Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLPancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.

Characterization of DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and regulated nuclear association of recombinant human NFATp. (1/67632)

BACKGROUND: NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytoplasm of naive T cells. Upon antigen stimulation, NFATp is dephosphorylated, accumulates in nuclei, and functions to regulate transcription of genes including those encoding cytokines. While the properties of the DNA binding domain of NFATp have been investigated in detail, biochemical studies of the transcriptional activation and regulated association with nuclei have remained unexplored because of a lack of full length, purified recombinant NFATp. RESULTS: We developed methods for expressing and purifying full length recombinant human NFATp that has all of the properties known to be associated with native NFATp. The recombinant NFATp binds DNA on its own and cooperatively with AP-1 proteins, activates transcription in vitro, is phosphorylated, can be dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and exhibits regulated association with nuclei in vitro. Importantly, activation by recombinant NFATp in a reconstituted transcription system required regions of the protein outside of the central DNA binding domain. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NFATp is a bona fide transcriptional activator. Moreover, the reagents and methods that we developed will facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of transcriptional activation and nuclear accumulation by NFATp, a member of an important family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Differential expression of aquaporin 8 in human colonic epithelial cells and colorectal tumors. (2/67632)

BACKGROUND: The gene expression pattern in tumor cells differs from that in corresponding normal cells. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in colorectal tumors and normal colorectal epithelium, a differential display experiment was used to compare RNA expression in normal and tumor tissue samples. RESULTS: One gene fragment was expressed only in normal tissue and not, or to a much lesser extent, in the adenomas, carcinomas and cancer cell lines. The isolated gene fragment was identical to Aquaporin 8 (AQP8), a water channel protein. In situ hybridization demonstrated that AQP8 was expressed in the cells facing the lumen in the normal colonic epithelium. CONCLUSION: Our result suggests that the expression of AQP8 is a marker of normal proliferating colonic epithelial cells and suggest these cells to be involved in fluid transport in the colon.  (+info)

Developmental expression of survivin during embryonic submandibular salivary gland development. (3/67632)

BACKGROUND: The regulation of programmed cell death is critical to developmental homeostasis and normal morphogenesis of embryonic tissues. Survivin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family primarily expressed in embryonic cells, is both an anti-apoptosis and a pro-survival factor. Since our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of apoptosis during embryonic submandibular salivary gland (SMG) development, we postulated that survivin is a likely mediator of SMG epithelial cell survival. RESULTS: We investigated the developmental expression of survivin in Pseudoglandular (approximately E14), Canalicular (approximately E15) and Terminal Bud (approximately E17) Stage SMGs. We report a significant 26% increase in transcript levels between the Canalicular and Terminal Bud Stages. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate nuclear-localized survivin protein in epithelial cells bounding forming lumina in Canalicular and Terminal Bud Stage SMGs. CONCLUSIONS: Survivin is known to be a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factor. Given that survivin translocation into the nucleus is required for the induction of entry into the cell cycle and the inhibition of apoptosis, our demonstration of nuclear-localized survivin protein in presumptive ductal and proacinar lumen-bounding cells suggests that survivin may be a key mediator of embryonic SMG epithelial cell survival.  (+info)

p53-dependent apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition in mammary epithelial cells. (4/67632)

We have examined the effects of inhibition of the 26S proteasome in a murine mammary cell line, KIM-2 cells using the peptide aldehyde inhibitor MG132. These studies have demonstrated a clear requirement for proteasome function in cell viability. Induction of apoptosis was observed following MG132 treatment in KIM-2 cells and this death was shown to be dependent on the cell actively traversing the cell cycle. KIM-2 cells were generated using a temperature sensitive T-antigen (Tag) and studies at the permissive temperature (33 degrees C) have shown that a Tag binding protein was essential for this apoptotic response. Studies in two additional cell lines, HC11, which is a mammary epithelial cell line carrying mutant p53 alleles and p53 null ES cells suggest that p53 is actively required for the apoptosis induced as a consequence of proteasome inhibition. These results suggest a pivotal role for the 26S proteasome degradation pathway in progression through the cell cycle in proliferating cells.  (+info)

Staurosporine-induced apoptosis of HPV positive and negative human cervical cancer cells from different points in the cell cycle. (5/67632)

In the present study, we compare the sensitivity of CaSki and HeLa cells (HPV positive, wild-type p53) and C33A cells (HPV negative, mutated p53) to a protein kinase inhibitor, the staurosporine (ST). We show that ST can reversibly arrest the three cervical-derived cell lines, either in G1 or in G2/M. Beyond certain ST concentrations or/and over 24 h exposure, the cells underwent apoptosis. This process took place in G1 and G2/M for C33A and CaSki plus HeLa cell lines, respectively. By using an in vitro cell-free system, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic extracts from apoptotic cells were sufficient to induce hallmarks of programmed cell death on isolated nuclei. Moreover, we found that only G2/M cytoplasmic extracts from viable CaSki and HeLa cells supplemented with ST, triggered apoptosis while exclusively G1 cytoplasmic fractions from C33A cells were efficient. Our study describes a possible involvement of the HPV infection or/and p53 status in this different ST-induced apoptosis susceptibility.  (+info)

Pro-caspase-3 overexpression sensitises ovarian cancer cells to proteasome inhibitors. (6/67632)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the degradation of several proteins involved in the cell cycle. Dysregulation of this pathway leads to inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Ubiquitination and its downstream consequences have been investigated intensively as targets for the development of drugs for tumour therapy. Here we have investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitors MG-132, lactacystin and calpain inhibitor I (ALLN), in the HEK 293 cell line and the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3. We have found strong caspase-3-like and caspase-6-like activation upon treatment of HEK 293 cells with MG-132. Using a tricistronic expression vector based on a tetracycline-responsive system we generated stable SKOV3 nd OVCAR3 cell lines with inducible expression of pro-caspase-3. Induction of pro-caspase-3 expression in normally growing cells does not induce apoptosis. However, in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG-132, lactacystin or ALLN we found that cells overexpressing pro-caspase-3 are rapidly targeted for apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that pro-caspase-3 can sensitise ovarian cancer cells to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis, and a combination of these approaches might be exploited for therapy of ovarian and other cancers.  (+info)

A20 zinc finger protein inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis and stress response early in the signaling cascades and independently of binding to TRAF2 or 14-3-3 proteins. (7/67632)

A20 zinc finger protein is a negative regulator of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signaling pathways leading to apoptosis, stress response and inflammation. A20 has been shown to bind to TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins. Our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 is sufficient and that neither TRAF2 nor 14-3-3 binding is necessary for the inhibitory effects of A20. Mutations in the 14-3-3 binding site of A20 did, however, result in a partial cleavage of A20 protein suggesting that 14-3-3 chaperone proteins may stabilize A20. Furthermore, we show that A20 acts early in TNF-induced signaling cascades blocking both TNF-induced rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and processing of the receptor-associated caspase-8. Taken together our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 contains all necessary functional domains required for the inhibition of TNF signaling and that A20 may function at the level of the receptor signaling complex.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing protein, AIP, from parasite-infected fish induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by two different molecular mechanisms. (8/67632)

AIP (apoptosis-inducing protein) is a protein purified and cloned from Chub mackerel infected with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex, which induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. AIP has shown structural and functional homology to L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) which oxidizes several L-amino acids including L-lysine and AIP-induced apoptosis has been suggested to be mediated by H2O2 generated by LAO activity of AIP. In this study, we confirmed that recombinant AIP generated enough H2O2 in culture medium to induce rapid apoptosis in cells and this apoptosis was clearly inhibited by co-cultivation with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine. Surprisingly, however, we found that AIP still could induce H2O2-independent apoptosis more slowly than H2O2-dependent one in HL-60 cells even in the presence of antioxidants. In addition, the HL-60-derived cell line HP100-1, which is a H2O2-resistant variant, underwent apoptosis on treatment with AIP with a similar delayed time course. The latter apoptosis was completely blocked by addition of L-lysine to the culture medium, which is the best substrate of AIP as LAO, indicating that decreased concentration of L-lysine in the culture medium by AIP-treatment induced apoptosis. We also showed that the both apoptosis by AIP were associated with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-9, and overexpressed Bcl-2 could inhibit both of the AIP-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that AIP induces apoptosis in cells by two distinct mechanisms; one rapid and mediated by H2O2, the other delayed and mediated by deprivation of L-lysine, both of which utilize caspase-9/cytochrome c system.  (+info)

Polyamines (PAs) are involved in regulation of cell growth and cellular survival by interacting with processes like translation, transcription or ion transport. It is described that polyamines can induce apoptosis in mesenchymal cell lines. The aim of our study was to analyze whether the physiological PAs (putrescine, spermidine or spermine) or the PA-derivate deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel immunosuppressant, induce apoptosis in immunocompetent cells. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate which molecular mechanisms are involved in the execution of the cell death program. By means of flow cytometric analysis we found an induction of apoptosis by spermine (Spm) and DSG in quiescent and activated PBMCs, PHA generated lymphoblasts, and various tumor cell lines (Jurkat, SKW-3, U937). Moreover, DSG and Spm triggered apoptosis in human Fas-deficient cells and in cell lines MV4.11. and RS4.11., which are described to be resistant to apoptosis induction by many conventional chemotherapeutic agents. ...
Figure s2. Metformin (MET) effects on proliferation of human lung embryonic fibroblast cell line. Human lung embryonic fibroblast cell line was treated with an increasing concentrations of MET (0µmol-25µmol) for a period of 48 hours. Cells were subsequently fixed with ethanol and DNA content was used as a marker for proliferation rate determined by crystal violet staining. Results of three independent experiments are shown. Values represented are Mean±SEM.
Plant polyphenols have been highlighted not only as chemopreventive, but also as potential anticancer substances. Flavones are a subclass of natural flavonoids reported to have an antioxidant and anticancer activity. The aim of our study was to evaluate antioxidant and anticancer activity of seventeen trihydroxyflavone derivatives, including apigenin (API) and baicalein (BCL). Also, we wanted to find out if there is a correlation between those two effects. Cell growth inhibition testing was carried out using MTT assay in three different human cancer cell lines: lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and brain epithelial (U87). Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging method. Thirteen trihydroxyflavones possessed anticancer activity against at least one tested cancer cell line. They were more active against the MCF-7 cell line, and the lowest activity was determined against the U87 cell line. The majority of compounds inhibited cancer cell growth at EC50 values between 10-50 µM. The most
2075 American ginseng extract (GE) has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on breast cancer cells, possibly mediated by induction of the cyclin inhibitor protein p21. Little is known regarding the effects of GE in other cancer cell lines or its anti-cancer mechanism(s) of action. The goals of the present study were to determine the effects of water-extracted GE on the proliferation of human colon cancer cells and to examine the role of p21 in mediating these effects using wild-type and p21-null HCT116 cells (courtesy of Dr. B. Vogelstein). Cells were treated with a wide concentration-range of GE (0-2.0 mg/ml) every two days for a total of six days and total cell number was determined. Although proliferation was inhibited by GE in both wild-type and p21-null cells, the IC50 in p21-null cells (0.42 mg/ml) was nearly two fold lower than that in wild-type cells (0.8 mg/ml). Cells were then treated with an inhibitory concentration of GE (1.0 mg/ml) and viability was assessed by trypan blue ...
The systemic balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been proposed to play a key-role in primary tumor growth dependent growth suppression of secondary tumors. Despite the importance of the organ microenvironment to angiogenesis and microcirculation, the influence of a primary tumor on secondary bone tumors has not been investigated so far. Since breast cancer has a high propensity to spread to bone, we used an in vivo xenograft model to determine the impact of growing breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in the mammary fat pad on the microvascular properties of subsequently inoculated secondary breast cancer tumors in bone. Mice were either treated with a resection of the primary tumor (n = 10) or no surgery (n = 9) and intravital microscopy was performed over 25 days in bone tumors. Tumor growth in bone was temporarily suppressed by the primary tumor on days 10 and 14. While microvascular permeability and vascular diameter decreased in both groups over time, the presence of the primary ...
Despite extensive investigations on the monocyte response to cancer cells, the data available are not sufficient to complete the picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. When monocytes/macrophages contact a tumor, they activate an inflammatory response within a few hours (12, 40, 41). Nevertheless, monocytes become deactivated after their first exposure to cancer cells (12, 41). This kind of tolerance is characterized by a down-regulation in the expression of several cytokines, and might be termed "cancer-induced tolerance." Indeed, the transcription of TNF-α, IL-12, and other proinflammatory molecules is negatively regulated following the initial monocyte contact with tumor cells (12).. Our current observations confirm these previous reports regarding down-regulation of inflammatory responses when monocytes are re-exposed to a particular tumor cell line. In our hands, the inflammatory responses of human monocytes exposed to six different human cancer cell lines were ...
F the soft agar colony formation in comparison with vector control cells exposed to arsenite for eight weeks. A single explanation of these information is the
Previously (Liu et al., Cancer Res., 56: 3371-3379, 1996), we isolated a novel serine protease-like gene-Normal Epithelial Cell Specific-1 (NES1)-that is expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells but is down-regulated in most breast cancer cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that stable expression of NES1 in the NES1-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line suppressed the oncogenicity as revealed by inhibition of the anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the NES1 gene to chromosome 19q13.3, a region that contains genes for related proteases (including the prostate-specific antigen) and is rearranged in human cancers. Similar to breast cancer cell lines, prostate cancer cell lines also lacked NES1 mRNA and protein expression. Together, these results strongly suggest a tumor-suppressor role for NES1 in breast and prostate cancer.. ...
Pazopanib and Sorafenib delay tumor growth in vivo and prolong the survival of mice bearing intracranial human medulloblastomaIn a orthotopic xenograft mouse mo
Effect of Cav-1 expression in prostate cancer cells on in vitro lymphangiogenesis(A) LEC differentiation into tube-like structures was investigated by plating t
Panelists Suresh S. Ramalingam, MD; Marina Garassino, MD; Benjamin Besse, MD, PhD; and Giorgio Scagliotti, MD, PhD, explain what promising molecular targets are emerging for non–small cell lung cancer, particularly |em|HER2|/em| and |em|MET|/em|.
Preclinical validation of potential therapeutic targets via the use of in vivo models is traditionally regarded as an obligatory step of anticancer drug development, but it is also considered a problematic issue. There is now increasing concern that what is still deemed a successful end point at the preclinical level-positive performance of a drug in xenografts of different human cancer cell lines-is in fact not predictive of a compounds efficacy in the clinical setting (44). The obvious objection is that immortalized cancer cells, which are commonly used in xenograft experiments, have been adapted to grow on plastic in the laboratory for decades and thus exhibit a genetic drift, a biologic compliance, and phenotypic features different from original cancers in patients.. Besides this evident flaw, another (often underestimated) drawback of such an approach is that the catalog of currently available cell lines is inevitably finite and possibly poor for some tumor types. The main reason for this ...
Preclinical validation of potential therapeutic targets via the use of in vivo models is traditionally regarded as an obligatory step of anticancer drug development, but it is also considered a problematic issue. There is now increasing concern that what is still deemed a successful end point at the preclinical level-positive performance of a drug in xenografts of different human cancer cell lines-is in fact not predictive of a compounds efficacy in the clinical setting (44). The obvious objection is that immortalized cancer cells, which are commonly used in xenograft experiments, have been adapted to grow on plastic in the laboratory for decades and thus exhibit a genetic drift, a biologic compliance, and phenotypic features different from original cancers in patients.. Besides this evident flaw, another (often underestimated) drawback of such an approach is that the catalog of currently available cell lines is inevitably finite and possibly poor for some tumor types. The main reason for this ...
This study is for patients with breast, prostate, ovarian, non-small cell lung (NSCL) or bladder cancer who have failed potentially curative treatments or for whose disease a curative treatment does not exist.. OGX-427 is a second-generation ASO that inhibits expression of Hsp27. Hsp27 is one of the heat shock proteins. Hsp27 increases with cell stress, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy and has been shown to inhibit cell death. Thus, decreasing Hsp27 as a cancer therapy is attractive as a therapy as it should result in down regulation of pathways implicated in cancer progression and development of resistance to treatment.. A number of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that OGX-427 has single-agent activity in reducing Hsp27, inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell death in several human cancer cell lines. OGX-427 has also demonstrated chemosensitizing activity in studies using cell lines and animal models in combination with ...
In this study, we showed that SPARCL1 suppresses the proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of colon cancer cells (Fig. 1). The expression of SPARCL1 also induces the differentiation of colon cancer cells (Fig. 4). The results are consistent with previously conducted in vitro studies (8, 22). Here, we further report the in vivo findings obtained using xenograft animal models. In the subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, the expression of SPARCL1 retarded tumor growth, which points to its anti-proliferation potential (Supplementary Fig. S4). We used an intrasplenic injection mouse model mimicking liver metastasis of CRC at the later stages. This was based on the anatomy assumption that colon cancer cells migrate mostly through vena porta hepatic (23). The liver metastasis animal model indicated that SPARCL1 significantly reduces the liver metastasis by RKO cells (Fig. 2). These in vitro and in vivo studies validate that the expression of SPARCL1 has potential ...
Hypoxia plays an important role in the resistance of tumour cells to chemotherapy. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Moreover, according to the cell lines, hypoxia differently influences cell death. The study of the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis induced by 5 chemotherapeutic drugs in 7 cancer cell types showed that hypoxia generally inhibited the drug-induced apoptosis. In most cases, the effect of hypoxia was the same for all the drugs in one cell type. The expression profile of 93 genes involved in apoptosis as well as the protein level of BCL-2 family proteins were then investigated. In HepG2 cells that are strongly protected against cell death by hypoxia, hypoxia decreased the abundance of nearly all the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins while none of them are decreased in A549 cells that are not protected against cell death by hypoxia. In HepG2 cells, hypoxia decreased NOXA and BAD abundance and modified the electrophoretic mobility of BIMEL. BIM
We used the cancer-intrinsic property of oncogene-induced DNA damage as the base for a conditional synthetic lethality approach. To target mechanisms important for cancer cell adaptation to genotoxic stress and thereby to achieve cancer cell-specific killing, we combined inhibition of the kinases ATR and Wee1. Wee1 regulates cell cycle progression, whereas ATR is an apical kinase in the DNA-damage response. In an orthotopic breast cancer model, tumor-selective synthetic lethality of the combination of bioavailable ATR and Wee1 inhibitors led to tumor remission and inhibited metastasis with minimal side effects. ATR and Wee1 inhibition had a higher synergistic effect in cancer stem cells than in bulk cancer cells, compensating for the lower sensitivity of cancer stem cells to the individual drugs. Mechanistically, the combination treatment caused cells with unrepaired or under-replicated DNA to enter mitosis leading to mitotic catastrophe. As these inhibitors of ATR and Wee1 are already in phase ...
Background:. Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignancy with increasing incidence and poor outcome (1). New therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signal pathway has been documented as a central hub for the malignant behaviors of cancer cells (2). However, the functional role and therapeutic effect of PI3K/AKT inhibitors in esophageal cancer metastasis is underappreciated.. Aim:. We aim to study the clinical significance of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in EC metastasis and evaluate the therapeutic effect of PI3K/AKT-targeted therapy.. Methods:. A highly invasive cancer cell line (KYSE410-I3) was established by serial selection of the EC cells invading through the matrigel-coated Boyden chamber. Cell migration and invasion were determined using Boyden chamber migration and invasion assays. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect protein expressions in cell lysates and in a tissue microarray containing 40 pairs of ...
Single Cell Profiling of Circulating Tumor Cells: Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Diversity from Breast Cancer Cell Lines. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An isogenic cell line ATCC CCL-185IG was created by using CRISPR gene editing technology, and contains EML4-ALK fusion variant 1 (E13; A20).
An isogenic cell line ATCC CCL-185IG was created by using CRISPR gene editing technology, and contains EML4-ALK fusion variant 1 (E13; A20).
Ideal cancer targets should have the following features: (a) they play an essential role in carcinogenesis, and/or are required for the maintenance of cancer cell phenotype, and/or are survival proteins that confer resistance to cancer cells against apoptosis; (b) they are overexpressed in cancer cells, which is associated with a poor prognosis of patient survival; (c) inhibition of their expression or activity induces growth suppression and/or apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells, achieving a potential therapeutic window; and (d) it is "druggable," that is, it is an enzyme (e.g., kinase) or a cell surface molecule (e.g., membrane-bound receptor) that can be easily screened for small-molecule inhibitors or being targeted by a specific antibody (27, 28). In this study, we validated SAG, a dual-function protein with antioxidant and ligase activities, as a potential anticancer target. We showed here that (a) SAG is overexpressed in several human cancers originated from different ...
We here show that the physiological estrogen metabolite 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) has a very strong growth inhibitory effect on cell lines from different solid cancer types. The tumors investigated were hepatocellular carcinome (HCC), pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer. All three tumor types present with a very poor prognosis, which did not improve significantly the last 20 years in spite of new operation techniques, new anticancer drugs, or new molecular approaches. Using several different cell lines of each cancer type we studied, we could confirm a generalized phenomenon of cancer growth inhibition by 2-ME. We found up to 90% growth inhibition in all cell lines with the exception of one pancreatic cancer cell line. This effect could even be increased using combination therapies of 2-ME and Gemcitabine, 5-FU, Taxol or a monoclonal antibody against the EGF receptor. We found an additive growth inhibition when all of these anticancer agents were combined with 2-ME. Our studies on lung cancer ...
We here show that the physiological estrogen metabolite 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) has a very strong growth inhibitory effect on cell lines from different solid cancer types. The tumors investigated were hepatocellular carcinome (HCC), pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer. All three tumor types present with a very poor prognosis, which did not improve significantly the last 20 years in spite of new operation techniques, new anticancer drugs, or new molecular approaches. Using several different cell lines of each cancer type we studied, we could confirm a generalized phenomenon of cancer growth inhibition by 2-ME. We found up to 90% growth inhibition in all cell lines with the exception of one pancreatic cancer cell line. This effect could even be increased using combination therapies of 2-ME and Gemcitabine, 5-FU, Taxol or a monoclonal antibody against the EGF receptor. We found an additive growth inhibition when all of these anticancer agents were combined with 2-ME. Our studies on lung cancer ...
Raji Xenograft Model. What is a Xenograft?. Development of an anti-cancer therapeutic requires intense, well planned studies that follow a streamlined path for success. Primary studies are performed in an in vitro setting that allows for high throughput screening and analysis of multiple compounds of interest. This method enables a focused compound screening approach of multiple cell lines within a specific cancer type, or a divergent approach across a broad range of cancer types. Ultimately, in vitro screening results need to be confirmed in an animal model due to in vitro inadequacies of cells cultured on plastic, as this method is far removed from the microenvironment of a tumor.. As the logical next step in therapeutic development is the administration of the test compound in a living animal, a cell line derived xenograft model (CDX) is created by inoculating human cancer cell lines in test animals. The injected cell lines grow into established tumors, thus, permitting efficacy studies of ...
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a common γ-chain cytokine that plays a significant role in the activation and proliferation of T and NK cells and holds great potential in fighting cancer. We have previously shown that bioactive IL-15 in vivo comprises a complex of the IL-15 chain with the soluble or cell-associated IL-15 receptor alpha chain that are together termed heterodimeric IL-15 (hetIL-15). We investigated the anti-tumor efficacy of hetIL-15 in several mouse cancer models. Repeated injections of hetIL-15 were effective in delaying tumor growth in the MC38 colon carcinoma and the B16 melanoma models. The beneficial effects of hetIL-15 therapy included a significantly reduced onset of lung metastasis in 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice. We study the mechanisms of antitumor effects of hetIL-15 in several tumor models. hetIL-15 administration promoted a dramatic increase of tumor infiltration and persistence of CD8+ T cells, including tumor specific T cells, and resulted in an increased CD8+/Treg ...
IL-13Rα2 chain has been shown to play a unique role in tumor biology. It is overexpressed in a variety of primary tumor cell cultures and tumor cell lines (13, 15-18, 25, 34), whereas normal cells including lymphoid cells, endothelial cells, and astrocytes (13, 15, 17, 26) do not express or express low levels of this cytokine receptor chain. Recent studies have demonstrated that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 chain in certain breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines resulted into loss of tumorigenicity, whereas unmodified control tumor cells formed enlarging tumor nodules when injected in immunodeficient mice (46). In another study, Terabe et al. (47) have demonstrated that the soluble form of IL-13Rα2 chain (5) can modulate immune environment and shift Th2 phenotype to a dominant Th1 phenotype. This shift resulted into resistance of 15-12RM cell-derived tumor recurrence. Thus, further investigation of the role of IL-13Rα2 chain in tumor immunology and targeting has become extremely ...
Abstract: The synthesis of an innovative delivery system for targeted cancer therapy which combines the drug controlled release ability of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) with magnetic properties of magnetite is described herein. In the present study, an easy and smart synthetic strategy, involving new engineered precipitation photo-polymerization, was developed with the aim to obtain Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MMIPs) for 9H-carbazole derivative sustained delivery in cancer treatment. Both in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity studies on different cancer cell lines, such as HeLa and MCF-7, were performed in order to evaluate the controlled release ability and the potential application as a drug carrier in targeted cancer therapy. The synthesized polymeric materials have shown not only good selective recognition and controlled release properties, but also high magnetic responding capacity. The performed cytotoxicity studies highlighted the high inhibitory activity against the ...
Researchers at the University of Washington have blended the past with the present in the fight against cancer, synthesizing a promising new compound from an ancient Chinese remedy that uses cancer cells rapacious appetite for iron to make them a target.
Certain compounds in cancerous cells - derivatives of the chemical phenanthridine - end up disrupting the spindle, as the team found, preventing cell chromosomes from splitting, and stopping the cell from dividing.. The growth of the cancer is essentially mitosis out of control, but with the division halted thanks to the new protein mechanism, these cancer cells can die off instead of spreading throughout the body.. "According to the mechanism we discovered, the faster cancer cells proliferate, the faster and more efficiently they will be eradicated," says Cohen-Armon.. This technique was tested with positive results on a variety of tumour types in human cancer cell cultures, including breast, lung, ovary, colon, pancreas, blood, and brain cancer.. This is one of many researches currently exploring ways to kill off cancer cells with minimum damage to the body.. Last year, a protein called ProAgio that could trigger cancer cell death was identified from researchers from Georgia State University. ...
BioAssay record AID 103734 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for cancer cell line growth inhibition against human breast (MCF-7) cell line.
Pdf is an enzyme that, during protein production, removes a modification called an N-formyl group from the first amino acid, a methionine, in the protein chain. While work began on the development of antibiotics against what was thought to be a bacterial-exclusive enzyme, genome-based data searches identified several classes of Pdf-like sequences in parasites, plants and mammals. Subsequent studies showed that the Pdfs were active both in culture and in the living organism, thus potentially derailing the usefulness of these antibiotics for specifically combating infectious agents. In previous studies, Scheinberg and colleagues had found that actinonin had an antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines and on tumor growth in a mouse model. They theorized this growth inhibitory activity might be related to actinonin s inhibition of human Pdf ...
METHODS ARE NOW AVAILABLE FOR IDENTIFYING AND PURIFYING A VAST ARRAY OF ANTIGENS EXPRESSED ON TUMOR CELLS. THE PURPOSE OF THE PROPOSED STUDIES IS TO DEVELOP METHODS FOR SENSITIZING T CELLS TO ANTIGENS THAT CAN BE PURIFIED FROM TUMOR CELL MEMBRANES, RATHER THAN SENSITIZING WITH INTACT TUMOR CELLS EXPRESSING THE ANTIGEN. PHASE I STUDIES WILL UTILIZE A MURINE TUMOR EXPRESSING A WELL-DEFINED TUMOR ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN (TAA), WHICH CAN BE READILY PURIFIED AND IS KNOWN TO ELICIT A MEASURABLE T-CELL RESPONSE. THESE STUDIES SHOULD PROVIDE INSIGHT INTO HOW TO HANDLE TAA SO AS TO RETAIN IMMUNOGENICITY AND TO PERMIT GENERATION OF BOTH CYTOTOXIC EFFECTOR T CELLS AND HELPER/DTH EFFECTOR T CELLS REACTIVE WITH THE TUMOR. STUDIES PERFORMED WITH BIOCHEMICALLY PROCESSED TAA AND BIOSYNTHETIC PLANAR LIPID MEMBRANES AS AN ANTIGEN-PRESENTING SURFACE SHOULD HELP DEVELOP METHODOLOGY FOR BYPASSING THE REQUIREMENT FOR BOTH INTACT TUMOR CELLS AND ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS FROM THE PATIENT FOR IN VITRO SENSITIZATION OF T ...
CD146, a marker of endothelial cells, promotes tumor progression of many cancers including melanoma and the prostate. Strikingly, several lines of evidence suggest that it is a suppressor of breast cancer (BC) progression. In addition, not only the ligand(s) has not been identified, but CD146-downstream mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report a novel molecular mechanism by which CD146 acts as a suppressor of breast tumor growth. A novel transcriptional target of CD146-suppressed BC, TimpV, the only endogenous protein inhibitor known for metallocarboxypeptidases, was identified and validated using novel validated Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP)-inducible systems of CD146 expression in both, the weakly and the highly invasive BC cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. CD146/TimpV association was validated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting experiments in a range of BC cells. In functional experiments, both CD146 induction and siRNA experimental approaches revealed that, ...
... (CTC) • Metastasis: the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. Metastatic disease is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients with solid tumors. Metastasis Process CTCs • Standard definition of a CTC: - Epithelial tumor cell which has adopted genetic mutations that enable migration through the basement membrane and the extracellular matrix, and is free to circulate in the blood stream - confirmed by: 1) visualization of an intact nucleus (using DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2phenylindole, a DNA-binding fluorescent stain) 2) expression of cytokeratin 3) lack of expression of the white blood cell marker, CD45, the leukocyte-common antigen gene - Invasive tumor cells tend to loose their epithelial antigens by the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, so CTCs cannot be diagnosed based on the expression of epithelial-specific transcripts or antigens Clinical Usefulness • Many metastatic lesions ...
Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling is likely responsible for the pro-oncogenic activity of Ski. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski and found that Ski suppressed the activity of the Hippo signaling effectors TAZ and YAP to inhibit breast cancer progression. TAZ and YAP are transcriptional coactivators that can contribute to cancer by promoting proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer stem cell expansion. Hippo signaling activates the the Lats family of kinases, which phosphorylate TAZ and YAP, resulting in cytoplasmic retention and degradation and inhibition of their transcriptional activity. We showed that Ski interacted with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to facilitate activation of Lats2, resulting in increased phosphorylation and ...
As combining therapeutic agents with different action mechanisms may enhance efficacy, YSC-02, an oncolytic adenovirus with multi targets was loaded with five different genes, which were designed with the expectation that different action mechanisms would cooperate. In spite of concerns regarding many APIs, YSC-02 was constructed to be an adenovirus-based anti-cancer drug. By using our own established mouse model system suitable for efficient adenoviral infection and replication, immune activity as well as survival potential could be precisely estimated for anti-cancer drug efficacy. YSC-02 was designed to decrease tumor cell survival, metastasis and to increase tumor cell death, and immune activation. It is composed of five different target genes, including one fused form and two shRNAs, but each of these genes functions is closely linked to produce the maximal antitumor effect. YSC-02 is like an organic complex designed to be applied primarily to heterogeneous liver cancer and melanoma. The ...
BioAssay record AID 83769 submitted by ChEMBL: The compound was tested in vitro for antiproliferative activity against HT-29 tumor cell lines.
Cell culture is practiced extensively throughout the world today. The techniques required to allow cells to grow and be maintained outside the body have been developed throughout the 20th century. In the 50 years since the publication of the first human cancer cell line, HeLa (1), thousands of cell lines representing most of the spectrum of human cancer have been derived. These have provided tools to study in depth the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and have helped enormously in our understanding of normal as well as cancer cell physiology. ...
In this study, we performed a high‐throughput TEAD‐luciferase reporter screen to uncover genes that modulate YAP/TAZ activity upon overexpression and identified multiple members of MAP/microtubule regulating kinase (MARK) family as top hits. We demonstrate that expression of MARK family members leads to robust activation of the TEAD reporter, an indicator of YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity, and that depletion of MARK4 expression in breast cancer cells results in loss of YAP/TAZ nuclear localization and a marked decrease in target gene expression. Mechanistically, we show that MARK4 binds to and phosphorylates the core components of the Hippo pathway, MST and SAV, and that MARK4, in a kinase‐dependent manner, inhibits the assembly of core the Hippo kinase cassette by disrupting the interaction of MST and SAV with LATS.. The mammalian MARK family is comprised of four kinases, MARK1-4 (also referred to Par‐1c, Par‐1b, Par‐1a, and Par‐1d, respectively) which are orthologs of the ...
Circulating Tumor Cells can be found in the blood of patients with primary tumor. These cells are extraordinarily rare and their detection presents a major challenge. But collaboration between bioengineers, molecular biologists and clinicians, many technologies have been developed which can detect CTCs. There are many ongoing research on this which are facilitated by the reports generated earlier. Because of the circulating tumor cells clinical significance, there has been a lot of stress on developing methods that can allow detailed studies across multiple types of cancer and its detection. Detailed study on CTC technologies shows that this field of biotechnology can offer unique opportunities for the detection of tumor cells in patients with early stage cancer. It also confirms the ability to genetically characterize tumor cells without needing an invasive biopsy, and determine responsiveness to the new generation targeted cancer drugs. Some of the latest reports even discuss the ability of ...
Background: 14‐3‐3 sigma (σ) is a negative regulator of the cell cycle and contributes to G2/M arrest. In many malignant tumors, the 14‐3‐3 σ is considered to be an important tumor suppressor of which the decreased expression has been reported. The level of the 14‐3‐3 σ was reported to be decreased either by hypermethylation at its promoter site or ubiquitin‐mediated proteolysis by the estrogen‐responsive ring finger protein (Efp). In this study, we tried to investigate which mechanism plays more important role in the 14‐3‐3 σ regulation, how the change of the 14‐3‐3 σ expression affect the biology of human breast cancer, and hence to extend our understanding of the role of the 14‐3‐3 σ in human breast cancer.. Materials and Methods: In order to examine the role of ubiquitin‐associated proteolysis by the Efp, we examined the change of the level of 14‐3‐3 σ protein after Efp silencing using siRNA in MCF‐7 breast cancer cell line. We also examined the Efp ...
Applied StemCell has engineered a series of cell lines that feature diverse mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF. Click here to learn more.
We want to genotype one of cancer cell lines studies in the lab. Are there any concerns or recommendations specifically for cancer cell lines?
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a non-specific but highly effective way to kill malignant cells. However, tumor recurrence sustained by a minor fraction of surviving tumor cells is a commonplace phenomenon caused by the activation of both cancer cell intrinsic resistance mechanisms, and also extrinsic intermediaries of therapy resistance, represented by non-malignant cells and structural components of the tumor stroma. The improved accuracy offered by advanced radiotherapy (RT)-technology permits reduced volume of healthy tissue in the irradiated field, and has been triggering an increase in the prescription of high-dose oligo-fractionated regimens in the clinics. Given the remarkable clinical success of high-dose RT and the current therapeutic shift occurring in the field, in this review we revise the existing knowledge on the effects that different radiation regimens exert on the different compartments of the tumor microenvironment, and highlight the importance of anti-tumor immunity and other ...
Downregulate phosphorylation of STAT3, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3, inhibit cell cycle progression and promote apoptosis in breast and pancreatic cancer cells with low micromolar to nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, HJC-0123 significantly suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth in vivo (p.o.), indicating its great potential as an efficacious and orally bioavailable drug candidate for human cancer therapy.
Panel of tumor cell lines with variable get Pleuromutilin expression of this receptor. To examine this experimentally, we utilized a shRNA construct to stably
Cancer cells demand large nutrient supplies and thus reprogram their metabolic pathways to ensure metabolic flexibility, cellular homeostasis, energy production, cell proliferation, and survival. In addition to direct modulation of signal transduction pathways causing oncogenic addiction, alterations in oncogenes also contribute to metabolic rewiring in cancer cells, resulting in the promotion of cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, metabolic reprogramming is now considered an important characteristic of several types of cancer, including NSCLC. Despite several ongoing approaches to target cancer metabolism, metabolic reprogramming should be therapeutically explored in additional studies. In addition, the influence of metabolic rewiring on the interaction between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment needs to be extensively investigated to comprehensively understand the course of cancer development and progression, providing mechanistic insights ...
Our Cancer Biology program conducts research to discover biochemical, metabolic, and genetic abnormalities in tumor cells and nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment, and exploit these findings to develop more effective ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.
Working in a mouse model, the LSUHSC research team studied LKB1, an enzyme that functions as a tumor suppressor in the small intestine, and Nischarin, a novel protein that regulates breast cancer cell migration and movement discovered by Dr. Alahari in 2000. Thirty percent of lung adenocarcinomas have an LKB1 gene mutation, and high levels of the LKB1 protein in breast cancer cells have been shown to significantly inhibit tumor growth. The LKB1-interacting protein is also structurally similar to Nischarin. The researchers suspected that the two suppressors might relate to each other, and they did in fact discover a functional and biochemical link between them ...
Working in a mouse model, the LSUHSC research team studied LKB1, an enzyme that functions as a tumor suppressor in the small intestine, and Nischarin, a novel protein that regulates breast cancer cell migration and movement discovered by Dr. Alahari in 2000. Thirty percent of lung adenocarcinomas have an LKB1 gene mutation, and high levels of the LKB1 protein in breast cancer cells have been shown to significantly inhibit tumor growth. The LKB1-interacting protein is also structurally similar to Nischarin. The researchers suspected that the two suppressors might relate to each other, and they did in fact discover a functional and biochemical link between them ...
NexusPharma is dedicated to the discovery of novel anti-cancer treatments. Novel drug candidates are tested in patient derived xenograft tumor models or patient derived tumor cell lines that are derived from such PDX models - we are creating these models to reflect human disease in the most predictable ways. Please ask us if we could help you in your dicsovery projects with these technologies - creating drug candidates wit a higher chance of success in clinical trials!. ...
Targeted therapies are a promising option for cancer treatments, offering the ability to specifically target cancer cells through inhibition of a signaling molecule responsible for oncogenesis. The major drawback of this type of treatment is the development of drug resistance, which can occur through activation of a bypass pathway, or by mutation of the targeted protein (47, 48). The gatekeeper mutation is a devastating mechanism of the latter form of resistance in established kinase targets such as BCR-ABL, EGFR, PDGFR, and Src (23). Thus, identifying corresponding gatekeeper mutations in novel targets allows an understanding of their consequences before they reach the clinic. FGFRs are a relatively recent family of proteins to be addressed through targeted therapy, with multiple inhibitors in clinical trials for the treatment of cancers such as NSCLC and breast cancer (20, 49). In addition, the V561M mutation of FGFR1 has been observed in humans (50) and requires only a single-nucleotide ...
Cell migration is of paramount importance in physiological processes such as immune surveillance, but also in the pathological processes of tumor cell migration and metastasis development. The factors
Thought to be genetically stable and identical, cancer cell lines harbor significant levels of genetic variation, which may help explain why it can be hard to reproduce findings in cell line-based research.
This study investigates the influence of microbes on fluid transport in sedimentary and igneous host rock environments. It particularly focuses on granodiorite rock (Äspö; Sweden) and mudstone (Horonobe; Japan) that were utilised during laboratory-based column experiments. The results showed that biofilms fo
The Twist1 gene is highly expressed in many different tumor types and regulates several different stages of tumor development, from initiation through metastasis. Loss of Twist1 can prevent tumor progression, and therefore Twist1 represents a promising target for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Dr. Spicer and his team have identified specific protein interactions that are required for Twist1 function.
seven months later on. Thinking of the generally poor prognosis of SCCB, novel therapeutic strategies are desired to improve outcomes of individuals. Targeted
To facilitate access of the broader research community to cancer proteomics datasets, we have developed a user-friendly data portal, TCPA (The Cancer Proteome Atlas). The current data release contains 4,495 tumor samples in total, and mainly consists of three parts. (i) TCGA tumor tissue sample sets; (ii) independent tumor tissue sample set; and (iii) ,500 cell-line samples. TCPA currently provides six modules: Summary, My Protein, Download, Visualization, Analysis and Cell line. Importantly, this resource provides a unique opportunity to validate the findings from TCGA data and identify model cell lines for functional investigation ...
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are very important targets for cancer research. Their detection and molecular characterization enable researchers to gain new insights in the mechanism of cancer. However, detecting them against the background of normal cells in whole blood can be challenging, as it requires selective enrichment of CTCs or removal of other nucleated cells while maintaining the variability of tumor cell expression. ...
Combinations of conventional and new drugs have been found to enhance the rate of tumor cell death during a study resolving the role of CDKs in esophageal tumor cell mortality.
Evolutionary thought will only on occasion directly affect individual therapeutic decisions. Yet it will form a critical part of the worldview for the practice of medicine. Evolutionary reasoning provides a conceptual framework within which to situate the profusion of facts that constitute medicine, and so helps organise knowledge of biological systems.4 It allows the physician to answer patients questions about the origin of symptoms and disease in a more holistic and often more meaningful manner. It can be of particular value in understanding psychiatric symptoms such as phobias, and can be used as part of their clinical management.18 Evolutionary thinking also provides an evaluative context in which to consider individual clinical decisions and the medical scientific literature. For example, what is the plausibility and therapeutic significance of selection arguments used to explain ethnic differences in the origin of hypertension?19 What is the appropriate approach to antibiotic use to ...
kRAS is one of, if not the, most prevalent oncogenic aberrations identified to date, and has been well validated as a therapeutic target. It is either upregulated or mutationally activated in ∼30% of all cancers, including 60-90% of pancreatic cancer, and contributes to malignant transformation, tumorigenicity, and a corresponding poor prognosis. Our therapeutic approach to transcriptionally downregulate kRAS is innovate and promising because we are focused on ablating the oncogenic protein, rather than previously unsuccessful attempts focused on modulating its function. Numerous literature reports validate the downregulation of kRAS expression to as an anti-cancer approach, but there has yet to be a concerted effort in this area, primarily due to lack of a molecular target. This is where our findings are exceptionally pioneering, as we focus on globular higher order DNA (G4) formations within the core kRAS promoter as druggable targets with great promise. G4s occur in G/C-rich DNA and are ...
Top 10 cell-lines for Q9ULL0 (Homo sapiens, UniProt): MX-1, NCI-H1963, SK-MEL-2, UACC-812, MCF-7-con, NCI-H1048, MCF-7-TP53 KD, NC-37, NALM-1, Hs 695T
This unit describes protocols for culturing and subsequently enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs), also referred to as tumor‐initiating cells (TICs), from human established cell lines
EpithelialCmesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a crucial event during the early metastasis of tumor cells. with GM6001 was shown to attenuate TGF-1-induced EMT. Furthermore, the exposure of EC-1 cells to TGF-1 increased the expression and activity of MMP-9, while knockdown blocked TGF-1-induced EMT and inhibited cell invasiveness and migration. Additionally, treatment with the …. ...
EpithelialCmesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a crucial event during the early metastasis of tumor cells. with GM6001 was shown to attenuate TGF-1-induced EMT. Furthermore, the exposure of EC-1 cells to TGF-1 increased the expression and activity of MMP-9, while knockdown blocked TGF-1-induced EMT and inhibited cell invasiveness and migration. Additionally, treatment with the …. ...
Top 10 cell-lines for Q96LK0 (Homo sapiens, UniProt): My-La CD4+, NCI-H1581, Sez-4, A2058, NCI-H841, MFE-280, MFE-296, SK-UT-1B, U-251MG-PARK2, Kasumi-6
Given this role in accelerating growth, the team considered that miR-31 may also be involved in tumor promotion. Indeed, chemicals that mimic miR-31 increased growth of bowel cancer cell lines, and caused larger tumor volume in mice. Of greatest significance, however, was the observation that mice with tumors caused by loss of a gene called Apc developed far fewer tumors when miR-31 was deleted. As loss of Apc is a hallmark of human bowel cancer, miR-31 could be a potential therapeutic target for the disease.. "We have shown that miR-31 is a master regulator of the normal and pathological growth of intestinal stem cells and acts as a promoter of tumor growth," said senior author Zhengquan Yu, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at China Agricultural University. "The next steps will be to build on our insights into the signaling pathways through which miR-31 exerts its effects to fully evaluate its potential as a therapeutic target in cancer." ...
Sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to assay chemosensitivity are needed to (1) screen new therapeutic agents, (2) identify patterns of chemosensitivity for different tumor types, (3) establish
... : polyA tails and parenthood In an age where scientific research is increasingly framed and measured by its translational potential, Lori
Manassas, VA (PRWEB) February 07, 2012 -- Searching for appropriate tumor cell models often entails a time-intensive review of the literature and genomic
Global circulating tumor cells technologies market is segmented based on the method of enrichment and detection, and application areas. Based on methods of enrichment, the report includes market analysis
Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Diagnostics Market Driven by Increasing incidences of cancer : Size, Share, Trends, Growth and Forecast 2021
Harvesting lab-raised zebrafish based on their size led to differences in the activity of more than 4,000 genes, as well as changes in allele frequencies of those genes, in the fish that remained.. 0 Comments. ...
There are currently a hundred approved anti-cancer drugs. Holbeck and her colleagues were interested in whether any of these drugs would be more effective against specific types of tumor if the drugs were used in combination. To that end, they tested all 5000 different drug combinations in 60 cell lines over the course of 300,000 experiments. The cell lines were chosen both because they were derived from nine distinct types of cancer and because they are well characterized (gene expression and other parameters are well understood in these cells ...
Researchers have found that a gene they call THOR produces a long, non-coding RNA that has a role in cancer, and whose silencing stops tumor growth.
Research published earlier this year sheds light on a fundamental process which drives cell growth and death among epithelial tissues such as gut lining and skin [1]. A disruption to the processes governing the growth and death of cells is at the root of tumor formation and health conditions associated with inflammation. Researchers led by Dr. Jody Rosenblatt at…
Rare stem-like tumor cells play a critical role in the spread of breast cancer, but a vulnerability in the pathway that powers them offers a strategy to target
Researchers have developed new nanorobotic agents capable of navigating through the bloodstream to administer a drug with precision by specifically targeting the active cancerous cells of tumours.
Disabling a single enzyme associated with the formation of lipids significantly disrupts the ability of aggressive cancer cells to spread and grow tumors, according to a new study.
Abstract DNA from cancer cells can enter surrounding fluid after apoptosis or necrosis. This DNA can be identified by sampling and sequencing the fluid looking for the mutations that gave rise to the cancer, referred to ...
Okay, so I take our boys to the YMCA almost every morning so that they can socialize with other kids and I can get a mommy break. At that time of day, ther...
Thuja, a bioactive derivative of Thuja occidentalis, has been widely accredited for its antitumorigenic potential (25,26). Although reports have verified the anticancer effect of this remedy (8-10), detailed reports elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of thuja are needed. The present study demonstrated that the antitumorigenic effect of thuja on breast cancer cells was not a placebo effect as the placebo (potentized hydro-alcoholic solution)-treated cells failed to induce significant cell death when compared to the control cells. The present study further revealed that thuja asserted its effects by re-orienting the molecular choreography of cancer cells. Importantly, the preferential induction of the cytotoxic effects in breast cancer cells, as compared to normal cells, suggests a safe and non-toxic therapeutic opportunity.. It was shown that thuja is a potent inducer of apoptosis in mammary epithelial carcinoma cells, with a more pronounced effect in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants of drug response in a cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer cell line. AU - Fujiwara, Yasuhiro. AU - Sugimoto, Yoshikazu. AU - Kasahara, Kazuo. AU - Bungo, Masami. AU - Yamakido, Michio. AU - Tew, Kenneth D.. AU - Saijo, Nagahiro. PY - 1990/5. Y1 - 1990/5. N2 - To elucidate the mechanism(s) of cisplatin resistance, we have characterized a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line ( PC-9 CDDP) selected from the wild type (PC-9) for acquired resistance to cisplatin. PC-9 CDDP demonstrated 28-fold resistance to cisplatin, with cross resistance to other chemotherapeutic drugs including chlorambucil (×6.3), melphalan (×3.7) and 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)]methyl-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (ACNU) (×3.9). There was no expression of mdr-1 mRNA in either wild-type or resistant cells. The mRNA and protein levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) π were similar in the two lines. A GST-μ isozyme was present in equal amounts and the activities of ...
Lung cancer is the commonest type of cancer with the highest fatality rate worldwide. There is continued research that experiments on drug development for lung cancer patients by assessing their responses to chemotherapeutic treatments to select novel targets for improved therapies. This study aims to analyze the anticancer drug sensitivity in human lung cancer cell lines by using machine learning techniques. The data for this analysis is extracted from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This experiment uses 408,291 human small molecule lung cancer cell lines to conclude. The values are drawn from describing the raw viability values for 91 human lung cancer cell lines treated with 354 different chemical compounds and 432 concentration points tested in each replicate experiments. Our analysis demonstrated the data from a considerable amount of cell lines clustered by using Simple K-means, Filtered clustering and by calculating sensitive drugs for each lung cancer cell line. Additionally, our analysis
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of strawberry anthocyanin extracts treatment on two in vitro models of murine breast cancer cell line, trying to detect a specific pathway (AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK) through which strawberries exert their anticancer activity. The anticancer
There is increasing evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in mammalian biology and breast cancer. For instance, the levels of MiR-206 have been found to be higher in ERalpha-negative MB-MDA-231 cells than in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells [12], and enforced expression of miR-125a or miR-125b leads to coordinate suppression of ERBB2 and ERBB3 in the human breast cancer cell line SKBR3 [13]. Furthermore, MiR-27b, which is expressed in MCF-7 cells, may be one of the causes of high expression of the drug-metabolising enzyme CYP1B1 in cancerous tissues [14]. Finally, as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells, miR-17-5p regulates breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting the translation of AIB1 mRNA [15].. Research on the roles of BCSC-related miRNAs in breast cancer has great significance. Ponti [16] isolated tumorigenic breast cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties from a breast cancer cell line, and Huang [17] screened side population (SP) cells from a breast cancer cell line. ...
Focal adhesion kinase, FAK is a 125 kDa nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK is overexpressed in human tumors and regulates cellular adhesion and survival signaling. We have shown previously that the dominant-negative FAK, C-terminal FAK-CD, caused detachment and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and that overexpression of an activated form of Src tyrosine kinase or epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, suppressed FAK-CD induced apoptotic effects in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we studied the effect of a novel FAK inhibitor, TAE226 (Novartis, Inc.), on the breast cancer cell lines. We used stable breast cancer cell lines overexpressing Src (MCF-7-Src and BT474-Src) or overexpressing EGFR (BT474-EGFR), and control breast cancer cell lines for the treatment with different doses of TAE226 drug. The detachment and apoptosis caused by TAE226 was analyzed and compared with the effect of the dominant-negative adenoviral FAK-CD. The TAE226 drug caused ...
The genus Stachys belongs to Lamiaceae family with about 300 species and worldwide distribution. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of four fractions of different Satchys species (S. byzatina C. Koch., S. inflata Benth., S. setifera Ten. and S. persica Gmel.), has been investigated against HT-29 (colon carcinoma), Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma), T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma) and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast) cell lines by MTT test. The samples were extracted by percolation method with four solvents; petroleum ether (60-80 ºC), chloroform, ethyl acetate and 80% aqueous methanol, susseccively. All cell lines were cultured in proper medium. Concentrations of 62.5-750 μg/mL from partition fractions of all samples, dissolved in 1% (v/v) DMSO were tested on each cell line. Cells with no treatment and methotrexate were examined as negative and positive controls, respectively. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Some fractions showed good cell inhibitory activity with IC50S.
Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited ...
To address the role of β(1) integrins in pancreatic cancer progression, we stably knocked down β(1) integrin subunit expression in human FG-RFP pancreatic cancer cells using lentiviral-based RNA interference. We then examined the effects of β(1) integrin subunit knockdown on pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on tumor microenvironment-specific extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and on tumor progression in vivo using a clinically relevant fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit inhibited cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit reduced primary tumor growth by 50% and completely inhibited spontaneously occurring metastasis. These observations indicate a critical role for the β(1) integrin subunit in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis in particular. Our results suggest the β(1) integrin
There has been a long‐standing debate over the role of LNs in promoting cancer malignancy. Some clinical evidence has suggested that metastasis to the LNs in breast cancer patients is strongly associated with distant organ metastasis, poor disease‐free survival, and shorter overall survival (Rouzier et al, 2002; Ran et al, 2010). Although breast cancer cell‐induced lymphangiogenesis in TDLNs is important to distant organ metastasis in mouse model, there is no direct evidence to demonstrate that breast cancer cells metastasized to LNs was required for further distant organ metastasis (Hirakawa et al, 2007; Shibata et al, 2008). Several clinical trials showed no survival benefits for patients underwent lymphadenectomy (Gervasoni et al, 2007). Thus, whether TDLNs involved in the progression of systemic metastasis remain controversial (Ran et al, 2010; Pereira et al, 2015). Using a syngeneic mouse model, we observed that breast tumor cells derived from TDLN gained higher malignancy compared ...
HMGB3 silence inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by interacting with hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha Jun Gu, Tao Xu, Qin-Hua Huang, Chu-Miao Zhang, Hai-Yan ChenDepartment of Health Check-Up Center, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, Peoples Republic of ChinaBackground: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor that affects women with higher incidence. High-mobility group box 3 (HMGB3) plays critical functions in DNA repair, recombination, transcription and replication. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HMGB3 silence on mammosphere formation and tumor growth of breast cancer.Methods: LV5-HMGB3 and LV3-siHMGB3 vectors were transfected into MCF10A, MDA-MB-231, HCC1937, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 cells. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Xenograft tumor mice model was established by injection of MDA-MB-231. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to examine the expression of Nanog, Sox2 and OCT-4. Mammosphere forming
Brain metastasis is an increasingly common complication for breast cancer patients; approximately 15- 30% of breast cancer patients develop brain metastasis. However, relatively little is known about how these metastases form, and what phenotypes are characteristic of cells with brain metastasizing potential. In this study, we show that the targeted knockdown of MMP-1 in breast cancer cells with enhanced brain metastatic ability not only reduced primary tumor growth, but also significantly inhibited brain metastasis. Two variants of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line selected for enhanced ability to form brain metastases in nude mice (231-BR and 231-BR3 cells) were found to express high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Short hairpin RNA-mediated stable knockdown of MMP-1 in 231-BR and 231-BR3 cells were established to analyze tumorigenic ability and metastatic ability. Short hairpin RNA-mediated stable knockdown of MMP-1 inhibited the invasive ability of MDA-MB 231 variant cells
HE4, also known as WFDC2, is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with CA125. HE4 is also overexpressed in endometrial cancer (EC), but its function in cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigate the role of HE4 in EC progression. An HE4-overexpression system was established by cloning the HE4 prototypic mRNA variant (HE4-V0) into a eukaryotic expression vector. Following transfection, stable clones in two EC cell lines were selected. The effects of HE4 overexpression on cell growth and function were measured with the use of cell proliferation assay, matrigel invasion, and soft agar gel colony formation assays. HE4-induced cancer cell proliferation in vivo was examined in a mouse xenograft model. HE4 overexpression significantly enhanced EC cell proliferation, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Moreover, HE4 overexpression promoted tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. HE4 overexpression enhanced several malignant phenotypes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphiregulin is a potent mitogen in human pancreatic cancer cells. T2 - Correlation with patient survival. AU - Yokoyama, M.. AU - Ebert, M.. AU - Funatomi, H.. AU - Friess, H.. AU - Buchler, M. W.. AU - Johnson, G. R.. AU - Korc, Murray. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is activated by EGF and other EGF-like growth factors, including amphiregulin (AR). We characterized the localization and mitogenic action of AR in T3M4 and COLO-357 human pancreatic cancer cell lines and determined whether the presence of AR in human pancreatic cancers correlates with patient survival. Both T3M4 and COLO-357 cells were found to be extremely sensitive to AR, one-half maximal stimulation occurring at a concentration of 70 and 50 pM, respectively. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect was greater with AR than with EGF. Both cell lines exhibited AR immunostaining, which was present in a variable manner in the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleoli. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unusual roles of caspase-8 in triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. AU - De Blasio, Anna. AU - Di Fiore, Riccardo. AU - Morreale, Marco. AU - Carlisi, Daniela. AU - Drago-Ferrante, Rosa. AU - Montalbano, Mauro. AU - Scerri, Christian. AU - Tesoriere, Giovanni. AU - Vento, Renza. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a clinically aggressive form of breast cancer that is unresponsive to endocrine agents or trastuzumab. TNBC accounts for ∼10-20% of all breast cancer cases and represents the form with the poorest prognosis. Patients with TNBC are at higher risk of early recurrence, mainly in the lungs, brain and soft tissue, therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapies. The present study was carried out in MDA-MB-231 cells, where we assessed the role of caspase-8 (casp-8), a critical effector of death receptors, also involved in non-apoptotic functions. Analysis of casp-8 mRNA and protein levels indicated that they were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive genetic characterization of human thyroid cancer cell lines. T2 - A validated panel for preclinical studies. AU - Landa, Iñigo. AU - Pozdeyev, Nikita. AU - Korch, Christopher. AU - Marlow, Laura A.. AU - Smallridge, Robert Christian. AU - Copland, John A III. AU - Henderson, Ying C.. AU - Lai, Stephen Y.. AU - Clayman, Gary L.. AU - Onoda, Naoyoshi. AU - Tan, Aik Choon. AU - Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.. AU - Knauf, Jeffrey A.. AU - Haugen, Bryan R.. AU - Fagin, James A.. AU - Schweppe, Rebecca E.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Purpose: Thyroid cancer cell lines are valuable models but have been neglected in pancancer genomic studies. Moreover, their misidentification has been a significant problem. We aim to provide a validated dataset for thyroid cancer researchers. Experimental Design: We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed the transcriptome of 60 authenticated thyroid cell lines and compared our findings with the known genomic defects ...
The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO(2) extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human, prostate, adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma) by MTT assay. Supercritical CO(2) extracts had superior antiproliferative effect compared to the soxhlet extracts. Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability ...
SAN DIEGO, Dec. 7, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - Trovagene, Inc. (NASDAQ: TROV), a precision medicine biotechnology company, today announced that preclinical data demonstrating the sensitivity of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines to PCM-075, its highly selective Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) Inhibitor, will be featured as a Poster Presentation at the 40th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) on December 7th, from 5:00 - 7:00 PM CST, in San Antonio, Texas.. Trovagenes poster entitled, Sensitivity of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines to PCM-075, a Highly Selective Polo-like Kinase 1 Inhibitor, presents the preclinical analysis of 40 cancer cell lines and demonstrates that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are 20-fold more sensitive to PCM-075 than estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells lines.. Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) is known to be over-expressed in many hematologic and solid tumor cancers, including breast cancer. PLK1 inhibition by PCM-075 induces ...
Full Text - Gomisin M2 isolated from Schisandra viridis A. C. Smith has potential anti-tumor effects on certain cancers, including breast cancer. However, only a few investigations have been conducted on the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate, as a possible strategy to resolve cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and to improve treatments. It is essential to investigate the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In this study, we enriched breast cancer stem cells with CD44+/CD24- from MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 cells through magnetic-activated cell sorting and cultured these in serum-free medium. The ability of Gomisin M2 to kill breast cancer stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Gomisin M2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and mammosphere formation in breast CSCs and downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Action mechanism and signal pathways of psidium guajava L. aqueous extract in killing prostate cancer LNCaP cells. AU - Chen, Kuan Chou. AU - Peng, Chiung Chi. AU - Chiu, Wen Ta. AU - Cheng, Yu Ting. AU - Huang, Guan Ta. AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. AU - Peng, Robert Y.. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava L. budding leaves (PE) has been shown to possess anti-prostate cancer activity in a cell line model. We examined whether its bioactivity could be conserved either in the presence or the absence of synthetic androgen R1881. In both cases, PE was shown to inhibit LNCaP cell proliferation and down-regulate expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA). The cytotoxicity of PE was shown by enhanced LDH release in LNCaP cells. The flow cytometry analysis revealed cell cycle arrests at G0/G1 phase with huge amount of apoptotic LNCaP cells after treatment with PE for 48 h in a dose-responsive manner, which was also confirmed by TUNEL ...
Patients with ER-negative breast tumors are among the most difficult to treat and exhibit low survival rates due, in part, to metastasis from the breast to various distal sites. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands show promise as antimetastatic drugs for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. Triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with eight AHR-active pharmaceuticals including 4-hydroxtamoxifen, flutamide leflunomide, mexiletine, nimodipine, omeprazole, sulindac and tranilast, and the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation (MTT assay) and cell migration (Boyden chamber assay) were examined. The role of the AHR in mediating inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell invasion was investigated by RNA interference (RNAi) and knockdown of AHR or cotreatment with AHR agonists. Lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells was evaluated in mice administered cells by tail vein injection and prometastatic gene expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. We showed that only the proton
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via regulation of Skp2, p53, p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. AU - Lin, Hui Ping. AU - Lin, Ching Yu. AU - Huo, Chieh. AU - Hsiao, Ping Hsuan. AU - Su, Liang Cheng. AU - Jiang, Shih Sheng. AU - Chan, Tzu Min. AU - Chang, Chung Ho. AU - Chen, Li Tzong. AU - Kung, Hsing Jien. AU - Wang, Horng Dar. AU - Chuu, Chih Pin. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 1-3 years. Treatment with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppressed cell survival and proliferation via induction of G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest in LNCaP 104-R1, DU-145, 22Rv1, and C4-2 CRPC cells. CAPE treatment also inhibited soft agar colony formation and retarded nude mice xenograft growth of LNCaP 104-R1 cells. We identified that CAPE treatment significantly reduced ...
... was shown in 2014 to be viable cell line for tumor xenografts in C57BL/6 nude mice,[35] and was subsequently used to ... is an immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line.[1] The line was ... and isolated one specific cell, multiplied it, and developed a cell line. Previously, cells cultured from other human cells ... Many cell lines were cross-contaminated during establishment; this means that all work using those cell lines has incorrectly ...
NCI-60 Human Tumor Cell Lines ScreenEdit. The evolution of strategies at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) illustrates the ... In the Molecular Target Program thousands of molecular targets have been measured in the NCI panel of 60 human tumor cell lines ... Those passing certain thresholds are subjected to a 5 dose screen of the same 60 cell-line panel to determine a more detailed ... Under the label "Discovery & Development Services" several services are offered, among them the NCI-60 human cancer cell line ...
"Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line". Molecular Cell. 4 (6): 1093-9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00) ... "Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line". Molecular Cell. 4 (6): 1093-9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00) ... Inhibiting cancer cells' BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer from relocating to DNA damage sites would induce tumor cell death rather than ... cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule. Biological process. • regulation of ...
... the cysts are lined by tall mucin-producing cells. These are the tumor cells. The tumor cells "sit" on ovarian-type stroma. ... This means that these tumors make mucin (a thick sticky fluid), they do not arise in the larger pancreatic ducts, and they have ... Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, also mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystic tumour, is a grouping of ... Some mucinous cystic neoplasms are confined to the tumor. These are designated using various names including "mucinous cystic ...
"Isolation and characterization of spheroid cells from human malignant melanoma cell line WM-266-4". Tumour Biol. 30 (5-6): 300- ... Wang Q, Chen ZG, Du CZ, Wang HW, Yan L, Gu J (2009). "Cancer stem cell marker CD133+ tumour cells and clinical outcome in ... CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells, ... "CD133+ negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133+ positive cells". Int J Cancer. 122 (4): 761-768. ...
"Phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase and glycolytic metabolism in three human glioma cell lines". Tumour Biology. 12 (6): 339-352 ... In tumor cells, PKM2 is mainly in the dimeric form and has, therefore, been termed Tumor M2-PK. The quantification of Tumor M2- ... such as normal proliferating cells, embryonic cells, and especially tumor cells. Two isozymes are encoded by the PKM gene: PKM1 ... which are greatly needed by highly proliferating cells, such as tumor cells. Due to the key position of pyruvate kinase within ...
"Expression and regulation of CD97 in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues". The American Journal of Pathology. 161 ... cell-cell signaling. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of ... Several treatments reduce CD97 expression in tumor cells such as cytokine tumor growth factor (TGF)β as well as the compounds ... immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts.[12][13][14][15][16][17] In the case of ...
... "mRNA expression of tumor-associated antigens in melanoma tissues and cell lines". Experimental Dermatology. 11 (4): 292-301. ... Yan M, Ghorab Z, Nadji M (June 2003). "Renal cell carcinoma antigen is expressed by yolk sac tumors and yolk sac elements of ... Genes to Cells. 4 (5): 299-309. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1999.00261.x. PMID 10421840. "Entrez Gene: RAGE renal tumor antigen". ... "Generation of RAGE-1 and MAGE-9 peptide-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lines for transfer in patients with renal cell ...
Expression was also detected in many epithelial tumor cell lines. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been ... Tumor suppressor candidate 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUSC3 gene. This gene is a candidate tumor ... "Entrez Gene: TUSC3 tumor suppressor candidate 3". Pak BJ, Park H, Chang ER, et al. (1998). "Differential display analysis of ... Cell. 12 (1): 101-11. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00243-0. PMID 12887896. Anderson NL, Polanski M, Pieper R, et al. (2004). "The ...
"NCI-60 DTP Human Tumor Cell Line Screen". Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute. Archived from the ... "60-cell line screen" The complete chemical synthesis of halichondrin B was achieved by Yoshito Kishi and colleagues at Harvard ... these authors also reported the exquisite anticancer activity of halichondrin B against murine cancer cells both in culture and ...
ARK5 is often overexpressed in multiple myeloma cell lines. ARK5 promotes tumor cell survival under regulation by Akt. ARK5 ... also inhibits ARK5 and reduces proliferation of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cell lines. NUAK1 has been shown to ... 2004). "ARK5 is a tumor invasion-associated factor downstream of Akt signaling". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (8): 3526-35. doi:10.1128/ ... Suzuki A, Kusakai G, Kishimoto A, Lu J, Ogura T, Esumi H (Sep 2003). "ARK5 suppresses the cell death induced by nutrient ...
... expressing tumor cell lines suggesting that ALOX5 acts as a pro-malignancy factor for them and by extension their parent tumors ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... these tumors and cell lines include those of the pancreas, prostate and colon. ALOX5 products, particularly 5- ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ...
Most of the available breast cancer cell lines issued from metastatic tumors, mainly from pleural effusions. Effusions provided ... Breast cancer cell lines[edit]. See also: List of breast cancer cell lines ... viable tumor cells with little or no contamination by fibroblasts and other tumor stroma cells. Many of the currently used BCC ... In cancer, the cells that would normally line up in an orderly way to make up the milk ducts become disorganized. Cell division ...
Expression of IL-10 from transfected tumor cell lines. in IL-10 transgenic mice. or dosing with IL-10 leads to control of ... mast cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells. IL-10 can be produced ... In melanoma cell lines, IL-10 modules the surface expression of NKG2D ligands. Knockout studies in mice suggested the function ... it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells (Th2) and mast cells and stimulates B cell maturation and antibody production. ...
"A human pituitary tumor-derived folliculo-stellate cell line". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 85: 1180-1187. doi:10.1210/jc.85.3.1180 ... This tumor is thought to be derived from the parenchymal cells of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, called pituicytes ... Some researchers believe that they arise from the folliculostellate cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary. As such, it is ... Inoue K, Couch EF, Takano K, Ogawa S (1999). "The structure and function of folliculo-stellate cells in the anterior pituitary ...
Tumors or cell lines harboring this genetic lesion are not responsive to EGFR inhibitors. Although KRAS amplification is an ... homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue. • striated muscle cell differentiation. • Ras protein signal transduction. • ... When it functions normally, it controls cell proliferation. When it is mutated, negative signalling is disrupted. Thus, cells ... "Glucose deprivation contributes to the development of KRAS pathway mutations in tumor cells". Science. 325 (5947): 1555-9. doi: ...
The anti-tumor activity of withaferin A was tested on human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3 and confirmed in PC-3 xenografts in ... "Growth inhibition of human tumor cell lines by withanolides from Withania somnifera leaves". Life Sciences. 74 (1): 125-132. ... It has been suggested that sensitization of cancer cells to radiation is due to the inhibition of NF-κB. It exhibits anti-tumor ... Withaferin A has been shown to enhance radiation-induced apoptosis in certain cell lines. However, its mechanism of action on ...
Sep 2003). "Protein profiles of medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY and D283: identification of tumor-related proteins and ... Sep 2016). "Top-down proteomic characterization of DAOY medulloblastoma tumor cell line". EuPA Open Proteomics. 12: 13-21. ... DAOY is a widely used human primary medulloblastoma cell line. It has epithelial morphology and was obtained from a 4-year-old ... Srivastava VK, Nalbantoglu J (Oct 2008). "Flow cytometric characterization of the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line for the cancer ...
It also has strong cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines. Because of its potent biological activities, kendomcyin has ...
The widely used angiotensin-II-responsive steroid-producing cell line H295R was originally isolated from a tumor diagnosed as ... On microscopic examination, the tumor usually displays sheets of atypical cells with some resemblance to the cells of the ... Wang T, Rainey WE (2012). "Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 351 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Adrenal medullary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma The only curative treatment is ...
Endometrial cancer can grow from cells lining the uterus. Uterine sarcoma is a rare cancer that grows from cells in the smooth ... Tumors[change , change source]. Cancer can form in the uterus. But this is not common. There are two types of uterine cancer. ... This uterine lining gives the growing baby what it needs to grow.[2] The endometrium leaves the uterus as the monthly flow of ... The endometrium is made of secretory, ciliated, and basal cells.[4] The uterus is not in the same place for all women. It is ...
Notably, a recent survey of cellular senescence induced by multiple treatments to several cell lines does not identify p16 as ... This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. ... Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. Germline mutations in ... p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore ...
It is produced by certain tumor cell lines and by macrophages. This chemokine is located on chromosome 17 in humans, in a large ... Van Damme J, Proost P, Lenaerts JP, Opdenakker G (1992). "Structural and functional identification of two human, tumor-derived ... 1999). "Chemokine receptor responses on T cells are achieved through regulation of both receptor expression and signaling". J. ... 1997). "Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in human monocytes and endothelial cells". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 8 (3): 271- ...
... near the promoters of tumor suppressor genes have been documented in specific tumor cell lines. In the case of the tumor ... In both human normal and tumor cell lines, YPEL3 has been shown to be a p53-inducible gene. Two putative p53 binding sites have ... YPEL3 has growth inhibitory effects in normal and tumor cell lines. One of five family members (YPEL1-5), YPEL3 was named in ... Campisi J (2005). "Senescent Cells, Tumor Suppression, and Organismal Aging: Good Citizens, Bad Neighbors". Cell. 120 (4): 513- ...
"Seven genes that are differentially transcribed in colorectal tumor cell lines". Cancer Lett. 160 (1): 37-43. doi:10.1016/S0304 ... Cell. 118 (5): 607-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.009. PMID 15339665. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.020. PMID 16499958. Kalesnikoff J, Rios EJ, Chen CC, et al. (2007). "Roles of RabGEF1/Rabex-5 ... Cell. 12 (7): 2219-28. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.7.2219. PMC 55678 . PMID 11452015. de Renzis S, Sönnichsen B, Zerial M (2002). " ...
Major, E. O. (1983). "JC virus T protein expression in owl monkey tumor cell lines". Progress in clinical and biological ... Molinaro, G. A.; Major, E. O.; Bernhardt, G.; Dray, S.; Di Mayorca, G. (1977). "Similar cell surface antigens on hamster cells ... Major, E. O.; Di Mayorca, G. (1973). "Malignant Transformation of BHK21 Clone 13 Cells by BK Virus-A Human Papovavirus". ... Major, E. O.; Matsumura, P. (1984). "Human embryonic kidney cells: stable transformation with an origin-defective simian virus ...
A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been linked to metastasis and tumor progression. In normal cells, α ... "Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ...
"Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line". Mol. Cell. 4 (6): 1093-9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80238-5. ... "Isolation of two human tumor epithelial cell lines from solid breast carcinomas". Nat. Genet. 11: 198-200. doi:10.1038/ng1095- ... "Stable interaction between the products of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes in mitotic and meiotic cells". Mol. Cell ... In breast cancer cell lines, there is an inverse correlation of BRCA1 protein levels with miR-182 expression. Thus it appears ...
No difference was seen in mutation induction between MGH-U1 and RT112, another human bladder tumour cell line of similar ... Mutation Induction by Ionizing Radiation in Three Human Bladder Tumour Cell Lines. ... locus has been studied in three human bladder tumour cell lines of varying radiosensitivity. U1-S40b, a radiosensitive mutant ... Mutation Induction by Ionizing Radiation in Three Human Bladder Tumour Cell Lines. International Journal of Radiation Biology, ...
Wilms Tumour(tumor) cell lines. Mr. D.M. Shaw incubus at liverpool.ac.uk Thu Jun 13 09:11:29 EST 1996 *Previous message: A260 ... Hi cell biologists, I am looking for tumour cell lines derived from childhood renal tumours such as Wilms or the bone marrow ... metastasizing renal tumour of chilhood (BMRTC). Can anyone help? Please send replies vie E-mail incubus at liv.ac.uk Many ...
However, the T3 effect on cell proliferation appears to be dependent on the type of tumor cell line with aggressive tumors to ... whereas its effect on cell proliferation appears to be dependent on the type of tumor cell line with aggressive tumors being ... Cell-Type-Dependent Thyroid Hormone Effects on Glioma Tumor Cell Lines. Liappas Alexandros,1,2 Mourouzis Iordanis,1 Zisakis ... All cell lines were maintained in a 37°C humidified incubator with 5% CO2. For all experiments, each of the glioma cell lines ...
The US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen (NCI60) was developed in the late 1980s ... The NCI60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen.. Shoemaker RH1. ... model was rapidly recognized as a rich source of information about the mechanisms of growth inhibition and tumour-cell kill. ...
Analysis of topoisomerase II immunoprecipitates from 32P-labeled HeLa cells indicated that phosphorylation of the enzyme ... The phosphorylation of the nuclear enzyme DNA topoisomerase II was characterized from HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells ... 1991). Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II in a human tumor cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266(12), 7957-7961 ... The phosphorylation of the nuclear enzyme DNA topoisomerase II was characterized from HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells ...
... Fulya Üstün Alkan,1 Oya Üstüner,1 Tülay Bakırel,1 ... "Synergistic growth inhibitory effect of deracoxib with doxorubicin against a canine mammary tumor cell line, CMT-U27," Journal ... "Citrate and celecoxib induce apoptosis and decrease necrosis in synergistic manner in canine mammary tumor cells," Cellular and ... "In Vitro Effects Of Doxorubicin And Deracoxib On Oxidative-Stress-Related Parameters In Canine Mammary Carcinoma Cells," Acta ...
... researchers at Washington State University report a new approach for the effective capture of tumor-derived exosomes from a ... prostate cancer cell line. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play a key role in intercellular communication and cancer ... New approach for the capture of tumor-derived exosomes from a prostate cancer cell line Findings enable a non-invasive approach ... New approach for the capture of tumor-derived exosomes from a prostate cancer cell line. Springer ...
PubMed journal article Expression of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase in human breast tumor cell line were found in ... A near absence of hgpx1 mRNA expression was observed in 3 of 13 ER-negative cell lines; 1 of 4 ER-positive cell lines had high ... A near absence of hgpx1 mRNA expression was observed in 3 of 13 ER-negative cell lines; 1 of 4 ER-positive cell lines had high ... Here we report the results from a larger survey of breast cancer cell lines, including six recently isolated cell lines. ...
Resistant cell lines are indicated in black. Cell lines not screened with a particular compound are indicated in gray. ... Details regarding the most sensitive cell lines identified are shown in the chart, and the cell lines are shown in order of ... The tumor type is also indicated. For comparison, the sorafenib table also shows the sensitivity of cell lines to 200 and 2 μM ... Profiling 500 tumor cell lines with a variety of selective kinase inhibitors reveals a wide range of sensitivities for most ...
... by which some genetically deregulated and aggressive tumour cells generat ... Vascuologenesis is the de novo establishment of blood vessels and vascular networks from mesoderm-derived endothelial cell ... cell lines and other aggressive tumour cell lines. We present experimental evidence of vasculogenic mimicry in HNSCC cell lines ... Metastatic HNSCC cells lines were found to have vasculogenic properties similar to HUVEC cell lines when compared to cell lines ...
Cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase was found after SB treatment. UOK146 cell line shows autophagy mode of cell death as displayed ... Sodium butyrate induces cell death by autophagy and reactivates a tumor suppressor gene DIRAS1 in renal cell carcinoma cell ... translocated renal cell carcinoma cell line UOK146 was studied. Anti-proliferative effect of SB in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ... Verma SP, Tripathi VC, Das P (2014) Asparagus racemosus leaf extract inhibits growth of UOK 146 renal cell carcinoma cell line ...
Following transfection, stable clones in two EC cell lines were selected. The effects of HE4 overexpression on cell growth and ... HE4-induced cancer cell proliferation in vivo was examined in a mouse xenograft model. HE4 overexpression significantly ... HE4 is also overexpressed in endometrial cancer (EC), but its function in cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we ... HE4 overexpression enhanced several malignant phenotypes in cell culture and in a mouse model. These results are consistent ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on tumor cell line in Houston, United States ... Responses in mantle cell lymphoma cells to SNS-032 depend on the biological context of each cell line. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6587 ... You are here: Locale , United States , Texas , Experts and Doctors on tumor cell line in Houston, United States ... Experts and Doctors on tumor cell line in Houston, United States. Summary. Locale: Houston, United States ...
P-selectin Expression in a Metastatic Pancreatic Tumor Cell Line (SUIT-2). Takeshi Iwamura, Thomas C. Caffrey, Norio Kitamura, ... endothelial cells, and these pancreatic tumor cells. The finding that P-selectin is expressed by metastatic pancreatic tumor ... The human pancreatic tumor cell line SUIT-2 was derived from a metastatic lesion in the liver of a patient with pancreatic ... P-selectin Expression in a Metastatic Pancreatic Tumor Cell Line (SUIT-2) ...
Autologous, proliferating, self-renewing tumor cells (cancer stem cells... ... or autologous dendritic cells (DCV), loaded with antigens from their tumor cell line. Cell lines were successfully established ... self-renewing tumor cells (cancer stem cells and/or early progenitor cells), which are responsible for metastatic tumors, could ... Cancer Stem Cell Antigens from Autologous Tumor Cell Lines in Patient-Specific Active Immunotherapy for Metastatic Cancer. ...
Identification of tumor-initiating cells derived from two canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines * * KISHIMOTO Takuya Evan ... p,Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, ... differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres ... We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres ,i,in ...
Premium Human Tumor Total RNAs are high-quality RNA samples purified using a modified guanidinium thiocyanate method. ... Total RNA from human tumors and human cell lines. ... Human Stem Cell Derived Beta Cells * Human Stem Cell Derived ... We offer an extensive selection of total RNA from human tumors and human cancer cell lines. ... Total RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Total RNA from Clontech is meticulously prepared to high quality using our proprietary ...
Effects of TKIs on sarcoma cell line proliferation. Which, if any, of the roughly 40 TKs we identified in tumor cell lines act ... A, phosphotyrosine expression in cell lines and human tumor tissues. Lysates from cells and tumor tissues were subjected to SDS ... Cell lines. Cell lines A204 (HTB-82), Saos2 (HTB-85), MG63 (CRL-1427), MNNG/HOS Cl#5 (CRL-1547), A673 (CRL-1598), RD-ES(HTB-166 ... A204 cell line dependent on PDGFRα signaling. A, signaling changed by TKIs in A204 cells. A204 cells were exposed to DMSO, ...
Buy or Rent Atlas of Human Tumor Cell Lines as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% ... Atlas of Human Tumor Cell Lines Edition by Robert K.M. Hay and Publisher Academic Press. Save up to 80% by choosing the ...
Inhibitory Effects of Cholesterol Sulfate on Progesterone Production in Human Granulosa-like Tumor Cell Line, KGN * * TSUTSUMI ... Establishment and characterization of a steroidogenic human granulosa-like tumor cell line, KGN, that expresses functional ... Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is a component of cell membranes that plays a role in stabilizing the cell membrane. We previously ... derived from human granulosa-like tumor. KGN cells were cultured with CS (10 μM) or cholesterol (10 μM) in the presence of 8- ...
6-Aminonicotinamide sensitizes human tumor cell lines to cisplatin.. I I Budihardjo, D L Walker, P A Svingen, C A Buckwalter, S ... 6-Aminonicotinamide sensitizes human tumor cell lines to cisplatin.. I I Budihardjo, D L Walker, P A Svingen, C A Buckwalter, S ... 6-Aminonicotinamide sensitizes human tumor cell lines to cisplatin.. I I Budihardjo, D L Walker, P A Svingen, C A Buckwalter, S ... 6-Aminonicotinamide sensitizes human tumor cell lines to cisplatin. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
NCI human tumor cell line growth inhibition assay. Data for the M14 Melanoma cell line. ...
... * ... 1996). The parental cell line used in the present study K562 cells as well as Lucena 1 cells are characterised by carrying ... The development and characterisation of a MDR cell line not only helps in the understanding of the resistance process in tumour ... 1995). Lucena 1 cells are more resistant to H2O2 and to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA) than the parental K562 cell line. This ...
Tumor-specific delivery of biologics by a novel T-cell line HOZOTTumor-specific delivery of biologics by a novel T-cell line ...
Human Tumor Cell Line: A431, 0.1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent ... Human Tissue Tumor Cell line A431, Human Tumor Cell line A431, Human Tumor Cell line A431 Lysate, Human Tumor Cell line A431 ... Human protein lysate Tumor Cell line A431, Protein from Human, Tissue from Human, Tumor Cell line lysate, Tumor Cell line ... NB820-89386 Human Tumor Cell Line: A431 Search for all "Human Tumor Cell Line: A431" ...
  • These data suggest that crosstalk mechanisms exist between the 15-LOX-2 gene and PPARgamma to counterbalance expression and help explain the inverse relationship of these genes in normal versus cancer cells. (labome.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of CS on the expression of progesterone production-related genes in KGN cells, derived from human granulosa-like tumor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • AQPs 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 were screened in the NSCLC cell line H1299, and the present results showed that AQP5 mRNA was upregulated compared with the other AQP genes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, we studied the transcriptional targets in these cells in response to cisplatin, particularly the expression profiles of genes associated with DNA damage response. (uio.no)
  • The genes of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), RICTOR, and RAPTOR survival pathways, which are often overexpressed in majority of the cancers, were significantly downregulated within few hours of the treatment of SKOV3 cells with C1q and globular head modules. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo genomic footprinting of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in pituitary tumor cell lines. (asm.org)
  • We isolated a group of genes that are rapidly and transiently induced in 3T3 cells by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). (asm.org)
  • For this purpose, the introduction of genes that confer tumors with bioluminescent properties has been a critical advance for oncologic studies in rodents. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Methods of introducing bioluminescent genes, such as firefly luciferase, by viral transduction has allowed for the production of tumor cell lines that can be followed in vivo longitudinally over long periods of time. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Lower methylation of CpNpG sequences characteristic of all transformed cells could result from the disturbance of one of several plant DNA methyltransferase genes following its homologous recombination with the M·EcoRII gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • Activation of tumor suppressor genes in nontumorigenic revertants of the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line -- Boylan et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell fusion experiments indicated that the revertant phenotypes of HA and HF cells resulted from mutations in cellular genes that activate one or more tumor suppressor genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis functioning as tumor suppressor genes but their role in NET proliferation and metastasis has not been fully evaluated. (enets.org)
  • Aberrant promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes has not been fully investigated in pediatric tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we examined the methylation status of nine genes (p16(INK4A), MGMT, GSTP1, RASSF1A, APC, DAPK, RARbeta, CDH1 and CDH13) in 175 primary pediatric tumors and 23 tumor cell lines using methylation-specific PCR. (nih.gov)
  • High rates of loss of heterozygosity commonly affect multiple chromosomes in individual tumor types, yet the number of known tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) systematically mutated in the corresponding tumors is usually low. (pasteur.fr)
  • We have identified patterns of gene expression that may further reveal aspects of breast carcinogenesis, and a robust method for examining changes in clinically important genes using archival biopsies and across stroma-tumour boundaries. (edu.au)
  • However, cancers are able to develop mechanisms to escape NK cell attack or to induce defective NK cells. (hep.com.cn)
  • Cell lines derived from human tumors for vaccine manufacture have been approved by FDA for trials although it is certainly not convincing (to me at least) that these vaccines will not induce tumors in the recipients, nor that the vaccines will be free from advantageous agents from the substrates. (sanevax.org)
  • In wild-type (wt) p53 tumors, prolonged suppression of MGMT with O 6 -benzylguanine and concomitant activation of p53/p21 pathway to induce a G 1 -S arrest results not only in elevated killing due to an increase of BAX to BCL2 ratio but also in an enhancement of the efficacy of mismatch repair via the up-regulation of mismatch repair components. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that C1q and the recombinant globular head modules induce apoptosis in SKOV3 cells in a time-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • The study demonstrated that CCRF-CEM cells failed to induce synergistic response with any of the investigated chemotherapies, but importantly no inhibition was observed either. (omicsonline.org)
  • 100-fold reduced cloning efficiencies in semisolid medium relative to HeLa cells and failed to induce s.c. tumors when injected into nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we describe an approach to induce the expression of new antigens in the patients' disseminated tumor lesions that will be applicable also to the majority of the patients that do not express tumor resident mutation-generated neoantigens. (nature.com)
  • However, the supernatants of chemically stressed CRC cells failed to induce phenotypic maturation and cytokine production in TLR4-deficient DCs, indicating an essential role of TLR4 in DAMP-induced DC maturation and activation. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, pulsing with the supernatants of chemically stressed CRC cells did not efficiently induce an IFN-γ-producing Th1 response in TLR4-deficient DCs. (nature.com)
  • Through experiments performed in vivo and in vitro , DAMPs induced by chemical drugs have been demonstrated to stimulate dendritic cells (DCs) to induce an anti-cancer immune response. (nature.com)
  • Tumors can induce generation and accumulation of the immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment, contributing to tumor escape from immunological attack. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been shown that imDC can induce T cell anergy, generate regulatory T (Treg) cells, and promote alloantigen-specific tolerance ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD11c low CD11b high Ia low DCregs that we identified can inhibit T cell proliferation and also induce Treg cell generation, thus suppressing T cell-mediated inflammation and autoimmune diseases ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation under certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We first examined the effect of the HIF inhibitor echinomycin on the hypoxic expression of the HIF target gene PDK1 by immunoblot in RKO and Su.86 human tumor cells exposed to hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • Cell lines were successfully established for nearly half of patients, with the highest success rates in melanoma, renal cell, sarcoma, and glioblastoma. (springer.com)
  • For patients with melanoma and renal cell, who were treated with TCV, observed 5-year survival rates were nearly three times longer than national figures. (springer.com)
  • Cornforth AN, Lee GJ, Fowler AW, Carbonell DJ, Dillman RO (2009) Increases in serum TARC/CCL17 levels are associated with progression-free survival in advanced melanoma patients in response to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Cornforth AN, Fowler AW, Carbonell DJ, Dillman RO (2011a) Resistance to the proapoptotic effects of interferon-gamma on melanoma cells used in patient-specific dendritic cell immunotherapy is associated with improved overall survival. (springer.com)
  • Cornforth AN, Fowler AW, Carbonell DJ, Fan E, Dillman RO (2011b) Characterization of interferon-γ-treated melanoma tumor cells for use in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. (springer.com)
  • The compensatory regulation of deoxynucleoside kinases with over-lapping substrate specificity differed in leukemic and melanoma cell lines probably because they preferably rely on different deoxynucleoside kinases for nucleoside and nucleoside analog activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • dGK and TK2 that are both located in the mitochondria, seems to be able to compensate for each other to a higher extent in the dGK-dependent melanoma cells compared to CEM cells that possess high dCK activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Solid tumors, such as melanoma, expressing high levels of dGK should be considered for nucleoside analog therapy preferably in combination with their standard treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this proof-of-concept study, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was used as the foreign antigen and A375 melanoma or U87-MG glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously engrafted into CD34-humanised NCG mice to establish the solid tumour models. (leidenbiosciencepark.nl)
  • We have evidence to suggest that one cell line, COH-BR-5 (ER-negative), lacked hgpx1 gene expression prior to culture. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A tumor suppressor gene DIRAS1 was upregulated after SB treatment, displaying its anti-cancer potential at molecular level. (springer.com)
  • For example, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that harbor activating mutations in the c-KIT gene are sensitive to treatment with imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, whereas those without c-KIT mutations are less sensitive ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • DMS and DNase I footprinting identified protected G residues in the Pit-1, Sp1, and Zn-15 binding sites of the GH gene in GC, but not in 235-1, cells. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that the GH gene is accessible to specific nuclear proteins in GC, but not in 235-1, cells and that T3 enhances this interaction, although there is no evidence of TR binding to the low-affinity rat GH TRE. (asm.org)
  • The Effect of the Gene Encoding EcoRII DNA Methyltransferase on the Phenotype of Transgenic Tumor. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2004-10-10 00:00:00 Several tumor cell lines were obtained by transforming Nicotiana tabacumplants with the recombinant Ti plasmid comprising the gene encoding EcoRII DNA methyltransferase (M·EcoRII) and subjected to analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Southern blot-hybridization showed that the M·EcoRII gene was present in the cells of all transformed lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Correlation of Ataxia-Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) gene loss with outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of an exogenous tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF) gene in TNF-sensitive cell-lines confers resistance to TNF-mediated cell-lysis. (ugent.be)
  • Together with its functional properties and chromosomal localization, these findings substantiate ZAC as a good candidate for the tumor suppressor gene on 6q24-q25. (cnrs.fr)
  • To characterize the target cell for the oncogenic action of int-1, we have isolated permanent cell lines with distinct morphologies and differentiation characteristics, starting from a tumor with a rearranged int-1 gene. (stanford.edu)
  • In all lines, the int-1 gene was identically rearranged due to insertion of proviral DNA of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus, but the expression of int-1 varied with the state of differentiation of the cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Aberrant promoter methylation and silencing of the RASSF1A gene in pediatric tumors and cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • The most frequently methylated gene in both primary tumors and cell lines was RASSF1A (40, 86%, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • All the cell lines presented the normal alleles for the BAX gene while only in one of the tumor samples a heterozygous frameshift mutation was found. (oup.com)
  • The results indicate that frameshift mutations in the BAX gene, possibly arising as a consequence of microsatellite instability (detectable in these tumors), is detectable in human ovarian cancer although quantitatively it does not appear to be a major determinant of the low apoptotic response to chemotherapy observed in ovarian cancer cells. (oup.com)
  • Here, we describe a strategy in which the mitochondrial metabolism of tumor cells is increased by pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) or its target gene pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). (pnas.org)
  • In addition to these stable genetic alterations, the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors stimulates epigenetic changes in gene expression through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) transcription factor that also contribute to the metabolic state of tumor cells ( 12 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • ATCC offers isogenic cell lines created using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 that are ideal for identifying novel, personalized treatment regimens. (atcc.org)
  • These cells either constitutively or inducibly express a reporter gene (such as GFP or luciferase). (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has created gene mutation lists based on the ATCC tumor cell line collection and known mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (atcc.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that many cases of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary are caused by germline mutations in the DICER1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this evidence, in the present study, we further explored the long-term T3 effects on glioma tumors in relation to the degree of tumor aggressiveness and potential alterations in thyroid hormone nuclear receptor (TR) expression which may characterize different types of glioma cell lines. (hindawi.com)
  • To characterize utility and limitations of HBLAK cells as an urothelial cell culture model. (iospress.com)
  • The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on epithelial barrier function in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29/B6. (biologists.org)
  • Cell biologic steps of dissemination are difficult to characterize in human tumors and research is in large part confined to cell line and experimental animal studies. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • It provides a feasible mechanism of early tumour vascular supply which can co-exist and incorporate with later angiogenic mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Studies of multidrug resistance mechanisms have relied on the analysis of cancer cell lines that have been selected and present cross-reactivity to a broad range of anticancer agents. (scielo.br)
  • Cell culture models of normal urothelial cells are important for studying differentiation, disease mechanisms and anticancer drug development. (iospress.com)
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which carcinoma cells metastasize, we have established liver metastatic models. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To identify other potential mechanisms that contribute to disease progression, we used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to compare genomic profiles of EGFR mutant tumors from untreated patients with those from patients with acquired resistance. (pnas.org)
  • In summary, our results suggest the existence among cells of the same cell line of discrete mechanisms for acquisition of resistance to TNF-mediated cell lysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Such cell lines have been used as models in studies of resistance to redox cycling anticancer drugs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This work characterises a multidrug resistant cell line, originally selected for resistance to the Vinca alkaloid vincristine and derived from the human erythroleukaemia cell K562. (scielo.br)
  • This cell line, named Lucena 1, overexpresses P-glycoprotein and have its resistance reversed by the chemosensitisers verapamil, trifluoperazine and cyclosporins A, D and G. Furthermore, we demonstrated that methylene blue was capable of partially reversing the resistance in this cell line. (scielo.br)
  • Metallothionein expression and resistance to cisplatin in a human germ cell tumor cell line. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression of intracellular metallothionein (MT) has been linked to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cDDP) resistance in human germ cell tumor cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To determine whether exposure to cDDP would select for cells with increased MT expression, the MT content of the human teratocarcinoma cell line T7800 was measured after development of resistance to cDDP by exposure to progressively higher drug concentrations (6.25-25 microM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • cDDP resistance in a variety of other human tumor cell lines correlated with MT content, with no significant difference in glutathione level. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that selection in vitro for cDDP resistance in human germ cell tumors coselects for cells with enhanced MT content. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that increased MT expression is concomitant with increased cDDP resistance in a variety of human tumor cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, measured differences in MT levels may not accurately reflect the degree of cDDP resistance differences among those cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Research in this laboratory ( 9 ) has identified that the two prominent factors in the resistance of pancreatic neoplasms to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents are ( a ) the high level of O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in the tumor and ( b ) the widespread mutation of p53 that prevents p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selection of nitrogen mustard resistance in a rat tumor cell line results in loss of guanine-O6-alkyl transferase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Acute and chronic exposition of colon cancer cell lines to CT/CTE PEDF-derived peptides decreased drug-resistance to conventional colorectal cancer treatments, such as oxaliplatin or irinotecan. (oncotarget.com)
  • For this reason tumour stem cells display some same general characteristics as healthy stem cells (SCs) such as quiescence, self-renewal, asymmetric cell division, cell regulation via Wnt, Notch, Sonic Hedgehog signaling (Shh), and resistance to toxic substances and drugs. (oncotarget.com)
  • Apoptosis resistance occurs in various tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, analysis of tumor samples from multiple independent patient cohorts revealed that MET was amplified in tumors from 9 of 43 (21%) patients with acquired resistance but in only two tumors from 62 untreated patients (3%) ( P = 0.007, Fisher's Exact test). (pnas.org)
  • [ 9 ] However, an advantage of the analysis of ctDNA in liquid biopsy is the detection of molecular changes which are occurring within the tumors in real time, especially during development of drug resistance to targeted agents. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • These results suggest that AtT-20/D16v cells produce gamma MSH-LIs with molecular weights of 31K, 21-23K, 16-17K, 13-14K, and 3.8K, and they are secreted concomitantly with ACTH-LI and beta-EP-LI. (eurekamag.com)
  • CRC cells treated with OXA and 5-Fu may release danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which play important roles in immunogenic tumor cell death. (nature.com)
  • Using several molecular and cellular techniques, we verified the aCGH findings and then extended our studies to additional EGFR mutant tumors. (pnas.org)
  • Our increasing understanding of these molecular pathways provides opportunities to specifically target tumor metabolism to overcome physiologic barriers and improve therapy. (pnas.org)
  • This adaptive response to low oxygen conditions may allow cells to spare molecular oxygen when it becomes scarce, making it available for other critical cellular processes ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have established proliferating pure tumor cell cultures from cancer samples, followed by further expansion for patient-specific therapeutic purposes. (springer.com)
  • In this review, NK cells in tumor immunotherapy are discussed, and a list of therapeutic NK cell lines currently undergoing preclinical and clinical trials of several kinds of tumors are reviewed. (hep.com.cn)
  • By contrast, in metastatic tumors, the treatment of chemorefractory cases and maintenance therapy for chemosensitive cases are important issues in the development of a new therapeutic approach, which may be a different procedure from chemotherapeutic agents. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It's easier to create mature cell populations for research or therapeutic use. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • This method provides a very convenient way to examine the effect of therapeutic drugs on the neuroendocrine tumor cells. (jove.com)
  • Oxaliplatin (OXA)- and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-based FOLFOX chemotherapy is the first-line therapeutic regimen in the treatment of patients with advanced CRC. (nature.com)
  • An alternative approach to the problem of hypoxia is to exploit this unique situation by developing therapeutic strategies that rely on the presence of hypoxia to achieve tumor specificity ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Dillman RO, Nayak SK, Brown JV, Mahdavi K, Beutel LD (1999) The feasibility of using short-term cultures of ovarian cancer cells for use as autologous tumor cell vaccines as adjuvant treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. (springer.com)
  • The role of estrogen in the survival of ovarian tumors-A study of the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines OC-117-VGH and OVCAR3. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the changes in cell-cycle regulatory proteins in ovarian cancer cell lines after estrogen treatment to explore the role of estrogen in ovarian cancers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Two ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines were used for the study: the first, OC-117-VGH, was deficient in estrogen receptors (ER)α and ERβ, and the second, OVCAR3, was positive for ERα and ERβ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serial concentrations of estrogen were used to evaluate the effects of estrogen on the survival of ovarian cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Although the ER-positive and ER-negative ovarian cancer cell lines were inhibited by estrogen, the influence of cell-cycle regulatory proteins was different between the two, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of estrogen on ovarian cancer cell lines might be mediated through different pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we have examined the effects of human C1q and its globular domain on an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3. (nih.gov)
  • Monday, August 26, 2013 A recent study found that the cell lines most commonly used for research on ovarian cancer are not the most suitable. (thinkpinkrocks.com)
  • Here, we report a detailed homozygous deletion (HD) profiling for 246 critical loci on a panel of 89 tumor cell lines containing significant subsets of lung, ovarian and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. (pasteur.fr)
  • Among the remaining alterations, HDs affecting TP73 or telomeric markers have never been previously described, whereas other HDs represent the first examples associating lesions of certain TSGs with a given tumor type (NF2 in lung and ovarian cells, STK11 in HELA cells). (pasteur.fr)
  • Overall, tumor cell lines established from ovarian or lung carcinomas displayed a surprising diversity of loci targeted by HDs with 7 and 6 loci involved, respectively. (pasteur.fr)
  • The expression of mismatch repair proteins hMSH2 and hMLH1 was investigated in human ovarian cancer cell lines and in biopsies of ovarian carcinomas obtained from 20 patients undergoing surgical operation. (oup.com)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour is a member of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian and testicular cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of an ovarian tumour plus hormonal disturbances suggests a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: A rare ovarian neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • HBLAK may be valuable for evaluating the tumor specificity of novel cancer drugs, but may also be applied as an urothelial in vitro carcinogenesis model. (iospress.com)
  • Full characterization of these lines is expected to provide the markers to find the relevant CTCs among the highly heterogeneous population observable in the context of tumor recurrence. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • Gliomas represent the most common primary brain tumor and are among the most aggressive of cancers. (hindawi.com)
  • Metastatic HNSCC cells lines were found to have vasculogenic properties similar to HUVEC cell lines when compared to cell lines from their corresponding primary tumour. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicate that primary medulloblastomas express significant levels of TP73 isoforms, and suggest that they can modulate the survival and genotoxic responsiveness of medulloblastomas cells. (labome.org)
  • Skeletal metastatic disease is a deleterious consequence of dissemination of tumor cells from numerous primary sites, such as prostate, lung and breast. (diva-portal.org)
  • Directly derived from patient tumors without any genetic manipulation, these new products provide the assurance of primary cells with long-term reproducibility and scalability. (technologynetworks.com)
  • AMSBIO also offers a range of high quality cell culture media including Renaissance Essential Tumor Medium (RETM) and WIT culture media for the primary normal cell culture. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Our data showed that Salmonella species can upregulate TNF-α in primary monocytes, as well as in human promonocytic cells, through a released polypeptide(s). (asm.org)
  • A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Beyond primary cultures with their limitations in lifespan, interindividual heterogeneity and supply, few conditionally immortalized cell lines with limited applicability due to partial transformation or impaired differentiation capacity are available. (iospress.com)
  • We describe characteristics of the new spontaneously immortalized cell line HBLAK derived from a primary culture of uroepithelial cells. (iospress.com)
  • Primary cultures of urothelial cells, usually established from healthy ureters removed during tumor nephrectomy, provide one valuable model [ 1 ]. (iospress.com)
  • Treatment of three of these cell lines with the methylation-interfering agent 5-azacytidine induced ZAC re-expression, In addition, Northern blot and RNase protection assay analysis of ZAC expression in 23 unselected primary breast tumors showed a reduced expression in several samples. (cnrs.fr)
  • unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. (elsevier.com)
  • Accordingly, cetuximab restored killing activity of sMICA-inhibited patient NK cells against cetuximab-coated primary HNSCC cells via ADCC in a dose-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ATCC Primary Cell collection includes quality primary cells, along with the media, reagents, and relevant information needed to support the successful culture of primary cells. (atcc.org)
  • [ 2 - 4 ] CTCs are described as cells, shed by primary or secondary tumors into vasculature, that keep circulating in the bloodstream of cancer patients. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • Current standard drug therapies involve the intravesical instillation of a chemotherapeutic agent or bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors ( 6 ) and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic bladder tumors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Must have received at least one dose of cycle 1 of a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy regimen for stage IV disease. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Circulating tumor cell counts could be used to help clinicians choose between first-line hormone therapy (the recommendation option) or chemotherapy for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • In patients with discordant treatment recommendations between the clinician estimate and the circulating tumor cell count, front-line chemotherapy was associated with a significant (35%) decrease in the risk of death. (ascopost.com)
  • A phase III study by Bidard et al investigated whether circulating tumor cells could help physicians choose between hormone therapy or chemotherapy as front-line therapy for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • In this phase III study, the researchers randomly assigned 761 patients to either a clinically driven treatment arm of hormone therapy or chemotherapy as decided by a physician based on clinical factors, or a circulating tumor cell-driven treatment arm. (ascopost.com)
  • In the latter patients, hormone therapy was administered if 7.5 mL of blood had less than 5 circulating tumor cells, and chemotherapy was administered if 7.5 mL of blood had 5 or more circulating tumor cells. (ascopost.com)
  • the remaining 33.3% were switched to chemotherapy based on a high circulating tumor cell count. (ascopost.com)
  • Among patients likely to receive chemotherapy by clinically driven choice, this treatment option was confirmed by a high circulating tumor cell count in 48.1% of the patients. (ascopost.com)
  • Overall survival rates at 24 months were 82.9% in patients treated with chemotherapy (and eventually followed by maintenance hormone therapy) vs 74.7% in patients treated with front-line hormone therapy. (ascopost.com)
  • In our study," Dr. Bidard continued, "not only have we demonstrated that basing the decision on [circulating tumor cell] count alone does not harm patients in the overall study population, but subgroup analyses show that in the 292 patients with discordant treatment recommendations, front-line chemotherapy was associated with a significant 35% decrease in the risk of death. (ascopost.com)
  • In non-small cell lung cancers with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) of ≥50%, first-line treatment with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab improves survival compared to platinum-doublet chemotherapy. (asco.org)
  • Relapse after chemotherapy treatment depends on the cancer initiating cells (CICs). (oncotarget.com)
  • Especially in tumor types showing a high frequency of systemic disease, such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a small needle biopsy is procured first to confirm the diagnosis, and chemotherapy is started without any further invasive procedure. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • [ 1 ] Thus, the opportunity to obtain essential information from blood samples, as so-called liquid biopsies, would offer significant advantages.Non-invasive detection and monitoring of patient tumors, employing cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs), have been employed for investigations into multiple tumor types. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • Abramova MV, Pospelova TV, Nikulenkov FP, Hollander CM, Fornace AJ Jr, Pospelov VA (2006) G1/S arrest induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in E1A + Ras-transformed cells is mediated through down-regulation of E2F activity and stabilization of beta-catenin. (springer.com)
  • AhR expression and function in the presence or absence of galangin, a second AhR inhibitor, α-naphthoflavone (α-NF), an AhR agonist, indole-3-carbinol, and a transfected AhR repressor-encoding plasmid ( FhAhRR ) were studied in Hs578T cells by western blotting for nuclear (for instance, constitutively activated) AhR and by transfection of an AhR-driven reporter construct, pGudLuc . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data suggest that IL-15 has an important role in activating an NK cell-mediated pathway that leads to the elimination of intracellular protozoans from the intestines, which is a previously unrecognized feature of NK cell function. (labome.org)
  • Results of previous studies demonstrated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway may be activated in the great majority of NET cells. (enets.org)
  • In MM cells the anti-myeloma activity of pomalidomide may be mediated by the regulation of the mTOR pathway. (impactjournals.com)
  • SB induces DNA fragmentation and change in nuclear morphology observed by increased sub-G1 region cell population and nuclear blebbings. (springer.com)
  • Glioma cell line U87MG was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, VA), and glioma cell line 1321N1 was obtained from the European Collection of Cell Culture (ECACC) (Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK). (hindawi.com)
  • All cell lines used in this protocol can be obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). (currentprotocols.com)
  • ATCC was entrusted with its first cell line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell line since. (atcc.org)
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC provides investigators with a comprehensive selection of animal cell lines from over 150 different species. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC maintains nearly 4,000 cell lines that are invaluable for public health research, including cancer models such as HeLa, OVCAR-3 and LNCaP. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers Tumor/Normal matched cell line pairs derived from the same donor, allowing researchers to compare the experimental results from tumor cell lines to that of their normal counterparts. (atcc.org)
  • In fact, TNF receptors could not be demonstrated on L929rl cells, not even after low pH treatment and/or incubation with antiserum to TNF. (elsevier.com)
  • The number and binding affinity of TNF receptors were not consistently different between L929s and L929r2 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • A single injection of EBC-46 caused rapid inflammation and influx of blood, followed by eschar formation and rapid tumor ablation in a range of syngeneic and xenograft models. (plos.org)