Nicolas J, Meilhac S, Buckingham M. Clonal analysis reveals common lineage relationships between head muscles and second heart field derivatives in the mouse embryo. (
  • It has been suggested that all the lymphoid cells have a common lineage restricted ancestor defined as a Lin-KitloSca1loFlt3+IL7R+ common lymphoid progenitor (CLP). (
  • Lineage has three allogeneic, or "off-the-shelf," cell therapy programs in clinical development: ●OpRegen®, a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy currently in a Phase 1/2a multicenter clinical trial for the treatment of advanced dry age-related macular degeneration ("AMD") with geographic atrophy. (
  • Lineage Cell is currently evaluating OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy, in a phase I/IIa study for the treatment of advanced dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with geographic atrophy. (
  • We found that most peripheral T cells with the HY-TCR in male mice have bypassed the RORγt-positive \(CD4^{+}8^{+}\) (double positive, DP) stage to accumulate either as \(CD4^{-}8^{-}\) (double negative, DN) or as \(CD8\alpha^{+}\) T cells in lymph nodes or gut epithelium. (
  • Albelda, S. M., Muller, W. A., Buck, C. A., and Newman, P. J. (1991) Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. (
  • The scientists also discovered several new cell types located in the parenchyma of the animals that had been previously overlooked in molecular studies and that play an important role in the regeneration of flatworms. (
  • Each alternative potential has a different underlying molecular basis that is neutralized and then permanently silenced through different mechanisms in early T cell precursors. (
  • However, due to the lack of lineage-specific markers suitable for molecular and biochemical analyses, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate endothelial cell differentiation. (
  • This is a powerful molecular tool that will enable us to identify factors and cellular signals essential for the establishment of vascular endothelial cell lineage. (
  • In this review, we investigated UVB apoptotic action in various cell models by using ultrastructural, molecular and cytofluorimetric techniques. (
  • The goal is for each cell to be able to tell us its own individual history, including its lineage and the specific molecular events it has experienced during development," says Elowitz. (
  • With this kind of information, we will be able to understand the molecular signals that determine, for example, that a single stem cell will give rise to two daughter cells, with one becoming a neuron that processes visual information while the other processes auditory information. (
  • In addition, cell lineage analyses can be used to study specific differentiation mechanisms. (
  • In combination with the autoMACS® Pro Separator, cell isolations can be automated allowing standardized procedures with minimal hands-on time for developing routine analyses. (
  • Western blot analyses showed that proteins were up-regulated in the BMP2/4-treated C3H10T1/2 cells. (
  • Lineage's programs are based on its robust proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated in-house development and manufacturing capabilities. (
  • and (iii) VAC, an allogeneic dendritic cell therapy platform for immuno-oncology and infectious disease, currently in clinical development for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Lineage's programs are based on its proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated development and manufacturing capabilities. (
  • The Human Cell Differentiation & Development miScript miRNA PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 miRNAs differentially expressed during cellular differentiation and organism development. (
  • and (iii) VAC2, an allogeneic cancer immunotherapy of antigen-presenting dendritic cells currently in Phase I development for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are abundant macroglial cells that during postnatal development ensheath nude axons with its extensive protective plasma membrane, consisting of predominantly lipid (approximately 70%) and glycoproteins known as myelin that is dynamically remodeled in childhood, adolescence, and even in adulthood [ 5 ]. (
  • Precursors undertaking T cell development shed their access to other pathways in a sequential process that begins before entry into the thymus and continues through many cell cycles afterward. (
  • Our work shows that the ability to obtain data regarding the physical appearance, precise anatomic position, genotypic profile, and lineage position of single cells may be useful for investigating cancer development, progression, and interaction with the microenvironment. (
  • Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. (
  • Indeed, crucial roles of the epigenetic machinery in establishment and maintenance of particular lineages during early development have been well documented. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Independent research teams have come up with single-cell sequencing methods for following organismal development and teasing apart the targets of neurons passing along messages, respectively, in model organisms. (
  • Derived from classical approaches in cell lineage tracing during development, we review modern cell lineage methods and describe how they are used to identify stem cells and their niches. (
  • Vascular endothelial cells play essential roles in the function and development of the cardiovascular system. (
  • 1925 ) The development of adventitial (Rouget) cells on the blood capillaries of amphibian larvae. (
  • Unusually for plants, tapetal cells are specified very early in development, and are subsequently stimulated to proliferate by a receptor-like kinase (RLK) complex that includes EMS1. (
  • Glial cells also develop from neuroepithelial stem cells but little is known about the role of REST in the development of glia. (
  • 3 Additional evidence against a strict distinction between lymphoid and MEGM lineage development comes from studies showing that thymic progenitor cells maintained myeloid (GM) potential, indicating the existence of a common T-cell/myeloid progenitor in the thymus. (
  • Development of germ cells was identified in three independent non-seminomas, including two pure yolk sac tumours and one mixed tumour composed of yolk sac tumour and immature teratoma. (
  • Lineage tracing is a basic concept in developmental biology, as well as diseases related to organ development. (
  • The first step in the development of lineage tracing methods using somatic mtDNA mutations as a marker, as a marker, is a quantitative, fast and high throughput method of detection. (
  • Thus, our current understanding on how the expansion of particular B cell lineages by Env may be linked to the development of non-neutralizing antibodies is limited. (
  • The potential to generate an array of differentiated cell types also raises the opportunity to establish new models of early mammalian development ( Rossant, 2008 ). (
  • The aim of this thesis has been to identify the point of no return in B-cell development in order to allow for a better understanding of lineage restriction events in early lymphopoesis. (
  • A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. (
  • Single-cell approaches will become an indispensable method for studying developmental and regeneration biology," concludes Nikolaus Rajewsky. (
  • Michael and I had this crazy idea over coffee to use synthetic biology to engineer a circuit to record the 'memoir' of a cell," says Cai, who will also be a principal investigator of the center. (
  • International Review of Cytology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology, both plant and animal. (
  • As one of the first pioneers of cell lineage, in the 1960s Dr. Sydney Brenner first began observing cell differentiation and succession in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • Ninety-five mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans altered in the cell lineages of the vulva have been isolated on the basis of their displaying one of two phenotypes, Vulvaless or Multivulva. (
  • The scientists identified 37 different cell types, 23 of them terminally differentiated, as well as numerous stem cells and so-called progenitor cells at several levels of differentiation. (
  • Boosting also increased the breadth and potency of C1/C2-specifi c ADCC responses, including continued boosting of a clonal lineage started 6-8 years previously in the RV144 vaccine trial. (
  • Studies that suggest a ligand-tailored, qualitatively different signal are confronted with evidence that favors a quantitative model, and studies of TCR-dependent T cell differentiation in the thymus are no exception. (
  • Mature CD4 + and CD8 + T cells derive from a common precursor in the thymus, a double-positive (DP) thymocyte, which has both co-receptors. (
  • Indeed, during differentiation, those immature T cells (thymocytes) that do not have an appropriate TCR capable of recognizing MHC that presents self peptides die in the thymus by apoptosis because the TCR transmits survival signals to the T cell only if it binds to self peptide-MHC complexes with sufficient affinity. (
  • Goldstein J, Balderas R, Marodon G. Continuous activation of the CD122/STAT-5 signaling pathway during selection of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in the murine thymus. (
  • Our results reveal that continuous activation of the CD122/STAT-5 signaling pathway characterize regulatory lineage differentiation in the murine thymus. (
  • OpRegen is a suspension of RPE cells, but in certain patients with dry AMD or other degenerative conditions, there may be a role for a scaffold with single or multiple layers of cells of different or identical types. (
  • Previously reported structural improvements in the retina and decreases in drusen density have continued with evidence of durable engraftment of OpRegen cells in treated patients, some more than 4 years following administration, with no immunosuppression utilized beyond the perioperative period. (
  • These new data increasingly suggest to us that treatment with OpRegen can provide clinically meaningful outcomes in dry AMD patients with GA, particularly for those with earlier-stage disease," stated Brian M. Culley, Lineage CEO. (
  • Our objective is to position the OpRegen program as a front-runner in the race to address an unmet need in what is widely expected to be a multi-billion-dollar dry AMD therapeutic market and to drive Lineage forward as the pre-eminent allogeneic cell therapy company. (
  • Lineage Cell plans to meet the FDA authorities to discuss further clinical developments of both OpRegen and OPC1. (
  • Osteoblast-lineage cells expressed Wnt5a, whereas osteoclast precursors expressed Ror2. (
  • When hematopoietic precursors are adoptively transferred i.v., the protocol, in effect, "hands over" to the grafted cells themselves the ultimate choice of the environment into which they will lodge. (
  • 1992 ) tek , a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mousechromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. (
  • Here, I examine the expression and function of REST in glial cells, with a focus on oligodendrocytes and their precursors. (
  • Cutting edge: Thymic NK cells develop independently from T cell precursors. (
  • We further demonstrate that thymic NK cells develop independently of the Notch signaling pathway, supporting the idea that thymic NK cells represent bona fide NK cells that can develop independently of all T cell precursors. (
  • From the results can be concluded that the common ancestor of insects and higher crustaceans differentiated an unpaired midline comprising precursors for glial cells enwrapping the commissures and a single median neuroblast whose derivatives express engrailed. (
  • In comparison, a recombinant Fc-chimeric form of murine CD22 showed high binding to B and T lymphocytes, but very low binding to immature and mature myeloid cells. (
  • Restoration of heterogeneity from sorted cell fractions. (
  • S. V. Avery, Microbial cell individuality and the underlying sources of heterogeneity, Nature Reviews Microbiology , 4 (2006), 577. (
  • We discuss these findings with respect to known developmental heterogeneity in other HSC-derived lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages, and how HSC developmental heterogeneity conforms to the layered model of the evolution of the immune system that we proposed some years ago. (
  • F. Doetsch , A niche for adult neural stem cells. (
  • Visualization of messenger RNA specifically expressed in the specialized epidermis (top), brain and neural coords (middle) and secretory cells (bottom) from planarians. (
  • This distribution reflects the probable developmental origin of NB in the sympathoadrenal (SA) lineage of the neural crest (NC). (
  • Neural lineage-specific homeoprotein BRN2 is directly involved in TTF1 expression in small-cell lung cancer. (
  • These findings suggest that TTF1 expression in SCLC is a cell lineage-specific phenomenon that involves the developing neural cell-specific homeoprotein BRN2. (
  • Cell transplantation and cell marking experiments have been carried out to determine the number of SMCs that convert when intermediate numbers of PMCs are present in the embryo. (
  • The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo. (
  • We provide a large-scale proteomic resource of cell-surface proteins for the four embryo-derived stem cell lines. (
  • These more variable cell fates are thought to be due to the cells' interaction with the environment. (
  • The conversion of these cells to the skeletogenic phenotype is accompanied by their de novo expression of cell surface determinants normally unique to PMCs, as shown by binding of wheat germ agglutinin and a PMC-specific monoclonal antibody. (
  • Sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted, sialic acid-dependent receptor of 185 kD that binds to the oligosaccharide sequence NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal on cell surface glycoconjugates. (
  • In naive CD4bs, unmutated common ancestor knock-in mice Env + B cell clones develop anergy and partial deletion at the transitional to mature B cell stage, but become Env − upon receptor editing. (
  • LTi cells express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt, which also directs the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 in T cells. (
  • The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) serves as a paradigm for how membrane receptors transmit signals to the cytoplasm because it controls many aspects of T cell differentiation and function by detecting atom-sized variations in the quality of the ligand that is recognized. (
  • The recognition of ligand by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways have led to the coining of such terms as "positive selection," "negative selection," "serial triggering," "instructive process," and "kinetic signaling. (
  • No other receptor, apart from the B cell antigen receptor, is confronted by such an intense scrutiny for fitness and signaling capabilities during cell differentiation. (
  • Plays a role in antigen receptor signaling for both clonal expansion and deletion in lymphoid cells. (
  • Interferon-alpha and interleukin-12 are induced differentially by Toll-like receptor 7 ligands in human blood dendritic cell subsets. (
  • We describe here the pivotal role of the LRR receptor kinase EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES 1 (EMS1) in forming the monolayer of tapetal nurse cells in Arabidopsis. (
  • Then, the expanded NK cells are transduced with a signaling receptor that binds to CD19 (anti-CD19-BB-zeta). (
  • First, inferring the reverted unmutated ancestor of a mutated antibody gives an approximation of the naïve B cell receptor (BCR) from which the antibody origi- nated. (
  • Oligoclonal expansion of T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ subfamilies and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these patients. (
  • Some organisms, such as C. elegans, have a predetermined pattern of cell progeny and the adult male will always consist of 1031 cells, this is because cell division in C. elegans is genetically determined and known as eutely. (
  • Transferring adult BM into lethally irradiated recipients readily reconstitutes B-2 and MZ, which represent the majority of the B cells in spleen and other lymphoid organs but only poorly reconstitute B-1 cells in the same recipients. (
  • From one stem cell to many differentiated body cells: Scientists from the MDC in Berlin, along with collaborating researchers in Munich, have published a comprehensive lineage tree of a whole adult animal in the journal Science . (
  • By combining sophisticated single-cell RNA technology with nucleic acid sequencing and computational methods, the scientists were able to establish a detailed cell atlas of an entire complex adult animal, the Schmidtea mediterranea flatworm, and reconstruct the lineage tree of all identified cells. (
  • Transcriptomic landscape of the blastema niche in regenerating adult axolotl limbs at single-cell resolution. (
  • Wagers AJ, Weissman IL (2004) Plast Adult Stem Cells. (
  • However, adult cardiac fibroblasts infected with all 22 factors yielded some EYFP expressing cells only after doxycycline treatment. (
  • Variability and memory of protein levels in human cells. (
  • Constitutive expression of a green fluorescent membrane protein was used to provide a precise outline of all surrounding cells. (
  • In this study, direct evidence for this interaction was obtained in cell-cell binding assays using both native and recombinant forms of the protein. (
  • A study now shows that differentiation into the CD8 + lineage requires the TCR-induced increased abundance of the tyrosine kinase ζ chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kD (Zap70). (
  • The ligand of the TCR for the majority of T cells (called αβ T cells) is another membrane protein found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • However, like the generation of a 3D protein structure from its diffraction patterns, constructing an accurate picture of a tissue's dynamics from its lineage patterns is complex, non-intuitive, and fraught with potential problems. (
  • Ikenishi K, Nishiumi F, Komiya T. The Xdsg protein in presumptive primordial germ cells (pPGCs) is essential to their differentiation into PGCs in Xenopus. (
  • in our investigation we also showed the presence of functional GJ channels in human ES cells, as well as Cx43 protein expression. (
  • Baulande S, Lasnier F, Lucas M, Pairault J. Adiponutrin, a transmembrane protein corresponding to a novel dietary- and obesity-linked mRNA specifically expressed in the adipose lineage. (
  • Proteins showing differential expression were isolated and identified using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS. B , enlarged images of differentially expressed protein spots between untreated and BMP2/4-treated C3H10T1/2 cells. (
  • We have developed a method for single cell extraction of epithelial cells from single intestinal crypts using a modification of the crypt isolation technique. (
  • A three dimensional reconstruction of a cell lineage was then established for 2 more tumors, and 3 metastasis. (
  • Oligodendrocytes are supporting glial cells that ensure the metabolism and homeostasis of neurons with specific synaptic axoglial interactions in the central nervous system. (
  • Interestingly, there exists a tradeoff between low thickness variability and strong layer stratification due to competition among the three types of noise, suggesting robust layer homeostasis requires balanced levels of different types of noise in the cell lineage systems. (
  • Deregulation of these pathways may contribute to tumorigenesis, as in the case of neuroblastoma, a frequently lethal embryonic cancer thought to arise from the sympathoadrenal lineage of the NC. (
  • Pulmonary vascular disease is characterized by remodeling and loss of microvessels and is typically attributed to pathological responses in vascular endothelium or abnormal smooth muscle cell phenotypes. (
  • We here aim to identify the origin of vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells and macrophages within atherosclerosis lesions. (
  • 1993 ) Embryonic stem cell model systems for vascular morphogenesis and cardiac disorders. (
  • Endothelial cells typically comprise 15-20% of the differentiated ES cells. (
  • We found that mesenteric lymphatic vessels were formed through lymphvasculogenesis - coalescence of isolated lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) clusters, rather than by lymphangiogenesis - sprouting from the veins or pre-existing lymphatic vessels. (