Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell SeparationCell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass: The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chief Cells, Gastric: Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Subcommissural Organ: Ependymal derivative located at the junction of the THIRD VENTRICLE and the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT; and the SOMATOSTATIN SECRETING CELLS.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDevelopmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Lymphoid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells from which B-LYMPHOCYTES; T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS derive.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Genes, T-Cell Receptor delta: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.POU Domain Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.Mice, Inbred BALB CErythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Gene Knock-In Techniques: Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/8706)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/8706)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (3/8706)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (4/8706)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (5/8706)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional evidence for the expression of CXCR4 receptor during megakaryocytopoiesis. (6/8706)

The identification of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha as a chemoattractant for human progenitor cells suggests that this chemokine and its receptor might represent critical determinants for the homing, retention, and exit of precursor cells from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of CXCR4 receptor and the biological activity of SDF-1alpha during megakaryocytopoiesis. CD34(+) cells from bone marrow and cord blood were purified and induced to differentiate toward the megakaryocyte lineage by a combination of stem-cell factor (SCF) and recombinant human pegylated megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rhuMGDF). After 6 days of culture, a time where mature and immature megakaryocytes were present, CD41(+) cells were immunopurified and CXCR4mRNA expression was studied. High transcript levels were detected by a RNase protection assay in cultured megakaryocytes derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as in peripheral blood platelets. The transcript levels were about equivalent to that found in activated T cells. By flow cytometry, a large fraction (ranging from 30% to 100%) of CD41(+) cells showed high levels of CXCR4 antigen on their surface, its expression increasing in parallel with the CD41 antigen during megakaryocytic differentiation. CXCR4 protein was also detected on peripheral blood platelets. SDF-1alpha acts on megakaryocytes by inducing intracellular calcium mobilization and actin polymerization. In addition, in in vitro transmigration experiments, a significant proportion of megakaryocytes was observed to respond to this chemokine. This cell migration was inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating coupling of this signal to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Although a close correlation between CD41a and CXCR4 expession was observed, cell surface markers as well as morphological criteria indicate a preferential attraction of immature megakaryocytes (low level of CD41a and CD42a), suggesting that SDF-1alpha is a potent attractant for immature megakaryocytic cells but is less active on fully mature megakaryocytes. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that SDF-1alpha induced the migration of colony forming unit-megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK) and the expression of activation-dependent P-selectin (CD62P) surface antigen on early megakaryocytes, although no effect was observed on mature megakaryocytes and platelets. These results indicate that CXCR4 is expressed by human megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, based on the lower responses of mature megakaryocytes and platelets to SDF-1alpha as compared with early precursors, these data suggest a role for this chemokine in the maintenance and homing during early stages of megakaryocyte development. Moreover, because megakaryocytes are also reported to express CD4, it becomes important to reevaluate the role of direct infection of these cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in HIV-1-related thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Reduced folate carrier expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a mechanism for ploidy but not lineage differences in methotrexate accumulation. (7/8706)

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most active and widely used agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To elucidate the mechanism for higher accumulation of MTX polyglutamates (MTX-PG) in hyperdiploid ALL and lower accumulation in T-lineage ALL, expression of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in ALL blasts isolated from newly diagnosed patients. RFC expression exhibited a 60-fold range among 29 children, with significantly higher expression in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL (median, 11.3) compared with nonhyperdiploid ALL (median, 2.1; P <.0006), but no significant difference between nonhyperdiploid B-lineage and T-lineage ALL. Furthermore, mRNA levels of RFC (mapped by FISH to chromosome 21) were significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number (P =.0013), with the highest expression in hyperdiploid ALL blasts with 4 copies of chromosome 21. To assess the functional significance of gene copy number, MTX-PG accumulation was compared in ALL blasts isolated from 121 patients treated with either low-dose MTX (LDMTX; n = 60) or high-dose MTX (HDMTX; n = 61). After LDMTX, MTX-PG accumulation was highest in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL with 4 copies of chromosome 21 (P =.011), but MTX-PG accumulation was not significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number after HDMTX (P =.24). These data show higher RFC expression as a mechanism for greater MTX accumulation in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL and indicate that lineage differences in MTX-PG accumulation are not due to lower RFC expression in T-lineage ALL.  (+info)

Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (8/8706)

The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM.  (+info)

*Granulocyte

... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ... Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent ...

*Lymphoblast

Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, known as Plasma Cells (for B cells), Cytotoxic T cells, and ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Janeway's Immunobiology, 9th edition, Chapter 1, ... Blood cell lineage See also[edit]. *Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. * ... Helper T cells.[1] Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] ...

*CD15

Cluster of differentiation by lineage. Lymphoid. B cell. *Pre-B cell: CD10/CALLA ... The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of CD15 ... but does stain almost all other lymphoid cells. CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...

*Dipeptidyl peptidase-4

Cluster of differentiation by lineage. Lymphoid. B cell. *Pre-B cell: CD10/CALLA ... endothelial cell migration. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • T cell activation. • cell adhesion. • Viral entry. • ... cell projection. • cell junction. • lamellipodium. • apical plasma membrane. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • cell surface. • ... regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • locomotory exploration behavior. • ...

*CD64 (biology)

Cluster of differentiation by lineage. Lymphoid. B cell. *Pre-B cell: CD10/CALLA ... Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular ... but treatment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with cytokines like IFNγ and G-CSF can induce CD64 expression on these cells.[4][ ... "Immune interferon induces the receptor for monomeric IgG1 on human monocytic and myeloid cells". J Exp Med. 158 (4): 1092-113 ...

*John Graham White

He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. In more ... Sulston, J.; Schierenberg, E.; White, J. G.; Thomson, J. (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (5): 2123-2135. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.5.2123. PMC 2114830. PMID 3680373.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 121 (6): 1343-1355. doi:10.1083/jcb.121.6.1343. PMC 2119718. PMID 8509454.. ...

*Chondrocyte

"Enhancement of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by mesodermal lineage induction with ... The cell density of full-thickness, human, adult, femoral condyle cartilage is maintained at 14.5 (±3.0) × 103 cells/ mm2 from ... Chondrocytes (from Greek χόνδρος, chondros = cartilage + κύτος, kytos = cell) are the only cells found in healthy cartilage. ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Lee, T. J.; Jang, J.; Kang, S.; Jin, M.; Shin, H.; ...

*Paraneoplastic pemphigus

The underlying tumors are almost exclusively of B-cell lineage. However, T-cells and CD56+ Natural Killer cells have also been ... The article warned clinicians to be alert to the possibility that paraneoplastic pemphigus in lymphomas not of B-cell lineage. ... This case demonstrated the rare association between Natural Killer cell lymphoma and PNP, suggesting that Natural Killer cells ... This is followed by transplanting peripheral blood stem cells. If the lesions are mild, the patient will be subject to a good ...

*Congenital heart defect

Srivastava, D. (2006). "Making or breaking the heart: from lineage determination to morphogenesis". Cell. 126 (6): 1037-1048. ... The orderly timing of cell growth, cell migration, and programmed cell death ("apoptosis") has been studied extensively and the ... Cells in part of the septum primum die creating a hole while muscle cells, the "septum secundum", grow along the right atrial ... The tubes fuse when cells between then undergo programmed death and cells from the first heart field migrate to the tube, and ...

*Erdős-Bacon number

"Genomic Variability within an Organism Exposes Its Cell Lineage Tree". PLoS Computational Biology. 1 (5): e50. doi:10.1371/ ... "Estimating Cell Depth from Somatic Mutations". PLoS Computational Biology. 4 (5): e1000058. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000058. ...

*CD4

Cluster of differentiation by lineage. Lymphoid. B cell. *Pre-B cell: CD10/CALLA ... They are often referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. They are called helper cells because one of their main ... T cell selection. • response to estradiol. • induction by virus of host cell-cell fusion. • adaptive immune response. • ... entry into host cell. • T cell activation. • positive regulation of T cell activation. • maintenance of protein location in ...

*Long non-coding RNA

"Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 637-652. ... which is explained by higher cell-to-cell variation of expression levels of lncRNA genes in the individual cells, when compared ... August 2007). "Genome-wide maps of chromatin state in pluripotent and lineage-committed cells". Nature. 448 (7153): 553-60. ... "Single-cell RNA-Seq profiling of human preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ...

*Lymphoid leukemia

"Nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas are more frequently T rather than NK lineage based on T-cell receptor gene, RNA, and protein ... NK cell leukemia[edit]. Aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) is a lymphoid leukemia that is a deficiency NK cells. Not very much ... B-cell leukemias[edit]. B-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemia which affect B cells. ... T-cell leukemias[edit]. T-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemias which affect T cells. ...

*Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

... of cases are of B-cell lineage and have equal incidences in both males and females. The remaining 15% of T-cell lineage have a ... T cell or pre-B cell Large and heterogeneous (varied) cells ALL - L3 B cell Large and varied cells with vacuoles Mature B-cell ... are used to classify cells by lineage. Below are immunological markers associated with B cell and T cell ALL.[28] ... The cancerous cell in ALL is the lymphoblast. Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells, ...

*Basophil

"Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at the single-cell level". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 361-8. doi:10.1016/j ... This article is about a type of blood cell. For the endocrine cell of the anterior pituitary, see basophil cell. ... Both cell types store histamine, a chemical that is secreted by the cells when stimulated. However, they arise from different ... Reference ranges for blood tests of white blood cells, comparing basophil amount (shown in violet) with other cells. ...

*Chloroplast

... lineages and evolution. Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell. They are considered to ... Palisade mesophyll cells can contain 30-70 chloroplasts per cell, while stomatal guard cells contain only around 8-15 per cell ... This event is called endosymbiosis, or "cell living inside another cell with a mutual benefit for both". The external cell is ... Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. ...

*Ostra białaczka szpikowa, wolna encyklopedia

Detection of acute leukemia cells with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements by flow cytometry using monoclonal ... Cell". 150 (2), s. 264-78, Jul 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.023. PMID: 22817890. ... Cell". 128 (4), s. 683-92, Feb 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.029. PMID: 17320506. ... Telomere shortening is associated with cell division in vitro and in vivo. „Exp Cell Res". 220 (1), s. 194-200, Sep 1995. DOI: ...

*Germinal epithelium (male)

The second cell type are the cells belonging to the spermatogenic cell lineage. These develop to eventually become sperm cells ... The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: ... The large Sertoli cells (which are not dividing) function as supportive cells to the developing sperm. ... Spermatozoon). Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers in the germinal epithelium.[1] ...

*Ichthyosis with confetti

Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M. (2012). "Lineage Tracing". Cell. 148 (1-2): 33-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.002. PMID ... Due to the clonal nature of the growth of the normal skin cells, it appears the patient is covered with confetti, hence the ...

*Animal

... have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth.[15] Also, unique to animal cells are the ... Most appear to belong to two major lineages: the deuterostomes and the protostomes, the latter of which includes the Ecdysozoa ... They lack rigid cell walls, which separates them from plants, algae, and fungi, all of which do have rigid cell walls.[9] All ... Becker, Wayne M. (1991). The world of the cell. Benjamin/Cummings. ISBN 978-0-8053-0870-9.. ...

*Osteocyte

The cell body varies in size from 5-20 micrometers in diameter and contain 40-60 cell processes per cell, with a cell to cell ... Noble, SN (2008). "The osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 473: 106-111. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2008.04.009 ... An osteocyte, a star-shaped type of bone cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone tissue, and can live as long as ... The cell undergoes a dramatic transformation from a polygonal shape to a cell that extends dendrites toward the mineralizing ...

*Regeneration in humans

It has been shown that bone marrow-derived cells could be the source of progenitor cells of multiple cell lineages, and a 2004 ... In addition to the surviving tubular epithelial cells and kidney stem cells, the bone marrow stem cells have also been shown to ... Smith, Dana G. (28 April 2016). ""Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs: Studies represent ... 2012). "Efficient Derivation of Purified Lung and Thyroid Progenitors from Embryonic Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 10: 398-411. ...

*Mosaic (genetics)

Sturtevant, A. H. (1929). "The claret mutant type of Drosophila simulans: a study of chromosome elimination and cell-lineage". ... The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal number of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total ... After further rounds of replication, this cell would result in a patch, or "clone" of cells mutant for the allele being studied ... they can be used to determine the tissue or cell type in which a given gene is required and to determine whether a gene is cell ...

*FOXA3

1993). "Drosophila forkhead homologues are expressed in a lineage-restricted manner in human hematopoietic cells". Blood. 81 ( ... "Differentiation of insulin-producing cells from human neural progenitor cells". PLoS Med. 2 (4): e103. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed ... Cell. Biol. 18 (7): 4245-51. PMC 109008 . PMID 9632808.. *. Hromas R, Moore J, Johnston T, et al. ( ... Cell Mol. Biol. 38 (6): 750-8. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2007-0350OC. PMC 2396252 . PMID 18239190.. ...

*Acute erythroid leukemia

... or more of the remaining cells (non- erythroid) are myeloblasts. In rare cases the erythroid lineage is the only obvious ... These cells may constitute 90% or more of the marrow elements. Despite this lack of myeloblasts, these cases should be ... The most common symptoms of AEL are related to pancytopenia (a shortage of all types of blood cells), including fatigue, ... Acute erythroid leukemias can be classified as follows: 50% or more of all nucleated bone marrow cells are erythroblasts, ...

*Sel-12

... cell LINeage defective; glp, Germ Line Proliferation defective. sel-12 gene summary (WormBase) Diane Levitan, Iva Greenwald ( ...

*Plasma cell

Immature plasma cells[edit]. The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast.[3] ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...

*Mir-133 microRNA precursor family

"MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (3): 219-29. doi:10.1016/j. ... satellite cells), which controls myogenic vs. brown adipogenic lineage determination in these cells. Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R ... thereby releasing from inhibition pathway components required for cell lineage commitment establish a mechanism for BMP ... "MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16". Cell Metabolism. 17 ...
Three researchers from Caltech-Michael Elowitz, professor of biology and bioengineering, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and executive officer for biological engineering; Long Cai, research professor; and Carlos Lois, research professor-have received funding to create the Allen Discovery Center for Cell Lineage Tracing in collaboration with the University of Washington in Seattle and Harvard University. Support for the establishment of the center comes from the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, which will provide $10 million over four years with the potential for $30 million over eight years.. The goal of the Allen Center will be to use newly developed technologies to create global maps of cellular development, tracing cells as they divide, move, and differentiate throughout an organisms development, and revealing the relationships between the vast number of diverse cells that make up a single organism.. Last year, Elowitz and Cai collaborated on a gene-editing technique called ...
The somatic mutations present in the genome of a cell accumulate over the lifetime of a multicellular organism. These mutations can provide insights into the developmental lineage tree, the number of divisions that each cell has undergone and the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we describe whole genomes of clonal lines derived from multiple tissues of healthy mice. Using somatic base substitutions, we reconstructed the early cell divisions of each animal, demonstrating the contributions of embryonic cells to adult tissues. Differences were observed between tissues in the numbers and types of mutations accumulated by each cell, which likely reflect differences in the number of cell divisions they have undergone and varying contributions of different mutational processes. If somatic mutation rates are similar to those in mice, the results indicate that precise insights into development and mutagenesis of normal human cells will be possible.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Genetic lineage tracing demonstrates in vivo reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cellsa, Quantification of FACS analyses for Thy1+ cells
The BAP1 tumor suppressor is mutated in many human cancers such as uveal melanoma, leading to poor patient outcome. It remains unclear how BAP1 functions in normal biology or how its loss promotes cancer progression. Here, we show that Bap1 is critical for commitment to ectoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest lineages during Xenopus laevis development. Bap1 loss causes transcriptional silencing and failure of H3K27ac to accumulate at promoters of key genes regulating pluripotency-to-commitment transition, similar to findings in uveal melanoma. The Bap1-deficient phenotype can be rescued with human BAP1, by pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity or by specific knockdown of Hdac4. Similarly, BAP1-deficient uveal melanoma cells are preferentially vulnerable to HDAC4 depletion. These findings show that Bap1 regulates lineage commitment through H3K27ac-mediated transcriptional activation, at least in part, by modulation of Hdac4, and they provide insights into how BAP1 loss ...
From Cell Stem CellBy Stuart P. Atkinson Direct conversion of one somatic cell to another somatic cell type, completely bypassing the pluripotent stage through the forced expression of lineage specific transcription factors has emerged as a large
The present study will contribute not only to progress in regenerative medicine, but also to basic liver biology. Between 2013 and 2014, there was a sensational finding in liver biology4-7. In liver with chronic injury, proliferating LPCs are often observed both in humans and rodents. Given that MHs decrease their proliferative capacity during continuous injury, it was believed for several decades that chronic injury activates the proliferation of a small population of LPCs which are kept dormant in normal livers. Contrary to this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that such LPCs are derived from MHs which are reprogrammed during regeneration under chronic liver injury4-7. Our in vitro study has provided direct evidence for this observation. In addition, considering that in vitro experimental setting makes it easier to manipulate gene expression (e.g. knockdown / overexpression) or intracellular signaling activity (e.g. pathway inhibition), our study may help mechanistic understanding ...
Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation...
I am posting this for Wolfgang Driever (driever at ruf.uni-freiburg.de ) ********************************************************************* Applications are invited for participation at the EMBO Practical Course on DEVELOPMENT, GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF ZEBRAFISH AND MEDAKA March 20-29, 1998, Biologie 1, Freiburg, FRG Organized by: W. Driever, M. Schartl, A. Shima, M. Westerfield EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME * Maintenance of zebrafish and medaka, embryo culture * Embryonic stem cells and chimera production * Production of genetic mosaics by cell transplantation, cell lineage tracing * Gene expression analysis by whole mount in-situ hybridization * Gene transfer by microinjection into the cytoplasm of early embryos and into the oocyte nucleus * Overexpression utilizing synthetic mRNAs * Ploidy manipulation * Mutagenesis screens * Genetic mapping LECTURE PROGRAMME Strategies for mutagenesis screens Genetic mapping and positional cloning strategies Mesoderm development Development of the nervous system ...
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is secreted by a certain subset of CD4+ T cells, called T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, also characterized by the expression of CXCR5 and ICOS and the lineage-specific transcription factor BCL6. But IL-21 production can also be found in other T helper (Tʜ) cell lineages and natural killer T (NKT) cells. IL-21 acts in a autocrine manner on Tfh cells and is critical for antibody production by B cells, it enhances natural killer (NK) cell functions, and promotes proliferation of CD8+ T cells. - Nederland
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
The immune system may be divided into populations of cells that are functionally and kinetically distinct: long-lived progenitor cells with the capacity to produce many progeny and end-stage effector cells destined to die quickly. As is the case in epithelial tissues or the remainder of the hematopoietic system, progenitor cells are necessary for the maintenance of tissue mass in the face of continuous loss of differentiated progeny. T cell progenitors are found at varying levels of the differentiation tree and include multilineage hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, T lineage-restricted progenitors in the thymus, and naive and "true memory" T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. In vivo studies in rodents have documented the presence of kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells, including long-lived populations of cells that retain tritiated thymidine (26, 27), but analogous T cell subpopulations had not previously been demonstrated in humans. ...
Tuomela S, Rautio S, Ahlfors H, Öling V, Salo V, Ullah U, Chen Z, Hämälistö S, Tripathi SK, Äijö T, Rasool O, Soueidan H, Wessels L, Stockinger B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2016) Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming. Oncotarget. 7(12):13416-28.. Kanduri K, Tripathi S, Larjo A, Mannerström H, Ullah U, Lund R, Hawkins RD, Ren B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2015) Identification of global regulators of T-helper cell lineage specification. Genome Med. 7:122. Heinonen MT, Laine AP, Söderhäll C, Gruzieva O, Rautio S, Melén E, Pershagen G, Lähdesmäki HJ, Knip M, Ilonen J, Henttinen TA, Kere J, Lahesmaa R; Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Registry. (2015) GIMAP GTPase family genes: potential modifiers in autoimmune diabetes, asthma, and allergy. J Immunol. 194(12):5885-94.. Moulder R, Bhosale SD, Erkkilä T, Laajala E, Salmi J, Nguyen EV, Kallionpää H, Mykkänen J, Vähä-Mäkilä M, Hyöty H, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell T, Toppari J, Knip M, Goodlett ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
In this new paper Itay tested OSKM trans-differenitation method using genetic lineage tracing for expression of endogenous Nanog and Oct4 and for X chromosome reactivation. He found that the vast majority of reprogrammed cardiomyocytes or neural stem cells obtained from mouse fibroblasts by this method pass through a transient pluripotent state, and that their derivation is molecularly coupled to iPSC formation mechanisms.. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Cell Lineage and Developmental Studies in Hearing and Balance (R01) PA-07-127. NIDCD
Русская база знаний Lineage II, все Lineage II - квесты, описания, прохождения, статьи, вещи, классы, пособия, Lineage 2 по-русски, квесты руоффа, база знаний руоффа, локализация Lineage 2.
Molecular profile of CD34-lineage- cells differentiated with IL-15 plus IL-21. Panel A: Molecular features of cytokine-differentiated CD34-lineage- cells. The e
Hematopoietic cells have been reported to convert into a number of non-hematopoietic cells types after transplantation/injury. Here, we have used a lineage tracing approach to determine whether hematopoietic plasticity is relevant for the normal deve
Software lineages arise through purchase and reproduction. Lineages are tracked by storing lineage-relevant information in variable regions of software instances and/or in a central database according to methods disclosed.
Function: May play a role in the response to environmental stress. Appears to act upstream of the JUN N-terminal pathway. May play a role in hematopoietic lineage decisions and growth regulation ...
I thought you might be interested in looking at ZTE Axon 7 Lineage OS 14.1 High Res Output not working.. https://forum.powerampapp.com/topic/10038-zte-axon-7-lineage-os-141-high-res-output-not-working/?do=findComment&comment=38952 ...
What is the difference between Fate and Destiny? Fate is believed to be inevitable and unchangeable whereas destiny can be changed by an individual.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess two fundamental characteristics, the capacity for self-renewal and the sustained production of all blood cell lineages. The fine balance between HSC expansion and lineage specification is dynamically regulated by the interplay between external and internal stimuli. This review introduces recent advances in the roles played by the stem cell niche, regulatory transcriptional networks, and metabolic pathways in governing HSC self-renewal, commitment, and lineage differentiation. We will further focus on discoveries made by studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. RECENT FINDINGS: HSCs require the support of an interactive milieu with their physical position within the perivascular niche dynamically regulating HSC behavior. In these microenvironments, transcription factor networks and nutrient-mediated regulation of energy resources, signaling pathways, and epigenetic status govern HSC quiescence and differentiation. Once HSCs begin ...
CiteWeb id: 20050000212. CiteWeb score: 2801. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.01.016. Regulatory T cell-mediated dominant tolerance has been demonstrated to play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. Here, we present data arguing that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 acts as the regulatory T cell lineage specification factor and mediator of the genetic mechanism of dominant tolerance. We show that expression of Foxp3 is highly restricted to the subset αβ of T cells and, irrespective of CD25 expression, correlates with suppressor activity. Induction of Foxp3 expression in nonregulatory T cells does not occur during pathogen-driven immune responses, and Foxp3 deficiency does not impact the functional responses of nonregulatory T cells. Furthermore, T cell-specific ablation of Foxp3 is sufficient to induce the identical early onset lymphoproliferative syndrome observed in Foxp3-deficient mice. Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is ...
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Ascl1+ progenitors did not significantly generate RGCs at any time point. Although we cannot formally rule out that a biologically relevant, rare RGC subtype(s) derives from the Ascl1 lineage, our data strongly argue against this possibility. First, Ascl1-GFP and pan-Brn3 co-expression data suggests that this putative subtype would have to be exceedingly rare during development (one cell or fewer per retina) (binomial distribution, P,0.00001, see Table S5 in the supplementary material). Second, whereas Brn3a/b/c expression might not label all ganglion cell subtypes (Badea and Nathans, 2011), retrograde dextran uptake labels all RGCs; nonetheless, we did not observe a significant number of Brn3+ or dextran-labeled RGCs in the Ascl1 lineage.. Retroviral lineage-tracing studies have shown that all seven retinal cell types derive from a common progenitor population (Turner and Cepko, 1987; Turner et al., 1990). However, throughout most of retinal development, several cell types are being formed ...
With the work in this thesis I have aimed to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of different blood cell lineages with a specific focus on B cell development.. To understand the interplay between extracellular signaling and transcription factor networks in early lymphoid development we investigated the functional collaborations of FLT3 and IL7R. We found that signaling via FLT3 and IL7R act in powerful synergy on proliferation of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). In addition to a role in expansion of progenitor cells we provided evidence for that IL7R signaling play a crucial role in B-cell commitment. IL7 deficient mice display a dramatic block in development before functional lineage restriction in the Ly6D+ CLP-compartment. The few Ly6D+CLPs that do develop have reduced mRNA levels of transcription factor EBF1, a protein with crucial functions in lineage restriction and activation of the B-lymphoid program. One crucial function of EBF1 is to activate Pax5. Even ...
The present study uses highly purified T cells, Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, and analyses at the cellular and molecular level to reexamine the paradigm of local immune privilege in the eye. Our current data considerably extend what has been known about the suppressive ability of ocular fluids and provide new information on the likely fate of a T cell that enters the eye and undergoes TCR ligation in the ocular environment. The entire differentiation program for Th1 as well as for Th17 was shut down and diverted toward de novo Foxp3+ Treg induction. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of STAT1 and its target, the Th1 lineage-specific transcription factor T-bet, were both inhibited, phosphorylation of STAT3, which is triggered by IL-6R ligation and induces the Th17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt (29), was not affected, and neither was expression of IL-6Rα. This suggests that inhibition of RORγt by AH was not through the IL-6-induced STAT3 pathway. Because Foxp3 was shown to bind to ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We originally defined Lgr5 as a Wnt target gene, transcribed in colon cancer cells. Two knock-in alleles revealed exclusive expression of Lgr5 in cycling, columnar cells at the crypt base. Using an inducible Cre knock-in allele and the Rosa26-LacZ reporter strain, lineage tracing experiments were performed in adult mice. The Lgr5+ve crypt base columnar cells (CBC) generated all epithelial lineages throughout life, implying that it represents the stem cell of the small intestine and colon. Similar obserations were made in hair follicles and stomach epithelium.. Single sorted Lgr5+ve stem cells can initiate ever-expanding crypt-villus organoids in 3D culture. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5+ve stem cell hierarchy is maintained in these organoids. We conclude that intestinal crypt-villus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial ...
Lineage determination is an important part of the analysis of viral sequence data. Previously this has depended on phylogenetic analysis in order to identify distinct clades within the phylogenetic trees. This method is time consuming and dependent on a set of empirical rules for clade identification. An alternative approach is to use clustering. Clustering is commonly used to identify operational taxonomic units in next generation sequencing data. In this paper we use clustering in order to rapidly identify viral segment lineages and clades without the need for tree construction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lineage determination in mixed phenotype acute leukemia. T2 - Response to marcondes et al.. AU - Fuda, Franklin. AU - Chen, Weina. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84898544513&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84898544513&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. DO - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24470224. AN - SCOPUS:84898544513. VL - 86. SP - 150. EP - 151. JO - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. JF - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. SN - 1552-4949. IS - 3. ER - ...
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A Neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells such as neurons. It allows detection and identification of cells by using different techniques. A neuronal lineage marker can be either DNA, mRNA or RNA expressed in a cell of interest. It can also be a protein tag, as a partial protein, a protein or an epitope that discriminates between different cell types or different states of a common cell. An ideal marker is specific to a given cell type in normal conditions and/or during injury. Cell markers are very valuable tools for examining the function of cells in normal conditions as well as during disease. The discovery of various proteins specific to certain cells led to the production of cell-type-specific antibodies that have been used to identify cells. The techniques used for its detection can be immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, methods that utilize transcriptional modulators and site-specific recombinases ...
As described above, gene knockout approaches have so far provided insights into the roles of the epigenetic machinery in regulating lineage choice and later in lineage maintenance during T-lymphocyte development. Despite an assumption of dramatic effects because of their global roles in gene regulation, a lack of one factor does not result in an apparent developmental arrest or severe lineage skewing in most cases. It is likely that this reflects redundant functions among related factors and pathways, which in turn secure robustness in regulating lineage-specific gene programmes. The majority of the factors described above have at least one homologue or functionally similar molecule, which may compensate and mask the true impact of a single ablated repressive pathway. In addition, there is an alternative possibility that co-activators and co-repressors recruited directly by transcription factors are sufficient to guide cells to their appropriate lineages. If that is the case, what is the role of ...
Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We agree with Tang et al7 that "…the fate of mature or contractile SMCs" requires direct in vivo lineage tracing. Although Nemenoff et al11 did not provide data elucidating the ultimate fate of phenotypically modulated SMCs, neither did Tang et al,7 despite their claims. Surprisingly, Tang et al7 only presented data at a single 5-day time point after wire injury in their smMHCCre/eGFP Rosa26-EGFP mice (Figure 7D and Online Figure XIV in Tang et al7), and then, for reasons that are not clear, they switch to use of nonlineage tracing rats for all subsequent time points. Because the authors do not analyze cell fates beyond 5 days of injury and because their lineage tracing mouse is noninducible such that any cell that transiently expresses SM MHC will activate their lineage tracing gene and be labeled, they cannot draw any conclusions as to whether or not resident differentiated medial SMCs contributed to vascular remodeling after wire injury. In addition, it is unclear whether Tang et al7 ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Two defining characteristics of stem cells are their multilineage differentiation potential (multipotency or pluripotency) and their capacity for self-renewal. Growth factors are well-established regulators of stem cell ...
Heterokaryons provide a model system in which to examine how tissue-specific phenotypes arise and are maintained. When muscle cells are fused with nonmuscle cells, muscle gene expression is activated in the nonmuscle cell type. Gene expression was studied either at a single cell level with monoclonal antibodies or in mass cultures at a biochemical and molecular level. In all of the nonmuscle cell types tested, including representatives of different embryonic lineages, phenotypes, and developmental stages, muscle gene expression was induced. Differences among cell types in the kinetics, frequency, and gene dosage requirements for gene expression provide clues to the underlying regulatory mechanisms. These results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm. The isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
Myeloid Lineage, 0.25 mg. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the precursor cells found in the bone marrow which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the Myeloid and lymphoid lineages, which include monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils,
Differential synergy of Notch and T cell receptor signaling determines ,IMG SRC="/math/agr.gif" ALT="{alpha}" BORDER="0",ß versus ,IMG SRC="/math/ggr.gif" ALT="{gamma}" BORDER="0",,IMG SRC="/math/dgr.gif" ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0", lineage ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Here are the research highlights from the current issue of Development: Getting to the heart of Flk1 expression The Flk1 gene, which encodes a VEGF-A receptor, is expressed in the multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells of mouse embryos that give rise to various haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages. FLK1 expression also marks haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages in differentiating human[…] ...
A multispecies continuum model is developed to simulate the dynamics of cell lineages in solid tumors. The model accounts for spatiotemporally varying cell proliferation and death mediated by the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen and soluble chemical factors. Together, these regulate the rates of self-renewal and differentiation of the different cells within the lineages. As demonstrated in the talk, the feedback processes are found to play a critical role in tumor progression and the development of morphological instability.. ...
Several super immunodeficient models expressing cytokines designed to drive myeloid cell lineage commitment have been generated. The most advanced cytokine transgenic mouse models are the huNOG-EXL, NSG-SGM3 and the MISTRG. This group of models has promise to improve human immune system engraftment in mice, but each one has different features which must be considered when choosing an experimental model.
... :Phenotype assessed by FACS assay following attempts at differentiation in induction medium A: Fibroblast X-axis CD45-PerCp; Y-axis CD10-FITC (CD45+CD10+31% UR quadrant and CD45-CD10+ 66% LR quadrant) 28% and 51% respectively. B: X-axis SP-C-FITC. Lung lineage specific lineages (SP-C+) ,2% (UL quadrant). C: X- axis CD45-PerCp. Hematopoietic lineage (pan-hematopoietic lineage negative). D: CD81+CD47+ (LR 67.5%) Fibroblast specific markers. E: R2 is CD45- gated SP-C+ (UR 1.34%). F: R2 is CD45- gated AQP-1+ (UR 0.67%). G: R5 is CD45- gated AQP-5+ (UR 0.67%). H: R5 is CD45- gated TTF-1+ (UR 0.31 ...
Lou, X, Kaster, F O, Lindner, M, Kausler, B X, Köthe, U, Höckendorf, B, Wittbrodt, J, Jänicke, H and Hamprecht, F A (2011). DELTR: Digital Embryo Lineage Tree Reconstructor. Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI). Proceedings. 1557-1560 ...
View Notes - Lec11_drobny_11 from CHEM 152A at University of Washington. Lecture 11: Cell Potentials • Reading: Zumdahl 11.2 • Recommended Problems:11.15,11.17,11.19 11.21 • Outline - Redox
Water can not download a being download unipotent algebraic in SN2 recharge and mononuclear hanger lesions; the result is highly selected as a cyber Archbishop. time can become regarded into its sorry results, Feedback and length, by Increasing an full research through it. This research is decomposed Treason.
II am trying to load dark lineage but I type in the code (without the hyphens it wont take them) and all I get is the usual - type in the correct key code. I have tried to load on windows 7, xp, had the code checked by everyone in my family but still it gives me the same message. I have turned off all my security and now dont know what else to do.anyone else have this problem? if you did how to solve it would be appreciated ...
Are you struggling with a commitment, whether its personal, professional or otherwise? Here are 7 questions to help you move past the fear of commitment.
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Adult mesenchymal progenitor cells have enormous potential for use in regenerative medicine. However, the true identity of the progenitors in vivo and their progeny has not been precisely defined. We hypothesize that cells expressing a smooth muscle α-actin promoter (αSMA) directed Cre transgene represent mesenchymal progenitors of adult bone tissue. By combining complementary colors in combination with transgenes activating at mature stages of the lineage we characterized the phenotype and confirmed the ability of isolated αSMA+ cells to progress from a progenitor to fully mature state. In vivo lineage tracing experiments using a new bone formation model confirmed the osteogenic phenotype of αSMA+ cells. In vitro analysis of the in vivo labeled SMA9+ cells supported their differentiation potential into mesenchymal lineages. Utilizing a fracture-healing model, αSMA+ cells served as a pool of fibrocartilage and skeletal progenitors. Confirmation of the transition of αSMA+ progenitor cells to mature
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If you have a question about this talk, please contact .. In adult, tissues are maintained and repaired by stem cells, which divide and differentiate to generate more specialized progeny. The mechanisms that regulate the balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation promise fundamental insights into the origin and design of multi-cellular organisms. However, stem cells are difficult to distinguish from their more differentiated offspring, and resolving these mechanisms has proved challenging. Applied to genetic cell lineage tracing and in vivo live-imaging studies, we discuss how concepts from non-equilibrium statistical physics and population dynamics are providing surprising new insights into common patterns of stem cell regulation in mammalian tissues. As well as undermining some accepted paradigms in stem cell biology, we show how these methods provide a novel platform to explore factors leading to dysregulation and the initiation of diseased states.. This talk is part of the ...
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The unabated progress in DNA sequencing technologies is fostering a wave of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies. These sequencing-based technologies are increasingly being targeted to individual cells, which will allow many new and longstanding questions to be addressed. In our studies we use Mismatch-Repair (MMR)-deficient mice and focus on Microsatellites (MS), short tandem repeats, (STRs), which are repeated sequences of 1-6 base-pairs of DNA. Shapiros lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees. The first high-throughput implementation of the approach utilized the capillary electrophoresis method for measuring somatic mutations in MS and provided new insights into a broad spectrum of questions ranging from the origin of cancer metastasis to crypt dynamics and the origin of muscle ...
Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. Epicardial formation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation are precisely regulated by complex interactions among signaling molecules and transcription factors. Here we review the roles of critical transcription factors that are required for specific aspects of epicardial development, EMT, and EPDC lineage specification in development and disease. Epicardial cells and subepicardial EPDCs express transcription factors including Wt1, Tcf21, Tbx18, and Nfatc1. As EPDCs invade the myocardium, epicardial progenitor transcription factors such as Wt1 are downregulated. EPDC differentiation into SMC and fibroblast lineages is precisely regulated by a complex network of transcription factors, including
Research programs in the department are focused on heart, lung, kidney, and liver organogenesis using zebrafish and rodent animal models, and through the study of embryonic stem cells and their differentiation into organs. Parallel translational studies are being pursued using animal disease models, disease modeling with patient derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and clinical translational investigations with institutional review board (IRB) approved human study protocols.. Together these studies promise to yield new insights into the developmental origin of human disease pathogenesis. Some of the diseases of interest include congenital heart disease, cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmias, as well as various renal diseases such as acute kidney injury (AKI) which has a high mortality and morbidity that has not decreased over the last twenty years. In addition, insights into the developmental regulation of cell lineage specification will have importance for regenerative medicine and the ...
Abstract 473 Raffaella Lombardi, Jinjiag Dong, Gabriela Rodriguez, Achim Bell, Univ of Texas Hlth Sci Cnt, Houston, TX; Tack Ki Leung, Montreal Heart Inst, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, QC, Canada; Robert J Schwartz, Inst of Biotechnology, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX; James T Willerson, Univ of Texas Hlth Sci Cnt, Houston, TX; Ramon Brugada, Montreal Heart Inst, Université de Montréal, Houston, TX, Canada; Ali J Marian, Univ of Texas Hlth Sci Cnt, Houston, TX. ...
Data Origin: Bioportal Uberon is an integrated cross-species anatomy ontology representing a variety of entities classified according to traditional anatomical criteria such as structure, function and developmental lineage. Links: neural crest , neural crest table , neural crest collapse table , Ectoderm table , Mesoderm table , Endoderm table ...
CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major drivers of immune-mediated disease. These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens. Although classically viewed as distinct lineages, recent work calls into question whether helper CD4+ T cell subsets are more appropriately viewed as terminally differentiated cells or works in progress. Herein, we review recent advances that pertain to this topic and the mechanisms that contribute to helper CD4+ T cell commitment and plasticity. The therapeutic implications of these new findings are also considered.. ...
T cell development in the thymus relies on continuous colonization by precursors from the bone marrow. In this study, we have investigated thymus colonization by two independent experimental strategies that avoid both irradiation of recipients as well as the transfer of bone marrow precursors. The data show that an incoming wave of thymus repopulating precursors proceeds exclusively through the ETP but not the DN1c, DN1d, or DN1e stages, nor through the population containing the CLP-2. In addition, we find no evidence for thymus colonization by a population that would be predicted to contain the thymic equivalent to the CTP. Thus, for the currently known thymic precursors, the findings provide strong evidence for thymic colonization by a single type of precursor rather than multiple independent precursors.. The colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived precursors is a complex process. Experimental models investigating this process must avoid deviating from the physiological situation as ...
Stem cell, computer artwork. Known as precusor cells, stem cells undergo differentiation to form the different cell lineages required to produce the bodys specialised tissues. For example, stem cells in bone marrow go through a process called haemopoiesis and develop into either red blood cells or one of several types of white blood cells that make up the immune system. Stem cell research involves trying to use stem cells to repair or replace diseased tissues or organs. - Stock Image G442/0180
Analysis of gene regulation and cell fate from single-cell gene expression profiles in C. elegans. Abstract The C. elegans cell lineage provides a unique opportunity to look at how cell lineage affects patterns of gene expression. We developed an automatic cell lineage analyzer that converts high-resolution images of worms into a data table showing fluorescence expression with single cell resolution. We generated expression profiles of 93 genes in 363 specific cells from L1 stage larvae and found that cells with identical fates can be formed by different gene regulatory pathways. Molecular signatures identified repeating cell fate modules within the cell lineage and enabled the generation of a molecular differentiation map that reveals points in the cell lineage when developmental fates of daughter cells begin to diverge. These results demonstrate insights that become possible using computational approaches to analyze quantitative expression from many genes in parallel using a digital gene ...
immune Uncategorized PTGIS, SC-1 The altered expression of transcription factors in hematopoietic stem cells and their subsequent lineages can alter the development of lymphoid and myeloid lineages. cells showed normal numbers of immature cells, but a block in the development of cells committed to lymphoid lineages. These data indicate that the overexpression of Snai3 does alter bone marrow cell development and that the identification of genes whose expression is altered by the presence of Snai3 would aid in our understanding of these developmental pathways. affected the development of hematopoietic lineages, PBMCs obtained from irradiated mice reconstituted with BM transduced with either the Empty-RV or Snai3-RV vectors were stained with lineage surface markers 8 weeks postreconstitution and analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) [18]. Each PBMC lineage was analyzed as a total PBMC population (left set of panels) and then gated into three subsets (GFP Negative, GFP Low, and GFP ...
Despite recent advances in delineating the mechanisms involved in cardiogenesis, cellular lineage specification remains incompletely understood. To explore the relationship between developmental fate and potential, we isolated a cardiac-specific Nkx2.5(+) cell population from the developing mouse embryo. The majority of these cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes and conduction system cells. Some, surprisingly, adopted a smooth muscle fate. To address the clonal origin of these lineages, we isolated Nkx2.5(+) cells from in vitro differentiated murine embryonic stem cells and found approximately 28% of these cells expressed c-kit. These c-kit(+) cells possessed the capacity for long-term in vitro expansion and differentiation into both cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells from a single cell. We confirmed these findings by isolating c-kit(+)Nkx2.5(+) cells from mouse embryos and demonstrated their capacity for bipotential differentiation in vivo. Taken together, these results support the ...
Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. Under physiological conditions, Mcl-1 expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. In the last decade, a number of studies have elucidated different pathways controlling Mcl-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Four different E3 ubiquitin-ligases (e.g., Mule, SCFβ-TrCP, SCFFbw7 and Trim17) and one deubiquitinase (e.g., USP9X), that respectively mediate and oppose Mcl-1 ubiquitination, have been formerly identified. The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and
Embryonic organizing centers secrete signaling molecules that instruct target cells about their position and future identity. Information about cell position in relation to sources of instructive signals and about precursor cell lineages is key to our understanding of developmental processes that restrict cell potency and determine cell fate. We review adenohypophysis, lens, and olfactory placode formation and how gene expression patterns, cell positions, and cell fates in the anterior neural plate and anterior placodal field correlate in zebrafish and other vertebrates. Single cell lineage analysis in zebrafish suggests that the majority of preplacodal cells might be specified for pituitary, lens, or olfactory placode by the end of gastrulation ...
C12 MCL1 is an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 member that was identified based on increased expression during the induction of differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia cells. Previous studies in MCL1 transgenic mice demonstrated moderate viability enhancement in cells of a variety of hematopoietic lineages, as assessed using pan-B, T, and myeloid markers. The present studies utilized differentiation-stage specific markers to determine whether the MCL1 transgene affects specific cells within the T cell lineage. Findings to date have revealed an increase in early T lineage progenitors in the thymus of transgenic mice. This was accompanied by an increase in cells at the early stages of thymopoiesis, including CD4-CD8- double negative cells expressing CD25 (alpha chain of interleukin-2 receptor) and CD4+CD8+ double positive cells. This increase in occurred despite the fact that the bone marrow of the transgenic animals did not exhibit a noticeably change in the expression of markers characteristic of ...
Most tissues are hierarchically organized into lineages, which are sets of progenitor-progeny relationships where the cells differ progressively in their character due to differentiation. It is increasingly recognized that lineage progression occurs in solid tumors. In this talk, we develop a multispecies continuum model to simulate the dynamics of cell lineages in solid tumors. The model accounts for spatiotemporally varying cell proliferation and death mediated by the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen and soluble chemical factors. Together, these regulate the rates of self-renewal and differentiation of the different cells within the lineages and lead to the development of heterogenous cell distributions and formation of niche-like environments for stem cells. As demonstrated in the talk, the feedback processes are found to play a critical role in tumor progression, the development of morphological instability, and response to treatment.. ...
2189 Sox2 is a key transcription factor that maintains the proliferation of neuroglial stem cells and inhibits neuronal fate commitment. Moreover, it was recently found that brain tumors contain stem cells that resemble normal neuroglial stem cells in many respects. This study was undertaken to describe Sox2 expression in various brain tumors, and to determine whether Sox2 expression is a universal feature of brain tumors, or whether its expression is limited to a specific lineage of brain tumors ...
Principal Investigator:増田 喬子, Project Period (FY):2016-04-01 - 2019-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Hematology
Fig. 5. PCNS loss of function. Whole-mount in situ hybridizations with NC markers to stage 19 (A), stage 22 (H) or stage 31 (L) embryos injected into one cell at the two-cell stage with 25 ng of M1 (B, D, G, K, O) or Co (A, C, I, M), or into one cell at the eight-cell stage with 6 ng of M1 (F) or Co (E), along with lacZ RNA as a lineage tracer. In situ probes are indicated on the individual panels at lower left. In each case, M1 resulted in severe inhibition of CNC cell migration into pharyngeal arches, and Co had no effect. In panels E and F, the lineage tracer is visible as red staining on the left side of the embryos. M1 injection inhibited migration of NC from rhombomere 5 (G; black arrowhead) without affecting the neural tube expression (red arrowhead). Panels A are dorsal views with the injected side on the left. In some cases, images were flipped horizontally to maintain this orientation. In panels H, the uninjected sides are shown on the left (H, J, L, N) and injected sides on the right ...
A couple of weeks ago we had a journal club about some contradictions in hematopoietic hierarchy models, based on 2 papers -The earliest thymic progenitors for T cells possess myeloid lineage potential from Bhandoola lab and recently published Reductive isolation
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Proposed lineage fate map focusing on (1) adult tissues, (2) fetal tissues, (3) terminally differentiated cells, (5) stem cells and (4) progenitor cells. This pathway is currently in progress but will ultimately be a hub to tissue and cell type specific pathways (nodes converted to pathway nodes). How to Use This network is most useful when viewed in Cytoscape with corresponding cell/tissue association data. To use, simply save the GPML and open in Cytoscape (File , Import , Network (Multiple File Types)...) and change the visual style of the pathway to one of the default options under VizMapper , Current Visual Style or load this specific VisualStyle: http://altanalyze.org/TissueFateMap-VizMapperProperty.props. To visualize tissue/cell association data, load an attribute file with corresponding tissue/cell names (e.g., from AltAnalyzes TissueMapper software) using File , Import , Node Attributes (mapping the tissue column to CanonicalName) and set your coloring parameters from VizMapper , Node ...
Darkness Within 2: The Dark Lineage is a first-person puzzle adventure game, featuring a mysterious and depressive setting heavily based on the H. P. Lovecraft mythos.Unlike its predecessor, this second chapter is done in full 3D, instead of using simple pre-rendered backgrounds. While in the first ...
How is Product Specification abbreviated? C-SPEC stands for Product Specification. C-SPEC is defined as Product Specification somewhat frequently.
The 40-year-old is a dramatic force, with undiluted acting DNA coursing through her veins. Her father is kabuki actor Onoe Kikugoro VII, whose family lineage can be traced back seven centuries. Her mother is treasured actress Sumiko Fuji, whose own father was a famed ... ...
Noora Dbayat is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Een methode voor Lineage Tracing van hoornvliescellen De Multi-kleur Fluorescent Reporter Muizen
Plasmid pLJM1-EGFP-BarcodeV3 from Dr. Jay Shendures lab contains the insert GESTALT lineage tracing target V3 and is published in Science. 2016 May 26. pii: aaf7907. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
View the performance, paper handling, prints per minute (ppm) and other details and specifications for the Xerox iGen4 for Digital Presses
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Returns the number of columns occupied by this cell accessible. This is 1 if the specified cell is only in one column, or more than 1 if the specified cell spans multiple columns. ...
USP8 Maintains Embryonic Stem Cell Stemness via Deubiquitination of EPG5 Researchers showed that EPG5, a eukaryotic-specific autophagy regulator which mediates autophagosome/lysosome fusion, was highly expressed in ESCs and contributed to ESC identity maintenance. They identified that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 bound to the coiled-coil domain of EPG5. [Nat Commun] Full Article Fusion of Reprogramming Factors Alters the Trajectory of Somatic Lineage Conversion Scientists employed genetic lineage tracing and found that induction of induced neural stem cells with individual vectors led to direct lineage conversion. In contrast, polycistronic expression produced a Brn4-Klf4 fusion protein that enabled induction of pluripotency. [Cell Rep] Full Article , Graphical Abstract Global Characterization of X Chromosome Inactivation in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Investigators found differences in X chromosome inactivation (XCI) status between most published samples of ESCs and iPSCs. While the ...
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays key roles in stem-cell maintenance, progenitor cell expansion, and lineage decisions. Transcriptional responses induced by Wnt depend on the association of either beta-catenin or gamma-catenin with lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor transcription factors. Here we show that hematopoiesis, including thymopoiesis, is normal in the combined absence of beta- and gamma-catenin. Double-deficient hematopoietic stem cells maintain long-term repopulation capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. Unexpectedly, 2 independent ex vivo reporter gene assays show that Wnt signal transmission is maintained in double-deficient hematopoietic stem cells, thymocytes, or peripheral T cells. In contrast, Wnt signaling is strongly reduced in thymocytes lacking TCF-1 or in nonhematopoietic cells devoid of beta-catenin. These data provide the first evidence that hematopoietic cells can transduce canonical Wnt signals in the combined absence of beta- and gamma-catenin.
Author Summary How cells diverge from a common progenitor and adopt specific fates is still poorly understood. We analyzed gene expression profiles in the distinct cell lineages of the gonad over the period when sex determination occurs. The undifferentiated progenitor cells expressed genes characteristic of both sexual fates, explaining the plasticity of the gonadal cells to differentiate as male or female cell types. The establishment of sex-specific fate in both the germ cells and somatic cells involved activation of some genes; but, importantly, we show that an active repression of genes associated with the alternative pathway is also a characteristic of cell fate commitment. Although germ cell progenitors expressed genes associated with both possible fates, genes characteristic of the male fate were over-represented in the progenitors, giving them a male bias. However, in somatic cell progenitors, which control sex determination, genes associated with the female fate were over-represented. These
Our research is aimed at developing new therapies for patients with severe liver diseases. To restore liver function in patients with liver failure, we are working on generating hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells or by reprogramming of readily accessible human cell types. To be therapeutically effective, these cells need to replicate both function and the ability to proliferate of primary human hepatocytes. To establish and improve protocols for the production of such cells, we have been working on obtaining a detailed molecular understanding of hepatocyte differentiation and regeneration. For this, we are using mouse models for liver cell lineage tracing developed in our laboratory. In addition, we are using rigorous animal models of human liver failure to test the therapeutic efficacy of our surrogate hepatocytes. While developing novel liver cell therapies is our main focus, we are also using hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells or by reprogramming to generate in ...
article{a4771b6c-1150-427f-a70a-c2fe50a441ba, abstract = {Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by a specific deficiency in erythroid progenitors. Since some patients with DBA develop a reduction in thrombocytes and granulocytes with age, we asked whether multipotent hematopoietic progenitors from DBA patients had normal proliferative capacity in liquid expansion cultures. CD34(+) cells derived from DBA patients showed deficient proliferation in liquid culture containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Single CD34(+) CD38(-) cells from DBA patients exhibited deficient proliferation recruitment in a limiting dilution assay containing IL-3, IL-6, SCF, Tpo, FIL, and G-CSF or containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Our findings suggest that the underlying hematopoietic defect in DBA may not be limited to the erythroid lineage. Since a fraction of DBA patients have a deficiency in ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), we constructed lentiviral vectors containing the RPS19 ...
Formation of epiblast (EPI) - the founder line of all embryonic lineages - and extra-embryonic supportive tissues is one of the key events in mammalian development. The prevailing model of early mammalian development is based almost exclusively on the mouse. Here, we provide a comprehensive, stage-by-stage analysis of EPI and extra-embryonic primitive endoderm (PrE) formation during preimplantation development of the rabbit. Although we observed that rabbit embryos have several features in common with mouse embryos, including a stage-related initiation of lineage specification, our results demonstrate the existence of some key differences in lineage specification among mammals. Contrary to the current view, our data suggest that reciprocal repression of GATA6 and NANOG is not fundamental for the initial stages of PrE versus EPI specification in mammals. Furthermore, our results provide insight into the observed discrepancies relating to the role of FGF/ERK signalling in PrE versus EPI specification
Focal adhesions (FAs) undergo maturation culminating in size and composition changes that modulate adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling and differentiation. While it is well-recognized that stimuli for osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) drive FA maturation, actin organization, and stress-fiber polarization, the extent to which FA-mediated signals regulated by the FA protein composition specifies MSC commitment remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that, upon dexamethasone (osteogenic induction) treatment, guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) is significantly enriched in FAs. Perturbation of GEF-H1 inhibits FA formation, anisotropic stress-fiber orientation and MSC osteogenesis in an actomyosin contractility-independent manner. To determine the role of GEF-H1 in MSC osteogenesis, we explore the GEF-H1-modulated FA proteome that reveals non-muscle myosin-II heavy chain-B (NMIIB) as a target of GEF-H1 in FAs. Inhibition of targeting NMIIB into FAs suppresses FA formation, ...
Wnt signaling increases hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and is activated in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, indicating involvement in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. We report here activated canonical Wnt signaling in the hematopoietic system through conditional expression of a stable form of beta-catenin. This enforced expression led to hematopoietic failure associated with loss of myeloid lineage commitment at the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor stage; blocked erythrocyte differentiation; disruption of lymphoid development; and loss of repopulating stem cell activity. Loss of hematopoietic stem cell function was associated with decreased expression of Cdkn1a ( encoding the cell cycle inhibitor p21(cdk)), Sfpi1, Hoxb4 and Bmi1 ( encoding the transcription factors PU.1, HoxB4 and Bmi-1, respectively) and altered integrin expression in Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells, whereas PU.1 was upregulated in erythroid progenitors. Constitutive activation of canonical Wnt signaling ...
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and exhibited the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral debris by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrixConly control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primitive adult hematopoietic stem cells can function as osteoblast precursors. AU - Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.. AU - Gugala, Zbigniew. AU - Camargo, Fernando. AU - Gannon, Francis H.. AU - Jackson, KathyJo. AU - Kienstra, Kirsten Anderson. AU - Shine, H. David. AU - Lindsey, Ronald. AU - Hirschi, Karen K.. AU - Goodell, Margaret A.. AU - Brenner, Malcolm K.. AU - Davis, Alan R.. PY - 2003/12/23. Y1 - 2003/12/23. N2 - Osteoblasts are continually recruited from stem cell pools to maintain bone. Although their immediate precursor is a plastic-adherent mesenchymal stem cell able to generate tissues other than bone, increasing evidence suggests the existence of a more primitive cell that can differentiate to both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells. We show here that the "side population" (SP) of marrow stem cells, defined by their ability to rapidly expel a DNA-binding dye and to regenerate the hematopoietic compartment, can differentiate to osteoblasts through a mesenchymal ...

Histone complement of a rapidly evolving chordate Oikopleura dioica: Developmental and sex-specific deployment of novel and...Histone complement of a rapidly evolving chordate Oikopleura dioica: Developmental and sex-specific deployment of novel and...

Its short life cycle is characterized by a developmental switch between mitotic and endocycling cells, making O. dioica an ... the variation within histone families and the chromosomal distribution of mitotic PTMs within the chordate lineage. This ... dioica and the deposition of the centromeric variant OdCenH3 in mitotic and endocycling cells with respect to centromeric PTMs ... throughout development and in different cell cycle types. We have characterized the complete histone gene complement and the ...
more infohttp://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/4354

Sars Internal: Sars Seminar AbstractsSars Internal: Sars Seminar Abstracts

Regulation of cell cycles in Oikopleura Dioica. Controlled division of a cell involves complex interplay between the components ... However, a few other Hox genes have been lost in the salmon lineage or became pseudogenes. The clusters that evolve faster than ... The rise of cell types in Nematostella vectensis.. Cell proliferation, morphogenesis and differentiation are the key processes ... Recent publications show that cell - cell interactions play a key role in the formation of this pattern, but the particular ...
more infohttp://www.sars.no/internal/secure/news/abstracts2006.php

CELL LINEAGE | ShapiroCELL LINEAGE | Shapiro

Lineage analysis of intestinal epithelial cells. We have developed a method for single cell extraction of epithelial cells from ... In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be ... The reconstructed cell lineage trees of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients demonstrated that leukemia cells at relapse were ... Quantifying the ability to reconstruct a cell-lineage tree using somatic mutations. The development of cells within a multi- ...
more infohttp://www.weizmann.ac.il/math/Shapiro/cell-lineage

Cell Lineage - QIAGENCell Lineage - QIAGEN

Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array The Human Cell Lineage EpiTect Chip qPCR Array profiles the histone ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/us/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-lineage/

Cell Lineage - QIAGENCell Lineage - QIAGEN

Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Cell Lineage Identification EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array The Human Cell Lineage EpiTect Chip qPCR Array profiles the histone ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/cr/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-lineage/

Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and the Vascular Lineage | SpringerLinkEmbryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and the Vascular Lineage | SpringerLink

... cells to undergo differentiation in vitro complements their ability to contribute to numerous tissues in vivo and provides a ... Embryonic Stem Cell Tissue Culture Dish Vascular Development Cell Clump Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation These keywords were ... Bautch V.L. (2002) Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and the Vascular Lineage. In: Turksen K. (eds) Embryonic Stem Cells. ... a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. J. Cell Biol. 114, 1059-1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/1-59259-241-4:117

Marking cell lineages in living tissues.  - PubMed - NCBIMarking cell lineages in living tissues. - PubMed - NCBI

A histone-YFP marker was used to allow identification of cell lineages and easy counting of cells. Constitutive expression of a ... and the fate of the marked cells can be followed non-invasively. We have used the system to map cell lineages originating from ... Marking cell lineages in living tissues.. Kurup S1, Runions J, Köhler U, Laplaze L, Hodge S, Haseloff J. ... The lineage marking technique enabled us to measure the differential contribution of primary root pericycle cell files to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15842628?dopt=Abstract

Transcriptome-wide noise controls lineage choice in mammalian progenitor cells | NatureTranscriptome-wide noise controls lineage choice in mammalian progenitor cells | Nature

... stochastic priming of multipotent progenitor cells in cell fate decision. (See Nature Reports Stem Cells). Phenotypic cell-to- ... Even in clonal populations of cells, there is significant phenotypic variation from cell to cell: Huang and colleagues analyse ... Such non-genetic cell individuality7 can arise from the slow fluctuations of protein levels8 in mammalian cells. These ... Preference in lineage choice was associated with increased expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, such as a ,200 ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature06965?error=cookies_not_supported&code=d4d2a211-ac3f-44e7-85f0-4ecd732f0d94

Diversification of cardiomyogenic cell lineages in vitro.  - PubMed - NCBIDiversification of cardiomyogenic cell lineages in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI

Diversification of cardiomyogenic cell lineages in vitro.. Yutzey K1, Gannon M, Bader D. ... Therefore, the potential to form distinct cardiomyogenic cell lineages is present in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm soon ... Anterior cardiogenic cells removed from the embryo at stage 8, when the heart begins to differentiate in vivo, are not ... Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649381?dopt=Abstract

Stochastic dynamics of cell lineage in tissue homeostasisStochastic dynamics of cell lineage in tissue homeostasis

Here we present a stochastic continuum model for cell lineages to investigate how both layer thickness and layer stratification ... The layer stratification usually deteriorates as the noise level increases in the cell lineage systems. Interestingly, the ... We find that the cell-intrinsic noise often causes reduction and oscillation of layer size whereas the cell-extrinsic noise ... lineages of cells differentiate and proliferate in a coordinated way to provide the desirable size and spatial organization of ...
more infohttps://aimsciences.org/article/doi/10.3934/dcdsb.2018339?viewType=html

cell lineage Protocols and Video...'cell lineage' Protocols and Video...

... cell lineage include Co-localization of Cell Lineage Markers and the Tomato Signal, Cell Lineage Analyses and Gene Function ... Mouse Naïve CD4+ T Cell Isolation and In vitro Differentiation into T Cell Subsets, Ablation of a Single Cell From Eight-cell ... Live Imaging Followed by Single Cell Tracking to Monitor Cell Biology and the Lineage Progression of Multiple Neural ... Cell Sorting of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone and Live-imaging of their Cell Cycle ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/cell+lineage

Distinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells | PNASDistinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells | PNAS

... hematopoietic lineages analyzed in blood (erythrocytes, platelets, myeloid cells, T cells, and B cells). Here, we chose to ... myeloid cells, T cells, and B cells in all recipient mice. These reconstituted hematopoietic cells were still readily ... Distinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Eliver Eid Bou Ghosn, Ryo Yamamoto ... 2006) Phenotypically distinct B cell development pathways map to the three B cell lineages in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/109/14/5394.long

Cell Lineage Allocation Within the Inner Cell Mass of the Mouse Blastocyst | SpringerLinkCell Lineage Allocation Within the Inner Cell Mass of the Mouse Blastocyst | SpringerLink

... the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and ... Inner Cell Mass Asymmetric Division Cell Fate Decision Lineage Bias Inner Cell Mass Cell These keywords were added by machine ... Johnson MH, Ziomek CA (1981) The foundation of two distinct cell lineages within the mouse morula. Cell 24:71-80PubMedCrossRef ... 2012) Cell Lineage Allocation Within the Inner Cell Mass of the Mouse Blastocyst. In: Kubiak J. (eds) Mouse Development. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-30406-4_10

Lineage Cell Therapeutics Awarded NIH Grant for Innovative Vision Restoration Program | Business WireLineage Cell Therapeutics Awarded NIH Grant for Innovative Vision Restoration Program | Business Wire

NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medic ... About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell ... Vice President and Head of Global Development at Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Early data from Lineages Vision Restoration ... Lineage Cell Therapeutics Awarded NIH Grant for Innovative Vision Restoration Program August 13, 2019 08:00 AM Eastern Daylight ...
more infohttps://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190813005225/en/Lineage-Cell-Therapeutics-Awarded-NIH-Grant-Innovative

Control of Cell Survival and Proliferation in the Oligodendrocyte Cell LineageControl of Cell Survival and Proliferation in the Oligodendrocyte Cell Lineage

... Martin Raff, Yasu Tokumoto, and Dean Tang ... MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2001/595026/abs/

Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of  Stem Cell Plasticity?Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?

C. M. Flynn and D. S. Kaufman, "Donor cell leukemia: insight into cancer stem cells and the stem cell niche," Blood, vol. 109, ... K. Akashi, "Lymphoid lineage fate decision of hematopoietic stem cells," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1176 ... Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?. Elisa Dorantes-Acosta1,2,3 and Rosana Pelayo2 ... E. V. Rothenberg, "T cell lineage commitment: identity and renunciation," Journal of Immunology, vol. 186, no. 12, pp. 6649- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmr/2012/406796/ref/

Transcription Factors and Helper T Cell Lineage Determination | ScienceTranscription Factors and Helper T Cell Lineage Determination | Science

Transcription Factors and Helper T Cell Lineage Determination Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/307/5708/313.12

KEGG PATHWAY: Hematopoietic cell lineage - Reference pathwayKEGG PATHWAY: Hematopoietic cell lineage - Reference pathway

A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B ... Hematopoietic cell lineage - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , User data ... Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular ... A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?map04640

A complete cell atlas and lineage tree of the immortal flatworm | EurekAlert! Science NewsA complete cell atlas and lineage tree of the immortal flatworm | EurekAlert! Science News

... have published a comprehensive lineage tree of a whole adult animal in the journal Science. This was made possible by a ... From one stem cell to many differentiated body cells: Scientists from the MDC in Berlin, along with collaborating researchers ... sequencing of purified stem cells and cells from stem cell-depleted animals; gene expression changes; unsupervised lineage tree ... 2018): "Cell type atlas and lineage tree of a whole complex animal by single-cell transcriptomics,", Science. Advance Online ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-04/mdcf-acc041918.php

Testing gene function early in the B cell lineage in mb1-cre mice | PNASTesting gene function early in the B cell lineage in mb1-cre mice | PNAS

Third, it is also possible that a small number of pro-B cells redifferentiate to the T cell lineage after activating the mb-1 ... Mouse peritoneal cells were isolated with 5 ml of PBS buffer. Splenic B cells were purified by staining single-cell suspensions ... Cell grafts for epilepsy treatment. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence cells alleviate ... B Cell-Intrinsic STING Signaling Triggers Cell Activation, Synergizes with B Cell Receptor Signals, and Promotes Antibody ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/37/13789?ijkey=0c14e1f6f3a9411c627ff1acb1b3e5b71945e105&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Initiation of HIV neutralizing B cell lineages with sequential envelope immunizations | Nature CommunicationsInitiation of HIV neutralizing B cell lineages with sequential envelope immunizations | Nature Communications

Here the authors analyze the B cell repertoire in macaques and knock-in mice in response to sequential immunization with Env ... Macaque memory B cell single-cell sorting and phenotyping. We performed single-cell isolation of macaque memory B cells ... in order to provide a survival advantage to bnAb B cell lineages over "off-target" B cell lineages. It will also be critical to ... Gao, F. et al. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies. Cell 158, 481-491 (2014). ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-01336-3?error=cookies_not_supported&code=db1dc128-2d80-43c2-a702-96430fbebd63

KEGG PATHWAY: Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG PATHWAY: Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human)

Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B ... Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular ... A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?hsa04640+3674

Cell lineage - WikipediaCell lineage - Wikipedia

Cell lineage denotes the developmental history of a tissue or organ from the fertilized embryo. Cell lineage can be studied by ... These more variable cell fates are thought to be due to the cells interaction with the environment. Cell lineage can be ... This causes the cell lineage and cell fate to be highly correlated. Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and ... is activated and permanently labels the cell of interest and its offspring cells, thus the name cell lineage tracing. With the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_lineage

JCI -
Sialoadhesin binds preferentially to cells of the granulocytic lineage.JCI - Sialoadhesin binds preferentially to cells of the granulocytic lineage.

Single-cell analyses confirmed that sialoadhesin selectively bound myeloid cells in complex cell mixtures obtained from the ... In this study, direct evidence for this interaction was obtained in cell-cell binding assays using both native and recombinant ... In all assays, sialoadhesin exhibited specific, differential binding to various murine cell populations of hemopoietic origin. ... Sialoadhesin has been implicated in cellular interactions of stromal macrophages with developing myeloid cells. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/117708/scanned-page/638

Two Receptors, Two Kinases, and T Cell Lineage Determination | Science SignalingTwo Receptors, Two Kinases, and T Cell Lineage Determination | Science Signaling

Whereas CD4+ T cells have a predominantly regulatory role, CD8+ T cells are essentially responsible for killing infected cells- ... cells than on CD8+ T cells (13). This indicates a special sensitivity of the CD4+ lineage to Lck signaling beyond what was ... specifies CD8 lineage choice and promotes the differentiation of cytotoxic-lineage T cells. Nat. Immunol. 11, 257-264 (2010).. ... lineage. In the absence of a strong Lck signal, DP2 cells differentiate into DP3 cells, a process that is accompanied by the ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/3/114/pe11?ijkey=a8720f58790b8fcdadc7586f4406d3f7616e340d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Although their unique gene expression profiles eventually reverted to that of the median cells, revealing an attractor state, they lasted long enough to confer a greatly different proclivity for choosing either the erythroid or the myeloid lineage. (nature.com)
  • A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. (genome.jp)
  • We discovered that in the reconstructed lineage trees oocytes cluster distinctly from cells of bone marrow origin, show no lineage barrier between ovaries and increase in depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote) with mouse age, an increase accelerated after unilateral ovariectomy. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Studies here finally demonstrate that individual HSCs sorted from adult bone marrow and transferred to lethally irradiated recipients clearly give rise to B-2, MZ B, and B-1b, but does not detectably reconstitute B-1a cells. (pnas.org)
  • Derivation of 2 categories of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in murine bone marrow," Blood , vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 4407-4415, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor and is expressed exclusively in B cells beginning at the very early pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow. (pnas.org)
  • It is strongly expressed in the B cell lineage beginning at the very early pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow and continues to be expressed in all later stages except plasma cells ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have previously shown that both mature and UCA gp41 MPER bnAb heavy- (HC) and light-chain (LC) gene-rearranged (V H DJ H /V L J L ) KI mice have severe bone marrow (BM) deletion, and the few remaining B cells in the periphery are anergic, resulting in massive reduction in BM precursor frequency of MPER bnAbs 16 . (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, the morphogen noise, which mixes both cell-intrinsic noise and cell-extrinsic noise, can lead to larger size of layer with little impact on the layer stratification. (aimsciences.org)
  • Interestingly, there exists a tradeoff between low thickness variability and strong layer stratification due to competition among the three types of noise, suggesting robust layer homeostasis requires balanced levels of different types of noise in the cell lineage systems. (aimsciences.org)
  • By combining sophisticated single-cell RNA technology with nucleic acid sequencing and computational methods, the scientists were able to establish a detailed cell atlas of an entire complex adult animal, the Schmidtea mediterranea flatworm, and reconstruct the lineage tree of all identified cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The best understood of these signals are effects of Notch1 engagement with Delta ligands provided in the environment of the thymus, which are needed for T cell specification throughout the lineage-choice process and only become dispensable after T cell fate is confirmed ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell lineage research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Chazaud C, Yamanaka Y, Pawson T, Rossant J (2006) Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-MAPK pathway. (springer.com)
  • Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. (mdpi.com)
  • This finding, together with the known importance of Lck in the determination of CD4 + and CD8 + lineages, enables us to propose that a balance between the activation of these two kinases by the TCR determines lineage decisions. (sciencemag.org)
  • and the results from a recently published method, velocyto, that predicts future cell states from mRNA metabolism estimated from precursor and mature transcripts. (eurekalert.org)
  • In comparison with repetitive Env immunizations, sequential Env administration rescue anergic Env + (non-edited) precursor B cells. (nature.com)
  • Other organisms had stereotyped patterns of cell division and produced sublineages which were the progeny of particular precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature CD4 + and CD8 + T cells derive from a common precursor in the thymus, a double-positive (DP) thymocyte, which has both co-receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) serves as a paradigm for how membrane receptors transmit signals to the cytoplasm because it controls many aspects of T cell differentiation and function by detecting atom-sized variations in the quality of the ligand that is recognized. (sciencemag.org)
  • The recognition of ligand by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways have led to the coining of such terms as "positive selection," "negative selection," "serial triggering," "instructive process," and "kinetic signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • No other receptor, apart from the B cell antigen receptor, is confronted by such an intense scrutiny for fitness and signaling capabilities during cell differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • By 1976, Dr. Brenner and his associate, Dr. John Sulston, had identified part of the cell lineage in the developing nervous system of C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • We asked whether expression of the cre recombinase from the murine mb-1 locus would provide an even more efficient model for studying gene function specifically in B cell precursors. (pnas.org)
  • The choice is mediated by adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors on the cells that can bias migration to particular microenvironments, and these "traffic control" molecules are themselves developmentally regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • Spudich, J. L. & Koshland, D. E. Non-genetic individuality: chance in the single cell. (nature.com)
  • Perhaps the most popular method of cell fate mapping in the genetic era is through site-specific recombination mediated by the Cre-Lox or FLP-FRT systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the system, researchers could investigate the function of their favorite gene in determining cell fate by designing a genetic model where within a cell one recombination event is designed for manipulating the gene of interest and the other recombination event is designed for activating a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, researchers have begun using synthetic biology approaches and the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer new genetic systems that enable cells to autonomously record lineage information in their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes for cellular differentiation. (qiagen.com)
  • Albelda, S. M., Muller, W. A., Buck, C. A., and Newman, P. J. (1991) Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. (springer.com)
  • In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • In naive CD4bs, unmutated common ancestor knock-in mice Env + B cell clones develop anergy and partial deletion at the transitional to mature B cell stage, but become Env − upon receptor editing. (nature.com)
  • This process involves three levels of regulatory change, in which the cells' intrinsic transcriptional regulatory factors, expression of signaling receptors (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, B-1a cells are relatively well reconstituted by transfers of HSC populations sorted from "neonatal" BM (2.5 wk of age), although the sorted cells still predominantly reconstitute B-2 and B-1b ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, however, because the Dorshkind studies are based on transfers of sorted HSC populations (roughly 1,000 sorted cells per recipient), they are not informative with respect to the potential of individual HSCs in the transferred population to give rise to each of the B-cell subsets (B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and MZ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, at least with respect to B cells, the multilineage potential of the HSC population in adults is more limited than the multilineage potential of the HSC population in neonates ( 5 , 7 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mature αβ T cells belong to two major types: CD4 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class II molecules, and CD8 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. (sciencemag.org)