Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL serve an anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells through inhibition of NF-kappaB. (1/8163)

To maintain the integrity of the vascular barrier, endothelial cells (EC) are resistant to cell death. The molecular basis of this resistance may be explained by the function of antiapoptotic genes such as bcl family members. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL protects EC from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and thus upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB in EC occurs upstream of IkappaBalpha degradation without affecting p65-mediated transactivation. Overexpression of bcl genes in EC does not affect other transcription factors. Using deletion mutants of Bcl-2, the NF-kappaB inhibitory function of Bcl-2 was mapped to bcl homology domains BH2 and BH4, whereas all BH domains were required for the antiapoptotic function. These data suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL belong to a cytoprotective response that counteracts proapoptotic and proinflammatory insults and restores the physiological anti-inflammatory phenotype to the EC. By inhibiting NF-kappaB without sensitizing the cells (as with IkappaBalpha) to TNF-mediated apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are prime candidates for genetic engineering of EC in pathological conditions where EC loss and unfettered activation are undesirable.  (+info)

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (2/8163)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (3/8163)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (4/8163)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (5/8163)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (6/8163)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (7/8163)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

The significance of tetramerization in promoter recruitment by Stat5. (8/8163)

Stat5a and Stat5b are rapidly activated by a wide range of cytokines and growth factors, including interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have previously shown that these signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT proteins) are key regulatory proteins that bind to two tandem gamma interferon-activated site (GAS) motifs within an IL-2 response element (positive regulatory region III [PRRIII]) in the human IL-2Ralpha promoter. In this study, we demonstrate cooperative binding of Stat5 to PRRIII and explore the molecular basis underlying this cooperativity. We demonstrate that formation of a tetrameric Stat5 complex is essential for the IL-2-inducible activation of PRRIII. Stable tetramer formation of Stat5 is mediated through protein-protein interactions involving a tryptophan residue conserved in all STATs and a lysine residue in the Stat5 N-terminal domain (N domain). The functional importance of tetramer formation is shown by the decreased levels of transcriptional activation associated with mutations in these residues. Moreover, the requirement for STAT protein-protein interactions for gene activation from a promoter with tandemly linked GAS motifs can be relieved by strengthening the avidity of protein-DNA interactions for the individual binding sites. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that a dimeric but tetramerization-deficient Stat5 protein can activate only a subset of target sites. For functional activity on a wider range of potential recognition sites, N-domain-mediated oligomerization is essential.  (+info)

When we work with cell lines in the lab, we often work with HeLa cells. They can live in a vial of nutrients, and from a small sample you can grow a large
failed to show convincing evidence of the presence of the β-catenin or BRAF mutation. Although a recent meta-analysis of 109 studies and 531 unique cases of craniopharyngioma found that patients who underwent subtotal resection and did not receive radiation therapy had a worse outcome than patients who underwent gross-total resection or those who had subtotal resection and were also treated with radiation therapy, 4 a decision was made to follow up our patient with serial MRI and to initiate radiation therapy only if there were concerns of recurrence. This was based. ...
Cells, transfections, virus propagation, and antiviral agent. The cell lines used in this work were the class I MHC-negative Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell line 721.221 (.221), .221 cells transfected with the CEACAM1 cDNA (15), and the murine thymoma BW cell line, which lacks expression of α and β chains of the TCR. Stable transfection of .221 cells expressing CEACAM6 and CEACAM5 was performed by electroporation (0.23 kV, Cap [μF] 250 μF). The cDNA for CEACAM6 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pcDNA3 expression vector, and the CEACAM5 cDNA was a kind gift from W. Zimmermann, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Muenchen, Germany) Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) were used for propagation and infection of human CMV strain AD169 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia, USA), as previously described (16). After a 1-hour period of virus adsorption to cells, 300 μg/ml of the CMV DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformate (PFA; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) was ...
Posts about ras-transformed cells were significantly more sensitive to PA than their parental cells ---------------------- profound changes in TUMOR CELL and molecular written by didymusjudasthomas
Henrietta Lacks (1920 - 1951) was an African-American woman who passed away of cervical cancer in 1951. Little did she know that her fatal tumors would hold a key to numerous medical advancements (polio vaccines and chemotherapy for example). Her biopsied cells were found to really thrive outside her body and would be used to create the first immortal cell line for medical research so that her cells are still alive today - over 60 years after her passing. Her cells were used to create the so called HeLa cell line for scientific research - currently the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. They were also the first human cells successfully cloned in 1955.. Henriettas cells have been mailed to scientists around the globe for research and scientists have grown some 20 tons of cells. Henrietta is still living today, around the globe and bigger than ever. Find out more by listening Radiolabs great short story about the subject!. ...
In 1951, cancerous tumour cells from Henrietta Lacks were cultured to create the first known human immortal cell line for medical research. It is now known as the HeLa cell line.
Hela cell is an immortal cell line used in medical research. The cell line was derived...39;s diagnosis of cancer, but a debate still continues on the classification of the cells. HeLa are termed immortal in that they can divide an unlimited number of times as long... ...
Hela cell is an immortal cell line used in medical research. The cell line was derived...39;s diagnosis of cancer, but a debate still continues on the classification of the cells. HeLa are termed immortal in that they can divide an unlimited number of times as long... ...
Telomerase activity has been detected in many human immortal cells lines and in tumor tissues, whereas it is generally absent from primary cell strains and from many tumor adjacent tissue samples. With the recently cloned ...
V.A. - IMMORTAL HARDCORE!!!! VOL.2 -EXTRAZONE- の紹介をしている特設サイトです》参加者のプロフィールや入手出来るサイトのリンクも載っています ...
On Thu, 9 Nov 1995, Gregory Bloom wrote: , Recent articles here regarding the significance of the telomere , in senescence have stated that the telomere is plenty long enough , at death in most organisms, Sorry but I do not remember the source, but from the reseach report sometime in the last year immortal cell lines were given antibodies to stop telomerase production if my memory is correct. All immortal cell lines died after total number of cell divisions for that species. I have know this for some time and have waited for someone else to post it so I would know the source. Ron Blue , My question is - what makes immortalized cell lines immortal? If you remove chromosome number one from a human cell it becomes immortal. Source Science (year unknow). , Do they suffer any of the cumulative damage from oxidation? yes if extreme , If so, are their repair mechanisms simply revved up beyond , normal mortal cells? of course, immortal does not mean immortal. , If they have active telomerase, does , ...
Derived from Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa is an immortal cell line that is useful for its remarkable prolificity and durability. It was the inspiration for the national bestseller, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, written by the incredibly attractive Rebecca Skloots. Because of their high reproductive rate, HeLa cells are a good beginner transfection cell line to test the efficacy of the CPNP delivery of the origami. ...
ECACC primary cell lines are offered from a variety of mammalian sources. Human cell lines, mouse cell lines, cancer cell lines and more are available. Sigma-Aldrich has partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures, ECACC, a world leader and recognized expert in the maintenance, cultivation and distribution of authenticated cell lines.
Reliable and risk-free cell immortalization from fibroblasts, epithelial cells, muscle cells from human, rat, mouse, porcine and bovine.
Culture cell. Confocal light micrograph of a 3t3 (mouse fibroblast) cell in culture. The nucleus is blue. Protein fibres making up the cells cytoskeleton are red and green. The cytoskeleton is a network of structural proteins, such as actin and tubulin, that supports the cells organelles and other internal structures. 3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. Magnification: x1000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock Image G442/0133
In article ,Pine.SOL.3.91.950328223136.772B-100000 at corona,, Patrick ONeil ,patrick at corona, wrote: , On Tue, 28 Mar 1995, Oliver Bogler wrote: , , , When considering ageing as a process of cells, rather than organisms, then , , it is clear that some cells, such as bacteria, or parts of organisms, , , dont age. The germline is an unbroken lineage going back to the origin of , , life, , , Even bacteria, in the strictest sense, cannot be considered immortal. , They have to actively and constantly replicate or die. The daughter , cells, due to the inherent error rate of DNA polymerases, ensures that , none are the exact replica of the progenitor. If you were to do the , equivalent, you would be a big lump of ever-dividing cancer. , You are assuming that immortal cells are cancerous. This is not the case. Immortal cells have pretty much the same limits on proliferation that normal cells have. It is true however, that continuous propagation of immortal cells may lead to some cells picking up ...
Realize a transformation or cellular immortalization. To decide, to co-operate this primary culture and to induce some change so that these cells can multiply indefinitely, let us turn them to death. In this case, we would be talking about a cell line. A set of cells that you can maintain indefinitely in cultivation to work with them comfortably.. Do you disadvantages? The immortalization process could change its phenotype (the observable characteristics derived from combining genes and the environment), and they are not identical to the original cells.. How can a cell be immortalized? It may seem like a twist, but there are only so many strategies. In this case we will focus on the method followed by these researchers: using the SV40 T large antigen.. SV40 is a virus capable of infecting both humans and humans. What is interesting? A gen that houses its genome. This gene produces the protein known as the large SV40 antigen. This protein is able to block the p53 action.. We have also spoken on ...
ATCC was entrusted with its first cell line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell line since. The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose.
ATCC was entrusted with its first cell line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell line since. The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose.
for now i have a cell line called: CEMX174(T1), and im having problems growing it, i tried everything already. i might got this cell line in a bad condition (i got it after 2 days in a 50ml falcon). if there is anyone who grew this cell line please contact me, so i can use some ideas ...
HepG3 cell line origin - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi everybody, my question seems to be quite simple, but still. Does anybody know the exact origin of HepG3 cell line and its difference from HepG2 cells? Thank you in advance! Dinar
Custom service: Gene Targeting in Cell Lines. Adding TARGATT™ sites to your cell line allows you to insert any gene of interest in that specific locus in the genome...
Dualsystems used the LRC-TriCEPS technology with a large number of different cell lines, primary cells and tissue to identify the targets. Call +41447385000
U4A Cell line human 12021504; Synonym: 2fTGH, 2fTGH-U4A; find null-null MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
PD-Dialog-BoxChartConLine-Tab. You can add the connect lines in the box chart to connect the Mean points, the Median points, the data points or the percentiles. The Connect Lines tab provides controls for customizing these connect lines. ...
Lines and angles facts - A line is a straight, thin, zero-width object that extends on both sides with no curves. An angle is the figure formed by two rays.
Line Gvajana vs WhatsChat Gvajana. WhatsChat Gvajana, je aplikacija, ki vam omogoča klepet z video in besedila z več tisoč ljudi, ki so blizu vaše trenutne lokacije, če ste v Gvajana
το κείμενο με τίτλο Red Line Walkthrough σχετίζετε με Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική
Discover our latest cell counting application notes featuring scepter, that explain the power of Scepter across a variety of cell lines.
Heres your introduction to all of the Strictly Come Dancing celebs competing in the 2020 series, one that will be shorter than previous series.
教え甲斐のある若い女の子はどこに? - ネットナンパするようになって10年以上になりますが 最近はほんと難しいなと感じます》昔はいろいろなところにコミュニティーがあり 集まっている人達が目で見てわかりました》 でも最近はmixiやLINE等で閉ざされたコミュニ … 続きを読む → ...
教え甲斐のある若い女の子はどこに? - ネットナンパするようになって10年以上になりますが 最近はほんと難しいなと感じます》昔はいろいろなところにコミュニティーがあり 集まっている人達が目で見てわかりました》 でも最近はmixiやLINE等で閉ざされたコミュニ … 続きを読む → ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retinoic acid inhibits IL-6-dependent but not constitutive STAT3 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The HeLa cell line was the first immortal human cell line that George Otto Gey, Margaret Gey, and Mary Kucibek first isolated from Henrietta Lacks and developed at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1951. An immortal human cell line is a cluster of cells that continuously multiply on their own outside of the human from which they originated. Scientists use immortal human cell lines in their research to investigate how cells function in humans.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Experiments, People, Ethics ...
The HeLa cell line was the first immortal human cell line that George Otto Gey, Margaret Gey, and Mary Kucibek first isolated from Henrietta Lacks and developed at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1951. An immortal human cell line is a cluster of cells that continuously multiply on their own outside of the human from which they originated. Scientists use immortal human cell lines in their research to investigate how cells function in humans.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Experiments, People, Ethics ...
Highly efficient procedure for production of human monoclonal antibodies: Establishment of hybrids between Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes and heteromyeloma cells by use of GIT culture medium. (1988 ...
Cell lines are an invaluable scientific tool. They allow us to dissect the internal workings of tissues in a controlled environment without the ethical implications of working with whole organisms. Starting with the first successful immortal cell line HeLa, the number of available cell lines has since diversified into a plethora of options. Just like model […]. The post Top 5 of the most commonly used cell lines! appeared first on Bitesize Bio.. ...
Because buying a new cell line is a major investment for most researchers, this trial program is a great way to test a product while saving valuable research money. The BPS rental program includes more than 40 different cell lines. These cells can be rented for three months for 50% of the purchase price. After the leasing phase, the cell line can either be bought by paying the remaining 50% of the price, or the rental period ends and the cell line must be destroyed. With this option, the risk for the customer is reduced because the full price is only paid if the desired cell line has already been validated in their own laboratory.. ...
BALB/MK keratinocyte cell line cultured in a defined medium. b Overexpressed. c FRSK cell line. d PAM212 cell line. c HPK1A cell line.. duced. Approximately 106-107 cells are injected in 0.1 ml PBS into the interscapular region of the host.19 Most malignant keratinocytes can grow subcutaneously, whereas papilloma or benign tumor cells do not form tumors94 (Table III).. 91 D. A. Greenhalgh and S. H. Yuspa, Mol Carcinog. 1, 134 (1988).. 92 C. M. Kim, J. Vogel, G. Jay, and J. S. Rhim, Oncogene 7, 1525 (1992).. 93 E. Finzi, A. Kilkenny, J. E. Strickland, M. Balaschak, T. Bringman, R. Derynck, S. Aaron-son, and S. H. Yuspa, Mot. Carcinog. 1, 7 (1988).. 94 J. E. Strickland, D. A. Greenhalgh, A. Koceva-Chyla, H. Hennings, C. Restrepo, M. Balaschak, and S. H. Yuspa, Cancer Res. 48, 165 (1988).. Was this article helpful?. ...
|strong|Two Sentence Summary:|/strong| Henrietta Lacks, a poor black woman, went to John Hopkins for treatment for cervical cancer. Doctors took some of her cancer cells without her knowledge, and those cells grew into the first line of immortal human cells that are still used in medical research today|strong||/strong| |br| |strong|One Sentence Review:|/strong| Author Rebecca Skloot deftly weaves three stories together into a book that explores the development of medical ethics and evolution of how individuals and the medical establishment think about the human body and who has control of it.
línea celular (es); কোষ লাইন (bn); lignée cellulaire (fr); Línia cel·lular immortalitzada (ca); Zelllinie (de); ceall-líne (ga); رده سلولی نامیرا (fa); 細胞系 (zh); cellelinje (da); 細胞株 (ja); клеточная линия (ru); cell line (mn); linia komórkowa (pl); клітинна лінія (uk); cellijn (nl); 細胞株 (zh-hant); קו תאים (he); خط خلية (ar); cellelinje (nn); cell line (en); ĉellinio (eo); 细胞株 (zh-hans); Besmrtna linija ćelija (bs) eukaryotic cell clone derived from an eukaryotic organism by immortalization (en); Immortalisierter eukaryotischer Zellklon entstanden aus einem Zelltyp eines Eukaryoten (de); cel-kloon (nl) линия клеток (ru); 株化細胞, 不死化細胞株 (ja); Lignée cellulaire, Lignée Cellulaire, Lignee cellulaire (fr); Immortalisierung (de); immortalised cell line that decays indefinitely and is extinguished based on the cells it has come into contact with., cell strain (en); ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Inferring pathway activity in Ras-transformed HBECs and NSCLC cells.(A) The levels of regulated phosphoprotein signatures obtained from quantitative proteomics
FSHR Cell lines available at Innoprot. HiTSeeker & FluoHiTSeeker FSHR Cell lines stably expressing FSH Receptor tag-free functionally validated.
It is interesting to discover where certain terms come from. Why did science name X this, or why did so-and-so coin Y term as they did. I have heard the term HeLa cells before, but whether I was listening or not is a mystery considering my lack of interest in science during my high school…
General directions for quick half and quarter square triangle blocks.. To make quarter square triangles units: Place two squares right side together. On the back of the lighter of the fabrics, draw a line diagonally from corner to corner. Then another line diagonally from corner to corner making an X. These will be cutting lines. Then 1/4″ on either side of one of the lines, draw 2 stitching lines on either side of the diagonal line. With two squares, right sides together, sew on the two outside stitching lines. Then cut into 2 halves on the line between the two stitching lines. Then divide those two parts on the other line. Press out and you will have 4, 1/4 square triangles. (Diagram). To make half square triangle blocks: On the back of the lighter of the fabrics, draw a line diagonally from corner to corner. Then 1/4″ on either side of one of the line, draw 2 stitching lines. (Diagram). With two squares, right sides together, sew on the two outside stitching lines. Then cut into 2 halves ...
Download Tests and Solutions for The Straight Line, Slope of a Line, Formula for finding Slope of a Line, Various Forms of Lines, Lines, Two Straight Lines
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
Five immortal cell lines derived from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome patient (MDAH 087) with a germline mutant p53 allele were characterized with respect to telomere length and genomic instability. The remaining wild-type p53 allele is lost in the cell lines. Telomerase activity was undetectable in all immortal cell lines. Five subclones of each cell line and five re-subclones of each of the subclones also showed undetectable telomerase activity. All five immortal cell lines exhibited variability in the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs). Subclones of each cell line, and re-subclones of the subclones also showed TRF variability, indicating that the variability is owing to clonal heterogeneity. Chromosome aberrations were observed at high frequencies in these cell lines including the subclones and re-subclones, and the principal types of aberrations were breaks, double minute chromosomes and dicentric chromosomes. In addition, minisatellite instability detected by DNA fingerprints was ...
A human lymphoblastoid cell line stably expressing a human cytochrome P450IA2 cDNA was developed. This recombinant cell line displayed P450IA2 protein and estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity, neither of which was detected in the parental cell line. The recombinant cell line was also approximately 1000- …
Saferali A, Grundberg E, Berlivet S, Beauchemin H, Morcos L, Polychronakos C, Pastinen T, Graham J, McNeney B, Naumova AK. Cell culture-induced aberrant methylation of the imprinted IG DMR in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Epigenetics. 2010 Jan 01; 5(1):50-60 ...
Cell lines, tissue samples, and total RNA. The cell lines used in the study were melanoma, SKmel23, SKmel28, 888mel, A375mel, 1363mel, 928mel, 624mel, 501Amel, 586mel, 526mel, 501mel, 397mel, 1362mel, 115mel, 938mel, 1102mel, C32mel, MMG1, MMG3, G361, HT144, RPMI7951, Malme3M, HS294T, WM266mel, and DC201 MEL [Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)]; colon cancer COLO205 (JCRB); breast cancer HS578 (ATCC); endometrial cancer SNGII (Keio University); renal cell cancer Caki-1 (ATCC) and RCC7 (Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute); prostate cancer LNCaP (ATCC); bladder cancer KU7 (Keio University); and brain tumor U87MG (ATCC). These cell lines were maintained in 10% fetal bovine serum-RPMI 1640. NIH3T3, K4B, 293, and COS7 cells were purchased from ATCC. 888EBV-B, 1088EBV-B, and LG2 EBV-B (EBV-transformed B cell lines) have previously been described (14). Melanocytes and keratinocytes were purchased from Kurabo. Primary cultured fibroblasts ...
Which method should be used?Some investigators found EIA to be more sensitive than IFA, particularly the anticomplement immunofluorescence technique (22); others found the EIA technology to be as sensitive as IFA or even more sensitive than EIA (23, 27). Already in the mid-1980s the results of assays performed with the first generations of EIAs correlated nicely with those of IFA with purified VCA and EBNA proteins as antigens (9). EIA performance characteristics strongly depend on the nature of the antigens and the preparation and the selection of antigens used (14). As a consequence, the differences in performance characteristics observed between IFA and EIA (i.e., relative sensitivity, relative specificity, and predictive values) are due to the use of various different forms and different selections of antigens with the EIA and to the different IFA substrates used (i.e., different prototype-derived EBV-transformed cell lines [e.g., Raji cells instead of P3HR-1 cells] for detection of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Karyotype instability and anchorage-independent growth in telomerase-immortalized fibroblasts from two centenarian individuals. AU - Mondello, Chiara. AU - Chiesa, Massimo. AU - Rebuzzini, Paola. AU - Zongaro, Samantha. AU - Verri, Annalisa. AU - Colombo, Tina. AU - Giulotto, Elena. AU - DIncalci, Maurizio. AU - Franceschi, Claudio. AU - Nuzzo, Fiorella. PY - 2003/9/5. Y1 - 2003/9/5. N2 - Several reports have shown that the ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit gene (hTERT) leads to an indefinite extension of the life span of human fibroblasts cultured in vitro without the appearance of cancer-associated changes. We infected two fibroblast strains derived from centenarian individuals with an hTERT containing retrovirus and isolated transduced massive populations (cen2tel and cen3tel). In both populations, hTERT expression reconstituted telomerase activity and extended the life span. In cen2tel, a net telomere lengthening was observed while, in cen3tel, ...
Studies have shown that wild-type hTERT protein can functionally replace the HPV-16E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. Previously, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERTci), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in cell immortalization, indicating that hTERT has immortalizing activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions. Since reports show an hTERT role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies to discover that E6, hTERT and hTERT mutated proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Pursuing in-depth studies of these targets shared by E6 and hTERT, we focused on AIB1, a nuclear coactivator known to be elevated in some cancers, and BMI1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group Repressor Complex (PRC) 1 which is known to play a role in immortalization and determining cell ...
Last week, we finished our Ask the Expert Discussion on Cell Line Authentication. Inadvertent cell line contamination is a serious concern for many researchers. Failure to monitor cell lines for contamination may result in compromised data. Current estimates are that 18% to 36% of all active cell lines are either cross-contaminated or misidentified.1
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot is the One Read book selection for the 2015 - 2016 school year. It chronicles the life and afterlife of a poor black tobacco farmer named Henrietta Lacks, also known as HeLa to the scientific community. HeLa was the name given to her cell culture, which was taken from her without her knowledge or consent in 1951. This cell culture was the first successfully immortal cell line, meaning it could divide an unlimited amount of times.. ...
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (DVD) : An African-American woman becomes an unwitting pioneer for medical breakthroughs when her cells are used to create the first immortal human cell line in the early 1950s.
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Adrenergic, B3 receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP). In addition, for total reassurance, we will provide up to two free replacements within in a 2 year period should you accidently lose your cell line ...
Under a microscope in an ordinary-looking lab housed in a nondescript industrial park, I peered at immortal human cells. They looked sleeker than their mortal cousins. At the Geron Corporation, a biotech firm in Menlo Park, California, scientists have apparently discovered how to keep healthy human cells dividing indefinitely. This genetic breakthrough is astonishing, and the long-term consequences are incalculable. When I visited the lab in mid-March, Gerons genetically altered cells had already thrived two-and-a-half times longer than their expected natural life span. And they were still dividing. Scientists associated with Geron theorized that animal cells are programmed to divide a fixed number of times in their lives, and that these program instructions are coded on the ends of the cells chromosomes. The ends erode with each cell division; after a preset number of divisions and erosions, cells stop dividing and begin to degrade. A year ago, Geron cloned a gene that produces telomerase, an ...
Looking for decay, radioactive? Find out information about decay, radioactive. The spontaneous transformation of one atomic nucleus into another with the emission of energy. The energy is released in the form of an energetic particle,... Explanation of decay, radioactive
Stable cell lines with specific gene over-expression or knock-down are very helpful in gene function analysis, target discovery, target validation, assay development, and compound screening. However, generation of stable cell lines is a time-consuming and expensive process. https://www.creative-biogene.com/products/transfected-stable-cell-lines. ...
In the new human EndoC-βH1 β-cell line, a detailed analysis of the physiological characteristics was performed. This new human β-cell line expressed all target structures on the gene and protein level, which are crucial for physiological function and insulin secretion induced by glucose and other se …
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Learn about the latest developments of Sartorius Stedim Cellcas CHO Cell Line Generation platform. Contact our scientists today!
In this article we discuss calls for researchers to authenticate cell lines an screen for cell line contamination using STR analysis and typing.
Our cell lines can be grown in commonly used cell culture medium and do not require special medium. Specific information can be found in...
Line spacing refers to the vertical distance between the base of 1 line of text and the base of the next line of text. Line spacing is traditionally known as leading for the strips of lead once used between lines of printer type. The space between lines of type is measured in points. Generally, leading is 20% larger than the copy size. For example, 10-point copy would be set on 12 points of leading or line spacing (10/12), as is shown for the body copy in Figure . Optimal line spacing requires consideration of the type size, layout density, and
Line spacing refers to the vertical distance between the base of 1 line of text and the base of the next line of text. Line spacing is traditionally known as leading for the strips of lead once used between lines of printer type. The space between lines of type is measured in points. Generally, leading is 20% larger than the copy size. For example, 10-point copy would be set on 12 points of leading or line spacing (10/12), as is shown for the body copy in Figure . Optimal line spacing requires consideration of the type size, layout density, and
I have been unable to print puzzles with the internal cell lines. Have put cell weight up to maximum and I still get no lines ...
Spike gene was integrated into the chromosomes of CHO cells to form an engineered cell line, Spike-CHO, that stably expresses Spike on the cell surface.
Find the best model for your cancer research. Our cell line references tool quickly displays Envigo oncology models and independent peer-reviewed publications to ensure you can make informed model decisions about your research.
MAC Immortal Flower Blush ($20.00 for 0.21 oz.) is described as a bright peach. This is an interesting color, because it looks like a soft peach in the p
A reference line is a line intersecting the chart plot area from a given point on one or both axes. It may be used, for example, to indicate a certain level or percentiles of chart data. The reference line is only drawn if it falls within the current range of the axis from which it origins ...
Using vb.net, I'm trying to draw lines as in the out line of a building based on data points If you do the following - Answered by a verified Programmer
플라스크의 입구주변을 소독한 후 5ml정도의 배지만 남겨놓은채 모든 배지를 제거한 후 37℃ 배양기에서 배양한다. 때로는 취급도중에 세포들이 떨어져 배지속에 부유하여 있을 수 있으므로, 플라스크 내의 모든 배지를 원심분리용관에 옮긴 후 1,000 rpm에서 3분정도 원심분리하여 cell을 모은 후, 5ml정도의 배지만 남긴 후 나머지 배지는 제거한다 ...
세포주 안전기탁을 하기 위해서는 세포주당 동결바이알 10개 이상(최대 20개)과 소정의 세포주보관기탁신청서를 제출해야 한다. 부득이한 경우 한국세포주은행과 연락하여 기탁세포주의 숫자를 정할 수있으며, 기탁자가 필요로 할 경우 한국세포주은행에서 배양, 증식, 동결보관을 대행할 수 있다 (소정의 수수료 지불). ...
Line Al Matammah vs WhatsChat Al Matammah. WhatsChat Al Matammah, je aplikacija, ki vam omogoča klepet s tako video in tekstovno načinu z več tisoč ljudi, ki so blizu vaše trenutne lokacije, če ste v Al Matammah
Pearson, Terry (25 October 1979). "Cell-mediated immunity to Theileria-transformed cell lines". Nature. 281 (5733): 678-680. ... "The major cell surface glycoprotein procyclin is a receptor for induction of a novel form of cell death in African trypanosomes ... and supervisor César Milstein to develop monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface antigens. He developed the first ...
This is a spontaneously transformed ( immortalized ) cell line. As such, it is a very convenient research tool but caution ... should be used when extrapolating these results to normal cells, and even more, to normal human cells. The MC3T3 cell line is ... describes some of the specific limitations of the cell line for understanding behavior in human cells. Kodama H. A., Amagai Y ... MC3T3 is an osteoblast precursor cell line derived from Mus musculus (mouse) calvaria. A number of derivatives of this strain ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... Next, the transforming activities of the rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines were measured after being digested with ... Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later ... Marshall, CJ; Hall, Allan; Weiss, RA (1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): 171 ...
Hashiro, G; Loh, PC; Yau, JT (1977). "The preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines". Archives ... cells to recognize and attack cancer cells; and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor- ... Duncan, MR; Stanish, SM; Cox, DC (1978). "Differential sensitivity of normal and transformed human cells to reovirus infection ... It has since been shown to replicate specifically in cells that have an activated Ras pathway with very little effect in cells ...
Hashiro, G; Loh, PC; Yau, JT (1977). "The preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines". Archives ... cells to recognize and attack cancer cells; and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor- ... Duncan, MR; Stanish, SM; Cox, DC (1978). "Differential sensitivity of normal and transformed human cells to reovirus infection ... This cycle of infection, replication and cell death is believed to be repeated until all tumour cells carrying an activated Ras ...
Hopefully, some of these transformed cells end up in the germ line. A transformed gamete will give rise to an organism with no ... Hybrid dysgenesis refers to the high rate of mutation in germ line cells of Drosophila strains resulting from a cross of males ... The hybrid dysgenesis phenotype is affected by the transposition of P elements within the germ-line cells of offspring of P ... Transposition only occurs in germ-line cells, because a splicing event needed to make transposase mRNA does not occur in ...
"Biological and Biochemical Characterization of an SV40 Transformed Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cell Line". Experimental Cell Research ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Hays EF; Nowinski RC; Haseltine WA (1982). "Structure of Retroviral RNAs Produced by Cell Lines ... Pedersen, FS; Crowther RL; Tenney DY; Reimold AM; Haseltine WA (1981). "Novel Leukemogenic Retroviruses Isolated from Cell Line ... After he was briefed on the project to isolate human embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells at Geron Corporation in ...
Marshall CJ, Hall A, Weiss RA (September 1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature. 299 (5879): ... Padua RA, Barrass NC, Currie GA (1985). "Activation of N-ras in a human melanoma cell line". Mol. Cell. Biol. 5 (3): 582-5. doi ... "Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line". PNAS. 80 (2): 383-7. ... Brown R, Marshall CJ, Pennie SG, Hall A (1984). "Mechanism of activation of an N-ras gene in the human fibrosarcoma cell line ...
"Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ... from the transformed mouse cell line 3T3-DM. Mdm2 overexpression, in cooperation with oncogenic Ras, promotes transformation of ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of signal ...
Cao X, Tay A, Guy GR, Tan YH (April 1996). "Activation and association of Stat3 with Src in v-Src-transformed cell lines". ... "Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions". Molecular Cancer. 5 (1 ... STAT3 mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular ... Zhang J, Yang J, Roy SK, Tininini S, Hu J, Bromberg JF, Poli V, Stark GR, Kalvakolanu DV (August 2003). "The cell death ...
"Increased expression of microRNA-155 in Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer ... or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed cells through induction of BIC expression". Journal of Virology. 85 (16): ... leukemic cells to healthy B cells and promote their transformation to tumorigenic-like cells Selection of competent B cells ... that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Together these results ...
This benzophenanthridine alkaloid can induce apoptosis in some transformed or malignant cell lines. D-Chelidonine, the main ... Plant and Cell Physiology, 1(26), 4. Necas, M., Dostal, J., Kejnovska, I., Vorlickova, M., & Slavik, J. (2005). Molecular and ... Kemeny-Beke, A., Aradi, J., Beck, Z., Facsko, A., Berta, A., & Bodnar, A. (2006). Apoptotic response of uveal melanoma cells ...
Platelet-derived growth factor-modulated proteins: constitutive synthesis by a transformed cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... A model of cell cycle control: sequential events regulated by growth factors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1983 Aug;31(2-3):167-86. ... Pledger's research focuses on the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression. He was the first to show that the cell cycle is ... Platelet-derived growth factor-induced alterations in vinculin and actin distribution in BALB/c-3T3 cells. J Cell Biol. 1985 ...
"Entrez Gene: MCF2 MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence". Eva A, Aaronson SA (1985-07-18). "Isolation of a new human ... "MCF.2 cell line-derived transforming sequence". DBL is the founding member of a large family of guanine nucleotide exchange ... April 1991). "A region of proto-dbl essential for its transforming activity shows sequence similarity to a yeast cell cycle ... evidence that its overexpression is sufficient to transform NIH/3T3 cells". The EMBO Journal. 7 (8): 2465-73. doi:10.1002/j. ...
"Entrez Gene: MCF2L MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence-like". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... A conditional knockout mouse line called Mcf2ltm1a(EUCOMM)Hmgu was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and ...
... flattened cells). These cells are also derived from epiblast which is transformed into ectoderm. The amniotic cavity is ... Soon amniogenic (amnion forming cells) amnioblasts separate from the epiblast and line the amnion, which encloses the amniotic ... The floor is formed by the epiblast which later on transforms to ectoderm while the remaining cells which are present between ... Cells from the yolk sac endoderm form a layer of connective tissue, the extraembryonic mesoderm, which surrounds the amnion and ...
Shih, C.; Weinberg, R.A. (1982). "Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line". Cell. 29 (1 ...
"Comparison of mouse and human NASP genes and expression in human transformed and tumor cell lines". Gene. 274 (1-2): 67-75. doi ... The somatic form is expressed in all mitotic cells, is localized to the nucleus, and is coupled to the cell cycle. The ... Cell. 17 (2): 301-11. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.018. PMID 15664198. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005). "Towards a ... In male germ cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes, the nucleus of spermatids, and the ...
The most widely employed are cytotoxicity assays on different normal or transformed cell lines, or antimicrobial assays. 3- ... It appears that the 3-APs compounds that are polymeric in nature are able to permeabilize the cells. In addition the compounds ...
"Identification of the HPV-16 E6 protein from transformed mouse cells and human cervical carcinoma cell lines". The EMBO Journal ...
"CCR5 receptor antagonists block metastasis to bone of v-Src oncogene-transformed metastatic prostate cancer cell lines". Cancer ... Cell. 139 (4): 679-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.08.048. PMC 2786256. PMID 19914164. "World-renowned cancer physician scientist ... In the cell cycle field, his research has shown the discovery that cyclins are direct transcriptional targets of oncogenic and ... Thirdly, Pestell defined key target genes required for breast cancer stem cell expansion in vivo including p21Cip1, c-Jun, the ...
"Epigenetic regulation of the human p53 gene promoter by the CTCF transcription factor in transformed cell lines". Oncogene. 29 ... Histone modification profiles of healthy and cancerous cells tend to differ. In comparison to healthy cells, cancerous cells ... In somatic cells, patterns of DNA methylation are in general transmitted to daughter cells with high fidelity. Typically, this ... Cancer cells are deferentially methylated at CpG island shores. In cancer cells, hypermethylation in the CpG island shores move ...
1993). "Differential expression of MAGE-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA in transformed and normal human cell lines". Cancer Res. 53 ...
... and CAR T cells. Genedata Bioprocess Designs next-generation manufacturing processes for cell line development, upstream and ... Genedata Biologics Transforms discovery of biotherapeutics including mAbs, bispecifics, ADCs, TCRs, ... "Data-Driven Cell-Line and Process Development , GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News , Page 5137". Retrieved 2019- ... Genedata Selector Streamlines NGS-based workflows from cell line development to biosafety. Genedata Workflow Systems provide a ...
... is a spontaneously transformed aneuploid immortal keratinocyte cell line from adult human skin, widely used in scientific ... "Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line". The Journal of Cell Biology. 106 ... Lehmann, Bodo (1 January 1997). "HaCaT Cell Line as a Model System for Vitamin D3 Metabolism in Human Skin". Journal of ... "Comparison of Primary Human Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Immortalized Cell Lines Regarding their Sensitivity to Sodium ...
... is not critical to regulate the G2/M genes in HPV-transformed cell lines". Anticancer Research. 34 (11): 6557-63 ... Apart from its role in cell cycle control, the DREAM complex has been shown to be involved in the programmed cell death of ... Due to its regulatory role in the cell cycle, targeting the DREAM complex might enhance anticancer treatments such as imatinib ... Journal of Cell Science. 125 (Pt 10): 2393-406. doi:10.1242/jcs.097253. PMID 22344256. Beall, E. L.; Lewis, P. W.; Bell, M.; ...
AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line ... The transforming cellular sequences, v-akt, were cloned from a transformed mink cell clone and these sequences were used to ... and mammalian target of rapamycin in transformed NK cells". J. Immunol. 174 (9): 5261-9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.174.9.5261. PMID ... and PKCzeta mediates keratin K10-induced cell cycle arrest". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (21): 7449-59. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.21.7449- ...
These whipworms use their anterior ends to embed themselves into the cells that line the walls of the large intestine. After ... The larvae complete their last molt 29 days after infection and transform into mature dioecious adults. ... The activation of type 2 helper cells (Th2) is decreased in the presence of antibiotics because fewer whipworms bind to the ... This, in turn, drives up the proliferation and differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells. About 18 days after infection, the worm ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... in line with the gateway drug theory - and also between sugar consumption and the self-administration of drugs of abuse.[20] ... exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... "groundbreaking invention that transformed life and culture around the world".[62] Its importance in today's society rests on ... E-line, MRT, HRT, SC-43, SC-72, TO-3, TO-18, TO-39, TO-92, TO-126, TO220, TO247, TO251, TO262, ZTX851. ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
Distribution of rods and cones along a line passing through the fovea and the blind spot of a human eye[12] ... changing the configuration of a retinal Schiff base cofactor inside the protein from the cis-form to the trans-form, causing ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
Main article: Transforming growth factor beta. During mandible development, most of it is formed through intramembranous ... Ford-Hutchinson, Alice Fiona; Ali, Zenobia; Lines, Suzen Elizabeth; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Boyd, Steven Kyle; Jirik, Frank ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα). *Kinase inhibitors: Afatinib. *AG-490. *Agerafenib ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ...
"Why more than a million Russians have lined up to see a piece of the rib of Saint Nicholas", The Washington Post, June 29, 2017 ... but Christ and the Virgin Mary appear to him in his cell.[48][54] He tells them he is imprisoned "for loving you"[48] and they ... transforming this early Greek Orthodox Bishop into that Christmas icon, Santa Claus.. ... Petersburg in mid-June prior to returning to Bari.[83] More than a million people lined up in Moscow for a momentary glimpse of ...
Meanwhile, as Domino (who was placed in a fiery prison cell) works her charm on a familiar looking kid to exploit an ... Buses still run, under an all-volunteer force since the drivers had either been eaten or transformed into demons themselves. ... and the latter story line was presented separately from the first two. ... Bob: Blue skinned, can create miniature duplicates from his blood cells.. *Russell: Possesses super speed. Often seen wearing a ...
Transform coding (using the Hadamard transform) was introduced in 1969,[34] the popular discrete cosine transform (DCT) ... such as the coding of speech for digital transmission in cell phone networks). In such applications, the data must be ... for error detection and correction or line coding, the means for mapping data onto a signal. ... most lossy compression algorithms use transforms such as the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) to convert time domain ...
In 1840 the lines were explained by French geologist Louis Agassiz as due to a lake formed in an ice age, and after many years ... The editorial processes were also transformed. In 1968 the Sectional Committees had been abolished (again). Instead, the ... of structural and cell biology, and also the new physics (which included luminaries such as Paul Dirac), she published the bulk ... describes parallel lines cut horizontally across the hillsides of Glen Roy, and proposes that they had marine origins as had ...
Unit cell of the "net"; "ligne claire" means "pale line". Effect of changing angle. ... When moving the layer patterns, the moiré patterns transform or move at a faster speed. This effect is called optical moiré ... Seen from afar, we can also see darker and paler lines: the pale lines correspond to the lines of nodes, that is, lines passing ... Line moiré[edit]. Main article: Line moiré. Line moiré is one type of moiré pattern; a pattern that appears when superposing ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... the body's first line of defense to fight infections. In 2016, the molecular mechanism was uncovered as damage to the ... Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it dimerises with ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into macrophages, ...
"3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ... The algorithms make use of fast Fourier transforms (FFT), often employing gaussian shaped soft-edged masks in reciprocal space ... Some are based on common lines (common 1D projections and sinograms), others use iterative projection matching algorithms. The ... Å resolution cryo-EM structure of β-galactosidase in complex with a cell-permeant inhibitor". Science. 348 (6239): 1147-1151. ...
Every line a weapon." [46] Illustrated journalism[edit]. Starting in 2013 Crabapple began to make trips to the Guantanamo Bay ... Using photos sent via cell phone, Crabapple recreated rare glimpses of daily life in ISIS-occupied Syria. The series so far ... How Life Has Been Transformed by Rebel Rule".[52] ... "sketching from the front lines of conflicts in the U.S. and ... "Scenes From Inside Aleppo: How Life Has Been Transformed by Rebel Rule". Vanity Fair ...
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 45:88-94. Kang HR, Cho SJ, Lee CG, Homer RJ, Elias JA. (2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 ... Hemorrhaging, signifying substantial damage to the lining of the airways and lungs, can occur with exposure to highly corrosive ... Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 41:661-70 Kang HR, Cho SJ, Lee CG, Homer RJ, Elias JA. (2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 ... 2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα). *Kinase inhibitors: Afatinib. *AG-490. *Agerafenib ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
Kelly, Nataly; Zetzsche, Jost (2012). Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World. ... Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one ... According to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy ... Another imponderable is how to imitate the 1-2, 1-2-3 rhythm in which five-syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally ...
These cells are the innate immune system's first line of defense against invading organisms.[4] ... fungi and even transformed or cancerous cells.[10] Marine fish sources have high levels of antimicrobial compounds. Testing ... Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... Mast cells[change , change source]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell in connective tissue ...
Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... When a chemical substance is transformed as a result of its interaction with another substance or with energy, a chemical ... energy levels for different chemical substances is useful for their identification by the analysis of spectral lines. Different ... used to indicate the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform ...
... contains a topographically organized map of the spatial environment made up of grid cells. This brain region thus transforms ... for example one axial line determinant is gravity (McNamara & Shelton, 2001; Kim & Penn, 2004). Axial lines aid everyone in ... Place cells are also found in the hippocampus. The parietal cortex encodes spatial information using an egocentric frame of ... Brun, V. H.; Otnaess, M. K.; Molden, S.; Steffenach, H.; Witter, M. P.; Moser, M.; Moser, E. I. (2002). "Place cells and place ...
... of cells in the cell cycle.[253]. *Mark Oliphant (1901-2000): Australian physicist and humanitarian. He played a fundamental ... As we waited in line to eat the hors d'oeuvres at a conference in Evanston, he said, "There is a prayer Jews traditionally say ... Laplace formulated Laplace's equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical ... She is the George Barth Geller Professor of Research in Molecular Biology and Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at Duke ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα). *Kinase inhibitors: Afatinib. *AG-490. *Agerafenib ...
Examples of permitted procedures involving the medical use of one's own blood include: cell salvage, hemodilution, heart lung ... After Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include earth, which will be transformed into a paradise similar to ... Jehovah provides what is needed so that all of God's people may be fitly united in the same mind and in the same line of ... transforming it into a paradise without sickness or death.[195] It is said to have been the focal point of Jesus' ministry on ...
... the actual cell of origin is unknown. Recent evidence has suggested that the initial transformed cell that generates the ... cholangiocarcinoma is known to have the histological and molecular features of an adenocarcinoma of epithelial cells lining the ... Micrograph of an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (right of image) adjacent to normal liver cells (left of image). H&E stain. ... Roskams T (June 2006). "Liver stem cells and their implication in hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma". Oncogene. 25 (27): ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... "Serum factor requirements of normal and simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 mouse fibroplasts". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 68 (3): ... PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... "Cell Death and Control of Cell Survival in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage". Cell. 70 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90531-G ...
This change in the atmosphere increased their effectiveness as nurseries of evolution.[57] While eukaryotes, cells with complex ... This innovation may have come from primitive eukaryotes capturing oxygen-powered bacteria as endosymbionts and transforming ... Trend line. "Big Five" mass extinctions. Other mass extinctions. Million years ago ... Multicellular life is composed only of eukaryotic cells, and the earliest evidence for it is the Francevillian Group Fossils ...
"WHO says Cepheid rapid test will transform TB care". Reuters. 8. prosinca 2010. Check date values in: ,date=. (help) ... Herrmann J, Lagrange P (2005). "Dendritic cells and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: which is the Trojan horse?". Pathol Biol (Paris ... "Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs-worldwide, 2000-2004". MMWR Morb Mortal ... "Systematic Review: T-Cell-based Assays for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Update". Ann. Intern. Med ...
Res geographicae is fine, but these and other permutations are sometimes too much for the little gray cells to keep straight- ... Since the time of Caesar at the latest, a syntactic transform functional in the living language has been (and in botany ... and it'd be much quicker than the progress I've been making along those lines, so it seems like a good plan. However, so I ... Spare moments are few & far between these days (aside from times when coffee is being sipped and the little gray cells are ...
For early-onset Huntington's (ages 5-15), both transgenic mice and mouse striatal cell lines show brain specific histone H3 ... IL-6 and transforming growth factor-alpha levels are elevated in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in juvenile parkinsonism and ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ...
EB transformed lymphoblast cell line of a female bonobo (Carbone #601152) EB transformed lymphoblast cell line of a female ... EB transformed lymphoblast cell line of a female bonobo (Carbone #601152). Identifiers. BioSample: SAMN11123633; Sample name: ... cell line BioProjects. PRJNA691628 Retrieve all samples from this project. PRJNA633582 Pan paniscus isolate:Carbone #601152. ... Bonobo lymphoblast cell line; SRA: SRS4489390. Organism. Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee). cellular organisms; Eukaryota; ...
In ras transformed cell lines, these kinases are constitutively activated [29].. *Two mouse transformed cell lines of different ... Associations of Cell Line, Transformed with chemical compounds. *Transformed cell lines expressed thymidine kinase activity of ... Biological context of Cell Line, Transformed. *Analysis of several of the latter transformed cell lines suggested that loss of ... Anatomical context of Cell Line, Transformed. *The transformed cell lines remained tumorigenic in mice and the chimeric ...
... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have... ... Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line. ... Somatic Cell cDNA Library cDNA Clone Mapping Study Cell Hybrid These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have constructed a cDNA library using RNA ...
In order to keep the antigens in their native forms, cells were fixed in acetone-methanol. The cells are arrayed on a 12-well ( ... transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA ) from GeneTex,Human 293 cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium (Eagle) with 2 mM L- ... A - 20 cell line slides ( mouse: B lymphocyte; reticulum cell sarcoma ) from GeneTex. 9. MOLT - 4 cell line slides ( human: T ... NIH / 3T3 cell line slides ( mouse: embryo ) from GeneTex. 3. P815 cell line slides ( mouse: mast cell; mastocytoma ) from ...
... Dima Klenchin klenchin at facstaff.REMOVE_TO_REPLY.wisc.edu Sat ... Next message: How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? ... Next message: How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? ... What stuck in my head is that resulting cell line(s) in many respects has very little little in common with the primary cells ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) express high levels of LFA-1 on their surface and grow in ... Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV ... Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV ... Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV ...
... in cell line development and recombinant protein expression. ... Dr Fay Saunders, UK Head of Upstream Mammalian Cell Culture, ... Application Note: Transforming Cell Line Development Processes with Cyto-Mine®. 17 September 2019 ... T cell characterization combining advanced flow cytometry with live-cell... Register Now ... in cell line development and recombinant protein expression. ... Cell Lines, Stem Cells and Primary Cells * DNA / RNA Extraction ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that ... predicts successful outgrowth of EBV-infected growth transformed cells. In contrast, CD23hiCD58+ cells do not emerge when cells ... Establishment of Epstein-Barr Virus Growth-transformed Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines. Joyce Hui-Yuen1,2, Shane McAllister1,2, Siva ... We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that ...
The development of novel cell therapies requires the latest technologies to create, isolate and characterize the ... A Data-Driven Workflow for Cell Line Development: How Productivity and Data Can Transform an Assurance-Based Workflow, Upcoming ... As cell-based therapies expand into areas far beyond monoclonal antibodies, cell line development researchers look for new ... Cell line development workflows engage in isolation of single cells (clonal derivation) followed by out-growth. Productivity ...
... of histones in vivo and has differential effects on the growth and viability of normal versus transformed cell lines. … ... Alpha-lipoic acid induces p27Kip-dependent cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cell lines and apoptosis in tumor cell lines J ... The human tumor cell lines FaDu and Jurkat, as well as a Ki-v-Ras-transformed Balb/c-3T3 murine mesenchymal cell line, all ... In contrast, treatment of non-transformed cell lines with alpha-lipoic acid resulted only in reversible cell cycle arrest in G0 ...
Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre). Arun K ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ...
Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ... Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines ...
"Cell Line, Transformed" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Line, Transformed" was a major or minor topic of ... "Cell Line, Transformed" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Cell Line, Transformed*Cell Line, Transformed. *Transformed Cell Line. *Cell Lines, Transformed ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cell Line, Transformed" by people in Profiles. ...
Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ... Perifusion of a Clonal Cell Line of Simian Virus 40-Transformed Beta Cells: Insulin Secretory Dynamics in Response to Glucose, ...
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001 Apr;24(4):398-404. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Microsatellite instability in transforming growth factor-beta 1 type II receptor gene in alveolar lining epithelial cells of ... Although hyperplastic lesions of alveolar lining epithelial cells (ALECs) are characteristic pathologic features of IPF, the ... To detect a deletion in the polyadenine tract in exon 3 of the T beta RII gene, cells were isolated by microdissection from ...
... lines are capable of proliferating autonomously in serum-free medium as a result of the synthesis and secretion of transforming ... Results of recent studies indicate that some cultured human carcinoma cell ... Autocrine growth stimulation of SW403 colon carcinoma cell line is caused by transforming-growth-factor-alpha-mediated ... Our findings suggest that the proliferation of cells of the human SW403 adenocarcinoma cell line is regulated by an autocrine ...
... cell kill against rat transformed cell line H/1/2-NRK at a dose of 3.3 uM. ...
Transformed clones were obtained only with the carcinogen. Some of the transformed clones were responsible for cell lines that ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ... Sarcoma-Producing Cell Lines Derived from Clones Transformed in vitro by Benzo[a]pyrene ...
Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy. Author(s): Enrique ... Title:Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy ... cancer cell line. Abstract:In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) ... "Study of Cancer Cell Lines with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)/ Vibrational Absorption (VA) Spectroscopy", Current Physical ...
Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell Lines in ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ... Transforming Growth Factor β1 Stimulates Contrasting Responses in Metastatic versus Primary Mouse Prostate Cancer-derived Cell ...
72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines. FIONA BRITTON, BIRGITTE MUNCH- ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ... 72 An investigation of thymidine kinase 1 from normal and transformed mammary cell lines ...
... lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) are common sources of genomic DNA. LCL are created in a transformation process that entails in ... genotype calls in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and LCL from the same individuals. The average mismatch rate across ... Background As availability of primary cells can be limited for genetic studies of human disease, ...
Malignant glioma cell lines secrete both active and latent TGF-β ligands. Human malignant glioma cell lines were grown in serum ... 28), we investigated the expression of these receptors in each of our cell lines. All of the cell lines expressed the type I ... Bigner provided the human glioma cell lines D54MG, D270MG, U373MG, D423MG, and D538MG. The cell lines were maintained in an ... Transforming growth factor-β1, -β2, and -β3 secreted by a human glioblastoma cell line. Identification of small and different ...
The transformed cells (designated 293 cells) exhibited many of the characteristics of transformation including the elaboration ... different in a number of respects from that seen in other human cells. On labelling the surface of cells by lactoperoxidase ... Analysis of the polypeptides synthesized in the 293 cells by labelling with 35S-methionine and SDS PAGE showed a variable ... Summary Human embryonic kidney cells have been transformed by exposing cells to sheared fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA. ...
Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy. Publication: ... We have been able to identify certain bands in the spectra which are so-called biomarkers for two types of cell lines, three ... In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell ... Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes and differences in these cells lines utilizing FTIR spectroscopy ...
... increases the level of 125I-EGF binding in several clones of the transformed cell lines. One such cell line, GP6ac, which ... Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor induction by retinoic acid in a chemically transformed rat liver cell line ... expression vary widely among cell lines derived clonally from a chemically transformed population of rat liver epithelial cells ... Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A that stimulates differentiation in a number of embryonal cell lines, ...
... transformed-human epithelial cells) and WI-38 (non-transformed human fibroblast cells), we detected cell growth inhibition, but ... Cell Culture. Cell lines transformed with HPV 16 genome: SiHa (human, HPV 16-positive) and BMK-16/myc (murine, HPV 16-positive ... dependent and the BMK-16/myc cell line had greater inhibition of cell growth inhibition by both IFNs than did SiHa cells. In ... dependent on human and murine HPV 16-transformed cells (Figures 1 and 2). The BMK-16/myc cell had greater cell growth ...
... microarray containing probes for 3531 secreted and cell surface genes to study 5 diverse human transformed cell lines and their ... The origins of these human cell lines were lung (A549), breast (MDA MB-231), colon (HCT-116), ovarian (SK-OV-3) and prostate ( ... These results show that a xenograft model using multiple cell lines of diverse tissue origin can identify common tumorigenic ... we devised a strategy to study the expression profiles of all publicly known and putative secreted and cell surface genes. We ...
293 (human kidney; transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA) cell line slides. NEW ... 293 (kidney; transformed with adenovirus 5 DNA)Human 293 cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium (Eagle) with 2 mM L- ... The 293 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wellis surface ... A follow-up heat dehydration process was done to ensure the attachment of 293 cells and the stability of cellular proteins. ...
... on two closely related myeloma cell lines, OPM-1 and OPM-2. Earlier studies showed that both cell lines contain glucocorticoid ... Actions and interactions of glucocorticoids and transforming growth factor beta on two related human myeloma cell lines. BH ... Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 4, Issue 1 25-30, Copyright © 1993 by American Association of Cancer Research ... These data suggest that the glucocorticoid effect(s) on myeloma cells may be mediated at least in part through modulation of ...
  • Infection of B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) leads to proliferation and subsequent immortalization, resulting in establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) in vitro . (jove.com)
  • A strain of lymphadenopathy associated retrovirus ( LAV ) passaged in vitro was used to infect a lymphoblastoid cell line obtained by transformation with Epstein-Barr virus of B lymphocytes from a healthy donor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. (umassmed.edu)
  • Since the end-point of the xenograft assay is the formation of a solid tumor, genes supporting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are likely differentially expressed relative to the parental cell lines that were adapted to culture in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malignant transformation of BHK21 clone 13 cells in vitro by nitrosamines--a conditional state. (openrepository.com)
  • Molecular mechanism of in vitro transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens. (openrepository.com)
  • The breast epithelial cells were monitored for extension of in vitro lifespan and immortalization. (isharonline.org)
  • Human keratinocytes grown in co-culture with fibroblast feeder cells have an extended in vitro lifespan and delayed accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) when compared to the same cells grown on tissue culture plastic alone. (isharonline.org)
  • It involves long term in vitro cell growth of cells. (medgadget.com)
  • The cytomegalovirus DNA (HCMV-DNA) labelled in vitro by nick translation was used as a probe to detect viral DNA sequences in the 87-TRH-5 line. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro cytotoxicity tests, we added the various concentrations of folic acid (0.3 μg/ml, 0.6 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml) to the cells. (anadolu.edu.tr)
  • In Vitro Cell. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover, Ave has revealed the excellent bio-efficacy of anti-proliferation, cell cycle disturbing and apoptosis induction in numerous types of tumor cells in in vivo and in vitro. (usda.gov)
  • Furthermore, cathepsin S expression and activity, and concordantly cell surface CLIP expression, was reduced in HLA-DR + CD4 + T cells as compared with B cells both in vitro and ex vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Class II MHC on these cells is functional and can be used to present peptide Ag to activate responder CD4 + T cells in vitro ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We find that activation-induced regulation of CatS expression and activity leads to the down-regulation of CLIP expression in CD4 + HLA-DR + T cells both in vitro and ex vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro co-culture with GSC can induce the malignant transformation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells, on the one hand, ihDCTC shows higher drug resistance to the traditional chemotherapeutic drug Cis than GSCs, but, on the other hand, appears to be more sensitive to Res than GSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Continuously growing cell lines infected with the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata can readily be established by in vitro infection of leukocytes with the sporozoite stage of the parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the ease with which T. annulata -transformed cell lines can be established and maintained in vitro and their susceptibility to infection with poxvirus vectors, these cell lines offer a convenient and efficient in vitro system to analyse the fine specificity of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses in cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of the studies of CD8 T cell responses in cattle have relied on analyses of ex vivo T cell populations following a primary in vitro antigenic stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The establishment in vitro of cell lines enriched for virus-specific T cells provides a more sensitive means of dissecting the specificity of the response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of mononuclear leukocytes in vitro transforms them into continuously dividing cells, which can be maintained indefinitely in culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are reported for the first time in in vitro transformed mouse epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cowell, JK 1980, ' A new chromosome region possibly derived from double minutes in an in vitro transformed epithelial cell line ', Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics , vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 2-7. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression profiling of a transformed thymocyte cell line undergoing maturation in vitro identifies multiple genes involved in positive selection. (duke.edu)
  • A B-cell line (C1B2) secreting monoclonal IgG antibody to influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA3) was obtained by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation of human tonsillar B cells activated in vitro to influenza A/X31. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These experiments demonstrate two independent mechanisms of high-dose tolerance in vitro, and show that monoclonal B-lymphoblastoid lines of known specificity can be used to study regulation of specific antibody production at the level of the B cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: We continuously exposed the human prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cell line WPE-stem to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (5 [micro]M) in vitro and determined the acquired cancer phenotype. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2001). Like NSCs, CSCs often form free-floating "spheres" of viable cells in vitro (Dontu et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Both human T cell leukemia virus type I and simian Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) transform human T cells in vitro. (cnrs.fr)
  • Here we show that simvastatin (2 μM) inhibits clump formation and induces apoptosis of EBV-transformed LCLs. (pnas.org)
  • The human tumor cell lines FaDu and Jurkat, as well as a Ki-v-Ras-transformed Balb/c-3T3 murine mesenchymal cell line, all initiated apoptosis following exposure to alpha-lipoic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism of apoptosis was independent of Fas-mediated signaling, as alpha-lipoic acid-treated Jurkat cell mutants deficient in Fas or FADD retained sensitivity to apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • However, IFN-τ induces greater antiproliferative effect, apoptosis and repression of both oncogenes in BMK-16/myc cells compared to SiHa cells. (jcancer.org)
  • 2004 ). Purified soluble HLA-G was shown to lead to apoptosis in activated CD8 + T cells (Fournel et al. (springer.com)
  • Axotomy results in delayed death and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. (naver.com)
  • Glycosphingolipids are assumed to play a crucial role in cell - cell and cell -substrate interactions, including cell adhesion , proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with MIA PaCa-2/vector cells, MIA PaCa-2/RII cells showed a greater than 3-fold increase in apoptosis after radiation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Overexpression of Bcl-x(L) or treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against Bax significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2/RII but not in MIA PaCa-2/Vector cells, suggesting that Bax induction is necessary for radiation-induced TGF-beta signaling-mediated apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family are multifunctional proteins that regulate various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, motility, and extracellular matrix production, and thus play essential roles in embryonic development and the pathogenesis of various diseases ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • FBS delivers nutrients, growth and attachment factors and protects cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis by mechanisms that are difficult to reproduce in serum-free media (SFM) systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • VACO-330, a nontransfonned cell line established from a human colon adenoma, undergoes spontaneous apoptosis and shedding of cells into the culture medium. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, apoptosis could be rapidly induced in up to 45% of the VACO-330 cells by using brief exposure to a calcium chelating medium to release the cells from the substratum. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that transforming growth factor β is a likely physiological regulator of apoptosis during maturation of the colonic epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We additionally suggest the existence of an alternate pathway, which at the time of shedding from the crypt induces apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells that have escaped earlier apoptotic signals. (elsevier.com)
  • Transforming growth factor -beta1 ( TGF-beta1 ) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • One such cell line, GP6ac, which reverts to a less transformed phenotype when treated with RA, exhibited a 3-4-fold increase in surface EGF receptors with prolonged (2-5-day) RA exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conditional expression of the transformed phenotype in an "epithelial-like" cell line. (openrepository.com)
  • The differing behaviors of HTLV-1 infected cell lines in NOD/SCID mice indicates that viral infection and immortalization of human PBMC for growth in culture is not sufficient for induction of a tumorigenic phenotype. (elsevier.com)
  • Reverse transformation is a phenomenon that occurs in transformed cell lines, in which the malignant cells revert back to a normal phenotype and become significantly less tumorigenic. (biotechniques.org)
  • Treatment with retinoic acid restored a non-transformed phenotype to this transformed cell line in a dose dependent manner. (nebraska.edu)
  • All MGBG resistant variants displayed the transformation revertant phenotype in that these cell lines (i) had a flat morphology, (ii) exhibited anchorage-dependence, (iii) did not produce tumors in nude mice and (iv) possessed the viral transforming genes integrated into the cellular genome. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Arsenic exposure transforms human epithelial stem/progenitor cells into a cancer stem-like phenotype. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • RESULTS: WPE-stem cells rapidly acquired a malignant CSC-like phenotype by 18 weeks of exposure, becoming highly invasive, losing contact inhibition, and hypersecreting matrix metalloproteinase-9. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study aims at evaluating the potentials of vibrational spectroscopic methods to perform cell typing and to differentiate between sensitive and resistant human cancer cell lines, in particular those that exhibit the MDR phenotype. (manipal.edu)
  • These results indicate the prospective applicability of FTIR and micro-Raman approaches in the differentiation of cell types as well as characterization of the cell status, such as the MDR phenotype exhibited in resistant leukemia cell lines like HL60 and MCF7. (manipal.edu)
  • We also illustrate a novel assay that can identify B cells destined to undergo transformation as early as three days after infection. (jove.com)
  • The transformed cells (designated 293 cells) exhibited many of the characteristics of transformation including the elaboration of a virus-specific tumour antigen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we show that induction of the MYC protooncogene is required for cell transformation by vIRF, and that vIRF increases MYC transcription up to 15-fold through specific promoter interactions at an ISRE sequence called the plasmacytoma repressor factor (PRF) element. (pnas.org)
  • The COS-7 cell line was derived by Yakov Gluzman in the early 1980s from the previously established CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transformation of the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for the wild-type virus T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
  • Temperature sensitive cells in the study of carcinogenic transformation. (openrepository.com)
  • Telomerase activation preceded oncogenic transformation in some human cell types, yet was lacking in other transformed cells. (isharonline.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that changes in the transcriptional program of cellular genes in virus-transformed cells can contribute to virus transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, in a number of cases associated with MDR, cell lines have shown signs of reverse transformation. (biotechniques.org)
  • Detransformation could have been brought about through three different ways: (a) loss or inactivation of the adenovirus transforming genes, (b) mutation in a cellular gene required for transformation and (c) activation of a cellular tumor suppressor gene. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Thus, the G2 cell line belongs to the class of recently reported revertants that result from activation of a dominant transformation-suppressor gene(s). (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by infection with SV40 or adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus, or transfection via strontium phosphate coprecipitation with a plasmid containing SV40 early region genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, cell surface glycolipid profile changes in the so called "social disorders", such as malignant transformation. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the area of TME, the research on malignant transformation of non-tumor cells has formed a solid foundation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since LCL are latently infected with EBV, they provide a model system to investigate EBV latency and virus-driven B cell proliferation and tumorigenesis 1 . (jove.com)
  • In contrast, autonomous proliferation of SW403 cells is not inhibited by addition of neutralizing anti-EGF mAb. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that the proliferation of cells of the human SW403 adenocarcinoma cell line is regulated by an autocrine TGF alpha loop and that this regulatory pathway can be interrupted by using anti-EGFR mAb. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our results suggest that small molecule inhibitors of TGF-β receptors may offer a novel therapy for malignant gliomas by reducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and motility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings are consistent with cellular MYC repression playing a role in innate immunity as well as in control of cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • No clonal proliferation was observed in soft agar cultures, indicating that these cells were immortalized but not transformed. (fsu.edu)
  • 2000 ) and suppression of proliferation in CD4 + T cells (Bainbridge et al. (springer.com)
  • The interaction of IL-2 with IL-2R induces the activation and proliferation of T, B, NK cells and macrophages. (mglur.info)
  • AuNPs conjugated with biopolymer such as collagen has been demonstrated that increased the cell proliferation, migration and cell differentiation. (usda.gov)
  • TGF-β 1 is involved in cell and tissue differentiation, proliferation, inflammation, migration of monocytes, neutrophils and chemotaxis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF), at concentrations ranging from 0.83 to 4.98 nM, markedly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at low plating densities (4.7 x 10 3 cells/cm 2 ). (elsevier.com)
  • Under the same incubation conditions, 16.6 pM EGF enhanced cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • At high plating densities (2.5 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 ) 0.83 nM EGF also stimulated cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to EGF and TGF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at either low or high plating densities. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings point to complex regulatory actions of growth factors on the proliferation of RL95-2 cells and suggest that the processing of TGF-α following EGF receptor activation is distinct from the processing of EGF. (elsevier.com)
  • TGF-beta1 did not stimulate cellular proliferation but was a growth inhibitory factor in bladder cancer cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of our study was established the effect of the bovine IFN-τ on human (SiHa) and murine (BMK-16/myc) cells transformed with HPV 16 and evaluates the antitumor effect in a murine tumor model HPV 16 positive. (jcancer.org)
  • We determine that bovine IFN-τ has antiproliferative effects, pro-apoptotic activity and induces repression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes (time- and dose-dependent) on human and murine cells transformed with HPV 16 similar to the effects of IFN-β. (jcancer.org)
  • 3), Sarcoma Galliera- strain cells SGS/3A and normal syngenic murine fibroblasts FG transformed cells exhibit a lower activity of sialyltransferases (SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-4) compared to normal fibroblasts , suggesting a possible correlation with the ganglioside pattern. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4), 3T3 normal murine fibroblasts and SVT2 transformed cells GM3 is absent in 3T3, while it accounts for the main ganglioside species in SVT2. (bvsalud.org)
  • abstract = "Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is recognized as the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL). (elsevier.com)
  • To develop the line, primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts were dissociated and grown in culture. (fsu.edu)
  • COS-7 Cells with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, Alexa Fluor 488, and Hoechst 33258 - A culture of COS-7 fibroblasts was labeled for mitochondria with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, and for the cytoskeletal filamentous actin network with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin, a cyclic peptide derived from the toxic death cap fungus ( Amanita phalloides ). (fsu.edu)
  • On the contrary, GM2 present in a large amount in normal fibroblasts , is practically absent in transformed cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunological studies on a 'spontaneously' transformed cell line of swiss mouse embryonal fibroblasts: a possible viral oncogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'An EBV-transformed owl monkey B-lymphocyte cell line. (uthscsa.edu)
  • After continuous culturing of up to 200 days with over 60 passages, we showed that CUP-1 became an immortalized and transformed epithelial cell line with continuous E7 expression and persistent reduction of retinoblastoma protein a known target of E7. (duhnnae.com)
  • In sum, we successfully established a HPV-16 E7 transformed mouse epithelial cell line, which allowed subsequent studies of co-factors in multistep HPV carcinogenesis in an immunocompetent host. (duhnnae.com)
  • Since the early stages of tumorigenesis involve adhesion, escape from immune surveillance, vascularization and angiogenesis, we devised a strategy to study the expression profiles of all publicly known and putative secreted and cell surface genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray containing probes for 3531 secreted and cell surface genes to study 5 diverse human transformed cell lines and their derivative xenograft tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interferons are antiinfective and antitumor cytokines that induce cell cycle arrest by repressing MYC transcription ( 1 , 2 ) as well as activating transcription of tumor suppressor genes, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene ( Cdkn1a ) ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • There was no significant difference in expression of HTLV-I Gag, Tax and HBZ genes between cell lysates of treated and untreated MT2 cells at both 12 and 36 hours post treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alterations in the levels of expression of specific cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is, therefore, important to study altered expression patterns of cellular genes in adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have used 40 different cellular genes or gene segments as hybridization probes to analyze the cytoplasmic RNA from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells, from Ad5-transformed human cells (293) or from several Ad2- or adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed hamster cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many of the genes probed were not expressed in human or hamster cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transcription of the ADPRT and the heat shock protein 70 genes was increased in Ad2-infected KB cells and in 293 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Southern analysis confirmed that the NPTII, GUS and EPSP synthase genes had been stably integrated in all of the kanamycin resistant and GUS positive lines, and NPTII and EPSP synthase activities were demonstrated in the transformed calli. (nebraska.edu)
  • Global Immortalized cell line market has been segmented on the basis of methods, which includes virus induction, hTERT expression, inactivation of tumor suppression genes, and other methods. (medgadget.com)
  • Three of the cell lines studied came under category (a) : The G4F cell line had lost the integrated viral transforming genes. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • The G2a and G5 cell lines had undergone a mutation which prevented the transcription of the viral transforming genes. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Reactivation of antibody genes in Epstein-Barr virus transformed human B cell lines. (edu.pl)
  • Expression profiling of M20 cells in this system identified 23 genes previously shown to be important in thymocyte maturation, as well as several novel candidate genes. (duke.edu)
  • Many transcription factors have been shown to cooperate with the Smad2/3 proteins in regulating the transcription of target genes, enabling appropriate gene expression by cells. (asm.org)
  • Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A that stimulates differentiation in a number of embryonal cell lines, increases the level of 125I-EGF binding in several clones of the transformed cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MYC promoter contains an ISRE sequence ( 13 ) called the plasmacytoma repressor factor (PRF) element that binds IRF1 (unpublished observation), as well as the non-IRF transcriptional repressor BLIMP-1/PRDI-BF1 responsible for terminal B cell differentiation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Differentiation into a number of cell types, including retinal pigment epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes. (corning.com)
  • 2001). This developing theory is compelling because CSCs and NSCs share key characteristics, including the capacity for limitless self-renewal, which normally allows pluridirectional replenishment via differentiation but during oncogenesis contributes to heterogeneous aberrant cell overgrowth (Pardal et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Some of the transformed clones were responsible for cell lines that produced tumors when injected into hamsters. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gene expression profiling of the tumors identified activation of a CCR5 signaling module when the prostate epithelial cell lines were grown in vivo versus tissue cultures. (salford.ac.uk)
  • In primate cells, T-antigen usually controls SV40 DNA replication as well as the packaging of the virus into capsids, but in many other cells the protein binds to p53 and Rb proteins, which are important in the regulation of growth, essentially blocking their normal processes and resulting in the development of tumors. (fsu.edu)
  • An established cell line transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 and derived from hamster tumors contained herpesvirus specific intraeellular and surface antigens in about 2-5 per cent of cells but did not produce infectious virus. (elsevier.com)
  • When hetero-transplanted, these cells (designated As-CSC) formed highly pleomorphic, aggressive tumors with immature epithelial- and mesenchymal-like cells, suggesting a highly pluripotent cell of origin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Consistent with tumor-derived CSCs, As-CSCs formed abundant free-floating spheres enriched in CSC-like cells, as confirmed by molecular analysis and the fact that only these floating cells formed xenograft tumors. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The loss of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced tumor suppressor function in tumors plays a pivotal role in this process, and our previous studies have shown that resistance to TGF-β in lung cancers occurs mostly through the loss of TGF-β type II receptor expression (TβRII). (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of multiple EBV-positive and -negative cell lines indicated that both LFA-1 and EBV latent membrane protein 1 expression were required for simvastatin's effects. (pnas.org)
  • Dr Fay Saunders, UK Head of Upstream Mammalian Cell Culture, Process Development at FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies, shares her experience of using Cyto-Mine ® in cell line development and recombinant protein expression. (selectscience.net)
  • Since the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate also decreases 125I-EGF binding and increases EGF receptor biosynthesis in GP6ac cells, we tested the effect of RA in cells depleted of protein kinase C by prolonged treatment (18 h) with 10 microM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although IFN-τ is a non-human protein, it has activity in human cells, suggesting that it may be useful as a therapeutic agent for cancer and viral diseases. (jcancer.org)
  • 293 cell slide is provided for immunocytochemical analysis of protein and protein-protein interaction. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • We analyzed JAK activation, STAT protein phosphorylation, and the formation of specific DNA-binding complexes containing STAT proteins, in a series of leukemia cell lines transformed by Bcr/Abl or other oncogenes. (rupress.org)
  • The UMNSAH/DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast line is useful as a substrate for virus propagation, recombinant protein expression, and recombinant virus production. (fsu.edu)
  • Rapid cytotoxicity testing using a semi-automated protein determination on cultured cells (1984) Shopsis Charles et al. (naver.com)
  • For example, Hsp70 proteins have an essential role in cells to aid in proper protein folding and degradation, membrane translocation, and regulatory processes. (biotechniques.org)
  • In a previous study Spengler et al, (2006) an increase of Hsp70 protein was seen in reverse transformed MDR neuroblastoma cell lines using Western Blotting. (biotechniques.org)
  • Increased protein expression of Hsp70 in the reverse transformed MDR lines does not account for the total difference previously seen using immunoblotting. (biotechniques.org)
  • We have previously characterized a transformed TM cell strain (GTM3) that demonstrates many of the same protein expression and cell signaling systems of nontransformed cell strains. (unthsc.edu)
  • A 38,000 Da protein was phosphorylated to a high degree in the AKR-MCA transformed cell line compared to the non-transformed AKR-2B cell line. (nebraska.edu)
  • RA treatment greatly reduced the level of phosphorylation of this protein in AKR-MCA cells. (nebraska.edu)
  • This conclusion was based on the following experimental observations: (1) G2 cells expressed a biologically active Ela transforming protein as shown by (i) resistance to retransformation by Ela plasmids, (ii) positive complementation of an Ela deletion mutant, and (iii) Ela-mediated tumor necrosis factor cytolysis, and (2) somatic cell hybridization between the parental transformed F4 cell line and the detransformed G2 cell line resulted in hybrids which were non-tumorigenic. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • MCF2L (MCF.2 Cell Line Derived Transforming Sequence Like) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Establishment of a lymphoblastoid cell line using a mutant MDV containing a green fluorescent protein expression cassette. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Immunoblot analysis with MOL 171 showed the accumulation of 60 kD form of Lck protein, p60 lck , and the decrease of p56 lck in human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV‐I)‐transformed T cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Enhanced radiation sensitivity of MIA PaCa-2/RII cells was associated with an induction of Bax mRNA and protein that was followed by a release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage after radiation exposure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The IL-2 independence of an HVS-transformed cell line correlated with constitutive activation of protein tyrosine kinases known to be induced following TCR engagement. (cnrs.fr)
  • Thus, in these cells we observed increased phosphotransferase activity of Lck as well as constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-associated ZAP-70 kinase and expression of the related Syk protein tyrosine kinase. (cnrs.fr)
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIRF is a viral transcription factor that inhibits interferon signaling and transforms NIH 3T3 cells, but does not bind interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) DNA sequences. (pnas.org)
  • On the basis of the prediction that other interferon-inhibiting viral transforming proteins behave similarly, we found that Epstein-Barr virus-induced nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) also binds p300/CBP, and that both EBNA2 and adenovirus E1A transactivate MYC through the PRF element. (pnas.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that viral transforming proteins can activate as well as inhibit transcription through coadaptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • At 12 hours post treatment, released Virus titer was not changed in supernate of treated cells while a significant decrease in viral particles was observed in collected supernate of treated cells at 36 hours after treatment with IFN-α 2b . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral DNA sequences in human cytomegalovirus transformed hamster cell line at low passage levels. (elsevier.com)
  • To decipher viral morphogenesis in T-lymphocytes, we used the recombinant vRB-1B 47EGFP marker virus to generate a new lymphoblastoid cell line, 3867K, that exhibited typical properties of other MDV-transformed chicken cell lines in term of cell markers, reactivation rate and infectivity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The aim of the current study was to determine whether such transformed cell lines could be used as antigen presenting cells to analyse the antigenic specificity of bovine CD8 T cell responses to viral infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD8 + T cells are important mediators of immunity to many viral infections [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They recognise antigenic peptides presented in association with MHC class I molecules on the surface of infected cells and respond by lysing the cells or secreting cytokines that can limit viral replication and mediate recruitment of inflammatory cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until now, when biologists grew stem cells in a medium, they carefully included a complicated mixture of hormones, growth factors, and blood serum that came from animal cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Some characteristics of T cell growth factors derived from adult T cell leukemia virus (ATLV)-transformed cell lines, MT 1 and MT 2 were analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • The type beta transforming growth factors (TGF) are potent regulators of the growth and functions of lymphocytes and macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • The u-PA activity in T-MG1 cells was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by B-TGF and EGF after 24 hours of exposure to these growth factors. (eurekamag.com)
  • Korc, M, Haussler, CA & Trookman, NS 1987, ' Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line ', Cancer Research , vol. 47, no. 18, pp. 4909-4914. (elsevier.com)
  • A follow-up heat dehydration process has been performed to ensure the attachment of cells and the stability of cellular proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Tyrosyl phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins in hematopoietic cell lines transformed by Bcr/Abl. (rupress.org)
  • Expression levels of chaperone proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 in reverse transformed neuroblastoma cell lines. (biotechniques.org)
  • Conclusions: Proteomic analysis of a transformed human TM cell line has been initiated combining preparative twodimensional PAGE separation, LC/MS/MS analysis of major proteins, and bioinformatic cataloging of the data. (unthsc.edu)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of secreted proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3) proteins are principally involved in the transmission of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • To identify EMT-related breast cancer therapeutic targets and biomarkers, we have used two proteomic approaches to find proteins that change in abundance upon the induction of EMT by TGF-β in two mouse mammary epithelial cell lines, NMuMG and BRI-JM01. (gc.ca)
  • Results: Preliminary experiments based on two-dimensional electrophoresis of a hydrophobic cell fraction identified only 5 differentially expressed proteins from BRI-JM01 cells. (gc.ca)
  • Using these approaches, we identified several proteins that are modulated during the EMT process, including cell adhesion molecules (several members of the Integrin family, Fibronectin, Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, and Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) and regulators of cellular signaling (Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2, Basigin). (gc.ca)
  • The cell line shows synthesis of EGF receptors and TGF alpha but not EGF, and exhibits constitutive phosphorylation of the 170-kDa EGFR. (nih.gov)
  • Use of blocking anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAb) inhibits autonomous growth of SW403 cells and leads to a significant reduction of receptor phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was also observed in the human leukemia cell lines K562 and BV173, which express the Bcr/Abl oncogene, but not in several Bcr/Abl-negative leukemia cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was directly due to the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr/Abl since it could be activated or deactivated by temperature shifting of cells expressing the Bcr/Abl ts mutant. (rupress.org)
  • Although IL-2-independent growth in human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells is associated with constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT kinases, we now demonstrate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the ability of HVS-transformed T cells to proliferate in the absence of exogenous cytokines. (cnrs.fr)
  • In this study, we established a mouse epithelial cancer cell line, designated as Chinese University Papillomavirus-1 CUP-1, from C57BL-KsJ mice through persistent expression of HPV-16 E7 oncogene. (duhnnae.com)
  • Active TGF-β ligands bind to specific cell surface receptors to initiate the formation of an activated heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex ( 11 -14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We and others have shown that malignant glioma cell lines are refractory to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition yet retain expression of essential elements of the TGF-β signal transduction pathways-the cognate receptors and SMADs ( 8 , 22 , 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Earlier studies showed that both cell lines contain glucocorticoid receptors, but only OPM-2 cells are growth inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of specific antibody secretion by HA3 continued for at least 3 days after the removal of soluble antigen, but this could be partially reversed by treatment with pronase, suggesting that inhibition was due to 'effector cell' blockade by binding of antigen to surface Ig receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Suñé G, Sarró E, Puigmulé M, López-Hellín J, Zufferey M, Pertel T, Luban J, Meseguer A. Cyclophilin B interacts with sodium-potassium ATPase and is required for pump activity in proximal tubule cells of the kidney. (umassmed.edu)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells have been transformed by exposing cells to sheared fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney cells featured in the digital image above was labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin, a fluorescent lectin that selectively binds to sialic acid residues, which are found in both mucoproteins and glycoproteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Golgi Apparatus in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells - In this section, a culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7 line) cells is presented that was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to the lectin wheat germ agglutinin. (fsu.edu)
  • 2001). Folic acid is a typical example of low molecular weight targeting agent since the folate receptor is over-expressed by a number of human tumours, including cancer of ovary, kidney, uterus,testis brain,colon lung and myeloetic blood cells. (anadolu.edu.tr)
  • Regulation of antibody production by an antigen-specific EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell line: effect of high-dose antigen and antigen-pulsed T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A perifusion system for the study of insulin secretory dynamics of a clonal, Simian virus 40-transformed hamster pancreatic beta cell line (HIT cells) is described. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Toward that goal, we have constructed a cDNA library using RNA from these cells and have isolated cDNA clones representing sequences that are amplified and overexpressed in these 3T3-DM cells. (springer.com)
  • Productivity measurements and critical quality attributes are employed in the characterization of leading clones for banking in Master Cell Banks. (prweb.com)
  • Transformed clones were obtained only with the carcinogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Six clones were derived from the 28th passage of 87-TRH-5 cells and examined for HCMV-DNA sequences. (elsevier.com)
  • Using CD4 + T cell clones that constitutively express class II MHC, we determined that cathepsin S is necessary for invariant chain proteolysis in T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate, using CD4 + T cell clones, that CatS is a key enzyme required for proteolysis of Ii in CD4 + HLA-DR + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Autologous T. annulata -transformed cells infected with BHV-1 were then used successfully to generate specific CD8 T cell lines and clones from memory T cell populations of BHV-1-immune animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such systems can also permit the generation of T cell clones, allowing analysis of responses at the clonal level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While a few groups of scientists have cultured already-established human embryonic stem cells in an animal-product-free medium, none managed to derive new stem cell lines in this way. (medgadget.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the effects of RCMF on the antioxidant defense system using embryonic normal hepatic cell line (BNL CL.2) and its SV40-mediated transformed cell line (BNL SV A.8). (kisti.re.kr)
  • As cell-based therapies expand into areas far beyond monoclonal antibodies, cell line development researchers look for new tools to engage and manage their expanding remit. (prweb.com)
  • It was also possible to block partially the growth inhibition of Dex in OPM-2 cells by the addition of anti-TGF-beta 1 antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA-STAT complexes were detected in all Bcr/Abl-transformed cell lines and they were supershifted by antibodies against STAT1 and STAT5. (rupress.org)
  • Visualizing the Microtubule and Filamentous Actin Networks in Chicken Embryo Fibroblast Cells - The microtubule network from the adherent culture of UMNSAH/DF-1 fibroblast cells presented in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies (IgG) conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568 (yielding red emission). (fsu.edu)
  • Double immunofluorescence studies of K14 keratinocytes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin antibodies, which react with the nuclei of cells engaged in DNA replication, showed partial colocalization of PCNA/cyclin foci and large uH2A clusters in about 14% of the S-phase cells, and these corresponded mainly to late S-phase cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using monoclonal antibodies against human urokinase type PA (u-PA) and human tissue type PA (t-PA), only u-PA activity was found in T-MG1 cell extracts. (eurekamag.com)
  • Pearson's research led to a collaboration with a fellow postdoc, Georges Kohler, and supervisor César Milstein to develop monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor induction by retinoic acid in a chemically transformed rat liver cell line -- Raymond et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose: Characterization of the human trabecular meshwork (TM) proteome is hindered by the small mass of intact tissue and the slow growth of cultured cell strains. (unthsc.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to initiate a proteomic survey of GTM3 cells as the initial step toward characterization of the complete human TM proteome. (unthsc.edu)
  • Isolation and characterization of revertant cell lines. (cshl.edu)
  • Xuan Feng NVH, Ratner L: Alpha interferon inhibits humanT-cell leukemia virus type-l assembly by preventing Gag interation with rafts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The characteristics of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transformed syrian hamster cell line (87-TRH-5) were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Váczi, L, Boldogh, I & Gönczöl, E 1974, ' Activation of herpes specific antigens and infectious virus in a hamster cell line transformed by HSV-2 ', Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung , vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 62-69. (elsevier.com)
  • The differential selectivity of the pro-apoptotic effects of alpha-lipoic acid for transformed cells supports its potential use in the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Cytogenetic changes in rat tracheal epithelial cells during early stages of carcinogen-induced neoplastic progression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neoplastic conversion of preneoplastic Syrian hamster cells: rate estimation by fluctuation analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Arsenite transforms prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells into CSC-like cells, indicating that it can produce CSCs from a model NSC population. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using DNAs from a panel of Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrids together with in situ hybridization protocols for gene mapping studies, we have found that these DM-associated, amplified DNA sequences originate from mouse chromosome 10, region C1-C3. (springer.com)
  • Early human IgH gene assembly in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed fetal B cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • We have analyzed the phenotypic characteristics and IgH gene rearrangements in a panel of EBV-transformed B lineage cell lines from human fetal liver and bone marrow. (rupress.org)
  • Normal human breast epithelial cells were transfected with expression vectors containing the p53 gene mutated at either codon 143, 175, 248 or 273, or by infection with a recombinant retroviral vector containing the p53 gene mutated at codons 143, 175, 248, or 273. (isharonline.org)
  • In Ad2-infected KB cells, c-myc gene transcription was decreased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 293 cells and in three adenovirus-transformed hamster cell lines (T637, BHK21-Ad2E1A-E1B, and BHK21-Ad2 HindIII-G), the transcription of the c-jun gene was increased, whereas c-myc transcription was decreased in the latter two cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These cell lines are useful for genetic analyses, and thus we are providing these cell lines for researches including analyses of gene and genome. (riken.jp)
  • Finally, a single cell line, G2 exhibited the properties of a cell line with an activated tumor suppressor gene. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • In this study, we investigated whether lack of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor (RII) expression and loss of TGF-beta signaling played a role in radiation resistance of pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2 that possess a mutated p53 gene. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, restoration of TGF-beta signaling sensitized these cells to ionizing radiation, although these cells possess a mutated p53 gene. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Regulation of TGF-β-induced gene expression is frequently modulated by other transcription factors and cofactors, which are induced by various stimuli and are often expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific context ( 18 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Efficient foreign gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gene therapy for B-cell lymphoma in a SCID mouse model using an immunoglobulin-regulated diphtheria toxin gene delivered by a novel adenovirus-polylysine conjugate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We are exploring the origin and function of amplified DNA sequences associated with double minutes (DMs) in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. (springer.com)
  • This is a spontaneously transformed ( immortalized ) cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of tumorigenesis has long been recognized to depend upon complex interactions of a tumor with its non-transformed tissue environment [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SCID/bg and NOD/SCID mice have reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity and were inoculated intraperitoneally with HTLV-1 transformed cells to refine and characterize the SCID mouse as a small animal model for investigation of HTLV-1 tumorigenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The prostate cancer cell lines metastasized in FVB mice to brain and bone. (salford.ac.uk)
  • The cells are not, however, tumorigenic in immunosuppressed mice, but do form colonies in a semisolid medium. (fsu.edu)
  • HTLV-1 transformed cell lines originally derived by cocultivation of uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with lethally irradiated leukemic cells from patient samples (SLB-1, MT-2 and HT-1-RV) were lymphomagenic when inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The higher level of engraftment of HTLV-1 transformed cell lines in NOD/SCID mice suggests that this is an effective animal model to investigate molecular determinants of HTLV-1 lymphomagenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The past year has seen the ectopic expression of human telomerase and the consequent increased replicative lifespan of cells, whereas mice lacking telomerase have lived and reproduced for six generations. (isharonline.org)
  • Tumorigenic potential of an sv40-transformed human cell line transplanted into nude mice. (jax.org)
  • The expression of class II MHC on CD4 + T cells occurs in most mammalian species ( 3 ), the exception being mice, which do not transcribe the CIITA promoter III in CD4 + T cells ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Herein, with this newly-established cell line, we uncovered that diabetes promoted CUP-1 xenograft growth in syngeneic db-db mice. (duhnnae.com)
  • The levels and distribution of ubiquitinated histone H2A (uH2A) have been studied in normal and transformed human cells using a monoclonal antibody (mAb E6C5) that reacts specifically with this ubiquitin conjugate as determined by two-dimensional gel western blotting and microsequencing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another anti‐Lck monoclonal antibody, MOL 294, raised by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C‐terminal region deduced from the lck cDNA sequence, also detected the accumulation of p60 lck in those HTLV‐1‐transformed T cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Accumulation of p60 lck in HTLV‐I‐transformed T Cell Lines Detected by an Anti‐Lck Monoclonal Antibody, MOL 171 Japanese Journal of Cancer Research , 82 (8), 909-915. (elsevier.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that promotes malignant glioma invasion, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we examined the effects of SB-431542, a novel, small molecule inhibitor of the type I TGF-β receptor, on a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prominent among the signal transduction pathways that play a critical role in malignant gliomas is the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The malignant DCs used in our study is highly proliferative and prepared based on human GSC line SU3 (SU3-induced host Dendritic Cells Transformed Cell, ihDCTC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • mRNA in reverse transformed, multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines using RT-PCR. (biotechniques.org)
  • The difference in Hsp70 present in the reverse transformed multidrug resistant lines is not due to increased amounts of mRNA. (biotechniques.org)
  • Cell line development workflows engage in isolation of single cells ('clonal derivation') followed by out-growth. (prweb.com)
  • Kodama H. A., Amagai Y., Sudo H., Kasai S., Yamamoto S. Establishment of a clonal osteogenic cell line from newborn mouse calvaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra have been acquired from the sensitive promyelocytic HL60 leukemia cell line and two of its subclones resistant to doxorubicin (HL60/DOX) and daunorubicin (HL60/ DNR), and from the sensitive MCF7 breast cancer cell line and its MDR counterpart resistant to verapamil (MCF7/VP). (manipal.edu)
  • As a factor contributing to the tumor cell drug resistance, tumor microenvironment (TME) is being paid increasingly attention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How do you transform fibroblast cells for making cell lines? (bio.net)
  • These results show that a xenograft model using multiple cell lines of diverse tissue origin can identify common tumorigenic cell surface or secreted molecules that may be important biomarker and therapeutic discoveries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, immortalized cell lines generated by transfection PBMC with an infectious molecular clone of HTLV-1 (ACH or ACH.p12) were not tumorigenic. (elsevier.com)
  • Four normal and eightN-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-treated lines were compared with respect to chromosome number, anchorage-independent growth in agarose, and tumorigenic potential in syngenic rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Examination of reactivating EGFP-positive 3867K cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of most types of herpesvirus particles inside the cells but no extracellular ones. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that transforms B-cells (B-LCL) and has undergone intense scrutiny owing to its association with Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and immunoblastic lymphomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of retinoic acid on a transformed mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (AKR-MCA) were examined. (nebraska.edu)
  • Retinoic acid (RA) treated AKR-MCA cells showed a non-transformed morphology, a slower growth rate, and did not grow with anchorage independence. (nebraska.edu)
  • 21:393-425 comment cells from the lung of a young male Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) The ECACC catalog 1993 (Hypercard stack for Macintosh computers) gives the following spec ECACC number 86041102 cell name V79 description hamster lung morphology fibroblast depositor Wynford-Thomas, U of Wales, College of Med. (bio.net)
  • Shed cells were shown to be apoptotic, both by nuclear morphology and by generation of a typical "laddered" pattern of degraded DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • 1999 ) and additionally leads to unresponsive and suppressive CD4 + T cell phenotypes (LeMaoult et al. (springer.com)
  • Caspase inhibitors block the retinal ganglion cell death following optic nerve transection (1999) Chaudhary P et al. (naver.com)
  • Levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression vary widely among cell lines derived clonally from a chemically transformed population of rat liver epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gradation of carcinogen-induced capacity for anchorage-independent growth in cultured rat liver epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report here that alpha-lipoic acid induces hyperacetylation of histones in vivo and has differential effects on the growth and viability of normal versus transformed cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: Interestingly, despite the fact that TGF-β induces similar EMT phenotypes in NMuMG and BRI-JM01 cells, the proteomic results for the two cell lines showed only minimal overlap. (gc.ca)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) probably arise from normal stem cells (NSCs), or partially differentiated progenitor cells, and that CSCs are likely the driving force in tumor initiation, growth, and progression (Pardal et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, RCMF caused a significant increase in the malonaldehyde content of BNL SV A.8 cells, which is believed to be closely associated with cytotoxicity of RCMF and RCMF-mediated growth inhibition. (kisti.re.kr)
  • The cytotoxicity of folic acids was tested and this compound showed a dose and time-dependent increase in cytotoxic activity in H-ras transformed cell line. (anadolu.edu.tr)
  • Both UV-Vis absorption assay and FTIR spectrum analysis were also demonstrated that the Ave conjugated onto AuNP-Col. Further, both MTT assay and Calcein AM assay were revealed that AuNP-Col-Ave induced a significant cytotoxicity in cancerous SCC cells and showed nontoxicity and biocompatibility for non-transformed BAEC and HFS cells. (usda.gov)
  • We have obtained stably transformed callus lines by direct delivery of DNA into plated suspension culture cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high velocity microprojectile bombardment. (nebraska.edu)
  • Recently the human glioblastoma cell line 308 was shown to produce TGF-beta 2. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the human glioblastoma cell line, T-MG1, plasminogen activator activity (PA-activity) was demonstrated by using the chromogenic substrate S-2251. (eurekamag.com)
  • In an attempt to extend these observations, we evaluated TGF alpha-mediated autonomous growth and constitutive EGFR activation in the human adenocarcinoma cell line SW403. (nih.gov)
  • CD4 + HLA-DR + T cells down-regulated cathepsin S expression and activity 18 h after activation, thereby ceasing nascent class II MHC product formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • This blockade resulted in the loss of the invariant chain fragment CLIP from the cell surface, suggesting that-like professional APC-CD4 + HLA-DR + cells modulate self-Ag presentation as a consequence of activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Yet, for human CD4 + T cells, HLA-DR is more than a biomarker of activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Efficient activation of specific CD8 T cells requires, in addition to antigenic recognition, interaction with co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 on the antigen presenting cells (APC) [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)