The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Ependymal derivative located at the junction of the THIRD VENTRICLE and the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT; and the SOMATOSTATIN SECRETING CELLS.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/8706)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/8706)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (3/8706)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (4/8706)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (5/8706)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional evidence for the expression of CXCR4 receptor during megakaryocytopoiesis. (6/8706)

The identification of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha as a chemoattractant for human progenitor cells suggests that this chemokine and its receptor might represent critical determinants for the homing, retention, and exit of precursor cells from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of CXCR4 receptor and the biological activity of SDF-1alpha during megakaryocytopoiesis. CD34(+) cells from bone marrow and cord blood were purified and induced to differentiate toward the megakaryocyte lineage by a combination of stem-cell factor (SCF) and recombinant human pegylated megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rhuMGDF). After 6 days of culture, a time where mature and immature megakaryocytes were present, CD41(+) cells were immunopurified and CXCR4mRNA expression was studied. High transcript levels were detected by a RNase protection assay in cultured megakaryocytes derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as in peripheral blood platelets. The transcript levels were about equivalent to that found in activated T cells. By flow cytometry, a large fraction (ranging from 30% to 100%) of CD41(+) cells showed high levels of CXCR4 antigen on their surface, its expression increasing in parallel with the CD41 antigen during megakaryocytic differentiation. CXCR4 protein was also detected on peripheral blood platelets. SDF-1alpha acts on megakaryocytes by inducing intracellular calcium mobilization and actin polymerization. In addition, in in vitro transmigration experiments, a significant proportion of megakaryocytes was observed to respond to this chemokine. This cell migration was inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating coupling of this signal to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Although a close correlation between CD41a and CXCR4 expession was observed, cell surface markers as well as morphological criteria indicate a preferential attraction of immature megakaryocytes (low level of CD41a and CD42a), suggesting that SDF-1alpha is a potent attractant for immature megakaryocytic cells but is less active on fully mature megakaryocytes. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that SDF-1alpha induced the migration of colony forming unit-megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK) and the expression of activation-dependent P-selectin (CD62P) surface antigen on early megakaryocytes, although no effect was observed on mature megakaryocytes and platelets. These results indicate that CXCR4 is expressed by human megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, based on the lower responses of mature megakaryocytes and platelets to SDF-1alpha as compared with early precursors, these data suggest a role for this chemokine in the maintenance and homing during early stages of megakaryocyte development. Moreover, because megakaryocytes are also reported to express CD4, it becomes important to reevaluate the role of direct infection of these cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in HIV-1-related thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Reduced folate carrier expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a mechanism for ploidy but not lineage differences in methotrexate accumulation. (7/8706)

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most active and widely used agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To elucidate the mechanism for higher accumulation of MTX polyglutamates (MTX-PG) in hyperdiploid ALL and lower accumulation in T-lineage ALL, expression of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in ALL blasts isolated from newly diagnosed patients. RFC expression exhibited a 60-fold range among 29 children, with significantly higher expression in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL (median, 11.3) compared with nonhyperdiploid ALL (median, 2.1; P <.0006), but no significant difference between nonhyperdiploid B-lineage and T-lineage ALL. Furthermore, mRNA levels of RFC (mapped by FISH to chromosome 21) were significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number (P =.0013), with the highest expression in hyperdiploid ALL blasts with 4 copies of chromosome 21. To assess the functional significance of gene copy number, MTX-PG accumulation was compared in ALL blasts isolated from 121 patients treated with either low-dose MTX (LDMTX; n = 60) or high-dose MTX (HDMTX; n = 61). After LDMTX, MTX-PG accumulation was highest in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL with 4 copies of chromosome 21 (P =.011), but MTX-PG accumulation was not significantly related to chromosome 21 copy number after HDMTX (P =.24). These data show higher RFC expression as a mechanism for greater MTX accumulation in hyperdiploid B-lineage ALL and indicate that lineage differences in MTX-PG accumulation are not due to lower RFC expression in T-lineage ALL.  (+info)

Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (8/8706)

The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM.  (+info)

Three researchers from Caltech-Michael Elowitz, professor of biology and bioengineering, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and executive officer for biological engineering; Long Cai, research professor; and Carlos Lois, research professor-have received funding to create the Allen Discovery Center for Cell Lineage Tracing in collaboration with the University of Washington in Seattle and Harvard University. Support for the establishment of the center comes from the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, which will provide $10 million over four years with the potential for $30 million over eight years.. The goal of the Allen Center will be to use newly developed technologies to create global maps of cellular development, tracing cells as they divide, move, and differentiate throughout an organisms development, and revealing the relationships between the vast number of diverse cells that make up a single organism.. Last year, Elowitz and Cai collaborated on a gene-editing technique called ...
The somatic mutations present in the genome of a cell accumulate over the lifetime of a multicellular organism. These mutations can provide insights into the developmental lineage tree, the number of divisions that each cell has undergone and the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we describe whole genomes of clonal lines derived from multiple tissues of healthy mice. Using somatic base substitutions, we reconstructed the early cell divisions of each animal, demonstrating the contributions of embryonic cells to adult tissues. Differences were observed between tissues in the numbers and types of mutations accumulated by each cell, which likely reflect differences in the number of cell divisions they have undergone and varying contributions of different mutational processes. If somatic mutation rates are similar to those in mice, the results indicate that precise insights into development and mutagenesis of normal human cells will be possible.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Genetic lineage tracing demonstrates in vivo reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cellsa, Quantification of FACS analyses for Thy1+ cells
The BAP1 tumor suppressor is mutated in many human cancers such as uveal melanoma, leading to poor patient outcome. It remains unclear how BAP1 functions in normal biology or how its loss promotes cancer progression. Here, we show that Bap1 is critical for commitment to ectoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest lineages during Xenopus laevis development. Bap1 loss causes transcriptional silencing and failure of H3K27ac to accumulate at promoters of key genes regulating pluripotency-to-commitment transition, similar to findings in uveal melanoma. The Bap1-deficient phenotype can be rescued with human BAP1, by pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity or by specific knockdown of Hdac4. Similarly, BAP1-deficient uveal melanoma cells are preferentially vulnerable to HDAC4 depletion. These findings show that Bap1 regulates lineage commitment through H3K27ac-mediated transcriptional activation, at least in part, by modulation of Hdac4, and they provide insights into how BAP1 loss ...
The Drosophila central brain is composed of thousands of neurons that derive from approximately 100 neuroblasts per hemisphere. Functional circuits in the brain require precise neuronal wiring and tight control of neuronal numbers. How this accurate control of neuronal numbers is achieved during neural development is largely unclear. Specifically, the role of programmed cell death in control of cell numbers has not been studied in the central brain neuroblast lineages. Here, we focus on four postembryonic neuroblast lineages in the central brain identified on the basis that they express the homeobox gene engrailed (en). For each lineage, we determine the total number of adult-specific neurons generated as well as number and pattern of en-expressing cells. We then demonstrate that programmed cell death has a pronounced effect on the number of cells in the four lineages; approximately half of the immature adult-specific neurons in three of the four lineages are eliminated by cell death during ...
Developmental commitment involves activation of lineage-specific genes, stabilization of a lineage-specific gene expression program, and permanent inhibition of inappropriate characteristics. To determine how these processes are coordinated in early T cell development, the expression of T and B lineage-specific genes was assessed in staged subsets of immature thymocytes. T lineage characteristics are acquired sequentially, with germ-line T cell antigen receptor-beta transcripts detected very early, followed by CD3 epsilon and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, then pT alpha, and finally RAG1. Only RAG1 expression coincides with commitment. Thus, much T lineage gene expression precedes commitment and does not depend on it. Early in the course of commitment to the T lineage, thymocytes lose the ability to develop into B cells. To understand how this occurs, we also examined expression of well defined B lineage-specific genes. Although lambda 5 and Ig-alpha are not expressed, the mu(0) and I mu ...
From Cell Stem CellBy Stuart P. Atkinson Direct conversion of one somatic cell to another somatic cell type, completely bypassing the pluripotent stage through the forced expression of lineage specific transcription factors has emerged as a large
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TY - JOUR. T1 - REST and CoREST are transcriptional and epigenetic regulators of seminal neural fate decisions. AU - Qureshi, Irfan A.. AU - Gokhan, Solen. AU - Mehler, Mark F.. N1 - Funding Information: We regret that space constraints have prevented the citation of many relevant and important references. M.F.M. is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NS38902, MH66290, NS071571), as well as by the Roslyn and Leslie Goldstein, the Mildred and Bernard H. Kayden, the F.M. Kirby and the Alpern Family Foundations.. PY - 2010/11/15. Y1 - 2010/11/15. N2 - Complementary transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory factors (e.g., histone and chromatin modifying enzymes and non-coding RNAs) regulate genes responsible for mediating neural stem cell maintenance and lineage restriction, neuronal and glial lineage specification and progressive stages of lineage maturation. However, an overall understanding of the mechanisms that sense and integrate developmental signals at the genomic ...
We present a Minimal Event Distance Aneuploidy Lineage Tree (MEDALT) algorithm that infers the evolution history of a cell population based on single-cell copy number (SCCN) profiles, and a statistical routine named lineage speciation analysis (LSA), whichty facilitates discovery of fitness-associated alterations and genes from SCCN lineage trees. MEDALT appears more accurate than phylogenetics approaches in reconstructing copy number lineage. From data from 20 triple-negative breast cancer patients, our approaches effectively prioritize genes that are essential for breast cancer cell fitness and predict patient survival, including those implicating convergent evolution. The source code of our study is available at .
Deletion of master regulators of the B cell lineage reprograms B cells into T cells. Here we found that the transcription factor Hoxb5, which is expressed in uncommitted hematopoietic progenitor cells but is not present in cells committed to the B cell or T cell lineage, was able to reprogram pro-pre-B cells into functional early T cell lineage progenitors. This reprogramming started in the bone marrow and was completed in the thymus and gave rise to T lymphocytes with transcriptomes, hierarchical differentiation, tissue distribution and immunological functions that closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. Hoxb5 repressed B cell master genes, activated regulators of T cells and regulated crucial chromatin modifiers in pro-pre-B cells and ultimately drove the B cell fate-to-T cell fate conversion. Our results provide a de novo paradigm for the generation of functional T cells through reprogramming in vivo.. ...
The present study will contribute not only to progress in regenerative medicine, but also to basic liver biology. Between 2013 and 2014, there was a sensational finding in liver biology4-7. In liver with chronic injury, proliferating LPCs are often observed both in humans and rodents. Given that MHs decrease their proliferative capacity during continuous injury, it was believed for several decades that chronic injury activates the proliferation of a small population of LPCs which are kept dormant in normal livers. Contrary to this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that such LPCs are derived from MHs which are reprogrammed during regeneration under chronic liver injury4-7. Our in vitro study has provided direct evidence for this observation. In addition, considering that in vitro experimental setting makes it easier to manipulate gene expression (e.g. knockdown / overexpression) or intracellular signaling activity (e.g. pathway inhibition), our study may help mechanistic understanding ...
Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation...
I am posting this for Wolfgang Driever (driever at ) ********************************************************************* Applications are invited for participation at the EMBO Practical Course on DEVELOPMENT, GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF ZEBRAFISH AND MEDAKA March 20-29, 1998, Biologie 1, Freiburg, FRG Organized by: W. Driever, M. Schartl, A. Shima, M. Westerfield EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME * Maintenance of zebrafish and medaka, embryo culture * Embryonic stem cells and chimera production * Production of genetic mosaics by cell transplantation, cell lineage tracing * Gene expression analysis by whole mount in-situ hybridization * Gene transfer by microinjection into the cytoplasm of early embryos and into the oocyte nucleus * Overexpression utilizing synthetic mRNAs * Ploidy manipulation * Mutagenesis screens * Genetic mapping LECTURE PROGRAMME Strategies for mutagenesis screens Genetic mapping and positional cloning strategies Mesoderm development Development of the nervous system ...
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is secreted by a certain subset of CD4+ T cells, called T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, also characterized by the expression of CXCR5 and ICOS and the lineage-specific transcription factor BCL6. But IL-21 production can also be found in other T helper (Tʜ) cell lineages and natural killer T (NKT) cells. IL-21 acts in a autocrine manner on Tfh cells and is critical for antibody production by B cells, it enhances natural killer (NK) cell functions, and promotes proliferation of CD8+ T cells. - Nederland
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
The immune system may be divided into populations of cells that are functionally and kinetically distinct: long-lived progenitor cells with the capacity to produce many progeny and end-stage effector cells destined to die quickly. As is the case in epithelial tissues or the remainder of the hematopoietic system, progenitor cells are necessary for the maintenance of tissue mass in the face of continuous loss of differentiated progeny. T cell progenitors are found at varying levels of the differentiation tree and include multilineage hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, T lineage-restricted progenitors in the thymus, and naive and true memory T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. In vivo studies in rodents have documented the presence of kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells, including long-lived populations of cells that retain tritiated thymidine (26, 27), but analogous T cell subpopulations had not previously been demonstrated in humans. ...
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Tuomela S, Rautio S, Ahlfors H, Öling V, Salo V, Ullah U, Chen Z, Hämälistö S, Tripathi SK, Äijö T, Rasool O, Soueidan H, Wessels L, Stockinger B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2016) Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming. Oncotarget. 7(12):13416-28.. Kanduri K, Tripathi S, Larjo A, Mannerström H, Ullah U, Lund R, Hawkins RD, Ren B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2015) Identification of global regulators of T-helper cell lineage specification. Genome Med. 7:122. Heinonen MT, Laine AP, Söderhäll C, Gruzieva O, Rautio S, Melén E, Pershagen G, Lähdesmäki HJ, Knip M, Ilonen J, Henttinen TA, Kere J, Lahesmaa R; Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Registry. (2015) GIMAP GTPase family genes: potential modifiers in autoimmune diabetes, asthma, and allergy. J Immunol. 194(12):5885-94.. Moulder R, Bhosale SD, Erkkilä T, Laajala E, Salmi J, Nguyen EV, Kallionpää H, Mykkänen J, Vähä-Mäkilä M, Hyöty H, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell T, Toppari J, Knip M, Goodlett ...
Guangdun Peng, Shengbao Suo, Guizhong Cui, Fang Yu, Ran Wang, Jun Chen, Shirui Chen, Zhiwen Liu, Guoyu Chen, Yun Qian, Patrick P. L. Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han & Naihe Jing. Molecular architecture of lineage allocation and tissue organization in early mouse embryo. Nature, 2019 August. 1-5.572(7770):528-532 Guangdun Peng, Shengbao Suo, Jun Chen, Weiyang Chen, Chang Liu, Fang Yu, Ran Wang, Shirui Chen, Na Sun, Guizhong Cui, Lu Song, Patrick P.L. Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han, Naihe Jing. Spatial Transcriptome for the Molecular Annotation of Lineage Fates and Cell Identity in Mid-gastrula Mouse Embryo. Developmental Cell, 2016 Mar. 36: 681-697.. Jun Chen, Shengbao Suo, Patrick PL Tam, Jing-Dong J. Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing. Spatial transcriptomic analysis of cryosectioned tissue samples with Geo-seq. Nature Protocols, 2017 Feb. 12: 566-580.. ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Mardaryev, AN, et al. (2016) Cbx4 maintains the epithelial lineage identity and cell proliferation in the developing stratified epithelium. J. Cell Biol.. 2016 Jan 4; 212(1):77-89. PM ID: ...
PE anti-mouse Lineage Cocktail with Isotype Ctrl - The mouse lineage panel has been designed to react with cells from the major hematopoietic cell lineages, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, NK cells, and erythrocytes.
Pacific Blue™ anti-mouse Lineage Cocktail with Isotype Ctrl - The mouse lineage panel has been designed to react with cells from the major hematopoietic cell lineages, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, NK cells, and erythrocytes.
In this new paper Itay tested OSKM trans-differenitation method using genetic lineage tracing for expression of endogenous Nanog and Oct4 and for X chromosome reactivation. He found that the vast majority of reprogrammed cardiomyocytes or neural stem cells obtained from mouse fibroblasts by this method pass through a transient pluripotent state, and that their derivation is molecularly coupled to iPSC formation mechanisms.. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Cell Lineage and Developmental Studies in Hearing and Balance (R01) PA-07-127. NIDCD
Русская база знаний Lineage II, все Lineage II - квесты, описания, прохождения, статьи, вещи, классы, пособия, Lineage 2 по-русски, квесты руоффа, база знаний руоффа, локализация Lineage 2.
Molecular profile of CD34-lineage- cells differentiated with IL-15 plus IL-21. Panel A: Molecular features of cytokine-differentiated CD34-lineage- cells. The e
Hematopoietic cells have been reported to convert into a number of non-hematopoietic cells types after transplantation/injury. Here, we have used a lineage tracing approach to determine whether hematopoietic plasticity is relevant for the normal deve
Software lineages arise through purchase and reproduction. Lineages are tracked by storing lineage-relevant information in variable regions of software instances and/or in a central database according to methods disclosed.
Transcription is thought to have a major role in the regulation of cell fate; the importance of translational regulation in this process has been less certain. Recent findings demonstrate that translational regulation contributes to cell-fate specification. The evolutionarily conserved, neural RNA-b …
The second point focuses on how best to differentiate the cells into the many mature cell types that are essential for the prospective treatment of distinct…
Function: May play a role in the response to environmental stress. Appears to act upstream of the JUN N-terminal pathway. May play a role in hematopoietic lineage decisions and growth regulation ...
I thought you might be interested in looking at ZTE Axon 7 Lineage OS 14.1 High Res Output not working.. ...
Biology is the study of living organisms: their structure, function, organization, origin, and evolution. Tillys lab seeks to promote a deeper understanding of the genetic and epigenetic drivers of cell lineage...
Moto G7 Plus - Your warranty is now void. - You have been warned. - Use at your own risk. Introduction: This is the Official Lineage OS 18.1 thread for...
What is the difference between Fate and Destiny? Fate is believed to be inevitable and unchangeable whereas destiny can be changed by an individual.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess two fundamental characteristics, the capacity for self-renewal and the sustained production of all blood cell lineages. The fine balance between HSC expansion and lineage specification is dynamically regulated by the interplay between external and internal stimuli. This review introduces recent advances in the roles played by the stem cell niche, regulatory transcriptional networks, and metabolic pathways in governing HSC self-renewal, commitment, and lineage differentiation. We will further focus on discoveries made by studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. RECENT FINDINGS: HSCs require the support of an interactive milieu with their physical position within the perivascular niche dynamically regulating HSC behavior. In these microenvironments, transcription factor networks and nutrient-mediated regulation of energy resources, signaling pathways, and epigenetic status govern HSC quiescence and differentiation. Once HSCs begin ...
CiteWeb id: 20050000212. CiteWeb score: 2801. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.01.016. Regulatory T cell-mediated dominant tolerance has been demonstrated to play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. Here, we present data arguing that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 acts as the regulatory T cell lineage specification factor and mediator of the genetic mechanism of dominant tolerance. We show that expression of Foxp3 is highly restricted to the subset αβ of T cells and, irrespective of CD25 expression, correlates with suppressor activity. Induction of Foxp3 expression in nonregulatory T cells does not occur during pathogen-driven immune responses, and Foxp3 deficiency does not impact the functional responses of nonregulatory T cells. Furthermore, T cell-specific ablation of Foxp3 is sufficient to induce the identical early onset lymphoproliferative syndrome observed in Foxp3-deficient mice. Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is ...
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Ascl1+ progenitors did not significantly generate RGCs at any time point. Although we cannot formally rule out that a biologically relevant, rare RGC subtype(s) derives from the Ascl1 lineage, our data strongly argue against this possibility. First, Ascl1-GFP and pan-Brn3 co-expression data suggests that this putative subtype would have to be exceedingly rare during development (one cell or fewer per retina) (binomial distribution, P,0.00001, see Table S5 in the supplementary material). Second, whereas Brn3a/b/c expression might not label all ganglion cell subtypes (Badea and Nathans, 2011), retrograde dextran uptake labels all RGCs; nonetheless, we did not observe a significant number of Brn3+ or dextran-labeled RGCs in the Ascl1 lineage.. Retroviral lineage-tracing studies have shown that all seven retinal cell types derive from a common progenitor population (Turner and Cepko, 1987; Turner et al., 1990). However, throughout most of retinal development, several cell types are being formed ...
With the work in this thesis I have aimed to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of different blood cell lineages with a specific focus on B cell development.. To understand the interplay between extracellular signaling and transcription factor networks in early lymphoid development we investigated the functional collaborations of FLT3 and IL7R. We found that signaling via FLT3 and IL7R act in powerful synergy on proliferation of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). In addition to a role in expansion of progenitor cells we provided evidence for that IL7R signaling play a crucial role in B-cell commitment. IL7 deficient mice display a dramatic block in development before functional lineage restriction in the Ly6D+ CLP-compartment. The few Ly6D+CLPs that do develop have reduced mRNA levels of transcription factor EBF1, a protein with crucial functions in lineage restriction and activation of the B-lymphoid program. One crucial function of EBF1 is to activate Pax5. Even ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification ...
The present study uses highly purified T cells, Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, and analyses at the cellular and molecular level to reexamine the paradigm of local immune privilege in the eye. Our current data considerably extend what has been known about the suppressive ability of ocular fluids and provide new information on the likely fate of a T cell that enters the eye and undergoes TCR ligation in the ocular environment. The entire differentiation program for Th1 as well as for Th17 was shut down and diverted toward de novo Foxp3+ Treg induction. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of STAT1 and its target, the Th1 lineage-specific transcription factor T-bet, were both inhibited, phosphorylation of STAT3, which is triggered by IL-6R ligation and induces the Th17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt (29), was not affected, and neither was expression of IL-6Rα. This suggests that inhibition of RORγt by AH was not through the IL-6-induced STAT3 pathway. Because Foxp3 was shown to bind to ...
T, B, and NK lymphocytes are generated from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells through a successive series of lineage restriction processes. Many regulatory components, such as transcription factors, cytokines/cytokine receptors, and signal transduction molecules orchestrate cell fate specification and determination. In particular, transcription factors play a key role in regulating lineage-associated gene programs. Recent findings suggest the involvement of epigenetic factors in the maintenance of cell fate. Here, we review the early developmental events during lymphocyte lineage determination, focusing on the transcriptional networks and epigenetic regulation. Finally, we also discuss the developmental relationship between acquired and innate lymphoid cells. ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41467_2018_6176_MOESM1_ESM. StatementRNA sequences for the single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses reported with this paper have been deposited in the GEO database under accession code type:entrez-geo,attrs:text:GSE101099″,term_id:101099″GSE101099. The authors declare that all data assisting the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary information Foxd1 documents or from your corresponding author upon reasonable request. Abstract Organogenesis requires the complex relationships of multiple cell lineages that coordinate their growth, differentiation, and maturation over time. Here, we profile the cell types within the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the murine pancreas across developmental time using a combination of single-cell RNA sequencing, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and genetic lineage tracing. We determine previously underappreciated cellular heterogeneity of the ...
Vertebrate hematopoiesis first produces primitive (embryonic) lineages and ultimately generates the definitive (adult) blood. Whereas definitive hematopoiesis may produce many diverse blood types via a common multipotent progenitor, primitive hematopoiesis has been thought to produce only erythrocytes or macrophages via progenitors that are unipotent for single blood lineages. Using a variety of in vivo cell-tracing techniques, we show that primitive blood in zebrafish derives from two different progenitor types. On the dorsal gastrula, blood progenitors are unipotential cells that divide infrequently, populate the rostral blood islands, and differentiate into macrophages. In contrast, on the ventral gastrula, blood progenitors are multipotential cells with rapid cell cycles; populate the intermediate cell mass; and differentiate into erythrocytes, neutrophils, and thrombocytes. Our results demonstrate the existence of primitive hematopoietic progenitors that are segregated very early in ...
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We originally defined Lgr5 as a Wnt target gene, transcribed in colon cancer cells. Two knock-in alleles revealed exclusive expression of Lgr5 in cycling, columnar cells at the crypt base. Using an inducible Cre knock-in allele and the Rosa26-LacZ reporter strain, lineage tracing experiments were performed in adult mice. The Lgr5+ve crypt base columnar cells (CBC) generated all epithelial lineages throughout life, implying that it represents the stem cell of the small intestine and colon. Similar obserations were made in hair follicles and stomach epithelium.. Single sorted Lgr5+ve stem cells can initiate ever-expanding crypt-villus organoids in 3D culture. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5+ve stem cell hierarchy is maintained in these organoids. We conclude that intestinal crypt-villus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial ...
Lineage determination is an important part of the analysis of viral sequence data. Previously this has depended on phylogenetic analysis in order to identify distinct clades within the phylogenetic trees. This method is time consuming and dependent on a set of empirical rules for clade identification. An alternative approach is to use clustering. Clustering is commonly used to identify operational taxonomic units in next generation sequencing data. In this paper we use clustering in order to rapidly identify viral segment lineages and clades without the need for tree construction.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lineage determination in mixed phenotype acute leukemia. T2 - Response to marcondes et al.. AU - Fuda, Franklin. AU - Chen, Weina. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. DO - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24470224. AN - SCOPUS:84898544513. VL - 86. SP - 150. EP - 151. JO - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. JF - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. SN - 1552-4949. IS - 3. ER - ...
Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited. ...
EBF1 is a crucial regulator of B lymphocyte lineage specification and commitment. In mice lacking EBF1 (encoded by the Ebf1 gene), B cell development is arreste...
Here we present our protocol for producing induced erythroid progenitors (iEPs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using transcription...
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A Neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells such as neurons. It allows detection and identification of cells by using different techniques. A neuronal lineage marker can be either DNA, mRNA or RNA expressed in a cell of interest. It can also be a protein tag, as a partial protein, a protein or an epitope that discriminates between different cell types or different states of a common cell. An ideal marker is specific to a given cell type in normal conditions and/or during injury. Cell markers are very valuable tools for examining the function of cells in normal conditions as well as during disease. The discovery of various proteins specific to certain cells led to the production of cell-type-specific antibodies that have been used to identify cells. The techniques used for its detection can be immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, methods that utilize transcriptional modulators and site-specific recombinases ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in epithelial cell fate determination, open tracheal system pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
This paradigm is especially obvious in the lung after influenza infection, where areas of regeneration and remodeling are coincident, even in nearby regions of the same lung. At a cellular level, one can envision how these injury repair outcomes are actually dictated by progenitor cell fate choices within the injured tissue. We have several projects aimed at increasing our understanding of molecular rheostats affecting this balance. In one project, we are studying the role of vascular-derived bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signals that impact progenitor cell fate choices, wherein boosting BMP levels seems to promote more appropriate fate choices. Building upon previous work, we are also continuing to study how the Notch pathway impacts cell fate as well as optimizing orthotopic progenitor cell transplants for cell therapy approaches.. We have a number of other ongoing projects for which we are actively recruiting new scientists. These projects include investigating the role of Eph / Ephrin ...
As described above, gene knockout approaches have so far provided insights into the roles of the epigenetic machinery in regulating lineage choice and later in lineage maintenance during T-lymphocyte development. Despite an assumption of dramatic effects because of their global roles in gene regulation, a lack of one factor does not result in an apparent developmental arrest or severe lineage skewing in most cases. It is likely that this reflects redundant functions among related factors and pathways, which in turn secure robustness in regulating lineage-specific gene programmes. The majority of the factors described above have at least one homologue or functionally similar molecule, which may compensate and mask the true impact of a single ablated repressive pathway. In addition, there is an alternative possibility that co-activators and co-repressors recruited directly by transcription factors are sufficient to guide cells to their appropriate lineages. If that is the case, what is the role of ...
Martti Ahtisaari discusses his life and work as a worldwide peacemaker and the challenges that face peace negotiators in todays conflict zones. In summary, although all MED KO mice are embryonic lethal, they die at totally different developmental phases with distinctive phenotypes, suggesting important and particular roles for particular person Mediator subunits throughout growth. General, as a grasp coordinator, Mediator coordinates transcription and cell lineage specification/improvement to ensure that the correct genes are expressed at the right time and place and with the required intensity and period. Since a mediator is neutral, unhealthy information from the mediator is generally not met with the identical reactive devaluation as would greet that same dangerous news if damaged by a litigation adversary.. Following his/her appointment, the mediator will contact the parties or their counsel to repair a date for the holding of the primary assembly. Then again, Mediator can leverage Observer ...
Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We agree with Tang et al7 that …the fate of mature or contractile SMCs requires direct in vivo lineage tracing. Although Nemenoff et al11 did not provide data elucidating the ultimate fate of phenotypically modulated SMCs, neither did Tang et al,7 despite their claims. Surprisingly, Tang et al7 only presented data at a single 5-day time point after wire injury in their smMHCCre/eGFP Rosa26-EGFP mice (Figure 7D and Online Figure XIV in Tang et al7), and then, for reasons that are not clear, they switch to use of nonlineage tracing rats for all subsequent time points. Because the authors do not analyze cell fates beyond 5 days of injury and because their lineage tracing mouse is noninducible such that any cell that transiently expresses SM MHC will activate their lineage tracing gene and be labeled, they cannot draw any conclusions as to whether or not resident differentiated medial SMCs contributed to vascular remodeling after wire injury. In addition, it is unclear whether Tang et al7 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gut microbiota amplifies host-intrinsic conversion from the CD8 T cell lineage to CD4 T cells for induction of mucosal immune tolerance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Two defining characteristics of stem cells are their multilineage differentiation potential (multipotency or pluripotency) and their capacity for self-renewal. Growth factors are well-established regulators of stem cell ...
Quantifying the frequency of GMP pedigrees without cell death in single-cytokine conditions allowed us to identify the lineage-instructive effect of M- and G-CSF. In 88 ± 2% (M-CSF) and 87 ± 6% (G-CSF) of pedigrees leading exclusively to M and G cells, respectively, no cell death occurred (Fig. 2B). These percentages far exceed those of colonies that could have been generated from unilineage-restricted precursors potentially contaminating the GMP population that we used (P , 0.000006 and P , 0.0008 for M- and G-CSF, respectively). M- and G-CSF therefore instructed at least 65% and 34% of bipotent GMPs to differentiate into the M and G lineage, respectively (Fig. 2, A and B). Moreover, depending on the cytokines present, around 90% of the identical GMP population differentiates exclusively into different lineages, which demonstrates that these GMPs are bipotent. Thus, our assumption of maximally 23% (M) and 53% (G) contaminating unilineage-restricted progenitors in the starting GMP population ...
Heterokaryons provide a model system in which to examine how tissue-specific phenotypes arise and are maintained. When muscle cells are fused with nonmuscle cells, muscle gene expression is activated in the nonmuscle cell type. Gene expression was studied either at a single cell level with monoclonal antibodies or in mass cultures at a biochemical and molecular level. In all of the nonmuscle cell types tested, including representatives of different embryonic lineages, phenotypes, and developmental stages, muscle gene expression was induced. Differences among cell types in the kinetics, frequency, and gene dosage requirements for gene expression provide clues to the underlying regulatory mechanisms. These results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm. The isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible. ...
A robust protocol to monitor neural populations by time-lapse video-microscopy followed by software-based post-processing is described. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
I want to perform lineage analysis on my microbial samples. I came across one platform TGS-TB which do this for tuberculosis, but it has the limitation of data uploading. I want to know is there any tool, package which help me perform this type of analysis for my samples ?? ...
Myeloid Lineage, 0.25 mg. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the precursor cells found in the bone marrow which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the Myeloid and lymphoid lineages, which include monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils,
Differential synergy of Notch and T cell receptor signaling determines ,IMG SRC=/math/agr.gif ALT={alpha} BORDER=0,ß versus ,IMG SRC=/math/ggr.gif ALT={gamma} BORDER=0,,IMG SRC=/math/dgr.gif ALT={delta} BORDER=0, lineage ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Modern Kohanim claim descent from a biblical person, Aaron, in direct lineage from Levi, great-grandson of Abraham. Learn how to tell if you are a kohanim.
Here are the research highlights from the current issue of Development: Getting to the heart of Flk1 expression The Flk1 gene, which encodes a VEGF-A receptor, is expressed in the multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells of mouse embryos that give rise to various haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages. FLK1 expression also marks haemato-cardiovascular cell lineages in differentiating human[…] ...
A multispecies continuum model is developed to simulate the dynamics of cell lineages in solid tumors. The model accounts for spatiotemporally varying cell proliferation and death mediated by the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen and soluble chemical factors. Together, these regulate the rates of self-renewal and differentiation of the different cells within the lineages. As demonstrated in the talk, the feedback processes are found to play a critical role in tumor progression and the development of morphological instability.. ...
This causes the cell lineage and cell fate to be highly correlated. Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and ... Giurumescu, Claudiu A.; Chisholm, Andrew D. (2011). "Cell Identification and Cell Lineage Analysis". Methods in Cell Biology. ... is activated and permanently labels the cell of interest and its offspring cells, thus the name cell lineage tracing. With the ... "Building a lineage from single cells: genetic techniques for cell lineage tracking". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 18 (4): 230-244 ...
... Retrieved 2020-12-14. "Cell Therapy". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-14. "Lineage ... California's Stem Cell Agency. Retrieved 2020-12-16. "VAC2". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-16. "Lineage Cell ... "Pipeline". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2022-11-16. "BioTime Announces Name Change to Lineage Cell Therapeutics". www. ... "Board of Directors". Lineage Cell Therapeutics. Retrieved 2020-12-22. Official website Business data for Lineage Cell ...
The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) is a database of resources used to identify cell lineages. The Stem Cell Lineage Database ... "about cell type gene expression, cell lineage maps and stem cell differentiation protocols for both human and mouse stem cells ... A stem cell lineage database for the annotation of cell types and developmental lineages". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (Database ... The Stem Cell Lineage Database could help compare stem cell information around the world and eliminate taking a global gene ...
Cell. 148 (1-2): 213-27. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.11.031. PMID 22265413. S2CID 17832872. Zhao J, Jitkaew S, Cai Z, Choksi S, Li ... Sun L, Wang H, Wang Z, He S, Chen S, Liao D, Wang L, Yan J, Liu W, Lei X, Wang X (2012). "Mixed lineage kinase domain-like ... Mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLKL gene. This gene belongs ... Cell. 54 (1): 133-146. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.03.003. PMID 24703947. v t e This article incorporates text from the United ...
B cells (Pdx1, Ngn3, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein A) nonsensory cells → inner hair cells ( ... Generating Desired Cell Types from Abundant and Accessible Cells". Stem Cells. 29 (12): 1933-1941. doi:10.1002/stem.760. PMID ... granulosa and thecal cells → functional Sertoli-like and Leydig-like cells (-Foxl1) Transdifferentiation Induced stem cells ... Cell. 139 (6): 1130-1142. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.11.021. PMID 20005806. (Histology, Induced stem cells). ...
... may boost cell-level infectivity of the variant "by facilitating cleavage of the S precursor protein to the active S1/S2 ... Lineage B.1.617 is a lineage of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It first came to international attention in late ... Lineage B.1.617 later came to be dubbed a double mutant by news media. Lineage B.1.617 has three sublineages according to the ... "Lineage B.1.617.3". Retrieved 10 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Starr, Tyler N.; ...
A neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells ... Hence, a neural stem cell can give rise to another neural stem cell, or to any of the differentiated cell types found in the ... Immunomagnetic cell separation strategies using antibodies directed against cell surface markers present on stem cells, ... It can be used to detect almost all neuronal cell types except Purkinje cells, olfactory bulb mitral cells, retinal ...
Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M. (2012). "Lineage Tracing". Cell. 148 (1-2): 33-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.002. PMID ... Due to the clonal nature of the growth of the normal skin cells, it appears the patient is covered with confetti, hence the ...
The cell body varies in size from 5-20 micrometers in diameter and contain 40-60 cell processes per cell, with a cell to cell ... Noble, SN (2008). "The osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 473 (2): 106-111. doi:10.1016/ ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Tate, M. L.; Adamson, J. R.; Tami, A. E.; Bauer, T. W. (2004). "Cells in ... The cell undergoes a dramatic transformation from a polygonal shape to a cell that extends dendrites toward the mineralizing ...
"Purkinje cell model". YouTube Video. 2007-12-25. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2007-12-25. "Who's News: ... "Bower Academic Lineage". Neuro-tree. 2013-07-31. MBL (2013-06-22). "History of the Marine Biological Laboratory". Methods in ...
... cell LINeage defective; glp, Germ Line Proliferation defective. sel-12 gene summary (WormBase) Diane Levitan, Iva Greenwald ( ...
Memory T cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that might have some of the same functions as memory B cells. Their lineage is ... cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that ... Since memory T cells have shorter half-lives than naïve T cells do, continuous replication and replacement of old cells is ... Historically, memory T cells were thought to belong to either the effector (TEM cells) or central memory (TCM cells) subtypes, ...
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of populations, organisms, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of ... Lineages are typically visualized as subsets of a phylogenetic tree. A lineage is a single line of descent or linear chain ... Lineages are subsets of the evolutionary tree of life. Lineages are often determined by the techniques of molecular systematics ... Clade Linnaean taxonomy The University of California, Berkeley resource on understanding evolution defines a lineage as "A ...
Oestreich, KJ; Weinmann, AS (November 2012). "Master regulators or lineage-specifying? Changing views on CD4+ T cell ... Cell. 117 (7): 927-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.06.006. PMID 15210113. S2CID 16181905. Long, JC; Caceres, JF (1 January 2009). " ... Cell. 128 (6): 1089-103. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.043. PMID 17346786. S2CID 2246942. ... that fails to account for the multifactorial influences on some cell fates. Mattick, JS; Taft, RJ; Faulkner, GJ (January 2010 ...
Since cell lineages shows the relationship between cells at each division. This helps in analyzing stem cell lineages along the ... Cell bank Human genome Meristem Mesenchymal stem cell Ovarian stem cell Partial cloning Plant stem cell Stem cell controversy ... endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cells) are a ... from adult cells. These are not adult stem cells, but somatic cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells ...
Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 ( ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4+ cells or CD4-positive cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role ... The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ...
"Cell lineage of zebrafish blastomeres. I. Cleavage pattern and cytoplasmic bridges between cells". Developmental Biology. 108 ( ... reducing gene expression in only cells descended from that cell. However, cells in the early embryo (less than 32 cells) are ... Pancreatic PP cells that produce polypeptides, and β-cells that produce insulin are two examples of those such cells. This ... August 2007). "MIO-M1 cells and similar muller glial cell lines derived from adult human retina exhibit neural stem cell ...
"Differentiated Troy+ chief cells act as reserve stem cells to generate all lineages of the stomach epithelium". Cell. 155 (2): ... May 2013). "TAP-deficient human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen- ... June 2014). "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03 ... June 2013). "Human embryonic stem cells derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer". Cell. 153 (6): 1228-38. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Rossant J (2008). "Stem cells and early lineage development". Cell. 132 (4): 527-531. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.039. PMID ... Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. ... A close synonym for unipotent cell is precursor cell. Biology portal Induced stem cells Cell totipotency was discovered by ...
... whereas cell lineage shows the relationships between cells at each division. A cell lineage can be used to generate a fate map ... "Analysis of Cell Fate from Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiles in C. elegans". Cell. 139 (3): 623-633. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... For example, the development of the complete cell lineage of C. elegans can be described as the fate maps of each cell division ... When carried out at single-cell resolution, this process is called cell lineage tracing. It is also used to trace the ...
Examples of such findings are in embryonic stem cells, chicken embryos, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, diffuse large b-cell ... Chen, C.-Z. (2004). "MicroRNAs Modulate Hematopoietic Lineage Differentiation" (PDF). Science. 303 (5654): 83-86. Bibcode: ... Cell. 126 (6): 1203-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.031. PMID 16990141. S2CID 12749133. Lewis, BP; Burge CB; Bartel DP (Jan 14, ... Cell. 120 (1): 15-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.12.035. PMID 15652477. S2CID 17316349. Grimson, A; Farh, KK; Johnston, WK; ...
Blood cell lineage "What Are Agranulocytes? - Definition & Function - Video & Lesson Transcript ,". ... Blood has three types of lymphocytes: B cells, T cells and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells make antibodies that bind ... T cells and natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that are infected by a virus. T cells are crucial to the ... Mononuclear cell infiltrates are characteristic of inflammatory lesions, where white blood cells, mainly macrophages and ...
The lineage markers are characteristic molecules for cell lineages, e.g. cell surface markers, mRNAs, or internal proteins. ... NK cells, granulocytes), CD19 (B lymphocytes), CD20 (B lymphocytes), and CD56 (NK cells) in humans. "Lineage Markers". ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ... cocktail of antibodies can be designed to remove or purify mature hematopoietic cells or to detect Cluster of differentiation ...
... is a specific marker of natural T regulatory cells (nTregs, a lineage of T cells) and adaptive/induced T regulatory cells ... cytokine production and cell survival. This would inhibit a cell's ability to perform apoptosis and stop its own cell cycle, ... cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather than regulatory cells. Th17 cells are proinflammatory and are produced under similar ... Foxp3 is the major transcription factor controlling T-regulatory cells (Treg or CD4+ cells). CD4+ cells are leukocytes ...
Kimmel CB, Warga RM (November 1987). "Indeterminate cell lineage of the zebrafish embryo". Dev. Biol. 124 (1): 269-80. doi: ... The cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been shown to be required for the radial intercalation of the deep cells. Many ... Alternatively, multiple layers of cells can also undergo epiboly as the position of cells is changed or the cell layers undergo ... Interior cells of the blastoderm move towards the outer cells, thus "intercalating" with each other. The blastoderm begins to ...
located on chromosome 3 at 3q29 that belongs to the LRR superfamily, which is involved in cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. ... "Cross-tissue organization of the fibroblast lineage". Nature. 593 (7860): 575-579. Bibcode:2021Natur.593..575B. doi:10.1038/ ... Leucine rich repeat containing 15 is a cell membrane expressed protein that in humans is encoded by the LRRC15 gene. ... Stem Cell Res Ther. 9 (1): 65. doi:10.1186/s13287-018-0809-1. PMC 5845373. PMID 29523191. Cui J, Dean D, Wei R, Hornicek FJ, ...
"Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification". Cell. 126 (4): 677-689. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.044. PMID ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ... These cells may be cells isolated from a donor organism (primary cells) or an immortalised cell line. The cells are bathed in a ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ...
The N and Q lineages contribute two blast cells for each segment, while the M, O, and P lineages only contribute one cell per ... Weisblat DA; Shankland M (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 312 (1153): ... Annelids such as the leech use smaller blast cells budded off from large teloblast cells to define segments. Although ... Early divisions within the leech embryo result in teloblast cells, which are stem cells that divide asymmetrically to create ...
"Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification". Cell. 126 (4): 677-689. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.044. PMID ... In one such experiment on adult heart cells, whole cell recordings were taken on cells being squeezed with two pipettes at 1 Hz ... One type of mechanically sensitive ion channel activates specialized sensory cells, such as cochlear hair cells and some touch ... In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and ...
"Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification". Cell. 126 (4): 677-89. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.044. PMID ... May 2012). "Mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced immunoregulation involves FAS-ligand-/FAS-mediated T cell apoptosis". Cell Stem Cell ... bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow ... Mesenchymal stem cells are characterized morphologically by a small cell body with a few cell processes that are long and thin ...
Presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin in the cell wall confers to the microfungi their characteristic olivaceous to dark ... "A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages". Studies in Mycology. 61: 111-9. doi:10.3114/sim. ... Black yeasts share some distinctive characteristics, in particular a dark colouration (melanisation) of their cell wall. ... Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like ...
FUT2 fucosyltransferase transfers a fucose sugar to the end of the ABO(H) precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva glands ... rapid and large-scale detection of recombination events among different evolutionary lineages of viral genomes". BMC ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Positive-stranded RNA virus ...
When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva ... But due to the power of aristocratic lineages, exam success did not translate into recruitment and political success. Scholars ... The facilities provided for the examinee consisted of an isolated room or cell with a makeshift bed, desk, and bench. Each ... Although quite a few Northern Song families or lineages succeeded in producing high officials over several generations, none ...
While searching for the power cells in Manhattan and São Paulo, Desmond is hunted by the Templar Daniel Cross, dispatched by ... Abstergo analysts discover that the boy shares exactly the same patrilineal lineage of Desmond Miles, indicating that he may ... After finding the Key and all the power cells, Desmond and his allies enter the Central Vault, whereupon Minerva and Juno ... After William is captured while trying to recover the last power cell, Desmond storms Abstergo's facility in Rome, kills Cross ...
Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... display high levels of micro-synteny conservation and have undergone very few duplications in placental mammalian lineages. ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ... In germline cells the imprint is erased and then re-established according to the sex of the individual, i.e. in the developing ...
Dellaporta, S L; Calderon-Urrea, A (1993-10-01). "Sex determination in flowering plants". The Plant Cell. 5 (10): 1241-1251. ... "Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene". AoB Plants. 7 (plv037): plv037. doi:10.1093/aobpla/ ...
"How could humans, in all our diversity of cell types and complexity of neurons, require essentially the same number of genes as ... 7. Little Bangs: Wings and Other Revolutionary Inventions This chapter explains how evolution goes to work within a lineage, ... Such variation is brought about by alterations in genes that control how cells in the developing embryo behave. Thus one cannot ... "LCMB Investigators". Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology at UW-Madison. Retrieved 14 September 2017. Wade, Nicholas (5 ...
When the hairs are rubbed or brushed, some of the oil-bearing cells are ruptured, releasing the oil. This often results in the ... It is surprising to see how similar the staminal lever mechanism structures are between the three lineages, so Salvia proves to ... The stamens are reduced to two short structures with anthers two-celled, the upper cell fertile, and the lower imperfect. The ... this parallel evolution in a later paper combining molecular and morphological data to prove three independent lineages of the ...
While in his cell, Bruce was told the story of an exiled mercenary and his wife and child that were once imprisoned there. The ... she traced her lineage to the ancient kingdom of Nineveh. Tolliver - A vampire who is a member of the League of Assassins' ... Nyssa is satisfied and upholds her promise, recalling all her forces from Gotham while Batman takes Ra's to a special cell and ... Lady Shiva leads some of her ninjas into obtaining the Calibosix (a cell mutation virus) from the Gotham Contagion Research ...
... different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways". Cell. 112 (3): 293-301. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID ... Go Y, Satta Y, Takenaka O, Takahata N (2006). "Lineage-specific loss of function of bitter taste receptor genes in humans and ...
Vries, Jan de; Gould, Sven B. (15 January 2018). "The monoplastidic bottleneck in algae and plant evolution". Journal of Cell ... Lineage(full) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Rhizaria; Cercozoa; Imbricatea; Silicofilosea; Euglyphida; Paulinellidae Lhee, ... McCutcheon, John P. (6 October 2021). "The Genomics and Cell Biology of Host-Beneficial Intracellular Infections". Annual ... For Cell and Molecular Biology. 90 (2): 221-234. doi:10.1111/tpj.13488. PMID 28182317. Nowack, Eva C. M.; Price, Dana C.; ...
These cells, together with other immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and ... that are normally absent in other fibroblast lineages. These include especially lubricin, a protein crucial for the joint ... These hallmark features of FLS in RA are divided into 7 cell-intrinsic hallmarks and 4 cell-extrinsic hallmarks. The cell- ... Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, ...
It is located in the cytoplasm of the cell. Nkx2-2as is involved in Neural development. Overexpression of Nkx2-2as results in ... "Long noncoding RNAs in neuronal-glial fate specification and oligodendrocyte lineage maturation". BMC Neuroscience. 11: 14. doi ...
In fact, there was no single founder: name, idea, spirit and tactics can all be said to have separate lineages". Patrick Moore ... protecting marine biodiversity from toxins released during seabed mining for natural gas and rare metals for photovoltaic cells ...
... cell fraction within the lineage-depleted cell population (LIn−). Human HSCs express the CD34 marker. Later studies have ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ... December 2019). "Single-cell analysis of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from children with sickle cell disease and thalassemia ...
To add to the complications, there are also two definitions of unit cell for calcite. One, an older "morphological" unit cell, ... Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, ... Later, a "structural" unit cell was determined using X-ray crystallography. The morphological unit cell is rhombohedral, having ... Most common are scalenohedra, with faces in the hexagonal {2 1 1} directions (morphological unit cell) or {2 1 4} directions ( ...
His Chishti Order went on to become the most influential Sufi lineage in India, although other orders from Central Asia and ... Other prominent Muslim scientists and engineers include C. M. Habibullah, a stem cell scientist and director of Deccan College ... Sharma, Neena (27 February 2009). "Hope hangs on stem cell therapy". The Tribune (Chandigarh). Retrieved 6 May 2015. Bhaskar ... and set up a spiritual lineage that can last for generations. Orders of Sufis became important in India during the thirteenth ...
The resulting reduction in per-cell copy number of mtDNA plays a role in the mitochondrial bottleneck, exploiting cell-to-cell ... The fact that mitochondrial DNA is mostly maternally inherited enables genealogical researchers to trace maternal lineage far ... The bottleneck exploits random processes in the cell to increase the cell-to-cell variability in mutant load as an organism ... the cells of the inner cell mass restrict mtDNA replication until they receive the signals to differentiate to specific cell ...
Another method to track data lineage is spreadsheet programs such as Excel that do offer users cell-level lineage, or the ... Lineage can be captured at the level of the job, using files and giving lineage tuples of form {IF i, M RJob, OF i }, lineage ... The challenges include scalability of the lineage store, fault tolerance of the lineage store, accurate capture of lineage for ... The first form of lineage is called coarse-grain lineage, while the second form is called fine-grain lineage. Integrating ...
The virions then infect and discharge their DNA into the host's cells, stopping it from killing the wasp's offspring and ... with an improved time estimate of the origin of the lineage". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 47 (1): 378-395. doi: ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into specific types of cells, known as ... Cooper, Thomas A.; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon (February 2009). "RNA and Disease". Cell. 136 (4): 777-793. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... SON is expressed preferentially in undifferentiated stem cells. Depletion of SON results in stem cell differentiation. ... "SON Controls Cell-Cycle Progression by Coordinated Regulation of RNA Splicing". Molecular Cell. 42 (2): 185-198. doi:10.1016/j. ...
As the basal lineage of bilateral animals, the Acoela provide interesting insights into early animal evolution and development ... All other bilateral animals (apart from tapeworms) have a gut lined with epithelial cells. As a result, the acoels appear to be ... There are no epithelial cells lining the digestive vacuole, but there is sometimes a short pharynx leading from the mouth to ...
Lineage and Honors Information: 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Infantry Division Archived 8 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine 3rd ... Fire Support Coordination Cell 94th Brigade Support Battalion (94th BSB) *HHC *A Company (Supply) *B Company (Maintenance) *C ...
The Pango tool groups variants into lineages, with many circulating lineages being classed under the B.1 lineage. Several ... The SARS-CoV-2 virus can infect a wide range of cells and systems of the body. COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper ... The cells of the central nervous system, the microglia, neurons, and astrocytes, are also involved in the release of pro- ... S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the virus to its potential cell host via the H1 and HR2, which are heptad repeat regions. ...
To conceive an heir, he/she extracts the male cells from his/her own brain and implants them in his/her womb, thereby creating ... Baron Berard of Castaka tells of his caste's lineage leading up to the present. On the remote planet Ahour-The-Dwarf, a long- ...
The cell is spindle or cigar-shaped, somewhat pointed at the anterior end. It has a pellicle with parallel finely-ridged ... Euglena gracilis and Khawkinea quartana as a distinct monophyletic lineage, with P. trichophorum basal to the other two species ... Peranema cells are gliding flagellates found in freshwater lakes, ponds and ditches, and are often abundant at the bottom of ... It does not sit freely, like the trailing flagella of Dinema and Entosiphon, but adheres to the outside of the cell membrane, ...
For example, truffle fungi have lost their ability to degrade the cell walls of plants, limiting their capacity to decompose ... All of these families contain lineages of subterranean or truffle fungi. The oldest ectomycorrhizal fossil is from the Eocene ... the intercellular hyphal network between plant root cells. A unique feature of ectomycorrhizal fungi is the formation of the ...
... in wing cells. Series II, V and VI could carry 1,800 lb (800 kg) load on bomb bay and 379 lb (172 kg) on wing cells and ... The Blenheim served as the basis for the Beaufort torpedo bomber, which led to the Beaufighter, with the lineage performing two ... on wing cells. The bomb bays, bomb bay doors and bomb racks of various series were modified on major overhauls to host bigger ...
Moreover, galectin-9 contributed to tumorigenesis by tumor cell transformation, cell-cycle regulation, angiogenesis, and cell ... "Potential roles of galectins in myeloid differentiation into three different lineages". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 73 (5): ... an interaction with CD40 on T-cells induced their proliferation inhibition and cell death. Galectin-9 also has important ... "A modified version of galectin-9 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Burkitt and Hodgkin lymphoma cells". British ...
... functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. ... Cell 36:879-888. Rao A, Faas S and H. Cantor. Analogues which compete for antigen binding to an arsonate-reactive T cell clone ... Cell 1981;23:19. Rao A, Allard WJ, Hogan PG, Rosenson RS, Cantor, H. Alloreactive T cell clones. Ly phenotypes predict both ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...
Ribosomes, isolated from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, induce the formation of embryoid body-like cell clusters. ... These findings demonstrate that incorporation of ribosomes into host cells induces cell transdifferentiation and alters ... which leads to cell-cluster formation. Although ribosome-induced cell clusters (RICs) express several stemness markers and ... However, RICs express markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition without altering the cell cycle, despite their proliferation ...
Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage. *. B.A. Barres. B.A. Barres ... PDGF receptors on cells of the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) cell lineage. ... A quantitative lifespan study of changes in cell number, cell division and cell death in various regions of the mouse forebrain ... Rat neural antigen-2 (RAN-2): a cell surface antigen on astrocytes, ependymal cells, Muller cells and leptomeninges defined by ...
See what company insiders are buying and selling at Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSEAM:LCTX). Use this to inform yourself ... Insider Transactions Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. LCTX. Healthcare Biotechnology. Lineage Cell Therapeutics Inc is a ... The companys pipeline is based on two platform technologies including cell replacement and cell/drug delivery. Lineages ...
Neuroblasts divide to give rise to stereotypic lineages and the cells exhibit characteristic cell morphologies, branching ... These cell fate decisions are spatially and temporally coordinated. These cells arise at stereotypic positions in each segment ... My goal is to decipher how cells differ when decisions are made that are essential for nervous system development. This ... Single-cell transcriptomics has enabled the identification of localized markers and even specific neuroblasts. This ...
Most microcaps are lagging the larger indexes, but some offer an upside of more than 200%.. ...
Comparing the genome-wide gene expression profiles of normal B-cell subsets and BCR-ABL1+ pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells by ... SAGE, the leukemia cells show loss of B lymphoid identity a … ... Pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells carrying a BCR-ABL1 gene ... BCR-ABL1 induces aberrant splicing of IKAROS and lineage infidelity in pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells Oncogene. 2006 Feb 16 ... To elucidate the contribution of IK6 to lineage infidelity in BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, IK6 expression was silenced by RNA ...
HCLc is a disease of mature B-cells whereas MM is a disease of terminally differentiated malignant plasma cells. In HCLc, we ... Thirdly, we evaluated the impact of the signature BRAF p.V600E mutation on the miRNA epigenome in HCLc tumour cells, to model ... In this Thesis, we evaluated specific questions with regard to tumour origins and behaviour in two contrasting mature B-cell ... Using Vemurafenib to ablate mutant BRAF activity in HCLc cells, we utilised a small RNA sequencing approach to map global ...
... and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Early endothelial lineages expressed "classic" endothelial cell markers (PECAM, CLND5) while ... Transcriptional Characterisation of Human Lung Cells Identifies Novel Mesenchymal Lineage Markers. Soula Danopoulos, Soumyaroop ... Transcriptional Characterisation of Human Lung Cells Identifies Novel Mesenchymal Lineage Markers. Soula Danopoulos, Soumyaroop ... Transcriptional Characterisation of Human Lung Cells Identifies Novel Mesenchymal Lineage Markers. Soula Danopoulos, Soumyaroop ...
Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing allogeneic ... cell therapies for unmet medical needs, announced today that it is set to join the broad-market Russell 3000® Index as well as ... About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell ... Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. IR. Ioana C. Hone ([email protected]) (442) 287-8963 Solebury Trout IR. Gitanjali Jain Ogawa ( ...
This process provides a useful advance for versatile applications of DE lineages, in particular for cell therapies and drug ... Here, we present a scalable, universal process for the generation of DE from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and ... DE aggregates were capable of differentiating into hepatic-like, pancreatic, intestinal, and lung progenitor cells. Scale-up of ... embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Optimal control during the differentiation process was attained in chemically-defined and xeno- ...
Single-cell analysis of clonal dynamics in direct lineage reprogramming: a combinatorial indexing method for lineage tracing. ... Single-cell analysis of clonal dynamics in direct lineage reprogramming: a combinatorial indexing method for lineage tracing ... Single-cell analysis of clonal dynamics in direct lineage reprogramming: a combinatorial indexing method for lineage tracing ... Single-cell analysis of clonal dynamics in direct lineage reprogramming: a combinatorial indexing method for lineage tracing ...
This study provides functional evidence that specification of the HSC lineage takes place early in ontogenesis, immediately ... Early Ontogenic Origin of the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Lineage. News Published: March 9, 2012 ... we provide evidence that definitive hematopoiesis and adult-type hematopoietic stem cells originate predominantly in the ...
A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B ... Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular ... A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and ...
Lineage-selective genome-wide repressive histone modification signature unique to myelo/erythroid lineage involved in ... Unique repressive chromatin state to myelo-erythroid lineage is linked to regulation of blood cell differentiation ... Unique repressive chromatin state to myelo erythroid lineage is linked to regulation of blood cell differentiation ... Understanding how cells with different functions can arise from one "starter cell" is not only interesting, it is foundational ...
Abnormality of multiple cell lineages in the bone marrow (HP:0012145). Annotations: Rat: (0) Mouse: (0) Human: (193) Chinchilla ... Genes QTLs Strains Markers Genome Information Ontologies Cell Lines References Download Submit Data ...
Human amniotic fluid stem cells can integrate and differentiate into epithelial lung lineages.. Human amniotic fluid stem cells ... Californias Stem Cell Agency California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. * For Researchers * Funding Opportunities * ... These cells are multipotent, showing the ability to differentiate into cell types from each embryonic germ layer. We ... A new source of stem cells has recently been isolated from amniotic fluid; these amniotic fluid stem cells have significant ...
... we characterized candidate transcriptional activators involved in the commitment of myeloid progenitor cells to the DC lineage ... Although much progress has been made in the understanding of the ontogeny and function of dendritic cells (DCs), the ... transcriptional regulation of the lineage commitment and functional specialization of DCs in vivo remains poorly understood. We ... Although much progress has been made in the understanding of the ontogeny and function of dendritic cells (DCs), the ...
The advances of CRISPR-based gene editing technologies have enabled the prediction of cell lineage trees based on observed ... In response to this problem, the Allen Institute hosted the Cell Lineage Reconstruction Dream Challenge in 2020 to crowdsource ... However, the performance of existing reconstruction methods of cell lineage trees was not accessed until recently. ... DCLEAR is a powerful resource for single cell lineage reconstruction. ...
5G). Hence, in the Hb9cre;Ai14 mouse, Hb9-lineage cells include dorsal spinal cord cells and glial cells, consistent with our ... D, D, tdTomato+ cells with neuronal morphology. E, E, tdTomato+ cells with astroglial cell morphology that express glial cell ... "Hb9-lineage cells") within the embryonic and adult spinal cord of Hb9cre;Ai14 mice. We found that Hb9-lineage cells are ... although the majority of Hb9-lineage cells at cervical spinal cord levels are MNs, at more caudal levels, Hb9-lineage cells ...
Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver ... Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver ... Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver ... Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver ...
With detailed knowledge about single-cell dynamics and relationships between all cells in the lineage, we can infer how ... model for damage accumulation over successive divisions in individual cells as part of a dynamically growing cell lineage. ... such that most damage is retained within the mother cell. The consequence is an ageing mother and a rejuvenated daughter cell ... It prolongs the health span of individual cells which are moreover less prone to stress. In combination, damage retention and ...
Howe brings more than 20 years of significant strategic, financial, and operational experience to Lineage, with an emphasis on ... NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing allogeneic cell therapies for unmet medical ... About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.. Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel ... "Jill is a wonderful addition to our executive team as we work to establish Lineage as a leader in cell therapy and cell ...
... through a cell lineage or a paracrine relationship. Keywords Animals - Cell Differentiation - Cell Lineage - Diphtheria Toxin/ ... Two transgenic approaches to define the cell lineages in endocrine pancreas development. In: Molecular and cellular ... Two transgenic approaches to define the cell lineages in endocrine pancreas development. ... Two transgenic approaches to define the cell lineages in endocrine pancreas development ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylation in FOXD1 lineage cells is essential for normal kidne…. Hypoxia in the embryo is ... Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylation in FOXD1 lineage cells is essential for normal kidney development.. AUTHORS. ... However, the role of interstitial cell PHDs in renal development has not been examined. Here we used a genetic approach in mice ... However, the role of interstitial cell PHDs in renal development has not been examined. Here we used a genetic approach in mice ...
myeloid lineage restricted progenitor cell mitotic S phase. Note:. This page represents a term created by the combination (" ... The cell cycle phase, following G1, during which DNA synthesis takes place as part of a mitotic cell cycle.. ... S phase of mitotic cell cycle, S-phase of mitotic cell cycle ... A progenitor cell restricted to the myeloid lineage.. Ontology: ... myeloid progenitor cell, myeloid progenitor cells Definition:. ...
Analysis of cell development with Simi. With Simi BioCell, users are able to follow and analyze the development of an embryo. ... The capture of cell development relies upon microscopic video recordings. With appropriate recordings, even the most profound ... The possibilities range from the observation of single cells to the study of the collective cellular developments of a fully ...
This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental ... Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. Nature 335, 161- ... Nature Cell Biology (Nat Cell Biol) ISSN 1476-4679 (online) ISSN 1465-7392 (print) ... Fraser, S., Keynes, R. & Lumsden, A. Segmentation in the chick embryo hindbrain is defined by cell lineage restrictions. Nature ...
N2 - Multi-lineage progenitors, e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, persist in adult developed organs, making a windfall for the cell ... AB - Multi-lineage progenitors, e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, persist in adult developed organs, making a windfall for the cell ... Multi-lineage progenitors, e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, persist in adult developed organs, making a windfall for the cell ... mesenchymal stem cells, persist in adult developed organs, making a windfall for the cell therapist but an enigma for stem cell ...
Spatially Correlated Gene Expression in Bacterial Groups: The Role of Lineage History, Spatial Gradients, and Cell-Cell ... Spatially Correlated Gene Expression in Bacterial Groups: The Role of Lineage History, Spatial Gradients, and Cell-Cell ... Together, our data show that the phenotype of a cell is influenced by its lineage history and population context, raising the ... These correlations can partly be explained by the shared lineage history of nearby cells, although they could also arise from ...
Cell type-specific transcriptomes are used to examine lineage relationship among cancer cell types and their expression ... Stem cells were represented by embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells. The cancer cell types were Gleason pattern 3 ( ... Transcriptomes were determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis for the following cell types. Putative prostate progenitor cell ... Based on transcriptomes, the different cancer cell types could be clustered into a luminal-like grouping and a non-luminal-like ...
  • Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by forced expression of specific transcription factors 2 . (
  • Summary: Researchers revealed that culturing human induced pluripotent stem cells with different isoforms of the extracellular component laminin led to the creation of cells specific to different parts of the eye, including retinal, corneal, and neural crest cells. (
  • The method utilizes sequential inhibition and activation of the Activin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways and can be applied to both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells as the starting population. (
  • Since induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have differentiation potential into all three germ layer-derived tissues, efficient purification of target cells is required in many fields of iPS research. (
  • Although ribosome-induced cell clusters (RICs) express several stemness markers and differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers in heterogeneous cell populations, RICs fail to proliferate, alter the methylation states of pluripotent genes, or contribute to teratoma or chimera formation. (
  • Previously, we demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria incorporation into human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) altered cellular fate and could differentiate into cells of all three germ layers 9 . (
  • Bacteria have been shown to affect human cellular differentiation, but the developmental effect of bacteria remains unclear because the bacterium-intrinsic transforming factors that covert somatic cells into cells that can differentiate into the three germ layers have not been identified. (
  • This knowledge is invaluable for developing models for the in vivo mechanisms that allow individual cells in the nervous system to specify and differentiate. (
  • Human amniotic fluid stem cells can integrate and differentiate into epithelial lung lineages. (
  • These cells are multipotent, showing the ability to differentiate into cell types from each embryonic germ layer. (
  • We investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSC) to integrate into murine lung and to differentiate into pulmonary lineages after injury. (
  • Pericytes can differentiate into diverse cell lineages, but also secrete multiple paracrine growth factors/cytokines, which likely explains in part their robust regenerative potential. (
  • The discovery of pluripotent stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into the huge range of different cell lineages that make up the human body, signaled the start of a new era in biological science and medicine. (
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (
  • Origination - pluripotent stem cells (fetal liver & bone marrow of animal host) Pluripotent- not yet committed to differentiate. (
  • PSC can differentiate in to Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC' (HSC 's) which become become leucocytes. (
  • Mast cells: BM derived cells, differentiate in blood and connective tissue. (
  • When ES cells differentiate into different lineages, different sets of microRNA-encoding loci become methylated,providing evidence for the tissue-specific methylation of these loci. (
  • Establishment of a permanent rat brain-derived glial cell line as a source of purified oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte lineage cell populations. (
  • Cell populations were annotated using Toppfun. (
  • Results We identified molecularly distinct populations representing "committed" fetal human lung endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (
  • Two cell populations, with the highest levels of ACTA2 transcriptional activity, expressed unique sets of markers associated with airway- or vascular- SMCs. (
  • In this study, the H3K27me3 signature seen in large areas of repressed chromatin in the progenitor populations was present in B and T cells but absent from monocytes and erythroblasts. (
  • In combination, damage retention and early investment in repair are beneficial for healthy ageing in yeast cell populations. (
  • These MPAL cases can contain more than 1 lineage-defining marker on a single blast population (biphenotypic leukemia) or 2 or more identifiable single-lineage leukemia populations (bilineal leukemia). (
  • The name of the technique is cellular barcoding, and it allows scientists to assess the diversity of cell populations, such as in tumors. (
  • Several cell populations have been reported to possess intestinal stem cell (ISC) activity during homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration. (
  • The transcriptomes of multiple cycling ISC populations closely resembled Lgr5 + ISCs, the most well-defined ISC pool, but Bmi1-GFP + cells were distinct and enriched for enteroendocrine (EE) markers, including Prox1. (
  • Multiple cell populations, represented by distinct markers including Lgr5 and Bmi1, are capable of reconstituting the intestinal epithelium. (
  • This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. (
  • Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. (
  • We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. (
  • Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. (
  • Employing data from 45 newly and 3 previously sequenced avian genomes covering a broad range of taxa, we found that lineages with large populations and short generations exhibit higher GC content. (
  • We suggest that verifiable and consistent examples of apparent lineage infidelity do not reflect genetic misprogramming but rather the existence of a transient phase of limited promiscuity of gene expression occurring in normal bipotential or multipotential progenitors and able to be preserved as a relic in leukemic blast cell populations that are in maturation arrest. (
  • Individual cells within clonal populations exhibit noticeable phenotypic heterogeneity. (
  • The advent of fluorescent protein technology and advances in single-cell analysis has revealed phenotypic cell variant in bacterial populations . (
  • Our data show that in some cases, these tumours arise from cell populations and events that would occur in humans at six weeks in utero," says Dr. Lincoln Stein, Head of Adaptive Oncology at OICR and co-lead of the study. (
  • Rationale The lung mesenchyme gives rise to multiple distinct lineages of cells in the mature respiratory system, including smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the airway and vasculature. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics Inc is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of novel therapies for the treatment of degenerative diseases. (
  • Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. (
  • CARLSBAD, Calif.-(BUSINESS WIRE)-Oct. 31, 2022- Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing allogeneic cell therapies for unmet medical needs, announced today that Jill Howe will join as the Company's Chief Financial Officer, effective November 14, 2022. (
  • In April 2021, Lineage announced a worldwide license and development collaboration agreement with Immunomic Therapeutics, Inc. to generate a novel product candidate derived from Lineage's VAC allogeneic cancer immunotherapy platform and targeting a proprietary Tumor Associated Antigen (TAA) construct provided by Immunomic for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells and their potential as cardiac therapeutics. (
  • Lineage's product candidate is OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium transplant therapy for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration, OPC1, a oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy for. (
  • With this platform Lineage develops and manufactures specialized, terminally differentiated human cells from its pluripotent and progenitor cell starting materials. (
  • Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). (
  • A progenitor cell restricted to the myeloid lineage. (
  • A putative lymphomyeloid progenitor cell line KG1, although having a germline configuration of Ig genes, produced Cmu transcripts and was hypersensitive to DNase I in the IgH enhancer region. (
  • Self-renewal of single mouse hematopoietic stem cells is reduced by JAK2V617F without compromising progenitor cell expansion. (
  • IV-Cell is a proprietary cell culture medium, sold on an RUO basis and developed at Precipio, which enables cancer cytogenetics laboratories to culture multiple cell lineages simultaneously, thereby increasing the likelihood of selecting the correct cell lineage for cytogenetic analysis. (
  • CCIIV for the cell culture based inactivated vaccine, AIV for the adjuvated inactivated influenza vaccine. (
  • As shown by inducible expression of BCR-ABL1 in human and murine B-cell precursor cell lines, BCR-ABL1 induces the expression of a dominant-negative IKAROS splice variant, termed IK6. (
  • To assess the ability of SF-1 to regulate this differentiation pathway, we ectopically expressed SF-1 in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. (
  • Sirtuins might therefore be of therapeutic significance, as they are overexpressed in cancer cells, and sirtuin inhibitors inhibit the development of thymic lymphomas in murine models. (
  • Immortalized murine pulp cells (OD-21)6 are considered as the major action mechanism of those lasers.11 undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells derived from fetal Although this mechanism has not been fully clarified, the most molar papillae7. (
  • These results illustrate the plasticity of hAFSC to respond in different ways to different types of lung damage by expressing specific alveolar versus bronchiolar epithelial cell lineage markers, depending on the type of injury to recipient lung. (
  • The resulting stem cells produce all intestinal epithelial cell lineages and undergo self-renewing cell divisions. (
  • Beginning from 4 weeks of copper depletion, there was a progressive loss of acinar cells and by 8 weeks more than 90% of the acinar tissue was lost. (
  • The currently available sources of human intestinal organoids, tissue fragments or pluripotent stem cells, involve invasive procedures or complex differentiation protocols, respectively. (
  • Researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia used the technique to carry out a detailed investigation of breast cancer spread at the cell level using human tumor tissue transplanted into mice. (
  • An over-proliferation of cells that have left their surrounding tissue leads to naevi, and in rare cases to congenital melanomas [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) / lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma or acute lymphoid leukemia, is a cancer of precursor B-cell, T-cell, or other cell types in which immature lymphoid cells accumulate in blood, bone marrow, or other tissue. (
  • Diagnosis usually requires the presence of over 20% lymphoblasts in the peripheral blood and/or the presence of bone marrow or tissue infiltrate of immature cells with confirmation of lymphoid lineage by flow cytometry and/or cytochemistry. (
  • Basophils circulate, mast cells found in tissue. (
  • Volume 11 in this series discusses therapeutic applications of stem cells in disease and tissue injury. (
  • Methods We completed single cell RNA sequencing analysis of fetal human lung tissues. (
  • Here, we show that a set of four transcription factors, Hnf4α, Foxa3, Gata6, and Cdx2, can directly reprogram mouse fibroblasts to acquire the identity of fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells (FIPCs). (
  • Miura and Suzuki describe direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to cells resembling fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells that can give rise to intestinal stem cell organoids and reconstitute injured colonic tissues after transplantation. (
  • IV-Cell includes all necessary components required to conduct the cell culturing including fetal bovine serum and all necessary mitogens in pre-mixed format, ready to use by the cytogenetics laboratory without the need for any reconstitution or preparation. (
  • In their investigation, the cells of origin were observed much earlier in fetal development than one would expect, says Taylor, who is also a Professor in the Departments of Surgery and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the University of Toronto and Co-lead of OICR's Brain Cancer Translational Research Institute. (
  • A recent study showed that pluripotent stem cells can also be generated from mouse somatic cells by using a cocktail of small-molecule compounds 3 . (
  • The RICs expressed pluripotency markers and differentiated into cells derived from all three germ lineages upon conditional cultivation, although the phenotypes of cell growth, epigenetic demethylation, and teratoma and chimera formation differed from those of pluripotent stem cells. (
  • We show that H3K27me3 reverts back to a ' pluripotent ', punctate pattern in myeloid but not lymphoid lineages. (
  • A new study reported in the journal Cell Reports has shed light on this by showing that, by growing human pluripotent stem cells on different forms of a protein called laminin, they can be induced to become corneal cells, retinal cells, and others. (
  • VAC2, which is produced from our pluripotent cell technology using a directed differentiation method, is comprised of a population of mature dendritic cells. (
  • The use of pluripotent cells as the starting material for VAC2 production adds several additional advantages to this candidate therapeutic. (
  • In comparison to technologies that rely on the use of a patient's own blood, our pluripotent cell technology provides a scalable system for production of a large number of vaccine doses in a single lot, lower manufacturing costs, greater product consistency, and off-the-shelf availability to provide broader access to patients. (
  • Development of efficient and reproducible conditions for directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types is important not only to understand early human development but also to enable more practical applications, such as in vitro models of disease, drug discovery, and cell therapies. (
  • Transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE cells is considered a promising therapy to regenerate cell function and vision. (
  • Using complementary in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we provide evidence that definitive hematopoiesis and adult-type hematopoietic stem cells originate predominantly in the nascent extraembryonic mesoderm. (
  • The analysis revealed that transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells via the caudal vein homed and engrafted themselves successfully at the mouse bone marrow. (
  • Gate shows the Lineage -/low Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) population, containing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). (
  • Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (ALALs) are those leukemias that either fail to show evidence of myeloid, B-, or T-lymphoid lineage commitment or show evidence of commitment to more than 1 lineage. (
  • However, RICs express markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition without altering the cell cycle, despite their proliferation obstruction. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomics has enabled the identification of localized markers and even specific neuroblasts. (
  • Early endothelial lineages expressed "classic" endothelial cell markers (PECAM, CLND5) while pericytes expressed PDGFRβ, THY1 and basement membrane molecules (COL4, laminin, proteoglycans). (
  • Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. (
  • Current classification criteria have reduced the reported incidence of mixed-lineage leukemias by emphasizing fewer markers and categorizing some biphenotypic leukemias with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities as other entities. (
  • Cellular barcoding allows scientists to trace the lineage of cells by placing unique genetic markers, or tags, on them. (
  • Single-cell mRNA-seq revealed two subsets of Prox1-GFP + cells, one of which resembled mature EE cells while the other displayed low-level EE gene expression but co-expressed tuft cell markers, Lgr5 and Ascl2, reminiscent of label-retaining secretory progenitors. (
  • This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2 , and Oc90 , and additional novel otic lineage markers. (
  • Despite the unique nature of the otic sensory lineage, there are no known markers that unambiguously discriminate this lineage from others persistently through the course of development. (
  • An increasing number of reports document instances in which individual leukemic cells coexpress markers normally believed to be restricted to a single lineage. (
  • Cell type-specific markers for human glial and neuronal cells in culture. (
  • The hypothesized existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) and its markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in oral dysplastic tissues provides the potential for a more reliable assessment of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). (
  • Thus, the present study is intended to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of four different CSC markers ALDH1, CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in different grades of OED and to investigate the co-expression of these putative stem cell markers in OED. (
  • 1 Laboratory for Molecular Stem Cell Biology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. (
  • Hematopoietic differentiation-the creation of multiple blood cell types from one stem cell line-is complex and still poorly understood. (
  • Our study presents the first reference epigenome profiles of primary CD34+ compartment of normal human cord blood, including the Human Stem Cell-containing CD38- subset and phenotypically distinguished subsets of the CD38+ cells," says Dr. Alireza Lorzadeh, first author of the study and former PhD student in the Hirst lab, referring to progenitor or parent cells isolated from cord blood. (
  • Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver, are capable of transforming into pancreatic hepatocytes and these cells may be considered stem-cell equivalent. (
  • Multi-lineage progenitors, e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, persist in adult developed organs, making a windfall for the cell therapist but an enigma for stem cell biologists. (
  • These induced FIPCs (iFIPCs) form spherical organoids that develop into adult-type budding organoids containing cells with intestinal stem cell properties. (
  • Cell stem cell , 21 (4), 456-471.e5. (
  • Miura, S & Suzuki, A 2017, ' Generation of Mouse and Human Organoid-Forming Intestinal Progenitor Cells by Direct Lineage Reprogramming ', Cell stem cell , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 456-471.e5. (
  • define Bmi1-GFP + and Prox1 + cells as enteroendocrine lineage cells that possess intestinal stem cell activity during homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration. (
  • Cell Stem Cell , 21 (1), 78-90.e6. (
  • Cell Stem Cell, 13 (4). (
  • For this reason, this condition is sometimes referred to as stem cell leukemia/lymphoma. (
  • Regarding the treatment of high-risk patients, autologous stem cell transplantation remains the standard of care in transplant-eligible candidates. (
  • Embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation has the potential to be instrumental in cell based therapies and in vitro disease modeling and chemical screens. (
  • Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons. (
  • Progress in the development of more effective brain cancer treatments has been hampered in large part by the complex heterogeneity - or the variety of cells - within each tumour," says Dr. Michael Taylor, pediatric neurosurgeon and senior scientist in developmental and stem cell biology at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and co-lead of the study. (
  • Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation. (
  • Treatment options for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprise a variety of chemotherapy regimens, biologic agents, and stem cell transplantation. (
  • The EuroSTELLS Workshop `Stem Cell Niches', organised by Anna Bigas, Ernest Arenas and Pasqualino Loi, took place in January 2008 in Barcelona, Spain. (
  • The goal of the conference was to promote scientific collaboration and synergy between stem cell researchers worldwide and those in the EuroSTELLS consortia(an initiative of the European Science Foundation EUROCORES Programme), and to stimulate discussion of the latest results in the field of stem cell niches. (
  • The concept of the stem cell niche was initially proposed by Schofield in the context of the mammalian blood system( Schofield, 1978 ). (
  • Thirty years on, the niche concept has been generalised to include many different stem cell systems and is considered to represent a defined anatomical location that preserves stem cells and affords their expansion. (
  • The limited availability of stem cells within niches also contributes to how the size of a stem cell compartment is determined. (
  • Our data reveal unanticipated developmental plasticity of somatic cells conferred by universally present intrinsic ribosomes and a previously unknown avenue for acquiring stemness through communication between cells and bacteria. (
  • These findings highlight an interesting developmental phenomenon in which there is an increasing rostrocaudal gradient of molecularly-defined cell types. (
  • This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental biology questions. (
  • We use whole genome transcript analysis to characterize cells at different stages of differentiation to gain further understanding of the developmental dynamics and fate specification of RPE. (
  • Of all the developmental lineages of the vertebrate embryo, the otic sensory lineage has the unique capacity to give rise to auditory and vestibular hair cells, supporting cells, and neurons, all of which are essential for hearing and balance function (Figure 1A ). (
  • For the first time, the researchers have been able to reconstruct the developmental trajectories of individual embryonic cells. (
  • It seems that the developmental path of a cell is more flexible than we previously expected", says Alex Schier. (
  • My aim is to merge the developmental trajectories and the lineage trees to one complete whole. (
  • This developmental program requires a delicate level of regulation to ensure that the correct number of cells reaches their final destination [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Developmental Cell , 21(1):102-19. (
  • The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo. (
  • New research demonstrates that the six electric fish lineages, all of which evolved independently, used essentially the same genes and developmental and cellular pathways to make an electricity-generating organ for defense, predation, navigation and communication. (
  • Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. (
  • 1 Currently, four antigenically distinct groups of influenza viruses have been identified as the cause of human infection, including two subtypes of influenza A (A/H1N1 and A/H3N2) and two lineages of influenza B. The two influenza B lineages are represented by the reference strains B/Victoria/2/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88. (
  • 3 Furthermore, differences in evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages can confound the selection. (
  • Here, we report the differentiation of ribosome-induced cell clusters (RICs), dedifferentiated from the somatic cells, into the derivatives of the three germ-layer cells. (
  • Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. (
  • The germ cell lineage in Xenopus is specified by the inheritance of germ plasm that assembles within the mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani body in stage I oocytes. (
  • nanos1 has the essential germline function of blocking somatic gene expression and thus preventing Primordial Germ Cell (PGC) loss and sterility. (
  • One of the main findings of this study is the striking contraction of H3K27me3 density, resembling that of embryonic stem cells, which has a predicted functional role in myelo-erythroid vs lymphoid lineage decision making in hematopoietic progenitor cells. (
  • Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to retinal pigment epithelium under defined conditions. (
  • Cell line: dox inducible Cas9 mouse embryonic stem cells AN3-12. (
  • Although much progress has been made in the understanding of the ontogeny and function of dendritic cells (DCs), the transcriptional regulation of the lineage commitment and functional specialization of DCs in vivo remains poorly understood. (
  • As the most potent type of antigen presenting cell in the body, dendritic cells instruct our body's immune system to attack and eliminate harmful pathogens and unwanted cells. (
  • Because the tumor antigen is loaded exogenously into the dendritic cells prior to administration, VAC2 is a platform technology that can be modified to carry any antigen, including patient-specific tumor neo-antigens. (
  • Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) has been suggested to influence the type of immune response induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • The virus is taken up by dendritic cells, which, after antigen processing, presents it to T cells, leading to immune activation and release of a cascade of cytokines that are believed to mediate the systemic effects of plasma leakage and circulatory insufficiency. (
  • Comparing the genome-wide gene expression profiles of normal B-cell subsets and BCR-ABL1+ pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells by SAGE, the leukemia cells show loss of B lymphoid identity and aberrant expression of myeloid lineage-specific molecules. (
  • Here, we present a quantitative framework that allows us to disentangle the contributions of lineage history, long-range spatial gradients, and local cell-cell interactions to spatial correlations in gene expression. (
  • We study pathways involved in toxin production, SOS stress response, and metabolism in Escherichia coli microcolonies and find for all pathways that shared lineage history is the main cause of spatial correlations in gene expression levels. (
  • This has been interpreted by McCulloch and colleagues as aberrant programming or lineage infidelity and contrasts with earlier suggestions that lineage fidelity of gene expression was usually maintained in leukemia. (
  • This heterogeneity is evident in a wide range of phenotypes , for example, individual cells display variable degrees of gene expression and survival under selective conditions and stresses, and can exhibit differing propensities to host interactions. (
  • This review provides an overview of applications of cell sorting to analyze Salmonella lineage-specific traits, including bacterial evolution studies, gene expression analysis , response to diverse cellular stresses and characterization of diverse bacterial phenotypic variants. (
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (
  • The team proposes a model based on these findings in which a genome-wide contraction of H3K27me3 signature is a critical step in the process by which human hematopoietic progenitor cells lose the ability to become lymphoid cells. (
  • In contrast to lymphoid cells, all myeloid cell lines tested, as well as normal granulocytes, were not DNase I hypersensitive and did not express Cmu. (
  • Two of these lineages are myeloid cells and lymphoid cells. (
  • which is a form of blood cancer that involves lymphoid cells. (
  • The cancerous lymphoid cells grow and divide in lymph nodes, forming a tumor that enlarges the lymph nodes. (
  • In most cases of 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, the cancerous cells are lymphoid cells called T cells. (
  • We use systems biology approaches to define changes in ubiquitylation as activation states change, and to identify ubiquitin ligases that regulate immune cell fate. (
  • We combine this information with genetic, cellular and biochemical approaches to define how ubiquitin enzymes regulate immune cell biology. (
  • Our recent work has employed systems biology approaches in which we intrgrated transcriptome, proteome and ubiquitome information to identify Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases that are particularly active as T cells transition from resting to activated states. (
  • Up to now, research in to the biology of inositol phosphate kinases continues to be well-served by hereditary research, including gene knock-outs both in microorganisms and cultured cells. (
  • Molecular Cell Biology stands out from its peers in this course in that it provides a clear introduction to the techniques and experiments of scientists past and present, not just an "encyclopedia" of information. (
  • The Journal of Cell Biology , 206(6):707-717. (
  • abstract = "The orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads and is an important regulator of the expression of cytochrome P-450 steroidogenic enzymes in cultured cells. (
  • The exquisite and complex pathways of normal B-cell differentiation present a challenge when deciphering the origins and mechanism that give rise to malignant B-cells. (
  • Dong S, Kang S, Gu TL, Kardar S, Fu H, Lonial S, Khoury HJ, Khuri F, Chen J. 14-3-3 Integrates prosurvival signals mediated by the AKT and MAPK pathways in ZNF198-FGFR1-transformed hematopoietic cells. (
  • Zakon and Gallant also identified some of the key molecular pathways used by multiple electric fish lineages to converge on similar electric organs. (
  • These findings demonstrate that incorporation of ribosomes into host cells induces cell transdifferentiation and alters cellular plasticity. (
  • Cell fate has been reported to be affected by microbiota: leprosy bacilli were observed to expand their infection by hijacking cellular reprogramming 10 , and the gut microbiota controls the development of neural glia in the host intestine 11 . (
  • The possibilities range from the observation of single cells to the study of the collective cellular developments of a fully developed lifeform. (
  • Our data suggest that the EE lineage, including mature EE cells, comprises a reservoir of homeostatic and injury-inducible ISCs, extending our understanding of cellular plasticity and stemness. (
  • The cellular infiltrate during ICD comprises primarily cells of the myeloid lineage. (
  • Multiple and different cellular activities have already been related to the PP-InsPs, but an over-arching hypothesis sights them as performing as an user interface between energy fat burning capacity and cell-signaling [3,5,6]. (
  • Similar to basophils but cellular lineage different. (
  • However, conventional analysis suffers from cellular heterogeneity that is either a consequence of Cas9 editing or cell culture intrinsic. (
  • Here we present CRISPR-UMI (Unique Molecular Identifier), a single cell tracing approach, providing a robust screening method that can detect, and thus overcome, cellular heterogeneity and clonal outliers. (
  • Cellular reprogramming, whether by cell fusion, somatic cell nuclear transfer or transcription factor transduction,also requires changes at the epigenetic level and thus, the first part of the conference focused on epigenetic regulators and reprogramming. (
  • the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009-2014 except 2012. (
  • Both the influenza A(H3N2) and the influenza B(Victoria lineage) vaccine virus components were updated. (
  • Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future. (
  • The age indication for the cell culture-based inactivated flu vaccine, Flucelvax Quadrivalent (ccIIV4), changed from 2 years and older to 6 months and older. (
  • In addition, there is evidence for increased apoptosis and endothelial cell dysfunction, which may also contribute to its pathogenesis. (
  • In May 2020, Lineage announced the early exercise of its option with Cancer Research UK for this immune-oncology cell therapy program as well as a platform expansion to include coronavirus vaccine development. (
  • In October 2020, Lineage announced encouraging preliminary results from the ongoing Phase 1 clinical study of VAC2 in NSCLC. (
  • NEW HAVEN, CT / ACCESSWIRE / December 17, 2019 / Specialty cancer diagnostics company Precipio, Inc. ( NASDAQ: PRPO ), today announced the receipt of their first commercial order for IV-Cell from Northwell Health. (
  • To target cancerous cells, VAC2 is engineered to express the tumor-selective antigen telomerase, which is found in over 85% of all cancers. (
  • A particular challenge they face is unraveling what happens to tumor cells as they grow and proliferate. (
  • We have prospectively identified and purified vascular pericytes in multiple human organs and shown that these cells are potent mesodermal progenitors that give rise to genuine mesenchymal stem cells in culture. (
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess potential of bone formation and were proposed as ideal material against osteoporosis. (
  • Consistent with this, BCR-ABL1+ pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells exhibit defective expression of IKAROS, a transcription factor needed for early lymphoid lineage commitment. (
  • Upon inhibition of IK6, BCR-ABL1+ leukemia cells partially restored B lymphoid lineage commitment. (
  • Here we characterized candidate transcriptional activators involved in the commitment of myeloid progenitor cells to the DC lineage and predicted regulators of DC functional diversity in tissues. (
  • A role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. (
  • These results show that an open chromatin structure around the heavy chain enhancer is necessary but insufficient for initiating transcription from unrearranged IgH genes and further suggests this region may be in an open or accessible configuration prior to lineage commitment and closed following adoption of the myeloid lineage. (
  • Humanized mice were established by transplanting human CD34 + cord blood cells into irradiated severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL2Rγ null (NOG) mice, and the phenotypes of human cells contained in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood from the mice were analyzed at monthly intervals until 4months after cell transplantation. (
  • Humanized mice were established by transplanting human CD34+ cord blood cells into irradiated severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL2Rγnull (NOG) mice, and the phenotypes of human cells contained in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood from the mice were analyzed at monthly intervals until 4months after cell transplantation. (
  • Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. (
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare blood disease in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. (
  • This is accomplished by removal of blood through periodic phlebotomy and drug treatment to suppress red blood cell production by the bone marrow. (
  • P.171 right column 2nd paragraph: 'MSCs represent between 0.01% and 0.001% of all nucleated cells in adult human bone marrow, but can be readily expanded in culture (primary source). (
  • Unlike endothelial progenitors, which for the most part are lineage restricted, MSCs readily form bone, fat, cartilage, and possibly myocytes in vitro (ref 27). (
  • Prox1-GFP + cells exhibited sustained clonogenic growth in vitro, and lineage-tracing of Prox1 + cells revealed long-lived clones during homeostasis and after radiation-induced injury in vivo. (
  • Therefore, successful in vitro differentiation protocols to be applied either for cell based therapies or disease modeling should produce neurons with defined generic and subtype identity. (
  • These cells would become an in vitro human model to investigate intrinsic resistance to ALS. (
  • In support of the hypothesis, 7 supernatants from RRMS B cells induced death of rat OL in vitro, while 3 of 4 control samples did not. (
  • Low-level laser therapy has been investigated as a possible stimulus for enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of various cell types, but few reports relate undifferentiated mouse pulp cells (OD-21) response to irradiation in in vitro models. (
  • Three is for trivalent, which have H1N1, H3N2, and 1 influenza B virus from 1 B virus lineage. (
  • We observed a large population of "nonspecific" human lung mesenchymal progenitor cells characterised by expression of COL1 and multiple elastin fiber genes (ELN, MFAP2, FBN1). (
  • Ontogenic relationships between the different endocrine cell types of the islets of Langerhans were explored by generating transgenic mice, in which cells transcribing the glucagon, insulin, or pancreatic polypeptide genes were destroyed through the promoter-targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin A chain. (
  • Recently, humanized animals whereby a part of the animal is biologically engineered using human genes or cells have been utilized to overcome interspecific differences. (
  • All T cell lines, with either germline or rearranged IgH genes, were also hypersensitive to DNase I but in contrast to B cell precursors showed no detectable Cmu expression. (
  • We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. (
  • Systematic transcriptome-wide identification of otic lineage distinguishing genes would contribute to our understanding of transcriptional states and gene regulation in inner ear development and function. (
  • The RNA tells us, which genes are active and determines the function and characteristics of a cell", says Schier. (
  • While previous studies in this field are based on the examination of a handful of genes, the new high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing method enables the analysis of all active genes during cell development. (
  • We argue that several examples of infidelity are suspect on technical grounds, whereas others are bona fide and require explanation, eg, partial rearrangements and expression of Ig heavy-chain and/or T cell receptor genes in inappropriate cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in leukemic myeloblasts. (
  • Thus, instead of "selector genes," "selector cassettes" are the functional units controlling cell fate. (
  • It circumvents cell heterogeneity, a consequence of Cas9 genome editing, by scoring single cell derived clones individually. (
  • Decades of genetics have uncovered some factors necessary for many of these decisions, but understanding individual neurogenic lineages at the genome level has been impossible in vivo until recently. (
  • Epigenetics is the study of how modifications to chromatin regulate gene activity to create different cell types from one genome . (
  • The authors thank the production and technical staff at Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre for generating human cord blood T cell reference epigenomes and their technical expertise in sequence generation and analysis. (
  • This construct was efficiently inserted into the iPS genome by piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer, and the established subclone was differentiated into NSCs in the presence or absence of blasticidin S. Consequently, incubation with blas-ticidin S led to purification of NSCs from differentiated iPS cells. (
  • To reach their conclusions, the researchers assembled the complete genome of the most potent electric fish, the electric eel, and the genetic sequences involved in constructing electric organs and skeletal muscles from three fish lineages that have independently evolved electric organs. (
  • Neuroblasts divide to give rise to stereotypic lineages and the cells exhibit characteristic cell morphologies, branching patterns, and targets, the molecular mechanisms that determine these characteristics are still largely unknown. (
  • Pre-B lymphoblastic leukemia cells carrying a BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement exhibit an undifferentiated phenotype. (
  • Our continued growth will allow Lineage to exhibit greater productivity and increase the breadth of what we are able to accomplish in the months and years ahead. (
  • Although we are also now able to reprogram regular cells to exhibit this pluripotency, we still have much to learn about the different cues that lead such cells towards a particular cell fate, including the cells that make up the eye. (
  • Even simple unicellular organisms exhibit all the hallmark properties of life, indicating that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. (
  • [ 16 ] The antitrichohyalin antibody AE 15 identifies cell lineage that differentiates into inner root sheath. (
  • VAC2 is an allogeneic, or non-patient specific, cancer vaccine candidate designed to stimulate patient immune responses to telomerase which is commonly expressed in cancerous cells but not in normal adult cells. (
  • La sélection et la mise au point de virus vacci- the first steps towards timely vaccine naux candidats constituent les premières production and do not imply a recom- étapes vers la production en temps utile des mendation for initiating manufacture. (
  • To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007-2014). (
  • As the two lineages have no cross-reactivity, the decision for vaccine lineage selection can be difficult in years when both influenza B lineages are circulating. (
  • Terminally differentiated somatic cells are considered to be stable. (
  • HCLc is a disease of mature B-cells whereas MM is a disease of terminally differentiated malignant plasma cells. (
  • Disease-specific oligodendrocyte lineage cells arise in multiple sclerosis. (
  • Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Become Regionally Diverse and Heterogeneous with Age. (
  • Myelin impairs CNS remyelination by inhibiting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. (
  • During pathogenic infection, immune cells collaborate to remove invading organisms while minimizing collateral damage. (
  • Because of the failure of hematologic components- white blood cells , red blood cells , and platelets -to develop, the body's capabilities to fight infection , deliver oxygen, and form clots are all diminished. (
  • T Cell Immunopathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection remains undefined. (
  • The outcome of the ensuing battle will determine whether the infection will remain locally limited within the engulfing cells of the innate immune system, or will continue to spread, causing the individual to become a clinically active TB patient [ 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (
  • The viral S gene is important as it codes for the Spike protein which is the molecule that makes contact with, and allows entry of the virus into susceptible host cells, causing infection. (
  • Dead cells are observed in many developing animal tissues, but the causes of these normal cell deaths are mostly unknown. (
  • These results suggest that a requirement for survival signals is more general than previously thought and that some normal cell deaths in nonneural tissues may also reflect competition for survival factors. (
  • Furthermore, analysis of the differentiation states of human leukocytes in various tissues and organs indicated that it is highly likely that the human-like leukocyte lineage can be developed in mice. (
  • These studies extend the role of SF-1 in steroidogenic tissues to that of a dominant regulator of the steroidogenic cell phenotype. (
  • These correlations can partly be explained by the shared lineage history of nearby cells, although they could also arise from local cell-cell interactions. (
  • However, long-range spatial gradients and local cell-cell interactions also contributed to spatial correlations in SOS response, amino acid biosynthesis, and overall metabolic activity. (
  • 21 ] observed that mammalian lineages show negative correlations between both body mass, expected to be negatively associated with N e , and generation time and GC. (
  • Lineage's inclusion on the preliminary list of additions to the Russell 3000 ® Index and the Russell Microcap ® Index reflects progress we have made to establish ourselves as a leader in cell therapy and regenerative medicine," stated Brian M. Culley, Lineage's CEO. (
  • these amniotic fluid stem cells have significant potential for regenerative medicine. (
  • Much current interest and excitement surrounding stem cells and their niches pertains to their potential clinical utility in transplantation and regenerative medicine settings. (
  • Cytarabine blocks the progression from G1 to the S phase and, in turn, kills cells that undergo DNA synthesis in the S phase of the cell proliferation cycle. (
  • The protein normally produced from the FGFR1 gene can trigger a cascade of chemical reactions that instruct the cell to undergo certain changes, such as growing and dividing. (
  • The 9 members of this family that exist in mammalian cells evolved from a common yeast progenitor known as RSP5. (
  • Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. (
  • Proportions of Hb9-lineage astrocytes in cultures of spinal cord progenitors could be manipulated by treatment with caudalizing factors FGF-8B and GDF-11. (
  • Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. (
  • also, they suggest that PP gene-expressing cells are necessary for the differentiation of islet insulin and somatostatin cells, through a cell lineage or a paracrine relationship. (
  • Classification of acute leukemia involves assigning lineage by resemblance to normal progenitor cells. (
  • Among those affected, the majority develop cancer , most often acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and 90% develop aplastic anemia (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (
  • CD4+ T-cells and other lymphocyte subsets in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Surprisingly, in the closely related B lymphocyte lineage, Aif deficiency does not result in any abnormality. (
  • Multiplex cell and lineage tracking with combinatorial labels. (
  • We show that damage retention lowers damage levels in the population by reducing the variability across the lineage, and results in larger population sizes. (
  • Recent results from our own and other laboratories show that the ancestor of these elusive adult stem cells is likely to be found in the perivascular area, explaining the ubiquitous distribution of these cells in the body. (
  • Our results suggest that a lineage-specific drug selection strategy is useful for purification of NSCs from differentiated iPS cells and that this strategy can be applied for the purification of other cell types. (
  • Their results also suggest that cells can change their path during their maturation process. (
  • The results show that the genetic program that a cell follows on the way to maturity is by no means set in stone. (
  • The rapid myeloid and lymphoid cell production caused by these cancers results in enlargement of the spleen and liver (splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, respectively). (
  • These results highlight a previously unknown role of IL-6Ralpha function in myeloid cells in modulating the inflammatory response and myeloid population dynamics during ICD. (
  • The adaptation of IV-Cell by Northwell Health will streamline its cytogenetics laboratory to achieve rapid, more accurate results in blood-related cancer testing. (
  • Its inhibition in human ES cells results in enhanced spontaneous differentiation. (
  • I have used Single cell mRNA to study the transcriptome dynamics that accompany important fate decisions in early nervous system development. (
  • With detailed knowledge about single-cell dynamics and relationships between all cells in the lineage, we can infer how individual damage repair and retention strategies affect the propagation of damage in the population. (
  • Kulesa, P. Neural crest cell dynamics revealed by time-lapse video microscopy of whole chick explant cultures. (