Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Pentastomida: A subclass of CRUSTACEA comprising the tongue worms which are obligatory parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.Equisetum: The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.ThymidineUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Thymidine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)PolyaminesLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Mice, Inbred BALB CCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.PhosphoproteinsRepressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesLymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.

*Peptidomimetic

... by inducing programmed cell death by a process called apoptosis. The following two examples mimic proteins involved in key ... see also intrinsic and extrinsic inducers of the apoptosis). This molecule suppressed growth of human leukemia in a mouse ... see mitochondrial regulation in apoptosis). This molecule mimics the N-terminal linear motif Ala-Val-Pro-Ile. Uniquely, the ... Smac mimetics of this type can sensitize an array of non-small-cell lung cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutics (e.g. ...

*FAM162A

Human growth and transformation-dependent protein (HGTD-P) is involved in intrinsic apoptosis. Apoptosis, an ancient Greek word ... and energy-requiring process by which activation of specific signaling cascades ultimately leads to cell death. An apoptotic ... HGTD-P localizes to the mitochondria, where it participates in regulation of apoptosis. This localization is aided by the ... and loose specialized surface elements such as microvilli and cell-cell junctions. A shift of fluid out of the cells causes ...

*Root

Early root growth is one of the functions of the apical meristem located near the tip of the root. The meristem cells more or ... Regulation[edit]. There is a correlation of roots using the process of plant perception to sense their physical environment to ... Malamy JE (2005). "Intrinsic and environmental response pathways that regulate root system architecture". Plant, Cell & ... Growth from apical meristems is known as primary growth, which encompasses all elongation. Secondary growth encompasses all ...

*Cell polarity

Yeast cells share many features about cell polarity with other organism like: regulation by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, ... of cellular polarity is critically important for the function of practically every cell type and underlies processes like cell ... that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. This symmetry breaking ... Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture ...

*Metabolism

The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ... There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to ... in the form of soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...

*Role of microglia in disease

Crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs is characterized by the release of growth factors and cytokines by TAMs in response to ... When activated by HIV-1 or viral proteins, they secrete or induce other cells to secrete neurotoxic factors; this process is ... October 2008). "Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury mediates BDNF release and ... TAMs are either of peripheral origin (macrophages) or representing brain-intrinsic, yolk sac-derived microglia, that create a ...

*Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Cell cycle regulation and division are crucial for growth and development of any cell. Fission yeast's conserved genes has been ... which takes place during S phase of the cell cycle. Fission yeast uses intrinsic asymmetry of the DNA replication process to ... Low nutrient levels also reset the growth threshold so that cell progresses through the cell cycle at a smaller size. Upon ... Mitchison, JM (1957). "The growth of single cells. I. Schizosaccharomyces pombe". Exp Cell Res. 13: 244-262. doi:10.1016/0014- ...

*Gliogenesis

... neural stem cells lose the ability to respond to growth factors that influence differentiation as intrinsic changes occur to ... able to sustain self-growth. New perspectives within stem cell biology and gliogenesis regulation have provided new insights ... internalization of the Notch receptor is shown to down-regulate the events leading to gliogenesis as this process is Notch- ... 1992) Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Cell 70: 31-46. Aloisi F, Giampaola A, Russo G, ...

*Hormone receptor

... the cells' growth can be changed along with its function. These hormones can cause cancer to not survive in the human body. ... All nuclear receptors are very similar in structure, and are described with intrinsic transcriptional activity. Intrinsic ... This process is mediated through co-regulators. In the absence of ligand, receptor molecules bind corepressors in order to ... This is the mechanism through which receptors can induce regulation of gene expression depending on both the extracellular ...

*Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (dietary supplement)

... flos-aquae containing high concentrations of phycocyanin inhibited the in vitro growth of one out of four tumor cell lines, ... AFA is processed by screening to remove debris, testing for contaminating species, storing at the optimum temperature, and ... By their quenching action on reactive oxygen species, antioxidants carry intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties. Other research ... and it is achieved only through strict compliance with established official regulations. Requirements vary from country to ...

*Ecology

and from historical processes that split populations or species into different areas. The biogeographic processes that result ... leaving an abundance of available resources for rapid population growth. These early phases of population growth experience ... In the r/K-selection model, the first variable r is the intrinsic rate of natural increase in population size and the second ... Early conceptions of ecology, such as a balance and regulation in nature can be traced to Herodotus (died c. 425 BC), who ...

*Craniosynostosis

Fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors regulate fetal bone growth and are expressed in cranial sutures ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood. The response involves vasodilatation of the ... New insights have given fuel to a debate whether there might be an intrinsic factor causing the premature fusion of the sutures ... Neurobehavioural impairment includes problems with attention and planning, processing speed, visual spatial skills, language, ...

*Knotted polymers

2000 and cyclized polymer showed greater efficiency and cell viability whilst maintaining neural cell viability above 80% four ... The polymerization process is explained in Figure 2. In a similar way to normal ATRP, the polymerization is started by ... However, in contrast, a high initiator concentration not only diminishes the chain dimension during the linear-growth phase ... Based on the small instantaneous kinetic chain length, regulation of different chain dimensions and concentrations would lead ...

*William H. Starbuck

... the cells-divisions models which focus on growth as a change in percentage of size by the addition of cells and divisions (of ... to non-linearity and to intrinsic regulations that would take place in the course of action. Starbuck's predilection for ... What processes should managers create to transform old palaces in a dynamic ensemble of provisory tents? Several processes ... "Are goals producing growth, or is it growth that produces the goals ?" (1965b, p. 465). Starbuck divided growth models into ...

*Co-receptor

... s have been identified as participants in cell signalling cascades, embryonic development, cell adhesion regulation ... Angiogenesis is important in embryonic development but it is also a fundamental process of tumor growth. Deletion of the gene ... though a few receptors have been identified which contain short cytoplasmic domains that lack intrinsic kinase activity. ... They are primarily found on immunological cells, especially T-cells. CCR receptors are also expressed on neuronal cells, such ...

*FOXO1

There are three processes, namely acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination that are responsible for regulation of the ... the CREB-binding protein coactivator complex to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 promoter in HepG2 cells". ... which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. ... It suppresses survival of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and glioma cells by upregulating the ...

*DNM1L

Drp1 has been linked to a number of pathways and processes including cell division, apoptosis, and necrosis. Drp1 has been ... Synapse formation and neurite growth are also impaired. A second group of researchers generated another neural specific ... Likewise, different transcriptional controllers are able to alter Drp1 activity through gene expression and regulation. For ... showed midiv-1 was capable to preventing the activation of caspase 3 by reversing the release of cytochrome c in intrinsic ...

*ARID domain

... approximately 100-residue ARID sequence is present in a series of proteins strongly implicated in the regulation of cell growth ... ARID-encoding genes are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell lineage gene ... thereby demonstrating that AT-rich binding is not an intrinsic property of ARID domains and that ARID family proteins may be ... regulation and cell cycle control. Although the specific roles of this domain and of ARID-containing proteins in ...

*Cell biology

ProcessesEdit. Growth and developmentEdit. The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Section 4. Intrinsic X-Ray Fluorescence". In Bani, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 12. ... For this process the cell goes through the steps of the cell cycle and development which involves cell growth, DNA replication ...

*Tumor metabolome

doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013. PMID 21376230. Cairns, Rob A.; Harris, Isaac S.; Mak, Tak W. (2011). "Regulation of cancer cell ... it gives advantage in both growth and survival of the cell. It has also been seen that metabolic phenotype of tumor cells ... Rather than oxidizing glucose for ATP production, glucose in cancer cells tends to be used for anabolic processes, such as ... Similar resistance have been found with intrinsic gemcitabine and radiation resistance in pancreatic cancer. Glutaminolysis is ...

*Brown adipose tissue

The mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell utilize fuels to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This process ... Both have the intrinsic capacity to activate the myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) promoter, a trait only associated with myocytes and ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Production (FGF-21) has been documented as a pathway to longevity. BAT activation through cold ... Heat production in brown fat provides an infant with an alternative means of heat regulation. It was believed that after ...

*Axotomy

... almost always leads to cell death.[5] The mode of cell death is often apoptosis.[6] Central neurons, upon being severed, ... Central (intrinsic)[edit]. In contrast to the peripheral response, the axotomy response in central neurons (neurons in the ... Two mechanisms that aid in the reinnervation process are acute inflammation and the activation of molecules in the ... The inflammation response also recruits growth factors that aid in the repopulation of postsynaptic sites. The negative effects ...

*Aptamer

... cell visualization, and tracking cells in vivo. They can also be used to modulate activities of cell receptors and deliver ... In 2001, the process of in vitro selection was automated by J. Colin Cox in the Ellington lab at the University of Texas at ... In addition to the discovery of a new mode of genetic regulation, this adds further credence to the notion of an 'RNA World', a ... There does not appear to be any systematic differences between RNA and DNA aptamers, save the greater intrinsic chemical ...

*Morphine

... growth, and differentiation of T-cells (another cell of the adaptive immune system) and less interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine ... When the dendritic cells are chronically exposed to morphine during their differentiation process then treated with LPS, the ... responsible for promoting a B-cell immune response (B cells produce antibodies to fight off infection). This regulation of ... Its intrinsic activity at the μ-opioid is heavily dependent on the assay and tissue being tested; in some situations it is a ...

*UNC (biology)

When filled with dye, the processes and cell bodies of these neurons can be examined in live animals by fluorescence microscopy ... Ectotopic expression of UNC-129 from the muscle results in disrupted growth cone and cell migrations. This shows that UNC-129 ... "Regulation of the UNC-5 netrin receptor initiates the first reorientation of migrating distal tip cells in Caenorhabditis ... The netrin is expressed by neurons in the corticospinal and rubrospinal projections, and by intrinsic neurons of the spinal ...
Extremely rare Tongue Worms have been found in 60% of a sample of our wild dog population. The parasites, officially known as Linguatula Serrata are a major problem overseas where adult v
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction • Tables Parasite-Host Bibliography: Protozoa • Cestoda • Trematoda • Nemata • Aanthocephala • Arthropoda • Acarina-Mite • Acarina-Tick • Copepoda-Crustacea • Insecta-Diptera • Insecta-Hemiptera • Insecta-Mallophaga and Anoplura • Insecta-Siphonaptera • Pentastomida • Class Unknown Host-Parasite Bibliography: Scientific Name • Common Name Literature Cited Theses and Dissertations not Referenced Acknowledgments This bibliographic listing of parasites and hosts reported from Arizona, New Mexico and Texas has been prepared to facilitate literature searches by parasitologists and others needing such information. In the Parasite-Host Bibliography, parasites have been categorized into major taxonomic groups, assigned a number (left column) and listed in alphabetical order for the three states. Those from Arizona have reference numbers (right column) followed by A, those from New Mexico are followed by N with all undesignated being from
Define Common coral snake. Common coral snake synonyms, Common coral snake pronunciation, Common coral snake translation, English dictionary definition of Common coral snake. Noun 1. Micrurus fulvius - ranges from Central America to southeastern United States eastern coral snake harlequin-snake, New World coral snake, coral snake...
Define Asian coral snake. Asian coral snake synonyms, Asian coral snake pronunciation, Asian coral snake translation, English dictionary definition of Asian coral snake. Noun 1. Asian coral snake - of India coral snake, Old World coral snake - any of various venomous elapid snakes of Asia and Africa and Australia Calliophis,...
The reduction in visibility in x-ray grating interferometry based on the Talbot effect is formulated by the autocorrelation function of spatial fluctuations of a wavefront due to unresolved micron-size structures in samples. The experimental results for microspheres and melamine sponge were successfully explained by this formula with three parameters characterizing the wavefront fluctuations: variance, correlation length, and the Hurst exponent. The ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering of these samples was measured, and the scattering profiles were consistent with the formulation. Furthermore, we discuss the relation between the three parameters and the features of the micron-sized structures. The visibility-reduction contrast observed by x-ray grating interferometry can thus be understood in relation to the structural parameters of the microstructures.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
To address questions related to the functional importance of this phenotype, the authors conducted a field experiment on both islands with snake replicas made of clay. These results clearly indicated a strong inter-island difference in predator attack rates where snake replicas that resembled coral snakes received protection in Trinidad but not in Tobago. Color patterns from museum specimens confirmed that E. ocellatus is indeed a poor mimic of coral snakes in many respects, especially in regards to the relative proportions of colors and the lack of discrete band. This implies that the classic coral snake mimicry adaptation has been degraded in this species. Field experiment revealed that E. ocellatus replicas were not protected from predator attacks on Tobago (where no coral snakes occur) compared to controls. However, on Trinidad (where coral snakes do occur) we found the expected lower attack rate on coral snake and mimic replicas ...
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The success of a biological invasion can depend upon other invasions; and in some cases, an earlier invader may fail to spread until facilitated by a second invader. Our study documents a case whereby an invasive parasite has remained patchily distributed for decades due to the fragmented nature of available hosts; but the recent arrival of a broadly distributed alternative invasive host species provides an opportunity for the parasite to expand its range considerably. At least 20 years ago, endoparasitic pentastomids (Raillietiella frenata) were brought with their native host, the invasive Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus, to the port city of Darwin in tropical Australia. These geckos rarely disperse away from human habitation, restricting the transmission of their parasites to urban environments - and thus, their pentastomids have remained patchily distributed and have only been recorded in scant localities, primarily surrounding Darwin. The recent range expansion of the invasive cane ...
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A new study suggests related, but previously undescribed, Ranavirus species are wreaking havoc on a range of amphibian hosts in Spain.
Virola surinamensis, a nutmeg relative, is native to the subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and swamps of Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. The tree is harvested […]. ...
یکی از عوامل بیمارگر شپشه دندانه‌دار (Oryzaephilus surinamensis L.) قارچ Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) می‌باشد.در این تحقیق اثر غلظت‌های زیر کشنده عامل بیمارگر بر باروری، میزان تخم‌گذاری و درصد تفریخ تخم شپشه دندانه‌دار در شرایط تغذیه از سه رقم خرمای سایر، زاهدی و دیری در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بررسی گردید. حشرات کامل با 5 غلظت زیر-کشنده شامل 102،2 10×5، 103، 103×5،104 اسپور در میلی-لیتر تیمار و سپس با شاهد مقایسه شد. غلظت‌های زیر کشنده کاهش دهنده پتانسیل تولید مثل با استفاده از روش لگاریتم- پروبیت در هر رقم مشخص گردید. غلظت‌های مورد آزمایش عامل بیماری دارای اثرات کاهش دهنده در شاخص باروری بود.
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Virola surinamensis fruit plant2 image
Page: Tree of Life Doryteuthis (Amerigo) surinamensis (Voss 1974). Surinam inshore squid. Authored by Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies. ...
Steve J. Upton wrote: , , It seems that I receive a phone call or e-mail message almost daily , concerning parasites, cancer, and/or diet. Therefore, I would like to , direct the following message to the novices of the group. , , First, few parasites are correlated with cancer. Schistosoma , haematobium in humans is correlated with some bladder carcinomas. , Spirocerca lupi in canids is thought to cause some esophageal sarcomas, , and there is a somewhat higher incidence of bile duct carcinomas in , asiatic countries, possibly due to opisthorcids. Perhaps some senior , members of the newsgroup can add one or two more examples, but overall , dont count on a parasite causing your cancer. Not exactly a major human parasite, but in some areas of Africa and Asia infection with the nymphal stage of the pentastomid parasite Armillifer (there are 3 spp) has been found to be correlated with cancer. Smith et al. (1975). Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 69, 503-512. Seeing as no one really ...
A Akabo Another name for the weird and wonderful Corocotta, see below. Alazbo Guess what? Yet another name for the dear little Corocotta. See a bit further below again. Alphyn An heraldic monster bearing a passing similarity to an heraldic tyger, but with eagle-like front feet.. Amphiptere A winged but leg-less member of the Dragon family which is said to guard Frankincense trees.. Amphisbaena This was a snake having, rather confusingly, a head at each end of its body. It allegedly got around by using the singular method of joining the two heads to form a circle, then rolling along like a wheel. As well as being beneficial to pregnant women and being helpful in the alleviation of rheumatism, amphisbaena was probably quite handy as an impromptu hula hoop.. Amphivia A kind of giant fish which walked around on the land.. Angel Winged human-like messengers from heaven who feature prominently in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths.. Antelop An antelope-like creature with long serrated horns said to ...
The karyotypes of both sexes were obtained by using squash preparations of the intestine. Heterogamety as regard sex chromosomes was not found in either sex. Both specimens were captured in São...
The Crustacea are a subphylum of pancrustaceans with 50,000 described species. They are part of the phylum Arthropoda. Crustaceans include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. They are relatives of insects. If the Arthropods are regarded as a superphylum, then the insects and crustaces would be phyla. (see List of animal phyla). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian.. Most crustaceans are aquatic, mostly marine. Some have moved onto land permanently. Crustaceans that live on land include some crabs, and woodlice. Crustacea range in size from a parasite 0.1mm long, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 14 ft (4.3 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). The North Atlantic lobster can weigh more than 40 pounds.. Most crustaceans are mobile, but some become sessile after their larval stage. Barnacles become attached to rocks on thesea shore. Some are parasitic, like fish lice, and tongue worms. Crustacea usually have separate sexes, and the ...
Maxillopoda. Ostracoda. Malacostraca. Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm (0.004 in), to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 12.5 ft (3.8 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects, myriapods and chelicerates by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by the nauplius form of the larvae.. Most crustaceans are free-living aquatic animals, but some are terrestrial (e.g. woodlice), some are parasitic (e.g. fish lice, tongue worms) and some are sessile (e.g. barnacles). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian, and includes living fossils such as Triops cancriformis, which ...
Unscramble endoparasite, Unscramble letters endoparasite, Point value for endoparasite, Word Decoder for endoparasite, Word generator using the letters endoparasite, Word Solver endoparasite, Possible Scrabble words with endoparasite, Anagram of endoparasite
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Santana, William, Pinheiro, Allysson P., Da Silva, Caroline M. R., Saraiva, Antônio Álamo (2013): A new fossil caridean shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the Cretaceous (Albian) of the Romualdo Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 3620 (2): 293-300, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3620.2.7 ...
Different types of tissue reactions of human patients to vital, degenerated, and nearly absorbed pentastome nymphs.(A) Viable nymph (ny) of A. armillatus with t
Port Talbot Fire Station is situated in Central Road, Taibach and provides our Fire & Rescue response to the town of Port Talbot, Margam, Taibach, Sandfields, Aberavon, Bryn, Cwmavon and Baglan. Port Talbot Fire Station has two fire engines. One is crewed 24hours a day by a team of 28 firefighters who work as four watches. Port Talbots second fire engine is crewed by a team of On Call (Part Time) Firefighters who live or work within the area and respond to the station when there is an emergency ...
5 January 2006. The Ministry of Health in Turkey has confirmed its first two cases of human infection with avian influenza caused by the H5 virus subtype. Both cases were fatal. The first case was a 14-year-old boy from the rural district of Dogubayazit, in the eastern province of Agri, which borders the Islamic Republic of Iran and Armenia. He was hospitalized in Van Province on 1 January and died the same day. The second case was his 15-year-old sister, also hospitalized on 1 January. She died on 5 January. Earlier this week, Turkish authorities had ruled out avian influenza in these cases based on preliminary test results from samples taken from the nose and throat. Subsequent tests of additional patient specimens taken from the lungs produced positive results. Patient samples were sent today to a WHO collaborating centre in the United Kingdom for further analysis. The samples have now arrived; results are expected within the next days.. Turkish health authorities have informed WHO that, ...
Definition of ora serrata retinae in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ora serrata retinae? Meaning of ora serrata retinae as a legal term. What does ora serrata retinae mean in law?
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Argent, George, Anthony Lamb, Anthea Phillipps: The Rhododendrons of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Ed. by Wong Khoon Meng. 2007. illus. X, 280 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. (92678) 101.65 ...
3. Evolution of Multi-Host Parasites and Effects on Invasive Species We have recently begun studying multihost parasites; most parasites can infect multiple host species. While this can be challenging to study in many cases, Daphnia are well-suited to studies addressing how parasites deal with trying to infect multiple host species. Our work on multihost parasites has, to date, focused on the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. This parasite can infect multiple host species (e.g., Duffy et al. 2010). In Georgia, Pasteuria appears to have shifted to infect a novel host, the invasive Daphnia lumholtzi. We will study how parasites evolve after shifting to a novel host and how parasitism influences the population dynamics of indigenous and non-indigenous hosts. This links with earlier work in which we asked how parasites might influence invasive species (Kestrup et al. 2011). ...
Our finding that odours arising from gut fermentation attract a range of hard tick species corresponds to their association with ungulates and their particular life history. Systematic analysis based on structural and developmental characters suggests an Australian origin for hard ticks in the Cretaceous (Klompen et al., 1997). Nevertheless, the earliest record of this group occurs in the northern hemisphere, dating from the Oligocene (Weidner, 1964). In this era, ungulates were already established as dominant herbivores (Sloan et al., 1986), and hard ticks have proved adept at exploiting this resource. Ungulates, however, do not hibernate and must continually forage, presenting a difficult target for the free-living non-volant hard ticks. It is generally true that complex multi-host life histories arise in parasites when encounters with the final host (where reproduction can take place) present a limiting factor. Hard ticks fit this scheme, enduring an arduous three-host life cycle (larva, ...
Introduction. Humans and animals have had close interactions as long as we have historical knowledge of man. This interaction largely contributes to the evolution and ongoing transmission of shared infectious diseases. The need for a systematic global effort to monitor for emerging human is important since most major human infectious diseases are thought to have animal origins (Wolfe, Dunavan & Diamond 2007), examples being helminths, tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, foot-and-mouth disease, leptospirosis, anthrax and Rift Valley fever (RVF). Studies on 1415 pathogenic diseases in human and animals (Cleaveland, Laurenson & Taylor 2001) have revealed 61.6% as multi-host pathogens, suggesting the need for monitoring these important infectious diseases.. Available data indicate that more than 80% of human and cattle populations of Africa live in an area with partial or no control of bovine TB (Cosivi et al. 1998; WHO/DFID 2006; WHO 2004). There is ample evidence that such lack of ...
Introduction. Humans and animals have had close interactions as long as we have historical knowledge of man. This interaction largely contributes to the evolution and ongoing transmission of shared infectious diseases. The need for a systematic global effort to monitor for emerging human is important since most major human infectious diseases are thought to have animal origins (Wolfe, Dunavan & Diamond 2007), examples being helminths, tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, foot-and-mouth disease, leptospirosis, anthrax and Rift Valley fever (RVF). Studies on 1415 pathogenic diseases in human and animals (Cleaveland, Laurenson & Taylor 2001) have revealed 61.6% as multi-host pathogens, suggesting the need for monitoring these important infectious diseases.. Available data indicate that more than 80% of human and cattle populations of Africa live in an area with partial or no control of bovine TB (Cosivi et al. 1998; WHO/DFID 2006; WHO 2004). There is ample evidence that such lack of ...
The Symposium (day 1) is intended for researchers with an interest in the ecology, molecular biology, epidemiology, and economics linked to the monitoring and control of mycobacterial disease.. The Workshop (day 2+3) is intended for epidemiologists, modellers and researchers in general, who need to incorporate phylogeny in the analysis of mycobacterial disease spread. In addition, the whole 2.5 day event may be of interest to animal health and public health professionals who deal with multi-host diseases in complex ecological systems.. Epidemiological/ statistical background would be beneficial but not essential. The workshops include a hands-on training in which selected methods and steps of the analysis will be explained in detail. ...
Leptospirosis is a widespread but under-reported cause of morbidity and mortality. Global re-emergence of leptospirosis has been associated with the growth of informal urban settlements in which rodents are thought to be important reservoir hosts. Understanding the multi-host epidemiology of leptospirosis is essential to control and prevent disease. A cross-sectional survey of rodents in the Kibera settlement in Nairobi, Kenya was conducted in September-October 2008 to demonstrate the presence of pathogenic leptospires. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that 41 (18.3%) of 224 rodents carried pathogenic leptospires in their kidneys, and sequence data identified Leptospira interrogans and L. kirschneri in this population. Rodents of the genus Mus (37 of 185) were significantly more likely to be positive than those of the genus Rattus (4 of 39; odds ratio = 15.03). Questionnaire data showed frequent contact between humans and rodents in Kibera. This study emphasizes the ...
Determining the pandemic potential of an emerging infectious disease and how it depends on the various epidemic and population aspects is critical for the preparation of an adequate response aimed at its control. The complex interplay between population movements in space and non-homogeneous mixing patterns have so far hindered the fundamental understanding of the conditions for spatial invasion through a general theoretical framework. To address this issue, we present an analytical modelling approach taking into account such interplay under general conditions of mobility and interactions, in the simplifying assumption of two population classes. We describe a spatially structured population with non-homogeneous mixing and travel behaviour through a multi-host stochastic epidemic metapopulation model. Different population partitions, mixing patterns and mobility structures are considered, along with a specific application for the study of the role of age partition in the early spread of the 2009 H1N1
Buy Boris FX Continuum 11 Match Move Unit (Download) features Manipulate Motion Data, Multi-Host Plug-In. Review Boris FX Video Editing Plug-Ins, Post Production Software
Infosys Technologies has launched Finacle mobile banking 2.0. This solution enables retail and corporate consumers to access banking services through mobile SMS, GPRS, 3G and USSD-enabled handsets.. The solution supports multi-host, multilingual, multi-channel, multi-currency banking. It facilitates interactive financial management encompassing product selection, proximity payments, remote deposit capture, new account opening, ATM/branch locating based on GPS and value added services like mobile ticketing, mobile top-up and mobile marketing.. The solutions integration framework enables integration with disparate host systems, facilitating a unified, rich and intuitive user experience. Two-factor authentication and encryption ensure fidelity of transactions. ...
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 424. ...
Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina i B. Rodríguez, 1992. Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aguas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Roma. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamiento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. ...
Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito de diferentes dietas [pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) sem planta; pupas de T. molitor e plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana; pupas de T. molitor e plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla e; pupas de T. molitor e plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava)], no campo, sobre aspectos morfo-fisiológicos do corpo gorduroso e do sistema reprodutor de femeas e machos de Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) e avaliou a fecundidade e os parâmetros das tabelas de vida e de fertilidade desse predador em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, em campo. A genitalia interna de fêmeas desse predador apresentou coloração amarelada, com ovário do tipo meroístico telotrófico e com sete ovaríolos. 0 total de proteína na hemolinfa (25,89 ug/uL) de fêmeas de B. tabidus independe da idade e da dieta, mas aquelas alimentadas com pupas de T molitor sem planta tiveram ovaríolos menores. O número de ovócitos/ovário foi maior para fêmeas desse predador ...
Suresh Forestry Network are leading Manufacturer & Supplier of Boswellia Serrata Seeds in Chikkaballapur Karnataka India, Boswellia Serrata Seeds Manufacturer Chikkaballapur, Wholesale Boswellia Serrata Seeds Supplier, Boswellia Serrata Seeds Manufacturing Company in India.
... jungle FINCA TATIN, Guatemala- One bite from a coral snake and you are more or less dead meat. Huge doses of antivenin and artifi
A list of 11 letter words that end with a in the enable uncensored word list. (123 words: abracadabra agoraphobia albuminuria amphisbaena anaesthesia aniseikonia antimalaria antonomasia appressoria archesporia astrocytoma azoospermia bacchanalia bacteriuria bibliomania bibliotheca bodhisattva bradycardia carcinomata chaulmoogra...)
This weeks episode begins with everyone preparations for the first international conference to discuss Inhumans. Most of the team is packing things and getting ready at the base, but Coulson is having his first meeting with General Talbot, the new head of the ATCU, while May and Lincoln are giving him cover. Lincoln spots a mysterious man following the two men and alerts May and Coulson, who identifies the man as Crusher Creel, aka the Absorbing Man, who was suppose to be dead. Coulson locks Talbot in his car to protect him while the agents take Creel down. Once out of the car, however, Talbot reveals that Creel is his personal bodyguard.. Back at the base, an argument ensues about what to do with Creel. Bobbi and Hunter still havent forgiven him for killing their friends and want nothing to do with him but Talbot insists that Hydras brainwashing has been completely removed and refuses to go to the symposium without him. Coulson, reluctantly, agrees.. At the symposium, Coulson and Talbot not ...
Yassin A, Amédégnato C, Cruaud C, Veuille M. (2009) Molecular taxonomy and species delimitation in Andean Schistocerca (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution [in press]. Yassin A, Borai F, Capy P, David JR, Elias E, Riad SA, Shalaby HG, Serour S, Abou-Youssef AY. (2009) Evolutionary genetics of Zaprionus. II. Mitochondrial DNA and chromosomal variation of the invasive drosophilid Zaprionus indianus in Egypt.Mitochondrial DNA 20(2-3), 34-40.. Yassin A, Araripe LO, Capy P, Da Lage JL, Klaczko LB, Maisonhaute C, Ogereau D, David JR. (2008) Grafting the molecular phylogenetic tree with morphological branches to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Zaprionus (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47(3):903-915.. David JR, Lemeunier F, Tsacas L, Yassin A. (2007) The historical discovery of the nine species in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Genetics 177(4):1969-1973.. Araripe LO, Yassin A, Klaczko LB, Moréteau B, David JR. ...
The Bushmaster is a nocturnal species but will move around during the daytime. It is an aggressive snake particularly when agitated or startled. Coral Snakes. Coral snakes are small thin snakes of about 60 to 100 centimeters with small heads that are the same size as their body and small round eyes. Their round eyes are one of the features that make them different from most poisonous snakes. Venomous snakes have vertical slits for pupils while non-venomous snakes have round pupils. Coral snakes are however the exception to the rule in that they have round eyes. Coral Snakes are very beautiful with their body being marked with bands of red, black and yellow. There are several other snake species that also have red, black and yellow bands but these species are not venomous (poisonous). In order to distinguish the venomous species of coral snake a small rhyme has arisen, which states Red and yellow, kill a fellow, red and black, venom lack. The meaning of this rhyme being that where a snake has ...
Signal design is also a product of the environment (Fig. 11B; Endler, 1992). Signals must be detectable to be effective, and conspicuousness is often a function of habitat characteristics. Endler (1991) demonstrated that the colour patterns of guppies Poecilia reticulata appear different in varying light environments, and that this affects their relative conspicuousness to females and predators. Similarly, Leal and Fleishman (2002) have recently shown that two sympatric lizards Anolis cooki and A. cristatellus occupy different terrestrial microhabitats that ensure optimal signalling conditions for each. Anolis cristatellus is found in microhabitats that have low ultraviolet (UV) radiance (background light). These lizards are sensitive to UV and have UV-reflecting dewlap regions. Conversely, A. cooki have relatively low UV spectral sensitivity, no UV-reflecting structures in their dewlap, and occupy microhabitats that are characterised by high UV radiance. Differences between microhabitats have ...
1: 1.00000 J. D. Talbot; S. Marrett; Alan C. Evans; Ernst Meyer; M. C. Bushnell; G. H. Duncan. Multiple representations of pain in human cerebral cortex. Science 251(4999):1355-8, 1991. PMID: 2003220. BrainMap: 5. WOBIB: 114. +2: 0.62326 P. A. Gelnar; B. R. Krauss; P. R. Sheehe; N. M. Szeverenyi; A. V. Apkarian. A comparative fMRI study of cortical representations for thermal painful, vibrotactile, and motor performance tasks. NeuroImage 10(4):460-82, 1999. PMID: 10493903. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.1999.0482. WOBIB: 75. +3: 0.54536 C. Dettmers; R. N. Lemon; K. M. Stephan; G. R. Fink; Richard S. J. Frackowiak. Cerebral activation during the exertion of sustained static force in man. NeuroReport 7(13):2103-10, 1996. PMID: 8930968. WOBIB: 108. +4: 0.51679 Andrew C. N. Chen; David M. Niddam; Helen J. Crawford; Robert Oostenveld; Lars Arendt-Nielsen. Spatial summation of pain processing in the human brain as assessed by cerebral event related potentials. Neuroscience Letters 328(2):190-194, 2002. PMID: ...
Lyrics to Any Dream Will Do by Connie Talbot: I closed my eyes, drew back the curtain / To see for certain what I thought I knew / Far far
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 113, (2008), D08305, doi:10.1029/2007JD009103. M. White, R. S. Russo, Y. Zhou, H. Mao, R. K. Varner, J. Ambrose, P. Veres, O. W. Wingenter, K. Haase, J. Stutz, R. Talbot and B. C. Sive: ...
Ogonyu J, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, Irungu J, Torto B. "Host odour responses and experience-induced learning in the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae)." Symposium on Insect plant Interactions Wagenigen Netherlands. 2011:122 ...
Matt Talbot Inn Residential in Cleveland, Ohio 44113 including Long Term Drug Rehab and Substance Abuse Care with special programs for Programs for Men. - call (866) 426-7444. Find this and other drug and alcohol rehabiliation and treatment centers at Drug Rehab Comparison.com
Genealogy for Marion Talbot (1858 - 1948) family tree on Geni, with over 175 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives.
We demonstrate a compact transform spectrometer based on measuring the periodicity of Talbot self-images. The system has no moving parts; it contains only a tilted absorption grating that is imaged onto a CCD camera. The linear architecture of the system makes it possible to use this design in imaging arrays of spectrometers. Unlike other transform spectrometers, its resolution is independent of wavelength.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
In 2014-2018 the world marks the 100th anniversary of World War I, 400 magazine articles from 1914-1918, To the Civilized World, centennial gallery, Henry P. Talbot, 1918 Chemistry at the Front
Yang X, Scott HA, Ardekani S, Williams M, Talbot P, Ghosh K. Aberrant cell and basement membrane architecture contribute to sidestream smoke-induced choroidal endothelial dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Apr 8;55(5):3140-7. Keller KC, Rodrigues B, zur Nieden NI. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 24(1):1-13. McClelland Descalzo DL, Ehnes DD, zur Nieden NI. Stem cells for osteodegenerative diseases: current studies and future outlook. Regen Med. Mar;9(2):219-30. Guan, B. X., B. Bhanu, P. Talbot, S. Lin. Bio-driven cell region detection in human embryonic stem cell assay. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Jan 2014; 11(3):604-611. Lin, S.C., Talbot, P. Stem Cells. ...
Hepatocytes also "scrub" toxins from the blood. Talbot said PICM-19 cells could do the same thing inside an artificial liver. There have already been several in vitro tests of artificial liver devices, and the ARS scientists are working on ways to grow the PICM-19 cells without needing "feeder cells." Feeder cells are mouse cells that hold PICM-19 cells in place and provide important molecules for PICM-19 cell growth and maintenance.. Artificial livers are still in development, but Talbot pointed out other applications for PICM-19 cells. Talbot and fellow scientists have used PICM-19 to study malaria, toxoplasmosis and hepatitis viruses. Researchers could also use the cells to study certain ...
WoRMS (2005). Diatoma moniliformis. In: Kociolek, J.P.; Balasubramanian, K.; Blanco, S.; Coste, M.; Ector, L.; Liu, Y.; Kulikovskiy, M.; Lundholm, N.; Ludwig, T.; Potapova, M.; Rimet, F.; Sabbe, K.; Sala, S.; Sar, E.; Taylor, J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Wetzel, C.E.; Williams, D.M.; Witkowski, A.; Witkowski, J. (2017). DiatomBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=164000 on 2018-01- ...
Response to microtubule-interacting agents in primary epithelial ovarian cancer cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Heres a mnemonic that could save your life one day: Red on yellow will kill a fellow; red on black is a friend of Jack. Coral snakes (like
Adventure travel is becoming more popular, increasing the likelihood of contact with unusual pathogens. We investigated an outbreak of leptospirosis in
The Kipandi Butterfly Park is located at Kampung Kipandi, Moyog - situated approximately 36 kilometers away from Kota Kinabalu city via the Penampang - Tambunan road.
Discussion. Traditionally, Geophagus was a catch-all genus for large cichlids with an expanded anteroventral lamina on the first epibranchial, lined with gill-rakers as originally diagnosed by Heckel (1840) and in the revision by Regan (1906). In the most recent revision of the genus, Gosse (1976) recognized the three genera Geophagus, Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy and Gymnogeophagus Miranda-Ribeiro. Kullander (1983; 1986) revalidated Satanoperca Günther and referred Geophagus steindachneri Eigenmann & Hildebrand and Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard) to new, still formally unnamed genera. At the time, the resultant Geophagus sensu strictocontained only the three species considered valid by Gosse (1976), viz. G. camopiensis, G. harreri, and G. surinamensis. Recent taxonomic revisions have resulted in revalidations of the synonyms and new species for a total of 19 species (Kullander, 1986; Kullander & Nijssen, 1989; Kullander, 1991; Kullander et al., 1992; López-Fernandez & Taphorn, 2004; ...
Silphidae are one of several families of forensic importance in the order Coleoptera. They are a very important tool in determining a post-mortem interval by collecting Silphid progeny from the carcass, and determining the developmental rate. Based on the number of instars present and what stage of development they are in, a time of death can be estimated. This is very useful in medicocriminal entomology, the emphasis on utilizing arthropods as evidence to aid in solving crimes.[8] Many of the methods in determining stages of development are subjective. Fortunately, recent studies have found a new way of determining what stage of development Silphid larvae are in by measuring the maximum cranial width and other heavily sclerotized areas of the larvae instead of measuring just the length, which is subject to change with each larva, particularly in O.inaequale and N. surinamensis, which are more robust and have greater variations of length respectively. The most accurate instar identification is ...
Count Dracula (Carradine) arrives at the castle home of Dr. Franz Edlemann (Onslow Stevens). The Count, who introduces himself as "Baron Latos", explains that he has come to Visaria to find a cure for his vampirism. Dr. Edlemann agrees to help. Together with his assistants, Milizia (Martha ODriscoll) and the hunchbacked Nina (Jane Adams), he has been working on a mysterious plant, the clavaria formosa, whose spores have the ability to reshape bone. Edlemann explains that he thinks vampirism can be cured by a series of blood transfusions. Dracula agrees to this, and Edlemann uses his own blood for the transfusions. Dracula has his coffin placed in the castle basement.. That night, Lawrence Talbot (Chaney Jr.) arrives at the castle. He demands to see Dr. Edlemann about a cure for his lycanthropy. Talbot is asked to wait. Knowing that the moon is rising, Talbot has himself incarcerated by the police. A crowd of curious villagers gathers outside the police station, led by the suspicious Steinmuhl ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
The Heart of Empire CD-Rom: copyright by Bryan Talbot and James Robertson: no part of this CD may be copied, distributed, re-used, or stored in any format without the express, written, advance permission of Bryan Talbot and James Robertson: this work is copyright by Bryan Talbot and James Robertson: 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003: All rights reserved.
Synonyms for Anolis carolinensis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anolis carolinensis. 2 synonyms for Anolis carolinensis: American chameleon, anole. What are synonyms for Anolis carolinensis?
Crato Formation, Nova Olinda Member, Ceara, Brazil. The Araripe Basin, in Brazil, is home to an amazing variety of wonderfully detailed Early Cretaceous fossils. The entire formation is known as the Santana Formation, but there are distinctions, and the slightly older, lower, insect-bearing strata, is now known as the Nova Olinda Member, of the Crato Formation, Ceara.. As usual, it is quarrying operations that expose the remarkable insect fauna, just as quarrying for lithographic limestone in Solnhofen has produced an amazing variety of superbly preserved Jurassic fossils in Germany.. As well as many orders of insects, spiders, scorpions, decapod crustaceans, and many plant fossils have been found. To date no vertebrates have been found in this layer, in stark contrast to the overlying Santana Formation deposits.. When you consider the age of these fossils, they have changed little over millions of years.. The preservation is superb, and these are a must have for the serious collector, or an ...
Boswellia serrata contains triterpenoids, alleged Boswellic acids, which are actual able non-competitive and non-oxyreductive inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. This agitator gives acceleration to the assembly of leukotrienes; some of them (5 - HETE -ydroxyeicosatetraenoic acerbic and leukotriene LTB4) are mediators of anarchic processes and allergic reactions. Leukotrienes could cause chemotaxis, chemokinesis, chargeless abolitionist synthesis, access the…
... Clin Nephrol. 2020 Jan 27;: Authors: Lhotta K, Sprenger-Mähr H, Zitt E PMID: 31983384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
In recent years, novel properties generated at the interface between two dissimilar oxides have been vigorously investigated. However, little is known about the mechanism involved in the formation of such interfaces. Understanding this mechanism is key to further research advances in this field.. The NIMS/AIMR research group developed an innovative system that combines a scanning tunneling microscope capable of identifying individual atoms with a pulsed laser deposition method that enables the growth of high-quality thin films.. In addition, they also established a method for preparing a single-crystal SrTiO3 substrate on which atoms are arranged in a periodic pattern. Epitaxial thin films were grown on the surface of the substrates and the growth was observed with atomic-scale spatial resolution. In their observations, they found there was a great difference in the growth process when SrTiO3 and SrOx thin films were deposited on the surface of the ...
In Brazil, Hercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it Photographie.. Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Fox Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on paper as early as 1834 but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerres invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbots paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemical development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbots process, unlike Daguerres, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography up to the present day, as ...
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LaTeX Package : datetime2 v1.5.6 (2020-03-02) Author : Nicola Talbot https://www.dickimaw-books.com/contact LICENCE This material is subject to the LaTeX Project Public License. See http://www.ctan.org/license/lppl1.3 for the details of that license. Copyright 2015-2020 Nicola Talbot Provides commands for formatting dates, times and time zones. Language and regional support is provided by independently maintained and installed modules. The datetime2 package replaces the datetime package, which is now obsolete. http://www.dickimaw-books.com ...
With the success of organ transplantation and the declining number of heart beating cadaver doctors, the number of patients awaiting a transplant continues to rise. This means that alternative sources of donors have been sought, including donors after cardiac death. Such donors sustain rapid damage to their organs due to ischaemia, and as a consequence, some organs do not work initially and some none at all.
It is normal for kids to contract six to eight colds or other bugs in a year, and this time of year is particularly hard, said Dr. Ketura Talbot, a family practice physician with Mesa Primary Care. Many kids are in school or daycare and not afraid to touch anything they can get their little hands on. Add to that their young bodies, and youve got a perfect vector for spreadable germs. Here, Dr. Talbot discusses four common childhood illnesses parents should know about ...
Le Mer 23 mai 2012 22:34, G rard Talbot a crit : , Arron, , , [RC6] , http://test.csswg.org/suites/css2.1/20110323/html4/border-bottom-width-applies-to-008.htm , , [nightly-unstable] , http://test.csswg.org/suites/css2.1/nightly-unstable/html4/border-bottom-width-applies-to-008.htm , , The 4 non-breakable-spaces will use different width and different height , depending on default font as set by the user. , , With DejaVu Serif, the width is 124px for Firefox 12, Opera 11.64 and , Chrome 19.0.1084.52 and the height is 209px for Firefox 12 and Opera , 11.64 and 208px for Chrome 19.0.1084.52. , , With FreeSerif, the width is 96px for Firefox 12, Opera 11.64 and Chrome , 19.0.1084.52 and the height is 212px for Firefox 12 and Opera 11.64 and , 220px for Chrome 19.0.1084.52. , , Since creating a reftest implies to use another method, feature, then , Im afraid this test can not be reftested. I think the test should be , reworked. There must be a way to overcome this issue; Ahem font is an , idea. , ...
Download Pinocchio: Pinocho (Keepsake Stories) ebook by Jim TalbotType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt Publisher: Brighter ChildReleased: May 15, 2009Page Count:
PORT GAMBLE - Equipment is rolling in by land and water this week as workers prepare to remove decades-old contaminated sediments and other materials from Port Gamble Bay. Contractor Orion Marine Group will launch a major cleanup project Monday by starting to pull old, creosote-treated pilings out of the water. Pope Resources is responsible for the cleanup under the Washington Department of Ecologys oversight. Cleanup work is scheduled to continue into early 2017. The project will remove about 6,000 pilings from water and land, and demolish piers, docks and other structures. About 70,000 cubic yards of wood waste and contaminated sediments will be either dug up and removed, or capped with clean material. Marine habitat impacted by the cleanup will be restored. For more than 140 years, the now-defunct Pope & Talbot Inc. used the site to manufacture wood products. Pope Resources was created in 1985 when Pope & Talbot spun off its timberland and development properties in Washington. Pope Resources ...
Orthopedic Surgeon Eugene Jacob, MD, of Baptist Northeast Orthopedics, will discuss Advancements in Shoulder Arthroplasty in a free talk in the Baptist Hospital Northeast Conference Center. Space is limited, so advance registration is encouraged by calling Donna Talbot at 1-800-621-8654 ext. 100, or emailing [email protected] Walk-ins are welcome. The talk is sponsored by Zimmer.
Orthopedic Surgeon Eugene Jacob, MD, of Baptist Northeast Orthopedics, will discuss Advancements in Shoulder Arthroplasty in a free talk in the Baptist Hospital Northeast Conference Center. Space is limited, so advance registration is encouraged by calling Donna Talbot at 1-800-621-8654 ext. 100, or emailing [email protected] Walk-ins are welcome. The talk is sponsored by Zimmer.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Proceratophrys huntingtoni Ávila, Pansonato, and Strüssmann, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 467. Holotype: UFMT 1745, by original designation. Type locality: Manso Hydroelectric Power Plant, Municipality of Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil. . . . . inside a grass tussock, near the headwaters of a small stream (148520S; 558480W)..... ...
Reefs and Rain Forests: The Natural Heritage of Malaysian Borneo by Kaufman, Murray S. and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Finally, the domed ceilings of the cathedrals directed the natural spirals of energy back downwards and into the gathering. In The Law of One - Book Three, Ra discusses how there are many different examples of this type of energy harnessing being done, including the use of the teepee and the pyramids. Ra told Elkins et al. that these constructions will dramatically speed up an entity s spiritual growth process as it uses them, and that it is therefore important to exercise extreme caution when experimenting with such structures. The reason for caution is that the more personal issues one needs to burn off to further their spiritual growth process, the harder it would be for them to work in such a structure. The heightened energy that would come to them would make their blockages dissolve much quicker. In the long run, this is for the best, but in the short term it is very stressful - and this is exactly what the Solar Cycle that we will be discussing is doing to all of us ...
Author/Editor(s): Olafur Arnalds (1986 or 1987-); Ludovico Einaudi (1955-); Nils Frahm (1982-); Philip Glass; John Harle; Hauschka; Alba Illarramendi; Johann Johannsson; David Julyan; Kris Lennox; Nico Muhly; Dustin OHalloran (1971-); Tarik ORegan; Max Richter; Joby Talbot; James Whitbourn ...
Cronin SJF, Seehus C, Weidinger A, Talbot S, Reissig S, Seifert M, Pierson Y, McNeill E, Longhi MS, Turnes BL, Kreslavsky T, Kogler M, Hoffmann D, Ticevic M, da Luz Scheffer D, Tortola L, Cikes D, Jais A, Rangachari M, Rao S, Paolino M, Novatchkova M, Aichinger M, Barrett L, Latremoliere A, Wirnsberger G, Lametschwandtner G, Busslinger M, Zicha S, Latini A, Robson SC, Waisman A, Andrews N, Costigan M, Channon KM, Weiss G, Kozlov AV, Tebbe M, Johnsson K, Woolf CJ, Penninger JM (2018) The metabolite BH4 controls T cell proliferation in autoimmunity and cancer. Nature 563:564-68 ...
Talk story about meeting Michael Talbot, the author of Your Past Lives: A Reincarnation Handbook. Writer met him recently on a Saturday morning when the …
Real property--Indiana--Benton County (Ind.)--Maps; Earl Park (Ind.)--Maps ; Talbot (Ind.)--Maps ; Otterbein (Ind.)--Maps ; Wadena (Ind.)--Maps ; Dunnington (Ind.)--Maps ; Chase (Ind.)--Maps ;Swanington (Ind.)-- ...
Ariane Lechasseur, Éric Jubinville, Joanie Routhier, Jean‐Christophe Bérubé, Mélanie Hamel‐Auger, Maude Talbot, Jennifer Lamothe, Sophie Aubin, Marie‐Ève Paré, Marie‐Josée Beaulieu, Yohan Bossé, Caroline Duchaine, Mathieu C. Morissette ...
Blackrock Clinic invites you to attend the above study morning at the Talbot Stillorgan Hotel on Saturday 18th November 2017. Registration commences at 9.3
Sullivan, M. J. P., Talbot, J., Lewis, S. L., Phillips, O. L., Qie, L., Begne, S. K., Chave, J., Cuni-Sanchez, A., Hubau, W., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Miles, L., Monteagudo-Mendoza, A., Sonké, B., Sunderland, T., ter Steege, H., White, L. J. T., Affum-Baffoe, K., Aiba, S. -ichiro, de Almeida, E. C., de Oliveira, E. A., Alvarez-Loayza, P., Dávila, E. Á., Andrade, A., Aragão, L. E. O. C., Ashton, P., Aymard C., G. A., Baker, T. R., Balinga, M., Banin, L. F., Baraloto, C., Bastin, J. - F., Berry, N., Bogaert, J., Bonal, D., Bongers, F., Brienen, R., Camargo, J. L. C., Cerón, C., Moscoso, V. C., Chezeaux, E., Clark, C. J., Pacheco, Á. C., Comiskey, J. A., Valverde, F. C., Coronado, E. N. H., Dargie, G., Davies, S. J., De Canniere, C., Djuikouo K., M. N., Doucet, J. - L., Erwin, T. L., Espejo, J. S., Ewango, C. E. N., Fauset, S., Feldpausch, T. R., Herrera, R., Gilpin, M., Gloor, E., Hall, J. S., Harris, D. J., Hart, T. B., Kartawinata, K., Kho, L. K., Kitayama, K., Laurance, S. G. W., Laurance, W. ...
Directed by Milan Cheylov. With Clark Gregg, Ming-Na Wen, Brett Dalton, Chloe Bennet. With Colonel Glenn Talbot now on their trail, Coulson and his team seek refuge in the last place anyone would look, where they begin to uncover S.H.I.E.L.D.S most dangerous secrets -- secrets that could destroy them all.
The presence of CTCs in the blood of individuals with cancer is an early indication of disease spread and correlates with survival rate. However, simply enumerating CTCs has not provided researchers and physicians with actionable information to improve care. Previously, there have been no technologies to determine how CTCs respond to drug treatments. Since the critical metastatic functions of CTCs occur in non-adherent (free floating) states like the bloodstream and lymphatic system, a technological device system is needed for analysis of CTCs that preserves this environment.. "Cellths technology tethers cells in minutes, permitting immediate, detailed, quantitative, real-time examination. There is no need for cells to grow or express proteins, avoiding the traditional weeks- to months-long cell growth process, and yielding a drug-response study within an ...
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HIF1A - Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) - Bos taurus (Bovine) - HIF1A...HIF1A - Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) - Bos taurus (Bovine) - HIF1A...

negative regulation of growth Source: Ensembl. *negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process Source: Ensembl ... negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Source: Ensembl ... regulation of glycolytic process Source: Ensembl. *regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to ... negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process Source: Ensembl. *negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0JND0

Gene InfoGene Info

BP] heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process *[BP] positive regulation of cell growth *[CC] endoplasmic reticulum *[CC ... CC] intrinsic to endoplasmic reticulum membrane *[CC] membrane *[MF] glucuronyl-galactosyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N- ... Cell lines only *Tissues and cell lines *SAGE Digital Northern *Monochromatic SAGE/cDNA Virtual Northern *Two-dimensional array ... stem cell, stomach, synovium, t-cell, testis, thymus, thyroid, uncharacterized tissue, uterus, vascular. *SAGE Anatomic Viewer ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GeneInfo?ORG=Hs&CID=491354&LLNO=2137

Ccar2 - Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ccar2 gene & proteinCcar2 - Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ccar2 gene & protein

Plays an important role in tumor suppression through p53/TP53 regulation; stabilizes p53/TP53 by affecting its interaction with ... and integrates transcript elongation with the regulation of alternative splicing: the DBIRD complex affects local transcript ... negative regulation of cell growth Source: UniProtKB. *negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response ... Apoptosis, Biological rhythms, Cell cycle, DNA damage, mRNA processing, mRNA splicing, Transcription, Transcription regulation ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8VDP4

Researchers Identify The Process That Controls T Cell Growth And ProductionResearchers Identify The Process That Controls T Cell Growth And Production

... growth and production can lead to better vaccines and possibly more effective cancer immunotherapy. ... identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells ... growth, replication and division. The description of cell intrinsic regulation of quiescence in normal T cells will provide ... which signals cell cycle arrest in na ve CD8 T cells," Lacorazza said. "This inhibitory process is important to T cells because ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/Researchers-Identify-The-Process-That-Controls-T-Cell-Growth-And-Production-50871-1.htm

Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Potassium Depolarization Maintain Neuronal Survival by Distinct Pathways: Possible Involvement...Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Potassium Depolarization Maintain Neuronal Survival by Distinct Pathways: Possible Involvement...

... "programmed cell death." This naturally occurring process is mediated by apoptosis, a specific form of programmed cell death ... and the regulation of neuronal cell fate and precursor proliferation (for review, seeSchlessinger and Ullrich, 1992). The ... The receptors for a number of these factors have intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, recent studies have shown ... 1992) Nerve growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death in neuronal PC12 cells resembles that in sympathetic neurons. J Cell ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/5/1548?ijkey=8fe1f4a91277b4ba3e591c467ee42b8934360797&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Metabolites  | Free Full-Text | Optimality Principles in the Regulation of Metabolic Networks | HTMLMetabolites | Free Full-Text | Optimality Principles in the Regulation of Metabolic Networks | HTML

... where the latter process results from intrinsic degradation and/or via dilution due to cell growth. Synthesis and degradation ... Those fluctuations occur in single cells and remain invisible when populations of cells are studied. When single cells were ... Origins of stochastic intracellular processes and consequences for cell-to-cell variability and cellular survival strategies. ... that enables cells to bind and internalize transforming DNA. Based on single cell measurements, cells have either a single (low ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-1989/2/3/529/htm

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Jianrong Li (Translated to Arabic)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Jianrong Li (Translated to Arabic)

... up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In addition, DPF significantly decreased the expression of cell ... We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the ... We further show that SIN inhibited growth of VSV in cell culture, reducing viral yield by 50-fold and diminishing plaque size. ... LJ001 specifically inhibited virus-cell but not cell-cell fusion, and further studies with lipid biosynthesis inhibitors ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Jianrong_Li?language=Arabic

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Jianrong Li (Translated to Dutch)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Jianrong Li (Translated to Dutch)

... up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In addition, DPF significantly decreased the expression of cell ... We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the ... We further show that SIN inhibited growth of VSV in cell culture, reducing viral yield by 50-fold and diminishing plaque size. ... LJ001 specifically inhibited virus-cell but not cell-cell fusion, and further studies with lipid biosynthesis inhibitors ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Jianrong_Li?language=Dutch

Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo CerebrumVitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum

Cell-intrinsic as well as cell-extrinsic factors contribute to changes in cell production thus affecting the cerebral cortical ... growth. Among other extracellular molecules, neurotransmitter receptors have been implicated in the extrinsic regulation of ... neuronal progenitors is one of the fundamental developmental processes responsible for generating the correct number of cells ... The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. α-tocopherol, one of the forms of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/851235/

RAF kinase activity regulates neuroepithelial cell proliferation and neuronal progenitor cell differentiation during early...RAF kinase activity regulates neuroepithelial cell proliferation and neuronal progenitor cell differentiation during early...

However, the regulation of RAF kinase activity by growth factors during development is complex and still not fully understood. ... coordinated by the concerted action of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Deregulation of these processes is associated with ... Early inner ear development requires the strict regulation of cell proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation, ... RAF kinase activity regulates neuroepithelial cell proliferation and neuronal progenitor cell differentiation during early ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/21203386

Cellular senescence and cancer.  - PubMed - NCBICellular senescence and cancer. - PubMed - NCBI

The proliferative lifespan of normal mammalian cells is limited by intrinsic controls, which desensitize the cell-cycle ... or up-regulation if the normal cell already has some activity, but not enough to prevent erosion. In either case, cancers often ... machinery to extrinsic stimulation after a given number of cell divisions. One underlying clock driving this process of ... This appears to trigger growth inhibition via activation of the tumour suppressor gene (TSG) product, p53, and the consequent ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10341711?dopt=Abstract

Frontiers | The L-type Ca2+ Channel Blocker Nifedipine Inhibits Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Virulence of Phytophthora...Frontiers | The L-type Ca2+ Channel Blocker Nifedipine Inhibits Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Virulence of Phytophthora...

Calcium homeostasis and signalling is essential for numerous biological processes, and Ca2+ channel blockers prevent excessive ... and Ca2+ channel blockers prevent excessive Ca2+ influx into the fungal cell. However, it is not known whether voltage-gated ... In the present study, we compared the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 and the extracellular Ca2+ chelator EDTA on mycelial growth ... In the present study, we compared the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 and the extracellular Ca2+ chelator EDTA on mycelial growth ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01236/full

Mechanisms of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation: structures of Cdks, their cyclin activators, and Cip and INK4 inhibitors.  -...Mechanisms of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation: structures of Cdks, their cyclin activators, and Cip and INK4 inhibitors. -...

... and also serve to integrate diverse growth-regulatory signals. Cdks are controlled through several different processes ... The cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) have a central role in coordinating the eukaryotic cell division cycle, ... indicating that Cdks have evolved an intrinsic conformational flexibility. This flexibility is central to their ability to ... Mechanisms of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation: structures of Cdks, their cyclin activators, and Cip and INK4 inhibitors.. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10222191?dopt=Abstract

CST - Actin Nucleation and Polymerization Antibody Sampler KitCST - Actin Nucleation and Polymerization Antibody Sampler Kit

... transcriptional regulation, cell growth, and development (1). GTP binding stimulates the activity of Rac/Cdc42, and the ... Actin nucleation is the process of forming new actin filaments and is necessary to stimulate actin polymerization. Actin ... hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through the intrinsic GTPase activity or Rac/Cdc42, rendering it inactive. GTP hydrolysis is aided by ... polymerization is vital for cell motility, cell division, and cell adhesion. Rac and Cdc42, members of the Rho-GTPase family, ...
more infohttps://www.cellsignal.com/products/primary-antibodies/actin-nucleation-and-polymerization-antibody-sampler-kit/8606?N=4294959815+4294956287&Nrpp=30&No=90&fromPage=plp

MicroRNAâ  Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma | OMICS InternationalMicroRNAâ Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma | OMICS International

Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic inducers. In cancer cells, a balance ... Suppress HSP90B1 and cell growth, Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Decrease PI3K/Akt/mTOR/ Bcl-2. Increase Bid. MG63 [40] ... tumor cells often show accelerated proliferation and reduced apoptosis, resulting in uncontrolled cancer cell growth. The ... Mol Cells 19: 1-15.. *Wu L, Belasco JG (2008) Let me count the ways: mechanisms of gene regulation by miRNAs and siRNAs. Mol ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-apoptosis-in-osteosarcoma-2157-2518.S6-001.php?aid=12292

IRF-3 Activation by Sendai Virus Infection Is Required for Cellular Apoptosis and Avoidance of Persistence | Journal of VirologyIRF-3 Activation by Sendai Virus Infection Is Required for Cellular Apoptosis and Avoidance of Persistence | Journal of Virology

6, apoptosis followed the same pattern; the P2.1 cells were resistant to the process, whereas the P2.1.17 cells were ... including growth regulation, signal transduction, differentiation, and oncogenic transformation (33). Many of the cellular ... Under these conditions, both caspase 8 and 9 inhibitors had protective effects on the cells, implicating both intrinsic and ... We used three cell lines for this purpose: P2.1 cells, which express little IRF-3, HT1080/siIRF3 cells, in which IRF-3 ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/82/7/3500

Tissue expression of PLAUR - Summary - The Human Protein AtlasTissue expression of PLAUR - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas

High cytoplasmic expression in respiratory epithelia and in a subset of cells of bone marrow. ... GO:0042995 [cell projection]. GO:0043066 [negative regulation of apoptotic process]. GO:0043312 [neutrophil degranulation]. GO: ... GO:0090200 [positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria]. GO:2001243 [negative regulation of intrinsic ... GO:0043388 [positive regulation of DNA binding]. GO:0045742 [positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling ...
more infohttp://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000011422-PLAUR/tissue

Frontiers | Preeclampsia-Associated Alteration of DNA Methylation in Fetal Endothelial Progenitor Cells | Cell and...Frontiers | Preeclampsia-Associated Alteration of DNA Methylation in Fetal Endothelial Progenitor Cells | Cell and...

Cell culture passage 3 and 5 showed similar profiles of the gene networks. 1260 out of 1266 PE-associated methylation changes ... Cell culture passage 3 and 5 showed similar profiles of the gene networks. 1260 out of 1266 PE-associated methylation changes ... To explore whether expansion of fetal ECFC in cell culture leads to changes in global methylation status and if PE methylation ... To explore whether expansion of fetal ECFC in cell culture leads to changes in global methylation status and if PE methylation ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2019.00032/full

Jonathan R. Keller, Ph.D. | Center for Cancer Research - National Cancer InstituteJonathan R. Keller, Ph.D. | Center for Cancer Research - National Cancer Institute

Understanding how stem cells self-renew and commit to specific cell lineages remains a central question in stem cell biology. ... The laboratory is currently focused on understanding the cellular and molecular regulation of hematopoietic ... The balance between maintaining stem cells and their more differentiated progeny is critical for the development and function ... Molecular Regulation of Hematopoietic Cell Growth/Differentiation. Hematopoiesis is a multi-stage developmental process that is ...
more infohttps://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/jonathan-r-keller?qt-staff_profile_tabs=2

In Silico Modelling of Treatment-Induced Tumour Cell Kill: Developments and AdvancesIn Silico Modelling of Treatment-Induced Tumour Cell Kill: Developments and Advances

Areas of interest include gene therapy, cell kinetics, pharmacokinetics, chemotherapy, oncology, developmental biology, wound ... the virtual tumour starting from a single cell (or small group of cells). The tumour growth process is in itself a large area ... intrinsic radiosensitivity levels and cell kinetic behaviour of all cell types involved including all primary tumour cell types ... with role in cell cycle progress. The interplay between cell parameter variation and selective knockouts of regulations and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2012/960256/

Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and t ... with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles ... These tasks are achieved by a multitude of specialized cell types. Recent work suggests the placenta has the ability to sense ... It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Placental-adaptations-to-maternal-fetal/22560117.html

Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses FUT4 expression through inhibiting NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway to promote melanoma cell deathGinsenoside Rg3 suppresses FUT4 expression through inhibiting NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway to promote melanoma cell death

... plays significant roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival and apoptosis. NF-κB activation allows cancer cells to ... FUT4, as a key enzyme involved in LeY synthesis, plays multiple roles in the regulation of various pathophysiologic processes. ... growth and induced apoptosis through inhibiting NF-κB/FUT4 signaling pathway and activating the extrinsic and the intrinsic ... Control, untransfected cells; Mock, cells transfected with vector; p65 siRNA, cells transfected with p65 siRNA; cells were ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/47/2/701

Mechanisms of Angiogenesis Process after Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation: Role of Intra-islet Endothelial Cells | OMICS...Mechanisms of Angiogenesis Process after Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation: Role of Intra-islet Endothelial Cells | OMICS...

... multi-step process involving highly integrated cell behaviours, initial interaction with the environment and signalling ... 2003) Regulation of Notch1 and Dll4 by vascular endothelial growth factor in arterial endothelial cells: implications for ... 2003) Intrinsic versus microenvironmental regulation of lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype and function. FASEB J 17: 2006- ... basic fibroblast growth factor, the epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors induce VEGF-A expression in cells. ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/mechanisms-of-angiogenesis-process-after-pancreatic-islet-celltransplantation-role-of-intraislet-endothelial-cells-2161-0991-1000171.php?aid=86107

Knockdown of linc-UFC1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of colorectal cancer | Cell Death & DiseaseKnockdown of linc-UFC1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of colorectal cancer | Cell Death & Disease

In addition, inhibition of linc-UFC1 induced cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway, as evidenced by ... Inhibition of linc-UFC1 resulted in cell proliferation inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest, which was mediated by cyclin D1, ... Taken together, linc-UFC1 might have a critical role in pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis in CRC by regulating the cell ... cycle, intrinsic apoptosis, and β-catenin and P38 signaling. Thus, linc-UFC1 could be a potential therapeutic target and novel ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2016124?error=cookies_not_supported&code=7e6a8778-0e37-44fd-8982-9d231f7d6fe8

Protein S100-A9 - DrugBankProtein S100-A9 - DrugBank

... positive regulation of cell growth / positive regulation of inflammatory response / positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic ... regulation of cytoskeleton organization / regulation of integrin biosynthetic process / regulation of translation / ... apoptotic process / astrocyte development / autophagy / cell-cell signaling / chemokine production / cytokine production / ... Nakatani Y, Yamazaki M, Chazin WJ, Yui S: Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/polypeptides/P06702
  • Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. (drugbank.ca)
  • Thus, treatment of EMT-6 mouse mammary carcinoma spheroids with 5-azacytidine resulted in reduced and/or disrupted cell-cell adhesion, which in turn sensitized tumor spheroids to cisplatin-mediated killing in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Key features of primary networks implicated by methylation differences included cell metabolism, cell cycle and transcription and, more specifically, genes involved in cell-cell interaction and Wnt signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The circadian clock, an endogenous, cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces outputs with rhythms close to 24 h, functions through a set of transcription-translation feedback loops that drives the rhythmic transcription of core clock genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Divergent regulation of expression for the 92- and 72-kilodalton enzyme genes in HT-1080 cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • For example, WNT signaling, which is overexpressed in a number of cancers including CRC, has a key role in tumor pathogenesis and growth. (nature.com)
  • Death resulting from the lowering of K + can be prevented by insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). (jneurosci.org)
  • Several such factors have been identified in mammalian systems in recent years, and these include the neurotrophins: nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, neurotrophin-4/5, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (jneurosci.org)
  • NF-κB is found constitutively activated in human melanoma cells, and upregulation of the NF-κB levels promotes the progression of melanoma and increases metastatic potential ( 9 , 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Inhibition of NF-κB activation in human melanoma cells enhanced radio-sensitivity, induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion ( 11 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This appears to trigger growth inhibition via activation of the tumour suppressor gene (TSG) product, p53, and the consequent up-regulation of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21WAF1. (nih.gov)
  • hence pharmacological inhibition of telomerase remains an attractive approach to the selective killing of tumour cells. (nih.gov)
  • The balance between maintaining stem cells and their more differentiated progeny is critical for the development and function of most tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated linc-UFC1 expression in CRC tissues and cancer cell lines. (nature.com)
  • They continuously adjust their water status through stomatal regulation and osmotic adjustment and by acting on the water transport capacity (hydraulic conductivity) of their root and shoot tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, both the virus and the cell are equally important partners in determining the fate of infection at the cellular level. (asm.org)
  • Thus, little is known about cellular factors that determine the survivability of an infected cell. (asm.org)
  • We believe that knowledge of the molecular and cellular regulation of HSCs will contribute to improved methods to direct these processes to expand hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), develop pharmaceuticals to treat leukemia and other hematological disorders, and improve methods of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), gene therapy, and regenerative medicine. (cancer.gov)
  • The cellular components of the islet include β-cells with the remainder of the islet comprised of other endocrine cells (including glucagon-secreting α- cells, somatostatin secreting δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting γ-cells, and ghrelin-producing ε-cells), as well as ECs and support cells such as pericytes [ 3 - 12 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • β-cell, the central regulator of glucose homeostasis is the largest cellular component of islets in most species [ 12 , 13 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A shift of fluid out of the cells causes cytoplasm condensation, which is followed by convolution of the nuclear and cellular outlines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer models can be used to simulate tumour cell kinetics and dynamics, drug pharmacokinetics, therapies and give similar results to those in experimental tumours. (hindawi.com)
  • Potentiation of Nitric Oxide-induced Apoptosis in P53-/- Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells American Journal of Physiology. (jove.com)
  • 5 Recent studies have elegantly identified several growth factors that regulate cardiomyogenic induction of the precursor cells in the anterior mesoderm. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6-9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ The failure of these growth factors to promote cardiomyogenic induction in more primitive precursor cells indicates that additional as of yet unidentified factors participate in the process. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we review approaches and studies that have shed some light on cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • For reference, an initial description of cardiomyogenic induction and morphogenesis is provided, which is followed by a summary of published cell cycle analyses during these stages of cardiac ontology. (ahajournals.org)
  • A review of studies examining cardiomyocyte cell cycle analysis and de novo cardiomyogenic induction in the adult heart is then presented. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, studies in which cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity was experimentally manipulated in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. (ahajournals.org)
  • miRNAs bind to complementary sequences in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the target gene transcripts and regulate their gene expression and function including apoptosis of tumor cells [ 12 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Since transcriptional regulators are frequently deregulated or mutated in hematopoietic malignancies, our current focus is to understand how transcription factors and transcription factor networks regulate quiescence, self-renewal and cell specification using mouse models, normal stem cells, and stem cell line models. (cancer.gov)
  • 1-3 ⇓ ⇓ On migration, these cells proliferate extensively 4 while remaining in close contact with the anterior endoderm 3 (a prerequisite for their subsequent cardiomyogenic induction). (ahajournals.org)
  • Understanding how stem cells self-renew and commit to specific cell lineages remains a central question in stem cell biology. (cancer.gov)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In previous work, Dr. Daniel Lacorazza, assistant professor of pathology at BCM, along with his research team, identified a transcription factor, ELF4, which regulates blood stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • The circadian clock regulates plant tissue hydraulics to synchronize water supply with environmental cycles and thereby optimize growth. (plantcell.org)
  • Taking their findings one step further, Gilmour and her team in 2017 demonstrated that a polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) they developed inhibited the growth of malignant tumors in mice and activated an immune response to those tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic expression of phosphodeficient and phosphomimetic forms of this aquaporin indicated that At PIP2;1 phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for K ros regulation. (plantcell.org)
  • Gilmour continued her research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, first as postdoctoral fellow (1984 to 1987) and then as research associate (1988 to 1990 While at Wistar, she began her work in characterizing the regulation and expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in both normal and tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This usually requires either activation of telomerase during tumour development, if the cell of origin is telomerase-negative, or up-regulation if the normal cell already has some activity, but not enough to prevent erosion. (nih.gov)
  • Mathematical and stochastic computer ( in silico ) models of tumour growth and treatment response of the past and current eras are presented, outlining the aims of the models, model methodology, the key parameters used to describe the tumour system, and treatment modality applied, as well as reported outcomes from simulations. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11832348 The functional role of p53 in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis remains unknown. (jove.com)
  • Vascular endothelial cells represent a major cell type present in islets and these cells are organized into a highly regulated and morphologically unique microcirculation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Low and advanced cell culture passages were compared to explore whether expansion of fetal ECFC in cell culture leads to changes in global methylation status and if methylation characteristics in preeclampsia are maintained with increasing passage. (frontiersin.org)
  • It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. (biomedsearch.com)