Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL serve an anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells through inhibition of NF-kappaB. (1/8163)

To maintain the integrity of the vascular barrier, endothelial cells (EC) are resistant to cell death. The molecular basis of this resistance may be explained by the function of antiapoptotic genes such as bcl family members. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL protects EC from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and thus upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB in EC occurs upstream of IkappaBalpha degradation without affecting p65-mediated transactivation. Overexpression of bcl genes in EC does not affect other transcription factors. Using deletion mutants of Bcl-2, the NF-kappaB inhibitory function of Bcl-2 was mapped to bcl homology domains BH2 and BH4, whereas all BH domains were required for the antiapoptotic function. These data suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL belong to a cytoprotective response that counteracts proapoptotic and proinflammatory insults and restores the physiological anti-inflammatory phenotype to the EC. By inhibiting NF-kappaB without sensitizing the cells (as with IkappaBalpha) to TNF-mediated apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are prime candidates for genetic engineering of EC in pathological conditions where EC loss and unfettered activation are undesirable.  (+info)

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (2/8163)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (3/8163)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (4/8163)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (5/8163)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (6/8163)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (7/8163)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

The significance of tetramerization in promoter recruitment by Stat5. (8/8163)

Stat5a and Stat5b are rapidly activated by a wide range of cytokines and growth factors, including interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have previously shown that these signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT proteins) are key regulatory proteins that bind to two tandem gamma interferon-activated site (GAS) motifs within an IL-2 response element (positive regulatory region III [PRRIII]) in the human IL-2Ralpha promoter. In this study, we demonstrate cooperative binding of Stat5 to PRRIII and explore the molecular basis underlying this cooperativity. We demonstrate that formation of a tetrameric Stat5 complex is essential for the IL-2-inducible activation of PRRIII. Stable tetramer formation of Stat5 is mediated through protein-protein interactions involving a tryptophan residue conserved in all STATs and a lysine residue in the Stat5 N-terminal domain (N domain). The functional importance of tetramer formation is shown by the decreased levels of transcriptional activation associated with mutations in these residues. Moreover, the requirement for STAT protein-protein interactions for gene activation from a promoter with tandemly linked GAS motifs can be relieved by strengthening the avidity of protein-DNA interactions for the individual binding sites. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that a dimeric but tetramerization-deficient Stat5 protein can activate only a subset of target sites. For functional activity on a wider range of potential recognition sites, N-domain-mediated oligomerization is essential.  (+info)

When we work with cell lines in the lab, we often work with HeLa cells. They can live in a vial of nutrients, and from a small sample you can grow a large
failed to show convincing evidence of the presence of the β-catenin or BRAF mutation. Although a recent meta-analysis of 109 studies and 531 unique cases of craniopharyngioma found that patients who underwent subtotal resection and did not receive radiation therapy had a worse outcome than patients who underwent gross-total resection or those who had subtotal resection and were also treated with radiation therapy, 4 a decision was made to follow up our patient with serial MRI and to initiate radiation therapy only if there were concerns of recurrence. This was based. ...
Posts about ras-transformed cells were significantly more sensitive to PA than their parental cells ---------------------- profound changes in TUMOR CELL and molecular written by didymusjudasthomas
Henrietta Lacks (1920 - 1951) was an African-American woman who passed away of cervical cancer in 1951. Little did she know that her fatal tumors would hold a key to numerous medical advancements (polio vaccines and chemotherapy for example). Her biopsied cells were found to really thrive outside her body and would be used to create the first immortal cell line for medical research so that her cells are still alive today - over 60 years after her passing. Her cells were used to create the so called HeLa cell line for scientific research - currently the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. They were also the first human cells successfully cloned in 1955.. Henriettas cells have been mailed to scientists around the globe for research and scientists have grown some 20 tons of cells. Henrietta is still living today, around the globe and bigger than ever. Find out more by listening Radiolabs great short story about the subject!. ...
In 1951, cancerous tumour cells from Henrietta Lacks were cultured to create the first known human immortal cell line for medical research. It is now known as the HeLa cell line.
Hela cell is an immortal cell line used in medical research. The cell line was derived...39;s diagnosis of cancer, but a debate still continues on the classification of the cells. HeLa are termed immortal in that they can divide an unlimited number of times as long... ...
Telomerase activity has been detected in many human immortal cells lines and in tumor tissues, whereas it is generally absent from primary cell strains and from many tumor adjacent tissue samples. With the recently cloned ...
V.A. - IMMORTAL HARDCORE!!!! VOL.2 -EXTRAZONE- の紹介をしている特設サイトです》参加者のプロフィールや入手出来るサイトのリンクも載っています ...
On Thu, 9 Nov 1995, Gregory Bloom wrote: , Recent articles here regarding the significance of the telomere , in senescence have stated that the telomere is plenty long enough , at death in most organisms, Sorry but I do not remember the source, but from the reseach report sometime in the last year immortal cell lines were given antibodies to stop telomerase production if my memory is correct. All immortal cell lines died after total number of cell divisions for that species. I have know this for some time and have waited for someone else to post it so I would know the source. Ron Blue , My question is - what makes immortalized cell lines immortal? If you remove chromosome number one from a human cell it becomes immortal. Source Science (year unknow). , Do they suffer any of the cumulative damage from oxidation? yes if extreme , If so, are their repair mechanisms simply revved up beyond , normal mortal cells? of course, immortal does not mean immortal. , If they have active telomerase, does , ...
Derived from Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa is an immortal cell line that is useful for its remarkable prolificity and durability. It was the inspiration for the national bestseller, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, written by the incredibly attractive Rebecca Skloots. Because of their high reproductive rate, HeLa cells are a good beginner transfection cell line to test the efficacy of the CPNP delivery of the origami. ...
ECACC primary cell lines are offered from a variety of mammalian sources. Human cell lines, mouse cell lines, cancer cell lines and more are available. Sigma-Aldrich has partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures, ECACC, a world leader and recognized expert in the maintenance, cultivation and distribution of authenticated cell lines.
Culture cell. Confocal light micrograph of a 3t3 (mouse fibroblast) cell in culture. The nucleus is blue. Protein fibres making up the cells cytoskeleton are red and green. The cytoskeleton is a network of structural proteins, such as actin and tubulin, that supports the cells organelles and other internal structures. 3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. Magnification: x1000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock Image G442/0133
In article ,Pine.SOL.3.91.950328223136.772B-100000 at corona,, Patrick ONeil ,patrick at corona, wrote: , On Tue, 28 Mar 1995, Oliver Bogler wrote: , , , When considering ageing as a process of cells, rather than organisms, then , , it is clear that some cells, such as bacteria, or parts of organisms, , , dont age. The germline is an unbroken lineage going back to the origin of , , life, , , Even bacteria, in the strictest sense, cannot be considered immortal. , They have to actively and constantly replicate or die. The daughter , cells, due to the inherent error rate of DNA polymerases, ensures that , none are the exact replica of the progenitor. If you were to do the , equivalent, you would be a big lump of ever-dividing cancer. , You are assuming that immortal cells are cancerous. This is not the case. Immortal cells have pretty much the same limits on proliferation that normal cells have. It is true however, that continuous propagation of immortal cells may lead to some cells picking up ...
for now i have a cell line called: CEMX174(T1), and im having problems growing it, i tried everything already. i might got this cell line in a bad condition (i got it after 2 days in a 50ml falcon). if there is anyone who grew this cell line please contact me, so i can use some ideas ...
HepG3 cell line origin - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi everybody, my question seems to be quite simple, but still. Does anybody know the exact origin of HepG3 cell line and its difference from HepG2 cells? Thank you in advance! Dinar
Dualsystems used the LRC-TriCEPS technology with a large number of different cell lines, primary cells and tissue to identify the targets. Call +41447385000
PD-Dialog-BoxChartConLine-Tab. You can add the connect lines in the box chart to connect the Mean points, the Median points, the data points or the percentiles. The Connect Lines tab provides controls for customizing these connect lines. ...
Lines and angles facts - A line is a straight, thin, zero-width object that extends on both sides with no curves. An angle is the figure formed by two rays.
Line Gvajana vs WhatsChat Gvajana. WhatsChat Gvajana, je aplikacija, ki vam omogoča klepet z video in besedila z več tisoč ljudi, ki so blizu vaše trenutne lokacije, če ste v Gvajana
το κείμενο με τίτλο Red Line Walkthrough σχετίζετε με Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική
Discover our latest cell counting application notes featuring scepter, that explain the power of Scepter across a variety of cell lines.
教え甲斐のある若い女の子はどこに? - ネットナンパするようになって10年以上になりますが 最近はほんと難しいなと感じます》昔はいろいろなところにコミュニティーがあり 集まっている人達が目で見てわかりました》 でも最近はmixiやLINE等で閉ざされたコミュニ … 続きを読む → ...
教え甲斐のある若い女の子はどこに? - ネットナンパするようになって10年以上になりますが 最近はほんと難しいなと感じます》昔はいろいろなところにコミュニティーがあり 集まっている人達が目で見てわかりました》 でも最近はmixiやLINE等で閉ざされたコミュニ … 続きを読む → ...
Cell lines are an invaluable scientific tool. They allow us to dissect the internal workings of tissues in a controlled environment without the ethical implications of working with whole organisms. Starting with the first successful immortal cell line HeLa, the number of available cell lines has since diversified into a plethora of options. Just like model […]. The post Top 5 of the most commonly used cell lines! appeared first on Bitesize Bio.. ...
Although derived from the blood of a patient with multiple myeloma, this line has been shown to be an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line.
BALB/MK keratinocyte cell line cultured in a defined medium. b Overexpressed. c FRSK cell line. d PAM212 cell line. c HPK1A cell line.. duced. Approximately 106-107 cells are injected in 0.1 ml PBS into the interscapular region of the host.19 Most malignant keratinocytes can grow subcutaneously, whereas papilloma or benign tumor cells do not form tumors94 (Table III).. 91 D. A. Greenhalgh and S. H. Yuspa, Mol Carcinog. 1, 134 (1988).. 92 C. M. Kim, J. Vogel, G. Jay, and J. S. Rhim, Oncogene 7, 1525 (1992).. 93 E. Finzi, A. Kilkenny, J. E. Strickland, M. Balaschak, T. Bringman, R. Derynck, S. Aaron-son, and S. H. Yuspa, Mot. Carcinog. 1, 7 (1988).. 94 J. E. Strickland, D. A. Greenhalgh, A. Koceva-Chyla, H. Hennings, C. Restrepo, M. Balaschak, and S. H. Yuspa, Cancer Res. 48, 165 (1988).. Was this article helpful?. ...
|strong|Two Sentence Summary:|/strong| Henrietta Lacks, a poor black woman, went to John Hopkins for treatment for cervical cancer. Doctors took some of her cancer cells without her knowledge, and those cells grew into the first line of immortal human cells that are still used in medical research today|strong||/strong| |br| |strong|One Sentence Review:|/strong| Author Rebecca Skloot deftly weaves three stories together into a book that explores the development of medical ethics and evolution of how individuals and the medical establishment think about the human body and who has control of it.
This webinar will discuss the evolving role of Cell Lines and Cell Culture and their usefulness as models of physiological function and disease. The webinar will review the depth, breadth and best use of currently available Cell Lines. The role played by Cell Lines in ensuring that the output of future research continues to be valid and credible will also be evaluated. This is the first of a three part webinar series focused on delivering a broad picture of the role of cell lines as models in scientific research, the various strategies and approaches available.
línea celular (es); কোষ লাইন (bn); lignée cellulaire (fr); Línia cel·lular immortalitzada (ca); Zelllinie (de); ceall-líne (ga); رده سلولی نامیرا (fa); 細胞系 (zh); cellelinje (da); 細胞株 (ja); клеточная линия (ru); cell line (mn); linia komórkowa (pl); клітинна лінія (uk); cellijn (nl); 細胞株 (zh-hant); קו תאים (he); خط خلية (ar); cellelinje (nn); cell line (en); ĉellinio (eo); 细胞株 (zh-hans); Besmrtna linija ćelija (bs) eukaryotic cell clone derived from an eukaryotic organism by immortalization (en); Immortalisierter eukaryotischer Zellklon entstanden aus einem Zelltyp eines Eukaryoten (de); cel-kloon (nl) линия клеток (ru); 株化細胞, 不死化細胞株 (ja); Lignée cellulaire, Lignée Cellulaire, Lignee cellulaire (fr); Immortalisierung (de); immortalised cell line that decays indefinitely and is extinguished based on the cells it has come into contact with., cell strain (en); ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Inferring pathway activity in Ras-transformed HBECs and NSCLC cells.(A) The levels of regulated phosphoprotein signatures obtained from quantitative proteomics
FSHR Cell lines available at Innoprot. HiTSeeker & FluoHiTSeeker FSHR Cell lines stably expressing FSH Receptor tag-free functionally validated.
ATCC houses a vast collection of cell lines derived from the peripheral blood cell lines from multiple species, representing T and B lymphoblast cell types.
It is interesting to discover where certain terms come from. Why did science name X this, or why did so-and-so coin Y term as they did. I have heard the term HeLa cells before, but whether I was listening or not is a mystery considering my lack of interest in science during my high school…
Creative Bioarray offers a wide range of cell line testing and assays from cell viability and proliferation to cellular phosphorylation assays.
Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human beta alanine TGR7 receptor.
Researchers working with immortalized cell lines would readily agree when I state that it is almost impossible to look at cells under the microscope and identify them by name.
Cross-contaminated cell lines could be causing us to waste millions or more on flawed research. And many scientists dont even know it.
This module defines the object to represent one line of input text to preprocess. It contains the actual text from the line, and the file name and line number where the text was retrieved. It contains also utility methods for error messages.. ...
In addition, the initial rate of uptake and the accumulation of S16020-2 were markedly higher than those of ADR in the cell lines tested. Sixty-seven percent of the cell lines constitutively secreted high levels of IL-8, as determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
PS:任何在樂樂這邊約妹的顧客只要有提前3小時預約小姐指定時間到達等候超過30分鐘看情況我們會賠償500-1k不等推出遊戲 【撕、襪誘惑】所謂絲襪誘惑就是讓大哥門任意 ... ❤樂樂茶莊6月底的優惠活動❤ ,大台灣樂樂本土外送茶喝茶流程+line:yp574
Have any of you taken these?? If you are negative, is there NO LINE at all??? Or is there always a ((grayish, faint)) line there?????
Do you think theres a link between the two? Would it make sense to draw a line through the points or are they too scattered? Where would you put the line ...
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
Five immortal cell lines derived from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome patient (MDAH 087) with a germline mutant p53 allele were characterized with respect to telomere length and genomic instability. The remaining wild-type p53 allele is lost in the cell lines. Telomerase activity was undetectable in all immortal cell lines. Five subclones of each cell line and five re-subclones of each of the subclones also showed undetectable telomerase activity. All five immortal cell lines exhibited variability in the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs). Subclones of each cell line, and re-subclones of the subclones also showed TRF variability, indicating that the variability is owing to clonal heterogeneity. Chromosome aberrations were observed at high frequencies in these cell lines including the subclones and re-subclones, and the principal types of aberrations were breaks, double minute chromosomes and dicentric chromosomes. In addition, minisatellite instability detected by DNA fingerprints was ...
Cell lines, tissue samples, and total RNA. The cell lines used in the study were melanoma, SKmel23, SKmel28, 888mel, A375mel, 1363mel, 928mel, 624mel, 501Amel, 586mel, 526mel, 501mel, 397mel, 1362mel, 115mel, 938mel, 1102mel, C32mel, MMG1, MMG3, G361, HT144, RPMI7951, Malme3M, HS294T, WM266mel, and DC201 MEL [Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)]; colon cancer COLO205 (JCRB); breast cancer HS578 (ATCC); endometrial cancer SNGII (Keio University); renal cell cancer Caki-1 (ATCC) and RCC7 (Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute); prostate cancer LNCaP (ATCC); bladder cancer KU7 (Keio University); and brain tumor U87MG (ATCC). These cell lines were maintained in 10% fetal bovine serum-RPMI 1640. NIH3T3, K4B, 293, and COS7 cells were purchased from ATCC. 888EBV-B, 1088EBV-B, and LG2 EBV-B (EBV-transformed B cell lines) have previously been described (14). Melanocytes and keratinocytes were purchased from Kurabo. Primary cultured fibroblasts ...
Which method should be used?Some investigators found EIA to be more sensitive than IFA, particularly the anticomplement immunofluorescence technique (22); others found the EIA technology to be as sensitive as IFA or even more sensitive than EIA (23, 27). Already in the mid-1980s the results of assays performed with the first generations of EIAs correlated nicely with those of IFA with purified VCA and EBNA proteins as antigens (9). EIA performance characteristics strongly depend on the nature of the antigens and the preparation and the selection of antigens used (14). As a consequence, the differences in performance characteristics observed between IFA and EIA (i.e., relative sensitivity, relative specificity, and predictive values) are due to the use of various different forms and different selections of antigens with the EIA and to the different IFA substrates used (i.e., different prototype-derived EBV-transformed cell lines [e.g., Raji cells instead of P3HR-1 cells] for detection of ...
Studies have shown that wild-type hTERT protein can functionally replace the HPV-16E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. Previously, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERTci), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in cell immortalization, indicating that hTERT has immortalizing activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions. Since reports show an hTERT role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies to discover that E6, hTERT and hTERT mutated proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Pursuing in-depth studies of these targets shared by E6 and hTERT, we focused on AIB1, a nuclear coactivator known to be elevated in some cancers, and BMI1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group Repressor Complex (PRC) 1 which is known to play a role in immortalization and determining cell ...
Last week, we finished our Ask the Expert Discussion on Cell Line Authentication. Inadvertent cell line contamination is a serious concern for many researchers. Failure to monitor cell lines for contamination may result in compromised data. Current estimates are that 18% to 36% of all active cell lines are either cross-contaminated or misidentified.1
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot is the One Read book selection for the 2015 - 2016 school year. It chronicles the life and afterlife of a poor black tobacco farmer named Henrietta Lacks, also known as HeLa to the scientific community. HeLa was the name given to her cell culture, which was taken from her without her knowledge or consent in 1951. This cell culture was the first successfully immortal cell line, meaning it could divide an unlimited amount of times.. ...
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (DVD) : An African-American woman becomes an unwitting pioneer for medical breakthroughs when her cells are used to create the first immortal human cell line in the early 1950s.
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Adrenergic, B3 receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP). In addition, for total reassurance, we will provide up to two free replacements within in a 2 year period should you accidently lose your cell line ...
Under a microscope in an ordinary-looking lab housed in a nondescript industrial park, I peered at immortal human cells. They looked sleeker than their mortal cousins. At the Geron Corporation, a biotech firm in Menlo Park, California, scientists have apparently discovered how to keep healthy human cells dividing indefinitely. This genetic breakthrough is astonishing, and the long-term consequences are incalculable. When I visited the lab in mid-March, Gerons genetically altered cells had already thrived two-and-a-half times longer than their expected natural life span. And they were still dividing. Scientists associated with Geron theorized that animal cells are programmed to divide a fixed number of times in their lives, and that these program instructions are coded on the ends of the cells chromosomes. The ends erode with each cell division; after a preset number of divisions and erosions, cells stop dividing and begin to degrade. A year ago, Geron cloned a gene that produces telomerase, an ...
Looking for decay, radioactive? Find out information about decay, radioactive. The spontaneous transformation of one atomic nucleus into another with the emission of energy. The energy is released in the form of an energetic particle,... Explanation of decay, radioactive
Stable cell lines with specific gene over-expression or knock-down are very helpful in gene function analysis, target discovery, target validation, assay development, and compound screening. However, generation of stable cell lines is a time-consuming and expensive process. https://www.creative-biogene.com/products/transfected-stable-cell-lines. ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Learn about the latest developments of Sartorius Stedim Cellcas CHO Cell Line Generation platform. Contact our scientists today!
Line spacing refers to the vertical distance between the base of 1 line of text and the base of the next line of text. Line spacing is traditionally known as leading for the strips of lead once used between lines of printer type. The space between lines of type is measured in points. Generally, leading is 20% larger than the copy size. For example, 10-point copy would be set on 12 points of leading or line spacing (10/12), as is shown for the body copy in Figure . Optimal line spacing requires consideration of the type size, layout density, and
Line spacing refers to the vertical distance between the base of 1 line of text and the base of the next line of text. Line spacing is traditionally known as leading for the strips of lead once used between lines of printer type. The space between lines of type is measured in points. Generally, leading is 20% larger than the copy size. For example, 10-point copy would be set on 12 points of leading or line spacing (10/12), as is shown for the body copy in Figure . Optimal line spacing requires consideration of the type size, layout density, and
I have been unable to print puzzles with the internal cell lines. Have put cell weight up to maximum and I still get no lines ...
Find the best model for your cancer research. Our cell line references tool quickly displays Envigo oncology models and independent peer-reviewed publications to ensure you can make informed model decisions about your research.
MAC Immortal Flower Blush ($20.00 for 0.21 oz.) is described as a bright peach. This is an interesting color, because it looks like a soft peach in the p
A reference line is a line intersecting the chart plot area from a given point on one or both axes. It may be used, for example, to indicate a certain level or percentiles of chart data. The reference line is only drawn if it falls within the current range of the axis from which it origins ...
Using vb.net, I'm trying to draw lines as in the out line of a building based on data points If you do the following - Answered by a verified Programmer
플라스크의 입구주변을 소독한 후 5ml정도의 배지만 남겨놓은채 모든 배지를 제거한 후 37℃ 배양기에서 배양한다. 때로는 취급도중에 세포들이 떨어져 배지속에 부유하여 있을 수 있으므로, 플라스크 내의 모든 배지를 원심분리용관에 옮긴 후 1,000 rpm에서 3분정도 원심분리하여 cell을 모은 후, 5ml정도의 배지만 남긴 후 나머지 배지는 제거한다 ...
세포주 안전기탁을 하기 위해서는 세포주당 동결바이알 10개 이상(최대 20개)과 소정의 세포주보관기탁신청서를 제출해야 한다. 부득이한 경우 한국세포주은행과 연락하여 기탁세포주의 숫자를 정할 수있으며, 기탁자가 필요로 할 경우 한국세포주은행에서 배양, 증식, 동결보관을 대행할 수 있다 (소정의 수수료 지불). ...
Line Al Matammah vs WhatsChat Al Matammah. WhatsChat Al Matammah, je aplikacija, ki vam omogoča klepet s tako video in tekstovno načinu z več tisoč ljudi, ki so blizu vaše trenutne lokacije, če ste v Al Matammah
Watch full episodes of Outside the Lines and get the latest breaking news, exclusive videos and pictures, episode recaps and much more at TVGuide.com
So where is the line from interfering with the E.M.Ts saving your childs life to making sure you are watching out for your child?
NAKATAKI Emiko , YANO Seiji , MATSUMORI Yuka , GOTO Hisatsugu , KAKIUCHI Soji , MUGURUMA Hiroaki , BANDO Yoshimi , UEHARA Hisanori , HAMADA Hironobu , KITO Katsumi , YOKOYAMA Akihito , SONE Saburo Cancer Sci 97(3), 183-191, 2006-03-10 Ichushi Web References (45) Cited by (4) ...
Transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts with the v-src oncogene leads to a 6- to 8-fold enhancement of the activity of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase in cytosolic extracts [Johnson, Wasilenko, Mattingly, Weber and Garrison (1989) Science 246, 121-124]. This study confirms these results using another v-src-transformed Rat-1 cell line (B31 cells) and investigates the molecular mechanism by which pp60v-src activates Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase. The mRNA and protein levels for two rat isoforms of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase were determined in the v-src-transformed cell line. Both the mRNA and protein levels for isoform A were elevated in v-src-transformed Rat-1 cells while those for isoform B were not significantly affected. Moreover, stable expression of either form of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase in the B31 v-src-transformed Rat-1 cell line did not result in tyrosine phosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase A or B. These results suggest that at least one mechanism by which the v-src oncogene increases the activity of the ...
EBV transformed B cell lines derived from Japanese (HEV). ● We are providing B cell lines derived from healthy Japanese and the Japanese patients suffering from cancers etc. The cell lines derived from healthy individuals possess the precise information regarding HLA haplotypes and we are providing such information as well.. ● These cell lines are useful for genetic analyses, and thus we are providing these cell lines for researches including analyses of gene and genome. We provide this collection not only to domestic users in Japan but also to users in overseas, in addition not only to not-for-profit institutions but also to for-profit institutions.. ● Providing B cell lines were transformed by Epstein-Barr Virus.. ● In addition to the cell material itself, we are providing information about gender, age and habit of the individuals who have donated the source cells. When we possess the information of gene and/or genome, we provide them as well.. ● After the providing procedures ...
Specific lysis of HLA-B8-matched EBV-transformed LCLs by M3-W1-B9 CD8+ T cells. (A) Recognition of HLA-B8-matched LCLs by M3-W1-B9 CD8+ T cells. LCLs were c
Our Human Fibroblast Immortalization Kits include an Immortalization Reagent and Virus Transduction Enhancer, increasing transduction rate up to 10-fold.
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Nicotinic, HM74a receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
DRD1 Receptor Cell lines available at Innoprot. HiTSeeker, Nomad and internalization Cell lines stably expressing DRD1 Receptor functionally validated.
The HRA-19a1.1 Alpha2Alpha1 B cell line is a genetically modified clone of HRA-19a1.1 cells expressing a chimeric alpha2 integrin with
comes out next month, written about the woman and the cells which should have made her famous. Rebecca Skloot been researching it for something like 10 years and its got some great reviews. Im going to pre-order a copy, and if youd like to know more about HeLa cells and Henrietta Lacks, do the same! Its a story that deserves to be heard, and if there are enough pre-orders, Amazon will help promote the book. Plus its 30% off at the moment. What more could you want? Heres the blurb.. Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor Southern tobacco farmer who worked the same land as her slave ancestors, yet her cells-taken without her knowledge-became one of the most important tools in medicine. The first "immortal" human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty years. If you could pile all HeLa cells ever grown onto a scale, theyd weigh more than 50 million metric tons-as much as a hundred Empire State ...
chromatin writes: A filmmaker at a college in boston has been working on the potentially endless history of Henrietta Lacks which is a fascinating story of where biotechnology comes from and what it does. Lacks died of cervical cancer in 1951, but a small sample of her cancer cells were found to...
[ I wrote this back in 2002] Host cell lines are an entirely new class of disease-causing organism. They are strange and unusually disgusting, and if you read this you may end up showering in Lysol for the next few weeks. Consider yourself warned. A host cell line is a microorganism that was until fairly…
Increased Growth of a Newly Established Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Transformed with HPV-16 E7 in Diabetic Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Make use of our cell line adaptation service and we adapt your adherently growing cell line to serum-free growth in suspension - For scalable biologi…
Exosome Standards (Human Serum) products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Exosome Standards (Human Serum) product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Due to the ongoing COVID19 crisis, EBiSC is restricting non-essential work across all central biobanking sites to try and help slow spread of the disease. During this time, to minimise staff numbers within our facilities, cell lines will not be shipped. If you have ordered lines, these orders will be shipped as soon as possible after local restrictions are lifted. EBiSC can continue to help you select appropriate iPSC lines for your research and you can still apply to access managed access datasets. If you have any queries about new or ongoing orders, please contact ECACC at [email protected] or contact EBiSC directly ...
Due to the ongoing COVID19 crisis, EBiSC is restricting non-essential work across all central biobanking sites to try and help slow spread of the disease. During this time, to minimise staff numbers within our facilities, cell lines will not be shipped. If you have ordered lines, these orders will be shipped as soon as possible after local restrictions are lifted. EBiSC can continue to help you select appropriate iPSC lines for your research and you can still apply to access managed access datasets. If you have any queries about new or ongoing orders, please contact ECACC at [email protected] or contact EBiSC directly ...
For a long time Ive been interested in practical immortality and how we as a human race would go about achieving such a feat. To me, practical immortality
Researchers from the Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute recently published a study showing a correlation with the introduction of human fetal cell lines used
This unit describes protocols for culturing and subsequently enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs), also referred to as tumor‐initiating cells (TICs), from human established cell lines
Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human mas-related MrgX1 receptor.
통신판매업 신고 제2015-서울혜화-0125호 , Tel : 82-2-3668-7915 , Fax : 82-2-742-0021 , Email : [email protected] KCLB (C) is a registered mark of Korean Cell Line Bank. All rights reserved. 1998~2015. 관련사이트. 서울대학교 병원. 서울의대. ...
I have arrived late for the Whoopie Sling party, so I am learning... I got some tech line from Scott at DIYSupply yesterday. (Great vendor!) I made myself an adjustable structural ridge line that I hope to try out over the weekend. I was looking at videos showing tarp ridge lines and was wondering if anyone has tried threading a few inches of whatever brand of hollow core line you use for a tarp suspension onto your ridge line with a loop (locked Brummel?) hanging off the end toward the tree
Humans have likely dreamed about immortality for as long as the species has been around. Scientist and author Dr. Aubrey de Grey recently wrote about the
This is the complete description of the cell line that you selected. By clicking on a generic term (e.g., SPECIES) you will go to the corresponding index (e.g., index of species), while by clicking on a specific term (e.g., retinoblastoma) you will go to the list of corresponding cell lines (e.g., retionoblastoma cell lines ...
This is the complete description of the cell line that you selected. By clicking on a generic term (e.g., SPECIES) you will go to the corresponding index (e.g., index of species), while by clicking on a specific term (e.g., retinoblastoma) you will go to the list of corresponding cell lines (e.g., retionoblastoma cell lines ...
Scientists have found an flatworm species that can overcome the aging process, potentially becoming immortal by rejuvenating their telomeres. What can humans learn from the process?
Shop Immortal Face & Body Moisturiser SPF15 online. We promise good ingredients at great prices, helping you make better choices. Get Rewards & fast delivery.
Hi all, Im needing a way to parallelize to lines of a process, with different logic in each line that includes user dialogs calls and many other logic steps. Split component is not valid as documentation referes. How can I do that? after each line completes the process steps in each one, they are j...
Centrul medical MEDREFELEX LINE din Cluj-Napoca va ajuta sa gasiti informatii complete despre . Va stam la dispozitie cu tratamente eficiente, pe baze naturiste, prin metode alternative: masaj, reflexoterapie, mezoterapie, electropunctura, ultrasunete pentru o gama larga de afectiuni reumatice, neurologice,vasculare, urologice sau endocrinologice.
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... Next, the transforming activities of the rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines were measured after being digested with ... Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later ... Marshall, CJ; Hall, Allan; Weiss, RA (1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): 171 ...
"Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ... from the transformed mouse cell line 3T3-DM. Mdm2 overexpression, in cooperation with oncogenic Ras, promotes transformation of ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of signal ...
Hashiro, G; Loh, PC; Yau, JT (1977). "The preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines". Archives ... cells to recognize and attack cancer cells; and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor- ... Duncan, MR; Stanish, SM; Cox, DC (1978). "Differential sensitivity of normal and transformed human cells to reovirus infection ... It has since been shown to replicate specifically in cells that have an activated Ras pathway with very little effect in cells ...
Hashiro, G; Loh, PC; Yau, JT (1977). "The preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines". Archives ... cells to recognize and attack cancer cells; and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor- ... Duncan, MR; Stanish, SM; Cox, DC (1978). "Differential sensitivity of normal and transformed human cells to reovirus infection ... This cycle of infection, replication and cell death is believed to be repeated until all tumour cells carrying an activated Ras ...
Hopefully, some of these transformed cells end up in the germ line. A transformed gamete will give rise to an organism with no ... Hybrid dysgenesis refers to the high rate of mutation in germ line cells of Drosophila strains resulting from a cross of males ... The hybrid dysgenesis phenotype is affected by the transposition of P elements within the germ-line cells of offspring of P ... Transposition only occurs in germ-line cells, because a splicing event needed to make transposase mRNA does not occur in ...
"Biological and Biochemical Characterization of an SV40 Transformed Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cell Line". Experimental Cell Research ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Hays EF; Nowinski RC; Haseltine WA (1982). "Structure of Retroviral RNAs Produced by Cell Lines ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Tenney DY; Reimold AM; Haseltine WA (1981). "Novel Leukemogenic Retroviruses Isolated from Cell Line ... After he was briefed on the project to isolate human embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells at Geron Corporation in ...
"A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): 171-3. doi:10.1038/299171a0. PMID 6287287. ... Padua RA, Barrass NC, Currie GA (1985). "Activation of N-ras in a human melanoma cell line". Mol. Cell. Biol. 5 (3): 582-5. PMC ... "Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line". PNAS. 80 (2): 383-7. ... 1986). "Transforming genes in human leukemia cells". Blood. 66 (6): 1371-8. PMID 2998510. Neri A, Knowles DM, Greco A, et al. ( ...
Cao X, Tay A, Guy GR, Tan YH (April 1996). "Activation and association of Stat3 with Src in v-Src-transformed cell lines". ... "Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions". Molecular Cancer. 5 (1 ... STAT3 mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular ... Zhang J, Yang J, Roy SK, Tininini S, Hu J, Bromberg JF, Poli V, Stark GR, Kalvakolanu DV (August 2003). "The cell death ...
"Increased expression of microRNA-155 in Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer ... or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed cells through induction of BIC expression". Journal of Virology. 85 (16): ... leukemic cells to healthy B cells and promote their transformation to tumorigenic-like cells Selection of competent B cells ... that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Together these results ...
This benzophenanthridine alkaloid can induce apoptosis in some transformed or malignant cell lines. D-Chelidonine, the main ... Plant and Cell Physiology, 1(26), 4. Necas, M., Dostal, J., Kejnovska, I., Vorlickova, M., & Slavik, J. (2005). Molecular and ... Kemeny-Beke, A., Aradi, J., Beck, Z., Facsko, A., Berta, A., & Bodnar, A. (2006). Apoptotic response of uveal melanoma cells ...
"Entrez Gene: MCF2 MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence". Ron D, Zannini M, Lewis M, et al. (1991). "A region of proto- ... dbl essential for its transforming activity shows sequence similarity to a yeast cell cycle gene, CDC24, and the human ... evidence that its overexpression is sufficient to transform NIH/3T3 cells". EMBO J. 7 (8): 2465-73. PMC 457116 . PMID 3056717. ... Cell. Biol. 21 (2): 425-37. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.2.425-437.2001. PMC 86589 . PMID 11134331. Vanni C, Mancini P, Gao Y, et al. ( ...
"Entrez Gene: MCF2L MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence-like". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... A conditional knockout mouse line called Mcf2ltm1a(EUCOMM)Hmgu was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and ...
... flattened cells). These cells are also derived from epiblast which is transformed into ectoderm. The amniotic cavity is ... Soon amniogenic (amnion forming cells) amnioblasts separate from the epiblast and line the amnion, which encloses the amniotic ... The floor is formed by the epiblast which later on transforms to ectoderm while the remaining cells which are present between ... Cells from the yolk sac endoderm form a layer of connective tissue, the extraembryonic mesoderm, which surrounds the amnion and ...
Shih, C.; Weinberg, R.A. (1982). "Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line". Cell. 29 (1 ...
Shih, C.; Weinberg, R. A. (1982). "Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line". Cell. 29 (1 ... The Kendall/MIT MBTA Red Line station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in Kendall Square. The Cambridge ... In 2006-2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American stem-cell scientist professor James Sherley reignited accusations of ... Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".[288] ...
"Comparison of mouse and human NASP genes and expression in human transformed and tumor cell lines". Gene. 274 (1-2): 67-75. doi ... The somatic form is expressed in all mitotic cells, is localized to the nucleus, and is coupled to the cell cycle. The ... Cell. 17 (2): 301-11. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.018. PMID 15664198. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005). "Towards a ... In male germ cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes, the nucleus of spermatids, and the ...
"Identification of the HPV-16 E6 protein from transformed mouse cells and human cervical carcinoma cell lines". The EMBO Journal ...
"CCR5 receptor antagonists block metastasis to bone of v-Src oncogene-transformed metastatic prostate cancer cell lines". Cancer ... When T-cells modified so they no longer express CCR5 were mixed with unmodified T-cells expressing CCR5 and then challenged by ... as HIV-1 kills the non-modified T-cells. This same method might be used in vivo to establish a virus-resistant cell pool in ... dendritic cells, eosinophils, microglia and a subpopulation of ether breast or prostate cancer cells. It is likely that CCR5 ...
"Epigenetic regulation of the human p53 gene promoter by the CTCF transcription factor in transformed cell lines". Oncogene. 29 ... Histone modification profiles of healthy and cancerous cells tend to differ. In comparison to healthy cells, cancerous cells ... In fact, cancer cell genomes have 20-50% less methylation at individual CpG dinucleotides across the genome. In cancer cells " ... In somatic cells, patterns of DNA methylation are in general transmitted to daughter cells with high fidelity. However, ...
Hall A, Marshall CJ, Spurr NK, Weiss RA (1983). "Identification of transforming gene in two human sarcoma cell lines as a new ... Marshall CJ, Hall A, Weiss RA (September 1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): ... "Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line". PNAS. 80 (2): 383-7. ... cell differentiation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and cell migration. Ras and Ras-related proteins are often deregulated in ...
1993). "Differential expression of MAGE-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA in transformed and normal human cell lines". Cancer Res. 53 ...
Platelet-derived growth factor-modulated proteins: constitutive synthesis by a transformed cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... A model of cell cycle control: sequential events regulated by growth factors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1983 Aug;31(2-3):167-86. ... Pledger's research focuses on the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression. He was the first to show that the cell cycle is ... His current projects address the impact of cell cycle inhibition on tumor cell survival, and the hallmarks of cancer during the ...
... is a spontaneously transformed aneuploid immortal keratinocyte cell line from adult human skin, widely used in scientific ... "Normal Keratinization in a Spontaneously Immortalized Aneuploid Human Keratinocyte Cell Line". The Journal of Cell Biology. 106 ... Lehmann, Bodo (1 January 1997). "HaCaT Cell Line as a Model System for Vitamin D3 Metabolism in Human Skin". Journal of ... "Lipid composition and synthesis of HaCaT cells, an immortalized human keratinocyte line, in comparison with normal human adult ...
... is not critical to regulate the G2/M genes in HPV-transformed cell lines". Anticancer research. 34 (11): 6557-63 ... Apart from its role in cell cycle control, the DREAM complex has been shown to be involved in the programmed cell death of ... Due to its regulatory role in the cell cycle, targeting the DREAM complex might enhance anticancer treatments such as imatinib ... Journal of Cell Science. 125 (Pt 10): 2393-406. doi:10.1242/jcs.097253. PMID 22344256. Beall, E. L.; Lewis, P. W.; Bell, M.; ...
AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line ... The transforming cellular sequences, v-akt, were cloned from a transformed mink cell clone and these sequences were used to ... and mammalian target of rapamycin in transformed NK cells". J. Immunol. 174 (9): 5261-9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.174.9.5261. PMID ... and PKCzeta mediates keratin K10-induced cell cycle arrest". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (21): 7449-59. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.21.7449- ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... in line with the gateway drug theory - and also between sugar consumption and the self-administration of drugs of abuse.[20] ... exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
In ras transformed cell lines, these kinases are constitutively activated [29].. *Two mouse transformed cell lines of different ... Associations of Cell Line, Transformed with chemical compounds. *Transformed cell lines expressed thymidine kinase activity of ... Biological context of Cell Line, Transformed. *Analysis of several of the latter transformed cell lines suggested that loss of ... Anatomical context of Cell Line, Transformed. *The transformed cell lines remained tumorigenic in mice and the chimeric ...
... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have... ... Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line. ... Somatic Cell cDNA Library cDNA Clone Mapping Study Cell Hybrid These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have constructed a cDNA library using RNA ...
In order to keep the antigens in their native forms, cells were fixed in acetone-methanol. The cells are arrayed on a 12-well ( ... transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA ) from GeneTex,Human 293 cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium (Eagle) with 2 mM L- ... A - 20 cell line slides ( mouse: B lymphocyte; reticulum cell sarcoma ) from GeneTex. 9. MOLT - 4 cell line slides ( human: T ... NIH / 3T3 cell line slides ( mouse: embryo ) from GeneTex. 3. P815 cell line slides ( mouse: mast cell; mastocytoma ) from ...
... Dima Klenchin klenchin at facstaff.REMOVE_TO_REPLY.wisc.edu Sat ... Next message: How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? ... Next message: How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? ... What stuck in my head is that resulting cell line(s) in many respects has very little little in common with the primary cells ...
Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1987 May;13(3):235-44. Comparative Study; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line.. Cahilly-Snyder ... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have constructed a cDNA library using RNA ... these cells and have isolated cDNA clones representing sequences that are amplified and overexpressed in these 3T3-DM cells. ...
... in cell line development and recombinant protein expression. ... Dr Fay Saunders, UK Head of Upstream Mammalian Cell Culture, ... Application Note: Transforming Cell Line Development Processes with Cyto-Mine®. 17 September 2019 ... T cell characterization combining advanced flow cytometry with live-cell... Register Now ... in cell line development and recombinant protein expression. ... Cell Lines, Stem Cells and Primary Cells * DNA / RNA Extraction ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that ... predicts successful outgrowth of EBV-infected growth transformed cells. In contrast, CD23hiCD58+ cells do not emerge when cells ... Establishment of Epstein-Barr Virus Growth-transformed Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines. Joyce Hui-Yuen1,2, Shane McAllister1,2, Siva ... We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that ...
Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ...
Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre). Arun K ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ...
Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ...
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001 Apr;24(4):398-404. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Microsatellite instability in transforming growth factor-beta 1 type II receptor gene in alveolar lining epithelial cells of ... Although hyperplastic lesions of alveolar lining epithelial cells (ALECs) are characteristic pathologic features of IPF, the ... To detect a deletion in the polyadenine tract in exon 3 of the T beta RII gene, cells were isolated by microdissection from ...
Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy. Author(s): Enrique ... Title:Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy ... cancer cell line. Abstract:In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) ... "Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy", Current Physical ...
Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell Lines in ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ...
We first established the relative TGFβ1 sensitivity in 6 epithelial cell lines. Non-malignant MCF10A, breast cancer cell line ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines. ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines ...
Transformed clones were obtained only with the carcinogen. Some of the transformed clones were responsible for cell lines that ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ...
Malignant glioma cell lines secrete both active and latent TGF-β ligands. Human malignant glioma cell lines were grown in serum ... 28), we investigated the expression of these receptors in each of our cell lines. All of the cell lines expressed the type I ... Bigner provided the human glioma cell lines D54MG, D270MG, U373MG, D423MG, and D538MG. The cell lines were maintained in an ... Transforming growth factor-β1, -β2, and -β3 secreted by a human glioblastoma cell line. Identification of small and different ...
72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines. FIONA BRITTON, BIRGITTE MUNCH- ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ...
The transformed cells (designated 293 cells) exhibited many of the characteristics of transformation including the elaboration ... different in a number of respects from that seen in other human cells. On labelling the surface of cells by lactoperoxidase ... Analysis of the polypeptides synthesized in the 293 cells by labelling with 35S-methionine and SDS PAGE showed a variable ... Summary Human embryonic kidney cells have been transformed by exposing cells to sheared fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA. ...
Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy. Publication: ... We have been able to identify certain bands in the spectra which are so-called biomarkers for two types of cell lines, three ... In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell ... Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes and differences in these cells lines utilizing FTIR spectroscopy ...
... increases the level of 125I-EGF binding in several clones of the transformed cell lines. One such cell line, GP6ac, which ... Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor induction by retinoic acid in a chemically transformed rat liver cell line ... expression vary widely among cell lines derived clonally from a chemically transformed population of rat liver epithelial cells ... Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A that stimulates differentiation in a number of embryonal cell lines, ...
293 (human kidney; transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA) cell line slides. NEW ... 293 (kidney; transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA)Human 293 cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium (Eagle) with 2 mM L- ... The 293 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wellis surface ... A follow-up heat dehydration process was done to ensure the attachment of 293 cells and the stability of cellular proteins. ...
... transformed-human epithelial cells) and WI-38 (non-transformed human fibroblast cells), we detected cell growth inhibition, but ... Cell Culture. Cell lines transformed with HPV 16 genome: SiHa (human, HPV 16-positive) and BMK-16/myc (murine, HPV 16-positive ... dependent and the BMK-16/myc cell line had greater inhibition of cell growth inhibition by both IFNs than did SiHa cells. In ... dependent on human and murine HPV 16-transformed cells (Figures 1 and 2). The BMK-16/myc cell had greater cell growth ...
... on two closely related myeloma cell lines, OPM-1 and OPM-2. Earlier studies showed that both cell lines contain glucocorticoid ... Actions and interactions of glucocorticoids and transforming growth factor beta on two related human myeloma cell lines. BH ... Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 4, Issue 1 25-30, Copyright © 1993 by American Association of Cancer Research ... These data suggest that the glucocorticoid effect(s) on myeloma cells may be mediated at least in part through modulation of ...
Regulation of fibronectin biosynthesis by dexamethasone, transforming growth factor beta, and cAMP in human cell lines. D C ... and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was examined in six human cell lines. Dexamethasone treatment produced the ... Forskolin and TGF-beta increase the rate of FN gene transcription in most of the cell lines. These effects (four- to six-fold) ... is observed and this induction is different from that in the normal fibroblasts and the other cell lines in that both protein ...
  • Using DNAs from a panel of Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrids together with in situ hybridization protocols for gene mapping studies, we have found that these DM-associated, amplified DNA sequences originate from mouse chromosome 10, region C1-C3. (springer.com)
  • Microsatellite instability in transforming growth factor-beta 1 type II receptor gene in alveolar lining epithelial cells of idiopathic pulmonary f. (nih.gov)
  • To detect a deletion in the polyadenine tract in exon 3 of the T beta RII gene, cells were isolated by microdissection from lung sections of IPF patients, and DNA was extracted from these cells and amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Forskolin and TGF-beta increase the rate of FN gene transcription in most of the cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • Normal human breast epithelial cells were transfected with expression vectors containing the p53 gene mutated at either codon 143, 175, 248 or 273, or by infection with a recombinant retroviral vector containing the p53 gene mutated at codons 143, 175, 248, or 273. (isharonline.org)
  • PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a role in several cellular processes, including cell division, signal transduction, gene expression, and development ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • These cell lines are useful for genetic analyses, and thus we are providing these cell lines for researches including analyses of gene and genome. (riken.jp)
  • Finally, a single cell line, G2 exhibited the properties of a cell line with an activated tumor suppressor gene. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Thus, the G2 cell line belongs to the class of recently reported revertants that result from activation of a dominant transformation-suppressor gene(s). (usherbrooke.ca)
  • In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell lines (T637, BHK21-Ad2E1A-E1B, and BHK21-Ad2 HindIII-G), the transcription of the c-jun gene was increased, whereas c-myc transcription was decreased in the latter two cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We transfected the gene encoding hTRT into telomerase-negative human normal fibroblast cells and demonstrated that expression of wild-type hTRT induces telomerase activity, whereas hTRT mutants containing mutations in regions conserved among other reverse transcriptases did not. (nih.gov)
  • The basal-to-apical transport of [14C]epinastine was markedly higher than that in the opposite direction in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells stably transfected with human multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Individuals bearing germ line mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene are predisposed to the development of highly angiogenic tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of the transforming gene from Rous sarcoma virus, v-src, induces a rapid and dramatic reduction in cell-to-cell communication in cultured cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later characterised as N-ras , a member of the Ras gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data also imply that in cells containing a translocation between the long arm of chromosome 8 and a chromosome bearing an immunoglobulin gene, alteration of cellular myc expression may occur regardless of the immunoglobulin gene that is expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the third RAS gene to be discovered, and was named NRAS, for its initial identification in human neuroblastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal cells, CpG islands preceding gene promoters are generally unmethylated, and tend to be transcriptionally active, while other individual CpG dinucleotides throughout the genome tend to be methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in cancer cells, CpG islands preceding tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated, while CpG methylation of oncogene promoter regions and parasitic repeat sequences is often decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third ras gene was subsequently discovered by researchers in the group of Robin Weiss at the Institute of Cancer Research, and Michael Wigler at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, named NRAS, for its initial identification in human neuroblastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An eight-amino acid residue (326-333) in actin has been shown to mediate the interaction between actin and eNOS Recurrent mutations in this gene have been associated to cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The JCaM1.6 cell line is deficient in Lck kinase activity due to the deletion of part of the lck gene (exon 7) from the Lck transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • In melanocytic cells RUNX3 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sequences are absent in the product of the transforming NPM-ALK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EML4-ALK fusion gene is responsible for approximately 3-5% of non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some cancer cell lines, and in embryonic day 15 in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this gene was isolated as a transforming gene from a melanoma cell line, no linkage between MEL and malignant melanoma has been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral vector's responsibility was to increase the gene synthesis and production of NADP in these phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of this gene can be induced by IL-2, IL-3, GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-type specific gene expression patterns during development occur as the result of interactions the chromatin level. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was soon demonstrated to be capable to transform rodent fibroblasts to cancerous cell lines, so this gene was given the name Virus-induced Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma (V-RAF). (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, another transforming gene was found in the avian retrovirus MH2, named v-Mil - that turned out to be highly similar to v-Raf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal cellular homologs of v-Raf and v-Mil were soon found in both the mouse and chicken genome (hence the name c-Raf for the normal cellular Raf gene), and it became clear that these too had a role in regulating growth and cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the laboratory it is used for the selection and maintenance of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that contain the hygromycin resistance gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although expression levels of MSH3 vary slightly from tissue to tissue, its widespread low-level expression indicates that it is a "housekeeping" gene commonly expressed in all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These native pathways are disrupted in the presence of the mutant Src gene (v-Src) such that oncogenesis becomes more likely for the infected host cells, since the v-Src gene is translated into a functionally distinct version of its host counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian HSP90AA1 along with HSP90AB1 gene expression was first characterized in transformed mouse cells where it was shown that HSP90AB1 is constitutively expressed 2.5-fold higher than HSP90AA1 under normal conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • A follow-up heat dehydration process has been performed to ensure the attachment of cells and the stability of cellular proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • On the basis of the prediction that other interferon-inhibiting viral transforming proteins behave similarly, we found that Epstein-Barr virus-induced nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) also binds p300/CBP, and that both EBNA2 and adenovirus E1A transactivate MYC through the PRF element. (pnas.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that viral transforming proteins can activate as well as inhibit transcription through coadaptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Expression levels of chaperone proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 in reverse transformed neuroblastoma cell lines. (biotechniques.org)
  • To identify EMT-related breast cancer therapeutic targets and biomarkers, we have used two proteomic approaches to find proteins that change in abundance upon the induction of EMT by TGF-β in two mouse mammary epithelial cell lines, NMuMG and BRI-JM01. (gc.ca)
  • Results: Preliminary experiments based on two-dimensional electrophoresis of a hydrophobic cell fraction identified only 5 differentially expressed proteins from BRI-JM01 cells. (gc.ca)
  • Using these approaches, we identified several proteins that are modulated during the EMT process, including cell adhesion molecules (several members of the Integrin family, Fibronectin, Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, and Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) and regulators of cellular signaling (Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2, Basigin). (gc.ca)
  • We present experimental evidence for the localization of convex membrane proteins in these structures, and their insensitivity to inhibition of myosin II contractility in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts cell cultures. (nih.gov)
  • This work demonstrates the importance of curved membrane proteins in organizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell shape. (nih.gov)
  • Many cell surface proteins in mammalian cells are anchored to the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Indeed, cells defective in dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAP-AT) or alkyl-DHAP synthase express only the diacyl form of GPI-anchored proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Disclosed are novel proteins, referred to as truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (truncated GDNF) proteins, that promote dopamine uptake by dopaminergic cells and promote the survival of nerve cells. (google.com)
  • Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ras is the prototypical member of the Ras superfamily of proteins, which are all related in 3D structure and regulate diverse cell behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with maternal immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins are a conserved family of centrosome- and microtubule-interacting proteins that are implicated in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work in the field of cell signalling showed how RAS and other signalling proteins are involved in transmitting signals from outside of the cell all the way to the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be specific: oxidized lipoprotein particles in the artery wall are an irritant which causes the release of proteins (called cytokines) which attract monocyte white blood cells (white blood cells are the inflammatory cells within the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis, adipogenesis etc and in several other developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RGD motif is found in many extracellular matrix proteins modulating cell adhesion and serves as a ligand recognition sequence for several integrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001, Bui and Schreiber, 2007) RAG proteins are necessary for the recombination events necessary to produce TCRs and Igs, and as such RAG-2 deficient mice are incapable of producing functional T, B or NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells, through mutation, may actually have mutations in some of the proteins involved in antigen presentation, and as such, evade an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the preclinical successes showing that many N- or K-Ras transformed cell lines (and even tumor cell lines that do not harbor Ras mutations) are sensitive to FTase inhibitors due to inhibition of farnesylation of a number of other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins can exist in a cell in various locations, and the addition of a farnesyl group targets proteins to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Hsp90 stabilizes a variety of proteins required for survival of cancer cells, these substances may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various types of malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • So since the molecular chaperones are overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer cells and in virally transformed cells, inhibiting the function of these chaperones is essential to controlling cancer cells, as this would affect the activity of signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSP 90 is required for ATP dependent refolding of denatured or unfolded proteins and for the conformational maturation of a subset of proteins involved in the response of cells to extracellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like in HIV's replication cycle, these proteins are needed for viral budding from the host cell's plasma membrane, where the fully formed virions leave the cell to infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • and with specific proteins on the surfaces of cells) determines whether triglycerides and cholesterol will be added to or removed from the lipoprotein transport particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the high level expression of AP-1 and its binding proteins were found to be associated with mutant Ki-Ras suggesting the high expression of matrilysin in Ras activated cells is AP-1 dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human glioma cell lines and human squamous cell carcinoma cell line II-4, TGF-β stimulates the expression of MMP7 mRNA and proteins, and facilities the invasive behavior of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIRF is a viral transcription factor that inhibits interferon signaling and transforms NIH 3T3 cells, but does not bind interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) DNA sequences. (pnas.org)
  • At 12 hours post treatment, released Virus titer was not changed in supernate of treated cells while a significant decrease in viral particles was observed in collected supernate of treated cells at 36 hours after treatment with IFN-α 2b . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to determine whether such transformed cell lines could be used as antigen presenting cells to analyse the antigenic specificity of bovine CD8 T cell responses to viral infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD8 + T cells are important mediators of immunity to many viral infections [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They recognise antigenic peptides presented in association with MHC class I molecules on the surface of infected cells and respond by lysing the cells or secreting cytokines that can limit viral replication and mediate recruitment of inflammatory cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During viral infection, mice lacking STAT3 in T-cells display impairment in the ability to generate T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells and fail to maintain antibody based immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structure is essential in enabling the viral entry of HIV-1 into a target host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of this complex stimulates the release of a fusogenic peptide inducing the fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the target host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell signaling, and the expression of various chemokine receptors susceptible to viral entry, particularly HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus contains a reverse transcriptase molecule found to perform transcription of the viral genetic material upon entering the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the viral genome are DNA sequences that code for specific enzymes effecting the incorporation of the viral DNA into the host cell genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral DNA is then sent into the nucleus of the host cell where it is then incorporated into the host cell's genome with the help of the viral enzyme integrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • From there the host cell performs transcription and translation to create viral particles and assemble virions which then burst from the host cell when enough are made. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIK cells are being studied intensely as a possible therapy treatment for cancer and other types of viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular localization of T antigen and p53 was mostly nuclear in both SVpre-crisis and SVpost-crisis cells, however certain population doubling (PD) of the SVpre-crisis cells exhibited some cytoplasmic staining. (isharonline.org)
  • Introduction of SV40 sequences encoding large T antigen and small t antigen into pre-senescent cells results in an extension of lifespan for an additional 20-30 population doublings. (isharonline.org)
  • On the basis of technology, the market is segmented into SV40 large T-antigen, MycT58A, p53 Cell, and other technologies. (medgadget.com)
  • CV-1, an established line of simian cells permissive for lytic growth of SV40, were transformed by an origin-defective mutant of SV40 which codes for wild-type T antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Double immunofluorescence studies of K14 keratinocytes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin antibodies, which react with the nuclei of cells engaged in DNA replication, showed partial colocalization of PCNA/cyclin foci and large uH2A clusters in about 14% of the S-phase cells, and these corresponded mainly to late S-phase cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Efficient activation of specific CD8 T cells requires, in addition to antigenic recognition, interaction with co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 on the antigen presenting cells (APC) [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID/bg and NOD/SCID mice have reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity and were inoculated intraperitoneally with HTLV-1 transformed cells to refine and characterize the SCID mouse as a small animal model for investigation of HTLV-1 tumorigenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • HTLV-1 transformed cell lines originally derived by cocultivation of uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with lethally irradiated leukemic cells from patient samples (SLB-1, MT-2 and HT-1-RV) were lymphomagenic when inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The higher level of engraftment of HTLV-1 transformed cell lines in NOD/SCID mice suggests that this is an effective animal model to investigate molecular determinants of HTLV-1 lymphomagenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The past year has seen the ectopic expression of human telomerase and the consequent increased replicative lifespan of cells, whereas mice lacking telomerase have lived and reproduced for six generations. (isharonline.org)
  • The cells are not, however, tumorigenic in immunosuppressed mice, but do form colonies in a semisolid medium. (fsu.edu)
  • The expression of class II MHC on CD4 + T cells occurs in most mammalian species ( 3 ), the exception being mice, which do not transcribe the CIITA promoter III in CD4 + T cells ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Herein, with this newly-established cell line, we uncovered that diabetes promoted CUP-1 xenograft growth in syngeneic db-db mice. (duhnnae.com)
  • Banks-Schlegel S, Green H (1980) Formation of epidermis by serially cultivated human epidermal cells transplanted as an epithelium to athymic mice. (springer.com)
  • The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, administration of the antibody prolonged survival of SCID mice implanted with JOK-1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) Another experiment involving IFN-γ−/− (Interferon γ) showed that these mice are more likely do develop certain types of cancers as well, and suggests a role of CD4+ T cells in tumor immunity, which produce large amounts of IFN-γ (Street et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002) Perforin deficient mice were also shown to have a reduced ability to ward off MCA induced cancers, suggesting an important role of CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wells surface specifically treated to enhance cellular attachment and to minimize background staining. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Immortalized cell line is a group of cells, which is acquired from multicellular organism growing rapidly due to mutation and avoids the normal cellular senescence. (medgadget.com)
  • Autophagy is activated in response to cellular stressors and mediates lysosomal degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic material and organelles as a temporary cell survival mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • In order to provoke malignant conversion HaCaT cells were transfected with mutated cellular Ha-ras (val-12). (springer.com)
  • The transforming cellular sequences, v-akt, were cloned from a transformed mink cell clone and these sequences were used to identify Akt1 and Akt2 in a human clone library. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, LT-α effects depend on the type of organ it acts upon, type of cancer cells, cellular environment, gender, and time of effect during an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name foamy virus can be attributed to the foamy appearance of the cells upon rapid lysation and syncytium formation, vacuolization and cellular death, which is also known as a cytopathic effect (CPE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIA Aging Cell Repository The NIA Aging Cell Repository facilitates molecular and cellular research on the causes of aging and the mechanisms of degeneration with which they are associated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms function in all cells, both muscle and nonmuscle cells, and are involved in a range of cellular pathways that control and regulate the cell's cytoskeleton and other key cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xuan Feng NVH, Ratner L: Alpha interferon inhibits humanT-cell leukemia virus type-l assembly by preventing Gag interation with rafts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD47 is a high affinity receptor for thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a role in vascular development and angiogenesis, and in this later capacity the TSP1-CD47 interaction inhibits nitric oxide signaling at multiple levels in vascular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, miR-19, CYLD and NF-kB form a regulatory feedforward loop, which provides new clues for sustained activation of NF-kB in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? (bio.net)
  • Visualizing the Microtubule and Filamentous Actin Networks in Chicken Embryo Fibroblast Cells - The microtubule network from the adherent culture of UMNSAH/DF-1 fibroblast cells presented in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies (IgG) conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568 (yielding red emission). (fsu.edu)
  • The primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were transferred (the "T") every 3 days (the first "3"), and inoculated at the rigid density of 7005300000000000000♠3×105 cells per 20 cm2 dish (the second "3") continuously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, the comparison of the cell-specific proteome and HLA-G-restricted ligandome clearly demonstrates a tissue-specific peptide selection by HLA-G molecules. (springer.com)
  • Part of a family of enhanced Tissue Culture (TC)-treated surfaces that alter the surface charge of culture vessels, CellBIND surface improves the attachment and growth of fastidious cell types. (corning.com)
  • COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells from the yolk sac endoderm form a layer of connective tissue, the extraembryonic mesoderm, which surrounds the amnion and yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Todaro and Green originally obtained their 3T3 cells from Swiss albino mouse embryo tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDM2 is also required for organ development and tissue homeostasis because unopposed p53 activation leads to p53-overactivation-dependent cell death, referred to as podoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the process by which T cells are attracted to specific tissue and organ targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, researchers have often used the two names interchangeably, but it is generally accepted that podosomes are the structures involved in normal biological processes (like when immune cells need to cross tissue barriers or in bone remodeling) and invadopodia are the structures in invading cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a throat culture is taken by scraping the lining of tissue in the back of the throat and blotting the sample into a medium to be able to screen for harmful microorganisms, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of strep throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toward that goal, we have constructed a cDNA library using RNA from these cells and have isolated cDNA clones representing sequences that are amplified and overexpressed in these 3T3-DM cells. (springer.com)
  • Transformed clones were obtained only with the carcinogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using CD4 + T cell clones that constitutively express class II MHC, we determined that cathepsin S is necessary for invariant chain proteolysis in T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate, using CD4 + T cell clones, that CatS is a key enzyme required for proteolysis of Ii in CD4 + HLA-DR + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Autologous T. annulata -transformed cells infected with BHV-1 were then used successfully to generate specific CD8 T cell lines and clones from memory T cell populations of BHV-1-immune animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such systems can also permit the generation of T cell clones, allowing analysis of responses at the clonal level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The derived cell clones could be classified according to their growth properties in vivo into one (1) non-tumorigenic (growing as surface epithelia) and two tumorigenic groups, forming either (2) benign cysts or (3) well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • A pure culture may originate from a single cell or single organism, in which case the cells are genetic clones of one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Red Herring is reporting that the WiCell Research Institute , a private laboratory affiliated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has successfully tested a new medium for growing stem cells without animal products. (medgadget.com)
  • Until now, when biologists grew stem cells in a medium, they carefully included a complicated mixture of hormones, growth factors, and blood serum that came from animal cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Owing to increasing in adoption of these cell lines in stem cell therapy drives the growth of the market. (medgadget.com)
  • On the basis of applications, the market is segmented into stem cell therapy, cell transplantation, drug transport and other applications. (medgadget.com)
  • This paper is designed to investigate the sensitivity of malignantly transformed cell line (ihDCTC) induced by glioma stem cells (GSCs) in TME to chemotherapeutic drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and promotion of transforming activity mediated by embryonic stem cell-expressed Ras (ERas) signal in neuroblastoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stem cell genomics analyzes the genomes of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single cell analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or stem cells able to differentiate into many different cell types, is a suggested method for treating such diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows for skin cells to be reprogrammed into patient-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells developed from a singular patient would also be able to be used to produce cells affected in the above mentioned diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Included in the study of stem cell genomics, is epigenomics, genomic-scale studies on chromatin regulatory variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building stem-cell genomics in California and beyond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capturing Alzheimer's disease genomes with induced pluripotent stem cells: prospects and challenges, 1-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)-but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent-to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from this it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feed back mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, but only those of a closely related family of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g. progenitor cells, which cannot self-renew). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) is an American 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, founded in the Spring of 2005, with the mission "accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF established the first privately funded stem cell laboratory in New York City, where NYSCF researchers and scientific collaborators conduct advanced stem cell investigations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation supports stem cell scientists through the NYSCF Innovator Program, and it engages the academic, medical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology communities by hosting the annual translational stem cell research conference and other symposia throughout the year. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF aims to educate the public on the importance of stem cell research in new therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation focuses on three areas: NYSCF Research and Laboratory - Supports non-government funded advanced stem cell research, in the NYSCF Research Institute laboratory and through collaborations with medical research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF awards an annual prize to honor the most significant achievement in translational stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF Conference and Symposia - Convenes the annual translational stem cell research conference and on-going programs for scientists, policymakers and the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, Susan L. Solomon co-founded The New York Stem Cell Foundation with the mission of accelerating stem cell research to cure major disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conversations with scientists and clinicians, Solomon identified stem cells as the most promising way to address unmet patient needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, NYSCF established its own laboratory, which is now one of the largest private stem cell laboratories in the United States, now referred to as The NYSCF Research Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF channels private philanthropy toward stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF has raised nearly $100 million for stem cell research both in its own laboratory and in the major medical institutions around the world that it continues to support. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2006, NYSCF opened the first privately funded human embryonic stem cell (hESC) laboratory in New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NYSCF Research Institute is home to the NYSCF Global Stem Cell Array, a proprietary, automated robotic technology that standardized production of induced pluripotent stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF Researchers Derive Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Egg Cells, Reported in Nature Time magazine-cited research led by NYSCF scientists Dieter Egli and Scott Noggle reprogrammed the adult skin cells from Type 1 diabetes patients to the pluripotent state by combining these cells with unfertilized donor eggs, as reported in Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIRM Human Pluripotent Stem Cell (hPSC) Repository The CIRM Human Pluripotent Stem Cell (hPSC) Repository is a large repository with hundreds of different pluripotent stem cell lines created for numerous diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allen Cell Collection The Allen Cell Collection is a resource of human induced pluripotent stem cells that come from the WTC-11 parental line where the patient information has been de-identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, they not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells were first generated by Shinya Yamanaka's team at Kyoto University, Japan, in 2006. (wikipedia.org)