Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Modems: Equipment that sends digital information over telephone lines. The term Modem is a short form of the phrase modulator-demodulator.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.

Classification of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. (1/147095)

Eleven human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines established in this laboratory were classified into three groups based on morphological features (light and electron microscopy), modal chromosome number, and ability to synthesize carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Group 1 cell lines contained both dedifferentiated and differentiating cells growing in tight clusters or islands of epithelium-like cells; their modal chromosome number was about 47, and they synthesized small to moderate amounts of CEA. Group 2 cell lines were more dedifferentiated, were hyperdiploid, and synthesized small amounts of CEA. Group 3 cell lines were morphologically similar to those of Group 1 by light microscopy. They differed ultrastructurally by containing microvesicular bodies; the modal chromosome number varied from hyperdiploid to hypertriploid or they had bimodal populations of hypodiploid and hypertriploid cells, and they synthesized relatively large amounts of CEA. No correlation could be found between Broder's grade or Duke's classification of the original tumor and modal chromosome number or ability to synthesize CEA. These findings support Nowell's hypothesis that the stem line is different for each solid tumor, which makes it difficult to relate chromosomal changes to the initiation of the neoplastic state.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/147095)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/147095)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (4/147095)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (5/147095)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (6/147095)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (7/147095)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (8/147095)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

*JY cell line

The JY cell line is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised B cell lymphoblastoid line. Cells express HLA class-I A2 and class ... It is a suspension cell line, although cells are known to grow in clumps. The growth medium is RPMI 1640, 10% fetal calf serum ... Cell report for JY at IMGT/HLA Cellosaurus entry for JY. ...

*PC12 cell line

... studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell line ... This cell line was first cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976. It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell ... "PC-12/CRL-1721 cell line". LGC Promochem: Cell Biology Collection. American Type Culture Collection. Archived from the original ... PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ...

*Immortalised cell line

Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells ... Some of them are normal cell lines (e.g. derived from stem cells). Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of ... cell. There are several examples of immortalized cell lines, each with different properties. Most immortalized cell lines are ... derived from human fetal cells Jurkat cells - a human T lymphocyte cell line isolated from a case of leukemia Vero cells - a ...

*U937 (cell line)

U937 cells are a model cell line used in biomedical research. They were isolated from the histiocytic lymphoma of a 37-year-old ... TNFα and recombinant GM-CSF independently promote IL-10 production in U937 cells. The HLA alleles present in U937 cells are HLA ... "Establishment and characterization of a human histiocytic lymphoma cell line (U-937)". Int. J. Cancer. 17 (5): 565-77. doi: ... U937 cells are of the myeloid lineage and so secrete a large number of cytokines and chemokines either constitutively (e.g. IL- ...

*THP-1 cell line

THP-1 is a human monocytic cell line derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient. It is used to test leukemia cell lines ... Cultures should be maintained at cell densities in the range 2-9x105 cells/ml at 37 °C, 5% CO2. Cells are non-adherent. Cell ... "A cell line model for the differentiation of human dendritic cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 333 ( ... This cell line can provide continuous culture, grown in suspension; RPMI 1640 + 10% FBS + 2mM L-Glutamine. The average doubling ...

*Zebrafish AB9 cell line

Zebrafish AB9 cells are a primary fibroblast cell line developed from fin tissue of the AB strain. These cells are commonly ... Bhadra, Joyita (2015). "The zebrafish fibrolast cell line AB9 as a tool to complement gene regulation studies" (PDF). ... Cells are grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a humid, 5% CO2- ... enriched atmosphere at 28 °C. Under these conditions, cells passaged 1 in 4 doubled every 72 hours when fed with fresh culture ...

*Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

... has been shown to interact with GFRA2 and GDNF family receptor alpha 1. GDNF has ... Haniu M, Hui J, Young Y, Le J, Katta V, Lee R, Shimamoto G, Rohde MF (Dec 1996). "Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor: ... Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Exposure of dopaminergic-like cell line to Ibogaine HCl results in an increase in GDNF mRNA, leading to protein expression and ...

*List of contaminated cell lines

Comparative Study of Primary Isolated Cells and Cell Lines, Including the Novel Cell Line HPMEC-ST1.6R. Microvascular Research ... Contaminated cell lines should never be used for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be, and ... Cellosaurus also is maintaining a list of "problematic" cell lines. The list is dynamically generated from all cell lines in ... Cell lines marked Virtual in the table below are known instances of contamination at the source; these cell lines became ...

*List of breast cancer cell lines

2006). "A collection of breast cancer cell lines for the study of functionally distinct cancer subtypes". Cancer Cell. 10 (6): ... Soule HD, Vazguez J, Long A, Albert S, Brennan M (1973). "A human cell line from a pleural effusion derived from a breast ... This is a list of major breast cancer cell lines that are primarily used in breast cancer research. The original list was ... Hackett AJ, Smith HS, Springer EL, Owens RB, Nelson-Rees WA, Riggs JL, Gardner MB (1977). "Two syngeneic cell lines from human ...

*Sf9 (cells)

Invitrogen (14 Mar 2017). "Cell Lines". Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines: User Guide (PDF). Rev. Date - 8 March 2010 ... Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used in insect cell culture for ... Vaughn JL; Goodwin RH; Tompkins GJ; McCawley P (1977). "The establishment of two cell lines from the insect Spodoptera ...

*High Five cells

High Five Cell Line (officially called BTI-TN-5B1-4) is an insect cell line that originated from the ovarian cells of the ... doi:10.1016/s0022-2011(94)90400-6. Invitrogen (31 March 2015). "Cell Lines". Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines (PDF ... High Five cells have become one of the most commonly used cell lines for recombinant protein expression using baculovirus or ... to express more recombinant protein than other lepidopteran cell lines, such as Sf9 cells. They can be grown in the absence of ...


The initial polyclonal populations of tumor cells obtained from the patients' tumor were cultured and the resultant cell line ... Rainey WE, Saner K, Schimmer BP (2004). "Adrenocortical cell lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 228 (1-2): 23-38. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... Wang T, Rainey WE (2012). "Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 351 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... H295R (also referred to as NCI-H295R) is an angiotensin-II-responsive steroid-producing adrenocortical cell line. It was ...

*Bernhard Palsson

ISBN 0-13-041696-7. Palsson, Bernhard; Masters, John C. (1999). Cancer cell lines. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0- ... His research interests include metabolic network modelling, systems biology, tissue engineering and cell culture, the ...

*H19 (gene)

"Breast Cell Line MCF-7". Cancer Biology - Breast Cancer Cell Line Database. University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. ... resulting cells when compared to both the original T24P cell line and a H19-antisense DNA construct transfected T24P cell line ... a human lung carcinoma cell line that displays multidrug resistance, also overexpress p95 (NCA-90) and H19. No other cell lines ... between the 3 cell lines, when grown in 0.1% FCS (starved serum), the H19-transfected cells maintained their rate of growth ...


... is a database of cell lines using some common tools to reduce cell lines misidentification. Cell line Shiau, Cheng- ... integrated genomic resources of human cell lines for identification". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D520-4. ...

*Charles Krauthammer

"Stem Cell Miracle?" by Charles Krauthammer Washington Post, January 12, 2007. "Cell Lines, Moral Lines" by Charles Krauthammer ... "Cell Lines, Moral Lines; Research Should Expand-With a Key Limit" by Charles Krauthammer, Washington Post, Friday, August 5, ... He also contrasted the "moral seriousness" of Bush's stem cell address of August 9, 2001 with that of Obama's address on stem ... He supported relaxing the Bush administration's limits on federal funding of discarded human embryonic stem cell research. ...

*Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (INGEB), Sarajevo

Primary cell lines establishment. Projects: Analysis of K2(B3O3F4OH) bioactive and medical potential; (ongoing project). ... The most frequently used tests in research projects of this lab are based on cell culture and include: chromosome aberrations ... and cytostatic potential of various chemical agents includes application of colorimetric method in different cell lines. ... Participation in international collaborative project: HUMNXL - Exfoliated cells micronucleus project; (2009-2011); Analysis of ...


Hayflick was given another line of fetal cells to try to preserve and duplicate using this method. This cell line became WI-38 ... since it was a readily-available cell line of normal human tissue, unlike the HeLa line, which were cancerous cells. ... Observations of similar cell lines led to the discovery that cells would gradually experience signs of senescence as they ... The WI-38 cell line stemmed from earlier work with growing cell cultures done by Hayflick and Moorhead. ...

*List of animals that have been cloned

"Calf Cloned From Bovine Cell Line". Science. 277 (5328): 903b-903. 15 August 1997. doi:10.1126/science.277.5328.903b. Cibelli, ... 24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell (journal). doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 ... However, the cloning was done from an embryo cell, while the sheep Dolly in 1996 was cloned from an adult cell. The first mouse ... "Electrostimulated cell fusion in cell engineering". Biofizika. 32 (5): viii-xi. Nowak, Rachel (3 November 2008) Cloning ' ...


... where it can be propagated as an immortalized prostate cancer cell line. LAPC4 are a lowly adherent, epithelial cell line with ... "Molecular characterization of human prostate carcinoma cell lines". The Prostate. 57 (3): 205-25. PMID 14518029. "Cell line ... LAPC4 cells are a cell line of human prostate cancer commonly used in the field of oncology. The tissue was harvested from the ... Unlike the other commonly utilized, Androgen receptor positive prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and VCaP, LAPC4 have high ...

*David Magnus

"Researchers customize stem-cell lines". The Today Show. NBC News. Retrieved 2016-11-04. Dembosky, April (2015-05-21). "Coded ... stem cell research, end of life care, patient communication, and research ethics. He is a co-founder and current editor-in- ... Council Ad Hoc Committee on the Bioconfinement of Genetically Engineered Organisms and on the California Human Stem Cell ...

*Adrenocortical carcinoma

Wang T, Rainey WE (2012). "Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 351 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... On microscopic examination, the tumor usually displays sheets of atypical cells with some resemblance to the cells of the ... The widely used angiotensin-II-responsive steroid-producing cell line H295R was originally isolated from a tumor diagnosed as ... "Establishment and characterization of a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line that expresses multiple pathways of steroid ...

*Mouse embryonic fibroblast

These cells developed into a commonly used cell line NIH 3T3. MEFs treated by mitomycin or gamma rays (such treatment makes MEF ... "Quantitative studies of the growth of mouse embryo cells in culture and their development into established lines". J. Cell Biol ... The MEF is a limited cell line. After several transmission, MEFs will senescence and finally die off. Nevertheless, researchers ... Finally digest the remains by enzymes to obtain single isolated cells and culture the cells in a tissue culture dishes. MEF ...

*Ceramide kinase

However, CERK expression varies per cell line. In contrast to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, HL60 leukemia cells demonstrated no ... "ATRA inhibits ceramide kinase transcription in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells: the role of COUP-TFI". J. ... This suggests that differential expression of RARα, RXRα, and COUP-PTI may determine transcription levels in various cell lines ... CERK activity has primarily been observed within human neutrophils, cerebrum granule cells, and epithelium-derived lung cells. ...

*A549 cell

A549 cells are adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells. The A549 cell line was first developed in 1972 by D. J. ... "A549 Cell Line: Human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line -General Information". Retrieved 3 January 2012. Giard, DJ; Aaronson, ... A549 cell line are widely used as an in vitro model for a type II pulmonary epithelial cell model for drug metabolism and as a ... Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) Whole Cell Lysate (ab7910)". Retrieved 3 January 2012. ATCC.org. "A549 cell ...


After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. ... these animals experience internal lesions along the lining of the mouth, and respiratory and digestive tracts. They also ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ...
By Adam Bonislawski A team led by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich researcher Ruedi Aebersold has published a quantitative characterization of the proteome of the human tissue culture cell line U2OS.
A glass-adherent human lymphoma cell line was found to produce an inhibitor of human in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses. The responses to mitogens, antigens, and allogeneic leukocytes were inhibited over 90%, as assayed by DNA synthesis or morphology. The effect was not associated with cytotoxicity and was reversible by washing the inhibited cells. The material was a nondialyzable, heat-stable protein. Its activity was not affected by its deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease but was destroyed by Pronase. Most important, the inhibitor was species and tissue specific; it did not inhibit mouse lymphocytes or a variety of human tissue culture cell lines. The relationship of this material to regulation of lymphoid function and to the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer is discussed.. ...
In the present work we studied the expression of membrane-bound Ig (MBIg) as well as receptors for IgG Fc and complement on nine human lymphoblastoid cell lines. When MBIg and receptors for IgG Fc were compared, four categories of cell lines could be distinguished: (a) cell lines having both MBIg and receptors for IgG Fc, (b) cell lines having MBIg but lacking receptors for IgG Fc, (c) cell lines lacking MBIg but having receptors for IgG Fc, and (d) cell lines lacking both MBIg and receptors for IgG Fc. Two types of receptors for complement could be detected on the cell lines studied, one for C3-C3b and one for C3d. When sensitized red cells carrying C3b or C3d were used for rosette tests, three categories of cell lines could be distinguished: (a) cell lines having receptors for C3b and C3d, (b) cell lines having receptors only for C3d and (c) cell lines lacking both receptors. However, when a more sensitive immunofluorescent method was used instead of the rosette technique, it was found that ...
Western blot analysis for several different cell lines indicating relative expression levels. These cells were derived from 3 different colonies that had alread
Oncogenic activation of ras results in changes in the transcription of several genes leading to uncontrolled cell growth. In this paper, we demonstrate that transformation of fibroblast cells by the ras oncogene leads to transcriptional repression of the smooth muscle α-actin promoter. Transient transfection analysis of plasmids containing the 5′ upstream region of the human α-actin gene fused to human growth hormone or bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase coding sequences into Rat-2 and ras-transformed Rat-2 (HO6) cells indicates that α-actin promoter is repressed in ras-transformed cells. In addition, stable rat fibroblast cell lines expressing human growth hormone or β-galactosidase under the control of α-actin promoter exhibit repressed reporter gene activity following transformation by the ras oncogene. α-Actin promoter-driven β-galactosidase activity is derepressed in revertants of ras-transformed stable cell lines. This revertant cell line expresses elevated levels of ras ...
May be imported without a USDA permit.. In addition, monoclonal antibodies intended for in vivo human use do not require a permit.. However, (1) cell lines derived from livestock or avian species, (2) cell lines derived from any species which will be used for in vivo use, and (3) cell lines of any species which may have been exposed to exotic livestock or avian disease agents will require a USDA, VS import permit.. Procedures:. A USDA, VS import permit will NOT be required for cell lines other products of cell lines, including monoclonal antibodies if the shipment is accompanied by:. ...
MCF10 series cell lines exhibit variation in acinar structure morphology along the metastatic cascade after 14 days in 3D laminin rich environment culture syste
ECACC primary cell lines are offered from a variety of mammalian sources. Human cell lines, mouse cell lines, cancer cell lines and more are available. Sigma-Aldrich has partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures, ECACC, a world leader and recognized expert in the maintenance, cultivation and distribution of authenticated cell lines.
We were interested in the question of whether it might be possible to use knowledge of cancer-related mutations in the cell lines of the NCI60 screening data set to identify small molecules that preferentially inhibit the growth of cell lines containing either BRAF or KRAS oncogene mutations. Our hypothesis was that this cell line mutation knowledge could help to identify small molecules that were more likely to preferentially inhibit growth of cell lines with a particular mutation. It seems that any such molecules might be further investigated to try to better understand the molecular mechanisms of growth inhibition.We defined a quantity, \(\text{Diff}_{\text{mut}}\), that estimates how much more a given small molecule inhibits cell lines with a mutation of interest than cell lines without that mutation. We ranked the small molecules in descending order of \(\text{Diff}_{\text{mut}}\) and then tried to explain whether the ranking of the highest ranked molecules made sense in terms of independent facts
View Notes - 2010 Bio 317 Lecture 12 from BIO 317 at SUNY Stony Brook. Rush 10/15/10 11 1. How does a chemical messenger mediate a response in a particular cell type? 2. How does a chemical messenger
Shirley, NY-Profacgen, a world-leading custom protein service provider for a broad spectrum of industrial and academic clients with a commitment to delivering high-quality data and customer services, is pleased to update its stable cell line construction services. Scientists in the field of protein expression now have access to Profacgens latest stable cell line construction service version supported by cutting-edge facilities.. When large amount of recombinant protein is required, stable expression line construction is recommended for reproducible and cost-effective protein production. Generally, stable cell line construct will take 3 steps: delivery of the target gene into the host cell, screening of stable expression clones, and stability test. For efficient gene delivery and to achieve high integration rate, the company uses lentiviral vector. Limited dilution and antibiotics screening are then applied to select for high-yield, genetically homogenous stable expression monoclones. When ...
Cambridge, UK and Liege, BE, 8 March 2017 - Horizon Discovery Group plc (LSE: HZD) ("Horizon"), the world leader in the application of gene editing technologies, including the provision of bioproduction cell lines, today announced it has entered into a research and development collaboration, and license agreement with AmplyCell S.A., to evaluate the impact of AmplyCells BOOST cell line optimisation technology on Horizons parental GS (glutamine synthetase) null CHO K1 cell line. AmplyCells Cell Fitness Technologies, which include BOOST, consist of a four-stage process to optimise cell lines in terms of stability and productivity. Cell lines can be stimulated using AmplyCells Cell Fitness Technologies at any stage of cell line development or bioproduction (clone creation, RCB/DCB, MCB), without the need to change culture conditions. Horizon is applying a disruptive business model alongside its expertise in genome editing to improve the manufacture of biotherapeutics, making its cutting-edge ...
WPE1-NB26-65 and WPE1-NB26-64 (ATCC CRL-2889) were derived from a subcutaneous tumor in a nude mouse injected with WPE1-NB26 (ATCC CRL-2852). They secrete matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 2 (MMP-9 and MMP-2) into the culture medium while the parent line produces barely detectable levels. WPE1-NB26-65 secretes 40% higher levels of MMP-2 than WPE1-NB26-64. [PubMed: 16471037] WPE1-NB26 cells belong to a family of cell lines, referred to as the MNU cell lines, which are all derived from RWPE-1 (ATCC CRL-11609) cells after exposure to MNU. The MNU cell lines, in order of increasing malignancy are: WPE1-NA22 (ATCC CRL-2849), WPE1-NB14 (ATCC CRL-2850), WPE1-NB11 (ATCC CRL-2851) and WPE1-NB26 (ATCC CRL-2852). The WPE1-NB26-64 and WPE1-NB26-65 cell lines show an increase in anchorage-dependent growth and invasive ability as compared to the parent WPE1-NB26. The depositor reports that the parent RWPE-1 cell line was screened for Hepatitis B (HBV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency (HIV) viruses and was
The analysis of relevant marker proteins (E-cadherin, keratins, β-catenin, and α6 and β1 integrins) in these genetically related, human prostate epithelial sublines grown in lrECM gels shows that the relative distribution and proportion of cell surface integrins controls the structural homeostasis of these cells. The parental P69 cell line produces structures that are morphologically similar to human glandular prostate epithelial cells (2). α6 and β1 Integrin expression is polarized in the P69, poorly tumorigenic F6, and M12-Vim acini, but polarization disappears in the disorganized mass of tumorigenic and metastatic M12 cells. The weakly tumorigenic LNCaP cell line displayed features of integrin polarization akin to P69, F6, or M12-Vim sublines, but the metastatic PC3 cell line formed solid spheroids of cells similar to initial M12 cultures. With time, the M12 subline grew out of such disorganized spheroids, which may reflect its highly metastatic phenotype (22). Thus, a thorough analysis ...
... ,Sender,. To. ,Receiver,. ,Ref., DD.MM.YYYY. Dear Madame/Sir. On the ,date, we received the plant cell line ,name and designation, from your laboratory for deposit in the plant cell culture collection. Since no long term preservation method is presently available for the cell line it would have to be maintained in the living state at the collection centre.. Since we recently got the information that the maintenance of the cell line under conditions acceptable for CABRI is not possible we hereby inform you that we halted the accession procedure and discarded those samples of the cell line still maintained in our collection.. We apologize for being not able to include your cell line in our collection and remain. With kind regards. Yours Sincerely. ,Name of responsible ...
Fast stable cell line generation service for antibody production: development of suspension CHO stable cell lines for antibody production. No virus involved. DNA Transfection and stable cell line screening only.
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Serotonin, 5HT2c (non-edited) receptor. Human recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP). In addition, for total reassurance, we will provide up to two free replacements within in a 2 year period should you accidently lose your cell line ...
organizing cell lines - posted in Cell Biology: Hi, Were a lab of 8 and were working with 10+ more types of cell lines, all from one cancer tyep though. Ive been put in charge of looking after these cell lines. I would welcome any experience in how to record the cell line stock in liquid nitrogen.
creat a SY5Y stable cell line - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everyone! I want to creat a stable cell line using SY5Y cells. I will do the transfection with the lentivirus next week and ill do selection with G418..someone has an idea how long in average does it take until i can freeze them for the first time? Thanks and good luck with your culturing Andreia
Our BacMam Histone H3 Cellular Assay Kits allow you to choose the modification that corresponds to your enzyme of interest in your chosen cell background or multiple cell backgrounds. Our BacMam Histone H3 Cellular Assay Kits allow you to choose the modification that corresponds to your enzyme of interest in your chosen cell background or multiple cell backgrounds.
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Adrenergic, B3 receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP). In addition, for total reassurance, we will provide up to two free replacements within in a 2 year period should you accidently lose your cell line ...
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Angiotensin, AT2 receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP). In addition, for total reassurance, we will provide up to two free replacements within in a 2 year period should you accidently lose your cell line ...
How can I find out if my cell line is free of pathogens? What pathogens should I be concerned about?. If you bought the cells from a vendor or a culture collection, then you can consult their catalog. Many catalogs will list safety and pathogen information -- if you cannot find it, contact the vendor. If you received the cells from another lab, you should find out where they originally came from.. Cell lines can contain harmful viruses. Sometimes, the viral genome is integrated into the cells genome. Most viruses have a limited "host range", which means that they can only infect closely related species. Therefore, viruses living in a human or monkey cell line are likely to be dangerous to humans, but viruses living in an insect cell line probably cannot infect humans. If you work with a cell line from humans or other primates, you should check whether it contains viruses or viral genomic DNA. Viruses have Risk Group numbers, so if your cell line contains any viruses, you must handle it at the ...
Is there a secret to getting a cell background image to show up in Netscape 4.x? It looks fine in IE, but the cell color shows up instead of the image in Netscape. Heres my CSS code: TD.bkgrnd2 { background-color: #999999; background-image: url(../comp13_images/blue3.jpg); background-repeat: no-repeat; padding: 5px; }
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Serotonin, 5HT-1A receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
1) The main issue with this paper is this: these cell lines, although originally human, are all immortalized cancer cell lines characterised by markedly different biological properties when compared to normal human cells of the same tissue/cell type. They cant be readily used a surrogates for normal human tissue/cell types. None were primary cells nor were any even from recently acquired tissue samples from biopsies etc. People have infected primary human airway epithelial cultures with hCoV-EMC - so this can be done successfully - , although it would be more difficult for other tissue types as these cultures havent been developed. Some of these cell lines used may by chance lack key viral repressors of infection present in normal primary cells, which could skew results from cell culture infection experiments. Plus, a human tissue is not just a single cell type - they are composed of diverse kinds of cells that could together behave much, much differently than cell lines in culture ...
I am going to use hek293t cells for expression of some proteins, I know hek293t cells are already transfected with TAg of sv40 and my expression plasmid has sv40 origion of replication, I read some articles that say sv40 containing plasmids can replicate in hek293t cells so can I use hek293t cells for establishment of stable cell lines using this plasmid or this cell line is only used for transient expression ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Horizons X-MAN® (Mutant And Normal) cell lines are genetically engineered cell pairs containing defined genomic modifications, providing a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the genotype.. ...
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Nicotinic, HM74a receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
Reducing drug development timelines and cost is a goal that we hear repeatedly in the industry. One area where timing is crucial is in reaching a go/no go decision on a therapeutic candidate and efficient production scale up once a go decision has been reached.. Early in development, small amounts of protein are needed to conduct preliminary studies that inform a go/no go decision. Protein can either be generated using transient production or through stable cell line generation. Most often companies choose to use transient transfection in either HEK or CHO cells to produce small quantities of protein because it is faster and more cost effective than developing a cell line. Having access to preclinical material faster and with less cost can greatly impact the overall drug development timeline. Then if the product progresses further in development, a stable cell line will be generated for larger scale manufacturing.. However, the timing of when to generate the stable cell line can be tricky. ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
línea celular (es); কোষ লাইন (bn); lignée cellulaire (fr); Línia cel·lular immortalitzada (ca); Zelllinie (de); ceall-líne (ga); رده سلولی نامیرا (fa); 細胞系 (zh); cellelinje (da); 細胞株 (ja); клеточная линия (ru); cell line (mn); linia komórkowa (pl); клітинна лінія (uk); cellijn (nl); 細胞株 (zh-hant); קו תאים (he); خط خلية (ar); cellelinje (nn); cell line (en); ĉellinio (eo); 细胞株 (zh-hans); Besmrtna linija ćelija (bs) eukaryotic cell clone derived from an eukaryotic organism by immortalization (en); Immortalisierter eukaryotischer Zellklon entstanden aus einem Zelltyp eines Eukaryoten (de); cel-kloon (nl) линия клеток (ru); 株化細胞, 不死化細胞株 (ja); Lignée cellulaire, Lignée Cellulaire, Lignee cellulaire (fr); Immortalisierung (de); immortalised cell line that decays indefinitely and is extinguished based on the cells it has come into contact with., cell strain (en); ...
The goal of the present study is to determine the effect of agonist exposure on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of MC4R as well as its ligands. To facilitate visualization of receptor movement within intracellular compartments, we have constructed an MC4R-GFP chimeric receptor. The same approach has recently been used to study the cellular distributions of several other G protein-coupled receptors (for review, see Kallal and Benovic, 2000). Despite the fact that the native human MC4R has a very short C-terminal tail (28 amino acids), attachment of the bulky 27-kDa GFP polypeptide to the C terminus of receptor was found not to alter the pharmacological and functional characteristics of the human MC4R in extensive ligand binding and second messenger activation studies. In addition, MC4R-GFP was predominantly expressed and distributed evenly on the cell surface in transfected HEK-293 cells, suggesting that the receptor may not be compartmentalized in any specialized microdomains under ...
DRD1 Receptor Cell lines available at Innoprot. HiTSeeker, Nomad and internalization Cell lines stably expressing DRD1 Receptor functionally validated.
Sodium and calcium fluxes in a clonal nerve cell line.: 1. 22Na+ and 45Ca2+ fluxes were studied in the clonal nerve cell line PC12. Three distinct types of ion
Co-cultivation of production cells at the limit of the in vitro age is an assay we offer to test for latent retroviruses for our clients. Essentially, your production cells are plated along with susceptible cell lines that exhibit stronger phenotypic CPE when the virus enters them. Thus, viruses that are expressed as non-infectious particles or exhibit low level of expression in production cells are detected ...
Profacgen provides One-Stop-Service for stable cell line construction, both for research use and industrial production. Our service can be tailored according to your specific requirements.
HEK293T-HuHTR4-FLAG cell line is a hypotriploid human cell line, which has been transfected with a human 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4, G protein-coupled (HTR4) tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG to allow stably express of the human HTR4 tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
... Fast Track Project commissioned, loop tuned, validated for initial startup Wrote and executed all FAT, validation protocols on site.
Get an answer for parallel linesLine d1 passes through the points (-2,0) and (0,a). Line d2 passes through the points (4,0) and (6,2). What value of a makes the two lines parallel? and find homework help for other Math questions at eNotes
In article ,3CA63F76.9990DF1 at mdacc.tmc.edu,, shahram mori ,smori at mdacc.tmc.edu, wrote: , ,has anyone had problems with T2- cell lines being leaky.. we get 50% ,non-specific killing of our targets despite the fact that we use T-cell (1) Have you tested for mycoplasma? (2) If your T cell lines have NK or LAK-like activity, T2 would probably be a good target, being MHC low. Ian -- Ian York (iayork at panix.com) ,http://www.panix.com/~iayork/, -but as he was a York, I am rather inclined to suppose him a very respectable Man. -Jane Austen, The History of England ...
Explains a lot about how autoimmune conditions that target particular organs such as the heart or nervous system could develop after an infection; n
Make use of our cell line adaptation service and we adapt your adherently growing cell line to serum-free growth in suspension - For scalable biologi…
The recognition of peptide antigens by T cells through their antigen receptors (T cell receptors, or TCR), together with the ligation of additional surface molecules called costimulatory receptors, rapidly induces interactive signaling pathways that lead to transcriptional initiation at genes such as that of the autocrine growth factor interleukin 2 (IL‐2)
In your work activity you need regularly draw the line graphs? And each time you ask yourself a question How to Draw a Line Graph easier and faster?. The desire to automate the line graphs drawing process led to the creation of Line Graphs solution from Graphs and Charts area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Line Graph Of
HEK293-CNG-HuOPRL1 cell line is a hypotriploid human cell line, which has been transfected with a Human opiate receptor-like 1 (OPRL1) to allow stably express of the human OPRL1. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
Researchers from the Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute recently published a study showing a correlation with the introduction of human fetal cell lines used
Hackett, A and Sylvester, S, "Cell line derived from balb/3t3 that is transformed by murine leukae- mia virus, a focus assay for leukaemia virus." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2659 ...
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Function: Binds to the IL-1 type I receptor following IL-1 engagement, triggering intracellular signaling cascades leading to transcriptional up-regulation and mRNA stabilization ...
Directly benefit from our know-how in cell line engineering, derived from generating thousands of genetically modified cell models (Knockouts, humanizations, point mutations, over-expression, etc.)
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-85020204, IMR-90 Cell Line human for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
V Line Exporters ☆ Search here 909 v line selling leads from 366 v line exporters at EC21 ☆ Choose quality v line exporters now - EC21
I have arrived late for the Whoopie Sling party, so I am learning... I got some tech line from Scott at DIYSupply yesterday. (Great vendor!) I made myself an adjustable structural ridge line that I hope to try out over the weekend. I was looking at videos showing tarp ridge lines and was wondering if anyone has tried threading a few inches of whatever brand of hollow core line you use for a tarp suspension onto your ridge line with a loop (locked Brummel?) hanging off the end toward the tree
ATCC houses a vast collection of cell lines derived from the peripheral blood cell lines from multiple species, representing T and B lymphoblast cell types.
The subject line has the power to make or break your ranking on the recipients handling-priority list.. Does your SUBJECT LINE convey the golden nugget of the contents of the body of your email? Is there sufficient information in the subject lineto enable the recipient to prioritize your email? If the matter is urgent to you, will it cause the recipient to appreciate your urgency and take prompt action on it? Will your subject line resonate with the recipient? Is your subject line too wordy?. STRESS TEST your email subject line before hitting send. You will do the recipient a favor and you will be protecting your own vital interests.. ...
Human cells are a combination of water, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and fats contained in a lipid-based membrane. The precise composition of human cells varies widely, depending on a given...
Researchers working with immortalized cell lines would readily agree when I state that it is almost impossible to look at cells under the microscope and identify them by name.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wid
Tudor domain-containing protein 3 (TDRD3) bears one tudor domain and an ubiquitin associated domain (UBA). Tudor domains interact with arginine-glycine-rich motifs in a m
FFA2 (GPR43) is a 330-amino acid G-protein coupled receptor that binds to fatty acid. FFA2 is highly selective expressed in leukocytes, which suggests a role in the recruitment of these cell populations toward sites of bacterial infection.
If you follow my fitness tips and ideas you will know Im a big fan of getting outdoors and using our rejuvenated energy wisely.
Biologically Pure Escherichia-Coli Cell Line Which Is a Deo-R-Negative Mutant and Which Is More Transformation Efficient with Foreign Plasmids Than Deo-R-Positive Escherichia-Coli Cell Lines Processes for Obtaining These Cell Lines Methods of Use Us Patent-4851348. July 25 1989 ...
Using vb.net, I'm trying to draw lines as in the out line of a building based on data points If you do the following - Answered by a verified Programmer
question is if you only use [mapsmarker layer="4″] and then the credits line displays correctly, it is an issue with your template and then you should check there to identify and change the css which is causing this…. ...
PD-Dialog-BoxChartConLine-Tab. You can add the connect lines in the box chart to connect the Mean points, the Median points, the data points or the percentiles. The Connect Lines tab provides controls for customizing these connect lines. ...
Conclusions. On the whole, the Devuan project appears to have achieved its goals. The distribution offers users an operating system virtually identical to Debian 8, but with systemd replaced with SysV init. The project provides existing Debian users a clean and easy migration path to Devuan that has only a minimal amount of side effects. Taken on its own, Devuan is a lightweight operating system with a fairly minimal (and responsive) desktop environment.. While Devuan has reached its goals, I had two significant concerns about the distribution. The first concern was the system installer. While it worked, Im curious as to why Devuan appears to have discarded the reliable Debian installer in favour of a less feature rich and less polished installation process. Other Debian-friendly installers, such as the one which ships with Linux Mint Debian Edition, are available if a more streamlined approach is wanted.. My other concern is that Devuan 1.0.0 is about two years behind Debian. A fork of Debian ...
our @data=,DATA,; # some code comes here... sub dosubstr { foreach my $i ( 0..$#data ) { my $line=$data[$i]; my $jcpu=substr($line,2,16); my $j=substr($line,18,48); my $s=substr($line,290,16); $jcpu =~ s/\s//g; $s =~ s/\s//g; $j =~ s/\s//g; # warn $jcpu $j $s; # ..store the values in a hash, but that is not important here } } sub doregex { foreach my $i ( 0..$#data ) { my $line=$data[$i]; $line =~ m/^04(?=(\S+)).{16}(?=(\S+)).{40}.{216}.{16}(?=(\S+)).{ +16}/ ; my $jcpu=$1; my $j=$2; my $s=$3; # warn $jcpu $j $s; # ..store the values in a hash, but that is not important here } } __DATA__ 04A12345 RELEASE A12345 RELEASE A12345 04FTOP DD_BUIL+ FTOP DD_REKL+ FTOP 04FTOP DD_PLAN+ FTOP DD_REKL+ FTOP ...
This module defines the object to represent one line of input text to preprocess. It contains the actual text from the line, and the file name and line number where the text was retrieved. It contains also utility methods for error messages.. ...
On the camera screen, there is a black line going horizontally across the screen. What is wrong with the screen and what steps must I take to fix this problem? - Canon Vixia HF R500
Fine Line Double Print enables cell manufacturers to produce cells with less paste, better quality and higher cell efficiencies than conventional single print cells. ...
We need the script to read a line of cells for example E2-Q2 and only one of those cells will have data in and that will change all the time, so is there a way to read across and the first cell with data in, capture and paste into a separate cell automatically ...
Find parametric equations for the line through the point P(2, 9, 4) that is parallel to the plane x + y + z = 6 and perpendicular to the line x = 5 + t , y = 5 − t , z = 5t . Answer Choices: 1. x = 2 + 6t, y = 9 + 4t, z = 4 ...
Eems delayed in our assays, probably due to the different cell lines used in each case. The major sites phosphorylated by LCK appeared to be Tyr526 and Tyr536.
Hi everyone I found this interesting Line from Russian palmistry site - kind of voltage line (google trantslate ) Thin and straight horizontal line star
Notes:. 1. For a blank cell, you will get number 1 after applying the above formula.. 2. This formula =LEN(A2)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(A2,CHAR(10),""))+(LEN(A2),1) can also help you to count a number of lines in a cell but get number 0 of a blank cell.. ...
한국세포주은행에서 분양해간 세포주를 이용한 논문을 등록해 주세요. 커뮤니티-논문등 록을 클릭하시면 논문을 등록하실 수 있으며, 다른 연구자분들이 등록하신 논문을 볼수 도 있습니다. 입력할 내용중 \\제목\\은 논문의 제목, \\내용\\은 pubmed의 초록을 내용으로 넣어주시 고, \\첨부\\는 pdf화일 형태의 논문을 첨부해 주시면 됩니다. 한국세포주은행 회원님들의 소중한 연구결과를 많은 연구자들이 공유할 수 있도록 해주 시면 감사하겠습니다 ...
Line Gvajana vs WhatsChat Gvajana. WhatsChat Gvajana, je aplikacija, ki vam omogoča klepet z video in besedila z več tisoč ljudi, ki so blizu vaše trenutne lokacije, če ste v Gvajana
Lines and angles facts - A line is a straight, thin, zero-width object that extends on both sides with no curves. An angle is the figure formed by two rays.
플라스크의 입구주변을 소독한 후 5ml정도의 배지만 남겨놓은채 모든 배지를 제거한 후 37℃ 배양기에서 배양한다. 때로는 취급도중에 세포들이 떨어져 배지속에 부유하여 있을 수 있으므로, 플라스크 내의 모든 배지를 원심분리용관에 옮긴 후 1,000 rpm에서 3분정도 원심분리하여 cell을 모은 후, 5ml정도의 배지만 남긴 후 나머지 배지는 제거한다 ...
We prove existence of Reeb orbits for Bohr - Sommerfeld Legendrians in certain prequantization spaces. We give a quantitative estimate from below. These estimates are obtained by studying Floer homology for fiberwise quadratic Hamiltonian functions on negative line bundles.
Octapharma develops and produces high-quality human proteins from human plasma and human cell lines. Our medicines help people with a broad range of rare and li
Lets stop drawing lines in the sand when it comes to genetically modifying people and talk about engineering everybody, says Michael Le Page
But when it is a very faint line, you wait. You wait a few days and you take another test. I waited a day. Maybe two. My period came instead.
PS:任何在樂樂這邊約妹的顧客只要有提前3小時預約小姐指定時間到達等候超過30分鐘看情況我們會賠償500-1k不等推出遊戲 【撕、襪誘惑】所謂絲襪誘惑就是讓大哥門任意 ... ❤樂樂茶莊6月底的優惠活動❤ ,大台灣樂樂本土外送茶喝茶流程+line:yp574
το κείμενο με τίτλο Red Line Walkthrough σχετίζετε με Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική
The antiviral effects of tenidap may be independent of its ability to reduce IL-6 production based on the observations that these effects were as prominent in IL-6 nonresponsive lines as in IL-6 responsive lines and that the inhibition of p24 production was not reversed by exogenous IL-6 ...
I have a test tomorrow with a few sample questions that are expected to be on the test that I do not know how to properly do. 1)Find the slope intercept equation of the line passing through the intersection of the lines 2x-4y=1 & 3x+4y=4 and parallel to the line 5x+7y+3=0 2)... ...
There is a huge difference between NYSE and NASDAQ A/D line, but remember the NASDAQ exchange has many more stocks. Assuming NYSE A/D line needs to fall below the 2006 lows just because the NASDAQ A/D line is already past its 2006 lows is probably bad reasoning ...
Use 1 line of em-spaced dots to indicate omission of a full line or several consecutive lines of verse.Sometimes you say its smaller. Today . . . . . . . you said it was a touch larger, and would change. Marc Straus, MD,
Use 1 line of em-spaced dots to indicate omission of a full line or several consecutive lines of verse.Sometimes you say its smaller. Today . . . . . . . you said it was a touch larger, and would change. Marc Straus, MD,
Have any of you taken these?? If you are negative, is there NO LINE at all??? Or is there always a ((grayish, faint)) line there?????
A human B-lymphoblastoid cell line which is identified as L612. The L612 cell line is an Epstein-Barr virus transformed cell line which secretes a human monoclonal antibody (L612) which is reactive with glycoconjugates having an epitope of terminal NeuAc α2-3 Galactose residue such as GM3 and GM4 present on a variety of human tumor tissues. The L612 antibody is useful in treating patients with the epitope containing tumors and is also useful in raising anti-id antibodies for use as surrogate antigens and diagnostic reagents.
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha particle mutagenesis of human lymphoblastoid cell lines. AU - Amundson, S. A.. AU - Chen, D. J.. AU - Okinaka, R. T.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Despite being derived from the same donor, the human lymphoblastoid cell lines WTK1 and TK6 have markedly different responses to low LET radiation. We originally observed that WTK1 was more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of X-irradiation, but significantly more sensitive to mutation induction at both the TK and HPRT loci. In an effort to better understand these properties, we have examined the effects of α-particles on these cells. Relative to TK6, WTK1 has enhanced survival and mutation after both X-ray and α-particle exposure. While the HPRT locus was significantly more mutable in WTK1 as a function of α-particle versus X-ray dose, the TK locus was only slightly more sensitive to a-particle mutagenesis. In addition, the slowly growing TK mutants that constitute the majority of X-ray-induced TK mutants of TK6 were recovered ...
Looking for online definition of pre-B lymphocyte in the Medical Dictionary? pre-B lymphocyte explanation free. What is pre-B lymphocyte? Meaning of pre-B lymphocyte medical term. What does pre-B lymphocyte mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a recombinant human dopamine transporter in multiple cell lines. AU - Eshleman, A. J.. AU - Neve, R. L.. AU - Janowsky, Aaron. AU - Neve, Kim. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - A 3.5-kilobase cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter was isolated from a human substantia nigra cDNA library. Sequence analysis of the coding region of the transporter identified two nucleotide differences between the cDNA and published human dopamine transporter sequences. One of the substitutions changed an amino acid conserved among previously cloned dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine transporters, Arg-344, to a methionine. C6 glioma cells or COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA (C6-hDAT and Cos7-hDAT cells) accumulated [3H]DA with high affinity (K(m) = 1.2 and 1.5 μM, respectively), and DA uptake inhibitors had similar potencies in both cell lines. [3H]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([3H]CFT) bound to membranes prepared from both cell lines with high affinity (K(d) = 2-8 ...
Incubation of adriamycin resistant Chinese hamster lung cells with low levels of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) results in a major increase in the cellular accumulation of drug. When resistant cells are prelabeled with [32Pi] and thereafter treated with NEM there also occurs a selective superphosphorylation of an 180K plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-180). This phosphorylation reaction occurs at both serine and threonine residues. In similar experiments with drug sensitive cells only minor levels of this protein can be detected. Detailed studies have established that in cells which have reverted to drug sensitivity there is a parallel loss in the presence of phosphorylated P-180. Also in cells which have undergone partial reversion to drug sensitivity there is a correlation between levels of superphosphorylated P-180 and adriamycin resistance. These results provide evidence that adriamycin resistance is dependent on the presence of P-180. The results also suggest that the biological activity of this protein is
BioAssay record AID 80927 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for differentiation-inducing activity against human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.
BioAssay record AID 81292 submitted by ChEMBL: The ability to induce differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 to mature granulocytes was determined by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay.
Read "Infectivity and propagation of attenuated infectious bursal disease virus in the chicken B-lymphocyte cell line DT40, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

RCRF Cancer Cell Line Project - Leiomyoarcoma.infoRCRF Cancer Cell Line Project - Leiomyoarcoma.info

RCRF Cancer Cell Line Project. RCRF Cancer Cell Line project partnership with the NLMSF established to include leiomyosarcoma ... The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. ... Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. ... RCRF Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Project. *MyPART Network ... Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. ...
more infohttps://leiomyosarcoma.info/cancer-cell-line-project/

JY cell line - WikipediaJY cell line - Wikipedia

The JY cell line is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised B cell lymphoblastoid line. Cells express HLA class-I A2 and class ... It is a suspension cell line, although cells are known to grow in clumps. The growth medium is RPMI 1640, 10% fetal calf serum ... Cell report for JY at IMGT/HLA Cellosaurus entry for JY. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JY_cell_line

PC12 cell line - WikipediaPC12 cell line - Wikipedia

... studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell line ... This cell line was first cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976. It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell ... "PC-12/CRL-1721 cell line". LGC Promochem: Cell Biology Collection. American Type Culture Collection. Archived from the original ... PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC12_cell_line

cell linecell line

After considering starting cell culture of astrocytes does anyone have any comments as to the usefulness of bought cell lines ... cell line. Patrick Doyle pdoyle at medsun.unige.ch Tue Jan 25 09:47:21 EST 1994 * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... such as the c6 glioma line? In particular how normal are these cells metabolically? Pat. * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1994-January/013220.html

V79 cell line ?V79 cell line ?

Hi I work with a cell line we referre to in our lab as V79. The technician who gave me the cells with this information ... V79 cell line ?. Roger C. Leemann leemann at imr.psi.ch Thu Oct 24 16:08:22 EST 1996 *Previous message: Stressproteins WORKSHOP ... How many different V79 cell lines are there? Is there a list on the web? Does anybody know the full name of Somatic Cell Gen ... does not find a cell line named V79 but lists the following: ECACC number 87091501 cell name DON description Hamster Chinese ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1996-October/005562.html

established cell line | Encyclopedia.comestablished cell line | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on established cell line: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences dictionary. ... established cell line Cells, derived from a primary culture, which may be subcultured indefinitely in vitro. ... established cell line Cells, derived from a primary culture, which may be subcultured indefinitely in vitro.. ... established cell line A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by Oxford ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/established-cell-line-0

Cell Line AuthenticationCell Line Authentication

... method for cell line identity confirmation and for detection of intra-species contamination in cultured human cell lines. ... Cell Line Authentication. GenePrint® 10 provides a convenient STR-based method for cell line identity confirmation and for ... Cell Line Authentication. Cell Line Authentication Mixed Sample Analysis ... Shop all Cell Line Authentication. Sort by:. Newest. Alphabetical A-Z. Alphabetical Z-A. ...
more infohttps://www.promega.com/products/cell-authentication-sample-identification/cell-line-authentication/

Aborted Fetal Cell Line VaccinesAborted Fetal Cell Line Vaccines

... cell lines from aborted fetuses. To say that one needs the cell lines of aborted fetuses to preserve one s life is inseparable ... The cell line developed at Coriell, identified as IMR-90 was the first of several lines planned in support of NIA research ... the cell line may be considered as an alternative for WI-38. [21] The expected lifespan for this new cell line is 58 population ... Stanley Plotkin had the choice of using either a fetal cell line taken from a miscarriage or the aborted fetal cell line WI-38 ...
more infohttps://web.archive.org/web/20110717013531/http%3A/www.cogforlife.org/fetalvaccinetruth.htm

Stem Cell Lines Compromised? | WIREDStem Cell Lines Compromised? | WIRED

Nonhuman molecules from the culture medium used to grow stem cells have contaminated the human embryonic stem cells available ... Stem Cell Lines Compromised?. WASHINGTON - The human embryonic stem cells available for research are contaminated with nonhuman ... Currently available stem cell lines have been grown in materials derived from animals. Such materials include connective tissue ... Last summer, more than half the members of the Senate urged easing limits on new cell lines, noting that potential ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/2005/01/stem-cell-lines-compromised/

Cell Line Identification and Authentication | NISTCell Line Identification and Authentication | NIST

... cell line contamination and misidentification. To help address this challenge, NIST and the American Type Culture Collection ( ... ATCC) have partnered to establish a Mouse Cell Line Authentication Consortium and are ... The widespread use of cell lines in biomedical research is nearly universal, but a major issue has continued to plague the ... Mouse Cell Line Authentication - The scientific community has responded to the misidentification of human cell lines with ...
more infohttps://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/cell-line-identification-and-authentication

mAbs | Cell LinemAbs | Cell Line

High Titer Production Cell Lines Within 6 Months from DNA. Get a robust, high titer production cell line and fed-batch process ... Early selection of high producer cell lines under bioreactor conditions ensures that the best media and cell line combination ... Run up to 48 stirred vessels in parallel and screen for the best producing cell line and media combination with the help of ... Improve the overall efficiency and speed of cell line and media development by 90% with the unique ambr15 automated multi- ...
more infohttps://www.sartorius.com/en/applications/biopharmaceutical-manufacturing/mabs/mabs-upstream/mabs-cell-line

Schisto cell lines?Schisto cell lines?

... (Dave Johnston) daj at mailserver.nhm.ac.uk Tue Nov 8 05:44:50 EST 1994 *Previous message: spiders and ... Has anyone ever tried to (or know of anyone else who has tried to) establish schisto cell lines? (Background - trying to find ...
more infohttp://bio.net/bionet/mm/parasite/1994-November/000321.html

The Rockefeller University » Cell Line DistributionThe Rockefeller University » Cell Line Distribution

Pass other cell lines specific tests to access the quality of the culture, for example karyotyping for stem cells ... Send all inquires to [email protected] and we will reply within 1 business day indicating if we carry the cell line and how ... As a bi-institutional facility the Antibody and Bioresource Core Facility distributes cell lines developed at Memorial Sloan ... Come with the STR profile for the cell lines and a comprehensive information sheet ...
more infohttps://www.rockefeller.edu/monoclonal/?p=39

Established cell line definition | Drugs.comEstablished cell line definition | Drugs.com

Definition of established cell line. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: cells that demonstrate the potential for indefinite subculture in vitro.. Further information. Always consult your ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/established-cell-line.html

Isogenic Cell LinesIsogenic Cell Lines

... derived from ATCC cells that were gene edited by CRISPR/Cas9 and ideal for identifying novel personalized ... Tumor Cell Panels. Tumor Cells by Source Tissue. Tumor Cells by Genetic Alteration. A broad range of tumor cell lines and cell ... MEK Q56P - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. IDH1 R132H - U-87 Isogenic Cell Line. IDH2 R140Q - TF-1 Isogenic Cell Line. By utilizing ... EML4-ALK Fusion - A549 Isogenic Cell Line. NRAS Q61K - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. KRAS G13D - A375 Isogenic Cell Line. ...
more infohttp://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Isogenic_Cell_Lines.aspx

ATCC Cell LinesATCC Cell Lines

... fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. ... The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest ... line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell ... Reporter-labeled Cell Lines Reporter-labeled cell lines are useful for monitoring various biological functions. These cells ... Isogenic Cell Lines ATCC offers isogenic cell lines created using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 that are ideal for ...
more infohttp://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Cell_Lines.aspx

Cell Lines: Technology CommercializationCell Lines: Technology Commercialization

Cell lines available as research tools from the Technology Transfer office at National Jewish Health ... cell line/fusion partner. A variant of the AKR thymona BW5147 has been isolated which can no longer express functional T cell ... T cell hybridoma BO-97.10. BO-97.10 is a T cell hybridoma which responds to a chicken Ovalbumin peptide (a.a. 327-339) + Class ... CD8-transfected BW5147 alpha-beta- cell line/fusion partner (BWlyt2-4). Useful research tool for the study of antigen ...
more infohttps://www.nationaljewish.org/research-science/support/tech-transfer/cell-lines

Promises, Promises, and Cell LinesPromises, Promises, and Cell Lines

... life sciences researchers talk about the obvious solution-cell-line authentication-but they fail to implement it. Maybe they ... The HeLa cell line, represented here by a scanning electron micrograph showing a pair of recently divided HeLa cells, is the ... Letham notes that cell-line authentication is important for identifying bacterial, fungal, and insect cell hosts that produce ... The call for cell-line authentication began as a whisper. While it has not yet risen to a roar, leading researchers, journals, ...
more infohttps://www.genengnews.com/magazine/261/promises-promises-and-cell-lines/5631/

Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines | SpringerLinkHuman Keratinocyte Cell Lines | SpringerLink

HaCaT Cell Human Keratinocytes Normal Keratinocytes Human Epidermal Cell Human Keratinocyte Cell Line These keywords were added ... 1991) Human Keratinocyte Cell Lines. In: Wilson G., Davis S.S., Illum L., Zweibaum A. (eds) Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell ... Thus, HaCaT and derived cell lines provide readily available cell culture models and might offer useful alternatives to primary ... This is certainly true for many virally transformed cells. In contrast, the recently described spontaneous cell line HaCaT ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0286-6_23

hTERT Immortalized Cell LineshTERT Immortalized Cell Lines

... immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells ... with the traditional cell lines ability to survive continuously in vitro. ... immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells ... Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells ATCC hTERT immortalized RPE cell lines have an extended lifespan, undergo terminal ...
more infohttps://atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/hTERT_Immortalized_Cell_Lines.aspx

Seeking an S2 GFP cell lineSeeking an S2 GFP cell line

... l sian gramates siang at oitunix.oit.umass.edu Fri Jan 17 15:22:05 EST 2003 *Previous message: ... We are seeking an S2 line stably transfected with GFP (or constitutively expressing a GFP fusion protein), to use as a control ... so its not crucial as to what GFP fusion protein is being expressed). If anyone can share such a line, please contact Linda ...
more infohttp://bio.net/bionet/mm/dros/2003-January/006334.html

Stem cell line list gets sceptical reception | New ScientistStem cell line list gets sceptical reception | New Scientist

The US National Institutes of Health publishes a list of cell lines that qualify for federal funding, but scientists remain ... Scientists were sceptical that so many lines exist and are concerned that access to a restricted number of stem cell lines ... "You have to replicate your results with other cell lines," says stem cell researcher Maeve Caldwell at Cambridge University. " ... In a move designed to satisfy US researchers that there will be enough stem cell lines available for research, the US National ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1205-stem-cell-line-list-gets-sceptical-reception/

RPMI 7932 cell line | Sigma-AldrichRPMI 7932 cell line | Sigma-Aldrich

RPMI 7932 cell line for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Cell line produces plasminogen activator. This cell line was found to be indistinguishable from cell lines COLO 699N & COLO 738 ... Enquiries regarding the commercial use of a cell line are referred to the depositor of the cell line. Some cell lines have ... The cell lines COLO 699N, RPMI 7932 & COLO 738 were received from the same depositor. If we are able to obtain clarification of ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/94072246?lang=en®ion=US

Finally! A human pancreatic β cell line.  - PubMed - NCBIFinally! A human pancreatic β cell line. - PubMed - NCBI

... investigators have made numerous attempts to generate human pancreatic β cell lines that could be used to advance β cell ... To generate the human pancreatic β cell line EndoC-βH1, Ravassard and colleagues transduced fetal pancreatic buds with a ... A genetically engineered human pancreatic β cell line exhibiting glucose-inducible insulin secretion. [J Clin Invest. 2011] ... EndoC-betaH1 (CVCL_L909) - Cellosaurus - a cell line knowledge resource. Miscellaneous. *GLUCOSE - Hazardous Substances Data ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21865653?dopt=Abstract

Oncology Cell Lines | Sigma-AldrichOncology Cell Lines | Sigma-Aldrich

Lung Cancer Cell Lines. Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Product No.. DLD1 Cell Line. Gene Target(s). Product No.. MCF10A Cell Line. ... ECACC cell lines are offered from a variety of sources and include a large selection of cancer cell lines from a variety of ... ECACC Cell Lines. We have partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC), a world leader in the maintenance, ... we generated genetically defined human cell lines that model the different mutations observed in cancer. These cells will ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/cells-and-cell-based-assays/oncology-cell-lines.html
  • 32:857- ATCC designat CCL 16 comments derived from 8 motn old male adult How many different V79 cell lines are there? (bio.net)
  • To help address this challenge, NIST and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) have partnered to establish a Mouse Cell Line Authentication Consortium and are working with partners to test and validate NIST's patented authentication method . (nist.gov)
  • By utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, ATCC offers advanced isogenic cell models such as the EML4-ALK fusion lung cancer cell line and BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma cell lines. (atcc.org)
  • A broad range of tumor cell lines and cell panels are offered by ATCC for the study of tumor biology, drug discovery applications, and high-throughput screening. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC was entrusted with its first cell line in 1962 and has consistently attained the highest standards and used the most reliable procedures to verify every cell line since. (atcc.org)
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC provides investigators with a comprehensive selection of animal cell lines from over 150 different species. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC maintains nearly 4,000 cell lines that are invaluable for public health research, including cancer models such as HeLa, OVCAR-3 and LNCaP. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has created gene mutation lists based on the ATCC tumor cell line collection and known mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (atcc.org)
  • The ATCC Primary Cell collection includes quality primary cells, along with the media, reagents, and relevant information needed to support the successful culture of primary cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers Tumor/Normal matched cell line pairs derived from the same donor, allowing researchers to compare the experimental results from tumor cell lines to that of their normal counterparts. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has designed tumor cell panels based on the tissue of tumor origin, each annotated with details regarding known mutations. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalized cell lines represent a breakthrough in cell biology research that combines the in vivo nature of primary cells with the traditional cell line's ability to survive continuously in vitro. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized aortic endothelial cells have an extended lifespan with a stable karyotype. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized Barrett's esophageal epithelial cells contain stable, defined cell cycle and genetic abnormalities, have an extended life span, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight epithelium, have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized chondrocyte fibroblasts have an extended lifespan, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized dermal microvascular endothelial cells have an extended lifespan, express a panel of endothelial cell surface proteins, undergo tubule formation in culture and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT-immortalized prostate normal and disease-associated primary cells are capable of extended proliferation and provide the ideal platform to study the transformation of prostate cells and the tumor micro-environment. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC hTERT immortalized RPE cell lines have an extended lifespan, undergo terminal differentiation, express RPE associated proteins, and are karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. (atcc.org)
  • WASHINGTON - The human embryonic stem cells available for research are contaminated with nonhuman molecules from the culture medium used to grow the cells, researchers report. (wired.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are contaminated by this acid 'even when grown in special culture conditions with commercially available serum replacements, apparently because these are also derived from animal products,' said the lead researcher, Dr. Ajit Varki. (wired.com)
  • 21:393-425 comment cells from the lung of a young male Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) The ECACC catalog 1993 (Hypercard stack for Macintosh computers) gives the following spec ECACC number 86041102 cell name V79 description hamster lung morphology fibroblast depositor Wynford-Thomas, U of Wales, College of Med. (bio.net)
  • At ECACC the STR PCR profile of all stocks of this cell line match the profile of the original source material received at ECACC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have partnered with The European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC), a world leader in the maintenance, cultivation and distribution of authenticated cell lines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ECACC cell lines are offered from a variety of sources and include a large selection of cancer cell lines from a variety of different cancer types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The nonhuman cell-surface sialic acid can compromise the potential uses of the stem cells in humans, say scientists at the University of California, San Diego. (wired.com)
  • More troubling is the apparent complacency surrounding the need to authenticate cell-lines: 24% of respondents reported not seeing the necessity of authentication, and a similar percentage indicated that management was unaware of or deliberately ignored the issue. (genengnews.com)
  • Such materials include connective tissue cells, called feeder layers, from mice and fetal calf serum. (wired.com)
  • Details such as how well the cell lines divide and the molecular markers of their pluripotency will be provided - but only at the discretion of the investigators who derived the lines. (newscientist.com)
  • For decades, investigators have made numerous attempts to generate human pancreatic β cell lines that could be used to advance β cell biology, facilitate drug discovery, and provide a pathway to β cell replacement therapy for the treatment of diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers hope to use these cells to repair damaged organs and cure diseases. (wired.com)
  • The researchers said when the team grew stem cells in human serum specially selected for low amounts of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, the immune response was reduced, but not completely eliminated. (wired.com)
  • Researchers can verify their cell lines using the same technique applied in forensics for identifying people - by profiling DNA through short tandem repeats (STRs) . (nist.gov)
  • CRISPR, an advanced genome editing technology, enables precise modifications in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. (atcc.org)
  • In order to provoke malignant conversion HaCaT cells were transfected with mutated cellular Ha-ras (val-12). (springer.com)
  • While the differentiation potential was retained in these cells to a varying degree, showing no clear correlation to malignant properties, all tumorigenic clones (benign and malignant) had lower growth factor requirements and maintained growth even without serum. (springer.com)
  • In order to detect cell line contaminants, primers for two human STR markers were incorporated into the multiplex assay to facilitate detection of human and African green monkey DNA. (nist.gov)
  • Enquiries regarding the commercial use of a cell line are referred to the depositor of the cell line. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cell lines COLO 699N, RPMI 7932 & COLO 738 were received from the same depositor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After considering starting cell culture of astrocytes does anyone have any comments as to the usefulness of bought cell lines such as the c6 glioma line? (bio.net)
  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Cell culture Adrenal medulla Cellular differentiation Pheochromocytoma Greene LA, Tischler AS (July 1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • The notice's guidelines, which become effective January 16, 2016, were discussed September 28-29 by various stakeholders at the NIH Workshop on Reproducibility and Cell Culture Studies. (genengnews.com)
  • Thus, HaCaT and derived cell lines provide readily available cell culture models and might offer useful alternatives to primary or low-passaged normal keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells are harvested from young embryos and then multiplied in culture. (newscientist.com)
  • After hypoglycemia developed in the mice, cells were removed and propagated in tissue culture as insulin-containing cells that secreted insulin in response to glucose challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Together, we offer the most diverse selection of cell culture products and services available. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A genetically engineered human pancreatic β cell line exhibiting glucose-inducible insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the success of STRs for human identification, this method has been applied to many human cell lines used in research (Masters 2001, Lorenzi 2009), and these results are now available in public access databases of authenticated DNA profiles. (nist.gov)
  • But in order to prevent human embryos being destroyed while harvesting the cells, the funding is only available for lines of cells created before 9 August 2001. (newscientist.com)
  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Their embryological origin with neuroblastic cells means they can easily differentiate into neuron-like cells even though they are not considered adult neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unique profiles were obtained from fifty inbred mice and six mouse cell lines which were used to determine the allele distribution for each STR marker. (nist.gov)
  • Banks-Schlegel S, Green H (1980) Formation of epidermis by serially cultivated human epidermal cells transplanted as an epithelium to athymic mice. (springer.com)
  • When the resulting tissue was transplanted into SCID mice, insulinoma cells developed. (nih.gov)
  • Cells receiving this second transduction with hTERT were then again transplanted into SCID mice. (nih.gov)
  • The development of these STR markers, and collaboration with companies that can develop commercial tests from them, will help to establish reliability of cell lines used in research. (nist.gov)
  • Has anyone ever tried to (or know of anyone else who has tried to) establish schisto cell lines? (bio.net)
  • But there are tremendous opportunities, both scientifically and financially-huge amounts of funds potentially saved-if the majority of scientists authenticated their cell-lines. (genengnews.com)
  • But even scientists from the named institutes have raised doubts that all their lines are viable. (newscientist.com)
  • Clinically relevant cell models are critical for studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumors, as well as for drug screening for cancer. (atcc.org)
  • Horizon Isogenic human cell line pairs provide a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • We are seeking an S2 line stably transfected with GFP (or constitutively expressing a GFP fusion protein), to use as a control (so it's not crucial as to what GFP fusion protein is being expressed). (bio.net)
  • The derived cell clones could be classified according to their growth properties in vivo into one (1) non-tumorigenic (growing as surface epithelia) and two tumorigenic groups, forming either (2) benign cysts or (3) well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • Fast and automatic decapping of all cryovials and aseptic dispensing of your cell suspension before recapping, ready for transfer to your cell bank storage. (sartorius.com)
  • Cells express HLA class-I A2 and class-II DR. It is a suspension cell line, although cells are known to grow in clumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. (leiomyosarcoma.info)
  • We eat animal products and drink milk all the time and get this acid into our cells, and yet we are not always suffering from raging autoimmune disease,' said Battey, who was not part of the research team. (wired.com)
  • Useful research tool for the study of antigen processing and antigen presentation requirements of class I-restricted T cells. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Documented authentic, contaminant-free cell lines should be used in research. (genengnews.com)
  • But instead of settling the debate, the move has led to suggestions that some of the eligible lines could be useless for medical research. (newscientist.com)
  • Much of the federally funded research will be aimed at using them to replace diseased or damaged cells in people. (newscientist.com)
  • PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Run up to 48 stirred vessels in parallel and screen for the best producing cell line and media combination with the help of easy-to-use Design of Experiment tools. (sartorius.com)
  • The work is controversial because the cells are taken from days-old embryos, which then die. (wired.com)
  • If you can't find your required product in our cell line catalog, we can engineer it for you. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • We are so confident you'll be happy with our catalog cell lines, for a limited time, register your interest and we'll even provide a Money Back Guarantee . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Boukamp P, Tilgen W, Dzarlieva RT, Breitkreutz D, Haag D, Riehl RK, Bohnert A, Fusenig NE (1982) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of a cell line from a squamous cell carcinoma of human skin. (springer.com)
  • PC12 cells were used to find which prion protein fragments caused neuronal dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor creates cells with long processes known as neurite varicosities, which contain small amounts of vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other organics have been studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell line can be a model for past and future neurotoxicological studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boukamp P (1987) Studies on carcinogenesis in human epidermal cells. (springer.com)
  • President Bush has limited federal funding to cell lines already in use, but not to newly developed ones. (wired.com)
  • President Bush pinned his decision on the existence of around 60 such lines. (newscientist.com)