Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Mice, Inbred BALB CDendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.NAD+ NucleosidaseLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cell SeparationAntigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
The costimulatory signal necessary to continue the immune response can come from B7-CD28 and CD40-CD40L interactions. There are ... and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC binding itself is insufficient ... Binding of the B7 of APC to CTLA-4 of T-cells causes inhibition of the activity of T-cells. There are two major types of B7 ... Blockade of CD28 is effective in stopping T cell activation, a mechanism that the immune system uses to down-regulate T cell ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through ... They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ...
The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects ... CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may ... and immune responses are severely inhibited. The expression of CD40 is diverse. CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen ... If an activated T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40 ...
B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... This occurs through the interaction of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40 on the dendritic cell, with CD28 and CD40 ... "The activation of the adaptive immune system: Cross-talk between antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells". Immunology ... When a T helper cell with a TCR specific for that peptide binds, the B cell marker CD40 binds to CD40L on the T cell surface. ...
When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells. Consequently, humoral immune response ... CD40 is a co-stimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. ... before they undergo class switching due to exposure to a recognized antigen. Healthy B cells efficiently switch to other types ... Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells ...
T cell deletion or the development of immune tolerance. B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which ... "A 39-kDa protein on activated helper T cells binds CD40 and transduces the signal for cognate activation of B cells". ... is antigen nonspecific and is provided by the interaction between co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the membrane of APC and ... which binds to CD40 on the B cell, thus the Th2 cell can co-stimulate the B cell. Without this co-stimulation the B cell cannot ...
... based on their interaction with number of antigen-presenting cell (APC) surface receptors like CD91 and CD40 and also ... immunogenic apoptosis of cancer cells can induce an effective antitumour immune response through activation of dendritic cells ... It binds to several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, which are expressed on APCs ... facilitate crosspresentation of antigens derived from tumour cells on MHC class I molecule, which than leads to the CD8+ T cell ...
... which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. TFH cell-dependent paracrine activation of B cell CD40 results in ... or memory B cells capable of quick immune re-activation in the future if ever the same antigen is re-encountered. TFH cells are ... Upon cellular interaction and cross-signaling with their cognate follicular (Fo B) B cells, TFH cells trigger the formation and ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ...
... molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, ... role of CD4-MHC class II interaction in the effector phase of T cell help". Cell. Immunol. 155 (1): 169-82. doi:10.1006/cimm. ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... role of CD4-MHC class II interaction in the effector phase of T cell help". Cell. Immunol. 155 (1): 169-82. doi:10.1006/cimm. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ...
"T lymphocyte T cell-B cell-activating molecule/CD40-L molecules induce normal B cells or chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". J. Immunol. 149 (12): 3817-26. ... "Protein recognized by an antibody that specifically binds an epitope that is specifically bound by monoclonal antibody 5c8". ... Immune Defic. Syndr. 4 (4): 428-34. PMID 1706770. Lederman S, DeMartino JA, Daugherty BL, et al. (November 1991). "A single ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total ... role in costimulation and regulation of the immune response via T cell priming and activation of CD40-expressing immune cells. ... Xu Y, Song G (2005). "The role of CD40-CD154 interaction in cell immunoregulation". Journal of Biomedical Science. 11 (4): 426- ... If an activated TFH cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40, ...
Complete stimulation of T helper cells requires the B7 molecule present on the antigen presenting cell to bind with CD28 ... a second interaction between the CD40 ligand or CD154 (CD40L) present on T cell surface and CD40 present on B cell surface, is ... In the immune system, membrane-bound antibodies are the B cell receptor (BCR). Also, while the T cell receptor is not ... Activation of the T helper cells by antigen-presenting cells.. *Costimulation of the B cell by activated T cell resulting in ...
Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R (April 2006). "Estrogen regulation of immune cell bone interactions". Annals of the New York Academy ... Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that ... and T cell costimulatory activity of the murine homologue of the human B lymphocyte activation antigen B7". The Journal of ... "Both extracellular immunoglobin-like domains of CD80 contain residues critical for binding T cell surface receptors CTLA-4 and ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4 cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, ... They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune ...
CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known ... Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... TIM-3 acts as a negative regulator of Th1/Tc1 function by triggering cell death upon interaction with its ligand, galectin-9. ... CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. A now ...
T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (T cells). It is composed of αβ-heterodimers ... It is monomeric and binds one IgE molecule. The α chain binds IgE and the other three chains contain immune receptor tyrosine- ... have to involve specific interaction of virus and cellular receptor expressed at the plasma membrane in order to enter cells. ... Their functions include signaling by BCR, modulation of that signaling by co-receptors, signaling by CD40, endocytosis of ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main ... concurrent interaction of all three cell types, namely CD4+ T helper cells, CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells, seems to be ... HIV, which causes AIDS, can bind to dendritic cells via various receptors expressed on the cell. The best studied example is DC ... they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 ...
... release in antigen presenting cells as well as inducing the production of costimulatory molecules that allow the cell to bind ... SAg activation in T-cells leads to production of CD40 ligand which activates isotype switching in B cells to IgG and IgM and ... of T cells). The large number of activated T-cells generates a massive immune response which is not specific to any particular ... blocking the interaction and preventing T cell activation. Immunosuppressants are also employed to prevent T-cell activation ...
... role of CD4-MHC class II interaction in the effector phase of T cell help". Cell. Immunol. 155 (1): 169-82. doi:10.1006/cimm. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1997). "The enhanced immune response to the HIV gp160/LAMP chimeric gene product targeted to the lysosome membrane protein ...
In normal physiology T-cells are activated by two signals: the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell ... PD-L1 on the cell surface binds to PD1 on an immune cell surface, which inhibits immune cell activity. Among PD-L1 functions is ... Antibodies that bind to either PD-1 or PD-L1 and therefore block the interaction may allow the T-cells to attack the tumor. The ... Dendritic cell receptors such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or CD40 have been used as antibody targets. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is the ...
... designed to activate antigen presenting cells. LAG3 is expressed on various cells in the immune system including activated T ... "T cell major histocompatibility complex class II molecules down-regulate CD4+ T cell clone responses following LAG-3 binding". ... after evidence that its interaction with MHC class II molecules leads to the down-regulation of CD4+ antigen-specific T cell ... when it was given with CD40/CD40L, it could induce full functional activation of such dendritic cells so that they could ...
... or in CD40 receptor binding in hepatic stellate cells. IKK1 functions as the major kinase phosphorylating serine 536 under ... Cell Physiology. 283 (1): C58-65. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00314.2001. PMID 12055073. Sif S, Gilmore TD (Nov 1994). "Interaction of ... antigen processing, just to name a few . Phosphorylation of RELA at different residues also enables its interaction with CDKs ... The fact that cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1 can stimulate the activation of RELA also supports its participation in immune ...
... role of CD4-MHC class II interaction in the effector phase of T cell help". Cell. Immunol. 155 (1): 169-82. doi:10.1006/cimm. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ...
His studies identified the migratory properties of CD4+ T cell memory and demonstrated that immune response can be regulated by ... "CD40 Signaling Synergizes with TLR-2 in the BCR Independent Activation of Resting B Cells". PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) India portal Medicine portal Memory T cell Human leukocyte antigen Melatonin ... research has been focusing on the host-pathogen interactions and the complex roles played by macrophages and T cells in defense ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... "Identification of Hodgkin and Sternberg-reed cells as a unique cell type derived from a newly-detected small-cell population". ... Interactions[edit]. CD30 has been shown to interact with TRAF5,[13] TRAF1,[14] TRAF2[13][14] and TRAF3.[14] ... nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma ...
Cell-cell interactions are likely to be important at a local effector level. Immune cells were previously demonstrated to ... CD40 and CD154 play roles in cutaneous inflammation through antigen-presenting cell/cognate CD4+ T cell antigen presentation ... The first type is the T cell receptor/MHC-mediated signal and the second type results from the binding of costimulatory/ ... Increased CD40 expression on muscle cells of polymyositis and dermatomyositis: Role of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction in IL-6, IL ...
The costimulatory signal necessary to continue the immune response can come from B7-CD28 and CD40-CD40L interactions. There are ... and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC binding itself is insufficient ... Binding of the B7 of APC to CTLA-4 of T-cells causes inhibition of the activity of T-cells. There are two major types of B7 ... Blockade of CD28 is effective in stopping T cell activation, a mechanism that the immune system uses to down-regulate T cell ...
It has recently been shown that iNKT cells do not only enhance immune responses against bacterial pathogens or parasites, but ... Natural Killer T cells (NKT cells) can substitute for Th cell help and license DC as well. NKT cells produce a broad spectrum ... Natural Killer T cells (NKT cells) can substitute for Th cell help and license DC as well. NKT cells produce a broad spectrum ... while Th cell licensed DC produce CCR5 ligands, NKT cell-licensed DC produce CCL17 which attracts CCR4+ CD8+ T cells for ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through ... They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ...
... and protection of B cells from apoptosis. Interaction of CD40 with its ligand CD154 is important in T cell-B cell interaction ... and plays a role in costimulation and immune regulation. Clone HB14 blocks the binding of CD40 to CD154. This prevents down- ... regulation of CD154 expression induced by interaction with CD40 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. - Belgique ... and fibroblasts and at lower levels on plasma cells and a subset of peripheral T cells. CD40 is involved in B cell ...
CD40 agonists can trigger immune stimulation by activating host antigen-presenting cells, which then drive T-cell responses ... The CD40-154 interaction in B cell-T cell liaisons. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2003;14:297-309. ... via the binding of JAK3 to the CD40 cytoplasmic tail (73), as well as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway (74-76). ... CD40-induced immune activation. Signaling via CD40 activates antigen-presenting cells both in vitro and in vivo. ...
The mutant poorly bound to DCs and only weakly increased the expression of CD83, CD86, MHC class II, and PD-L1 on DCs compared ... and presentation of antigens from infectious microbes. Streptococcus gordonii is able to cause life-threatening systemic ... The mutant poorly bound to DCs and only weakly increased the expression of CD83, CD86, MHC class II, and PD-L1 on DCs compared ... When DCs sensitized with the mutant were co-cultured with autologous T cells, they induced weaker proliferation and activation ...
Modulation of CD40 antigens on B cell lines analyzed by flow cytometry. Ramos cells were incubated with FITC-labeled ASKP1240 ( ... The ASKP1240 mAb was shown to bind to human CD40 with high affinity (KD. =. 0.24. nM) and to effectively block the interaction ... Inhibition of immune cell activation induced by shCD154 in vitro. Inhibition of PBMC proliferation stimulated with shCD154 in ... The CD40 molecule is mainly expressed on antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) as well as on ...
Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing FcεRII or CD23 (FcεRIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have ... expressing follicular dendritic cells is a main prognostic factor in follicular lymphoma. Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., ... Binding of B-lymphocyte molecule CD40 to CD40L present at activated T-cells leads to generation of memory B-cells. Plasmocytic ... There are a great variety of interactions between B-cells, antigens, T-cells, macrophages and FDCs within the clear follicular ...
... is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. CD40-CD40L interaction is crucial to B cells for their ... CD40 is a membrane-bound protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and is expressed on many cell types ... EBV-Induced CD40L Inhibits B Cell Apoptosis. Encountering antigens through its receptor, B cells need additional signals from ... inhibition in T cell-dependent humoral immune responses (4, 5). Mice null for CD40 or CD40L had severe defects not only in ...
The activation of T cell requires two signals: firstly, thyroid follicular cells or antigen presenting cells binds to T cell ... of T cells is also required the interaction of costimulatory molecules between thyroid follicular cells and immune cells, ... including CTLA-4, CD 40, CD28, ICOS. PPAR- is a kind of intranuclear transcription factor, associated with adipogenesis and ... The activation of T cell requires two signals: firstly, thyroid follicular cells or antigen presenting cells binds to T cell ...
Study Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity flashcards from Kayla Johnson ... CD40 on APC binds CD40L on Th1 or Th17. This interaction gives ... NK cells kill cells that mask the presence of foreign antigen on MHC Class I.. -If cells ligand binds the NK cells activating ... It tilts the immune response toward Th1 cells by inhibiting Th2 cells and inducing IL-12 production by macrophages and ... If the NK cell binds Class I MHC to its inhibitory receptor/Ker ligand and binds the cells ligand to the NK cells activating ...
B) Cell-mediated immune mechanisms. (i) Effector CD4+ cells (often Th1 or Th17 type) recognize antigens that can be intrinsic ... CD154/CD40), innate leukocytes such as macrophages. Not shown are interactions between intrinsic renal cells and T cells that ... Alternately, in situ immune complexes form when antibodies bind to antigens that are intrinsic to the glomerulus or antigens ... Immunoregulatory Immune Cells: T Cells, Macrophages, and More. A variety of immune cells, including some CD4+ and CD8+ T cells ...
Study B Cells - Denzin 4/5/16 flashcards from Tom Kuriakose ... humoral response is initiated by B cell binding of antigen via ... signal 2 : interaction with helper T cell. T-dep : mediated mainly through CD40 (on B cell) + CD40L (CD40 ligand on T cell) + ... recognition phase] : B cell + antigen → crosslinking (signal1). helper T cells or innate immune system come through with ... 1. blocks binding to healthy cells → prevents infection. 2. prevents spread of infection from one cell to adjacent cells (binds ...
AITRL increases leukocyte bonding to endothelial cells and modulates the movement of monocytes from the splenic reservoir to ... TNFSF18 acts decreases the threshold for T-cell activation and T-cell proliferation. Facilitates initiation of NF-kappa-B. ... TNFSF18 binds to TNFRSF18 and activates the control of the immune to tryptophan catabolism using reverse signaling in mouse ... but is controlled by antigen-receptor interaction or by soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 or PMA with addition of ionomycin. ...
Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. However, extreme ... yet a tremendously powerful elicitor of immune reactions. Despite huge efforts spent on the characterization and understanding ... a functional interaction between mIgE on the surface of B cells and cell-bound FcεRI triggers FcεRI activation also in absence ... allowing IgE antibodies to remain bound to immune effector cells even in the absence of antigen [9]. Furthermore, unlike IgG, ...
Various cell surface proteins on immune cells are thought to play a role in the induction of cellular responses to heat shock ... 7 describes a model for the binding of peptide antigen to Hsp70 in a tumor cell, followed by release after necrotic cell lysis ... binding of Hip to the ATPase domain of Hsp70 blocks the interaction of Hsp70 with CD40, suggesting that Hip and CD40 recognize ... Binding assays with GST-CD40 For binding of endogenous Hsp70 and Hsc70 from HeLa cell lysate, HeLa cells were lysed as ...
A critical variable in optimization of DC-based cancer vaccines is interaction of DCs with immune effector cells such as CD4+ ... Human dendritic cell maturation by adenovirus transduction enhances tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses. J Immunother (1997 ... CD40 was reengineered by fusing the cytoplasmic domain of CD40 to synthetic ligand binding domains along with a membrane- ... dendritic cells (DC) are by far the most potent antigen-presenting cells for priming and activating naïve T cells ( 1). This ...
B cell receptor (BCR) and a signal provided by the interaction between the CD40 molecule expressed on B cells and its ligand ... The humoral immune response against thymus-independent (TI) antigens (Ag) such as bacterial capsular polysaccharides (PS) does ... Our data suggested that CD40 binding properties are important for effector functions. We then used mini-CD40Ls as valuable tool ... The CD40-CD40L interaction plays a central role in development of both humoral and cellular immune responses. CD40 belongs to ...
CD40-activated dendritic cells are the most potent stimulators of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and antitumor ... T-cell or dendritic cell and T-cell interactions that can impede the immune system from mounting appropriate humoral and cell- ... Soluble forms of membrane bound CD40 molecules can be released from cell surfaces by the actions of matrix metalloproteases.35 ... T cells, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells.7 Soluble forms of CD40 (sCD40) and ...
... prior to interaction with antigens and in the case of T cells get selected on the basis of interaction with self-peptides bound ... expressed on B cells to induce antibody formation and with CD40 expressed on antigen-presenting DCs to induce cellular immune ... and antigen-induced cell death. Immune responses are initiated when the antigen-specific TCRs expressed by resting CD4+ T cells ... T cells, NKT cells, TCR γδ cells, or TCR αβ cells (80, 81). Only mice that were deficient in CD4+ αβ T cells developed EAE. ...
... the MHC class II complex binds to the T cell receptor. Co-stimulatory signals are provided through the interaction of CD40 on ... 2005; Figure 4). Therefore, as time elapses within the humoral immune response, the antibodies secreted by B cells become more ... Figure 1: B cell antigen recognition. When B cell receptors bind the antigen to which they are specific, both the receptor and ... The interaction between a B cell and a T cell that are specific for the same antigen triggers a cascade of events which ends ...
... antigen bound to the B cell, the presence of cytokines from a Th cell - specifically a Th2 cell, and contact with the T cell ... A. Effector cells of the immune system called B cells exist in two subtypes, B-1 and B-2. B cell activation is dependent on ... including an interaction between a CD40 receptor and a CD40 ligand.. B. An electron micrograph of a plasma cell USUALLY IN MOST ... until the binding of T cells with B cells with Antigen, when the B cells stop not producing IgG but dont not stop producing ...
CD40. CD 40 protein is expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages and ... By binding to CD40, it co-stimulates B and T lymphocytes.. Antibodies against anti-CD154 immune checkpoints interrupt the ... It binds to CD28 to provide the necessary co-stimulatory signal for T cell activation and cytokine production. It also binds to ... Antibodies against immune checkpoints that block the interaction between PD-L1 and its PD-1 receptor fight tumor growth in ...
Many studies have proven that the key role in recognition and eradication of cancer cells, both for mice and humans, is being ... NKT cells enhance CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to soluble antigen in vivo through direct interaction with dendritic cells. J ... 2008): Type I NKT cells protect (and type II NKT cells suppress) the hosts innate antitumor immune response to a B-cell ... 2001): Human NKT cells mediate antitumor cytotoxicity directly by recognizing target cell CD1d with bound ligand or indirectly ...
  • Recently, iNKT cells came into focus as promising targets for the development of vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapies, mostly in the field of cancer treatment and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, mechanisms that normally regulate the outgrowth or function of these self-reactive T cells ultimately control the initiation and progression of autoimmune disease. (jci.org)
  • A corollary of these notions is that autoimmune diseases arise from either the failure to eliminate or inactivate high-affinity immunocompetent cells during their ontogeny and/or the failure of the immune system to control the outgrowth or function of intermediate self-reactive clones that escape into the periphery. (jci.org)
  • The magnitude and breadth of the body's immune response is regulated by balancing co-stimulatory signals and inhibitory signals that prevent indiscriminate attack on self-antigens by preventing autoimmune diseases. (autozygosity.org)
  • The NKT cells can react with both endogenous and exogenous antigens, regulating a variety of autoimmune diseases, but also providing protection against different pathogens like Sphingomonas spp. (termedia.pl)
  • Costimulation requirements for T cell regulation have been extensively studied as a way to control many autoimmune diseases and downregulate inflammatory reactions. (openthesis.org)
  • These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation in FoxP3 (scurfy mice) present with fatal autoimmune-like disease caused by hyperresponsive CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In autoimmune diseases, the immune system inappropriately recognizes "self," which leads to a pathologic humoral and/or cell-mediated immune reaction. (sciencemag.org)
  • A picture of autoimmune disease is emerging wherein these autoreactive cells are activated through molecular mimicry, given that T cell receptor (TCR) interactions can be degenerate and T cells can be activated by a diversity of ligands ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The reasons for the sex bias in MS and other autoimmune diseases are unclear but may include such factors as sex-related differences in immune responsiveness, response to infection, sex steroid effects, and sex-linked genetic factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • OX40 has been shown to inhibit the reproduction, immunosuppressive effects and suppressive function of Tregs on T cell activation, thereby aiding in the attenuation of autoimmune reactions. (healio.com)
  • AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an anti-MHC II disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppression of the immune system, particularly the humoral immune system, is beneficial in organ transplantation and treatment of autoimmune disorders. (justia.com)
  • Our laboratory was chartered to continue investigating the function of the immune system at a fundamental level and to developing therapeutics for autoimmune diseases and HIV. (columbia.edu)
  • 4. Becker M.D., Adamus G., Davey M.D., Rosenbaum J.T. The role of T-cells in autoimmune uveitis. (reff.net.ua)
  • To test the therapeutic potential of the CD40-TRAF6-blocking SMI under neuro-inflammatory conditions in vivo, Lewis rats and C57BL/6J mice were subjected to acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with SMI 6877002 for 6 days (rats) or 3 weeks (mice). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inappropriate immunostimulation, which may result in immune-mediated diseases, including hypersensitivity reactions and autoimmune diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). In the lymph node, a CD4+ T cell with specificity for the presented peptide in the context of MHC class II will bind to the B cell via the MHC:peptide complex (Figure 2). (davidson.edu)
  • DC-SIGN has specificity for high-mannose moieties ( 6 ), and it functions as an adhesion receptor that establishes cellular interactions with endothelial cells through ICAM-2 ( 7 ) and with T cells through ICAM-3 ( 4 ), probably by recognizing high-mannose moieties on these counterstructures. (rupress.org)
  • DC-SIGN not only binds HIV-1, but also serves as a pathogen recognition receptor with broad specificity that recognizes and may contribute to the pathophysiology of the hepatitis C virus ( 8 ), Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 9 ), Helicobacter pylori, Schistosoma mansoni ( 10 , 11 ), and other pathogens ( 12 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Ligation of TNFRSF18 stimulates nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B production through TNF receptor-associated factor 2 and guards the cells from TCR activation-induced cell death. (prospecbio.com)
  • Mature B cells lacking CD72 show enhanced Ca(2+) mobilization and are hyperproliferative in response to BCR ligation. (stanford.edu)
  • These findings suggest that the TCR is an anisotropic mechanosensor, converting mechanical energy into a biochemical signal upon specific pMHC ligation during immune surveillance. (dana-farber.org)
  • And ASKP1240 itself did not activate platelet and endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mesangial cells, endothelial cells, podocytes, and parietal epithelial cells within the glomerulus all play unique and specialized roles. (asnjournals.org)
  • The glomerular filtration barrier (GFB), specialized to permit substantial filtration of water and solutes, is composed of three layers: glomerular endothelial cells (with glycocalyx), the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocytes, within Bowman's space ( Figure 1B ). (asnjournals.org)
  • 24. Tennakoon D.K., Smith R., Stewart M.D., Spencer T.E., Nayak M., Welsh C.J. Ovine IFN-tau modulates the expression of MHC antigens on murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells and inhibits replication of Theiler's virus. (reff.net.ua)
  • 1 The germinal center reaction plays a pivotal role in the generation of the majority of B-cell lymphomas, such as follicular (FL), and some diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) 2 , 3 and Hodgkin lymphomas (HL). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The role of CD40 expression by renal cells was assessed by comparing GN in WT→CD40−/− chimeras (absent renal but intact bone marrow CD40) and sham chimeric mice (WT→WT). (asnjournals.org)
  • Mostly studied in mice, they represent about 0.5% of T cells in the blood, 2% in secondary lymphatic organs, and over 30% of T cells in the liver. (frontiersin.org)
  • In human blood, only 0.1-0.2% of T cells are iNKT cells, with 5× lower numbers than in mice ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, we generated a fully human anti-CD40 antagonistic mAb (ASKP1240) from trans-chromosome mice 26 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most of the available information on NKT cells comes from research conducted on mice. (termedia.pl)
  • In a murine tumor model, complete tumor remission is achievable at even advanced metastasized stages by transfer of immune T cells from donor B10.D2 (H-2 d , Mls b ) into tumor-bearing DBA/2 (H-2 d , Mls a ) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The B cells in these mice are hyper-responsive to stimulation through the B cell receptor. (stanford.edu)
  • We are additionally studying the mechanisms by which CD72-deficiency leads to a partial abrogation of B cell anergic tolerance in mice in which all B cells express a transgenic B cell receptor specific for hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) and in which the antigen HEL is expressed in the serum. (stanford.edu)
  • Mice that overexpress scurfin (FoxP3 Tg mice) possess fewer mature T cells with reduced functional capabilities compared with normal littermate control mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • We analyzed the ability of CD4 + T cells and B cells from FoxP3 Tg mice to respond to a T-dependent Ag and found that immunized FoxP3 Tg mice displayed reduced total and Ag-specific serum Ig and disorganized splenic architecture. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, overexpression of wild-type scurfin in otherwise normal mice confers a dose-dependent decrease in CD4 + and CD8 + T cell numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The severe suppression of T cell function in FoxP3 transgenic (Tg) 3 mice further supports a negative regulatory role for scurfin in normal T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Contrary to the decrease in T cells in FoxP3 Tg mice, B cell numbers are marginally increased. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the ability of either T or B cells from these mice to respond to immunologic challenge has not been addressed in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fourth, colitis can be induced in immunodeficient mice by transfer of naïve T cells [ 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fifth, strategies blocking T-cell function are useful for attenuating mucosal inflammation in mice with experimental colitis [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Splenic or lymph node T cells derived from unmanipulated as well as SmD183-119-immunized NZB/NZW mice were analyzed in vitro by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay to determine T cell help for anti-dsDNA generation induced by the SmD183-119 peptide. (docme.ru)
  • The B-cell-deficient mice show no increase in Vβ4 + CD8 + T cells. (asm.org)
  • Neither the splenomegaly nor the IM-like syndrome was seen in CD4 + -T-cell-deficient mice that are homozygous for disruption (−/−) of the H-2I-A b MHC class II gene, though the extent of viral latency detected by the infectious-center assay was at least as high as that found for the MHC class II +/+ controls ( 7 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Giving such a MAb later (from day 11) in the course of γHV-68 infection diminished the numbers of cycling CD8 + T cells in the PBL, though the frequencies of both the CD8 + CD62L lo and CD8 + Vβ4 + sets were comparable to those in undepleted mice ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • However, a further focus of γHV-68 latency has now been detected in the macrophage compartment by a different technique ( 33 ), and it is clear that μMT mice are indeed persistently infected with γHV-68 to the extent that they will die following simultaneous depletion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells ( 8 ) long after the acute phase of the infection has been controlled. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, IRF1- and IFNAR-deficient mice harbored fewer parasites in the target organs than wild-type mice due to having an increased Th1 immune response. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Draining lymph nodes become Bb culture positive as early as 24h after infection and Bb then spreads to the other lymph nodes, inducing strong lymph node enlargement and causing a destruction of T and B cell zones in C57BL/6 mice [ 20 , 21 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • NPI xenografts are rapidly rejected in wild-type C57BL/6 mice but reproducibly mature and restore durable euglycemia in diabetic, immune-deficient C57BL/6 rag-1 −/− recipients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, use of iCD40-modified and LPS-stimulated DCs led to targeted expansion of autologous T cells against tumor-associated antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen, and elimination of preestablished tumors, supporting this technology as a potent strategy for DC-based cancer immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This transfer of donor immune cells into tumor-bearing hosts leads to a complete rejection of primary tumors (1.5 diameter in size) from the skin and to the eradication of late-stage metastases in liver, spleen, and kidney. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The realization of the immunological significance of HSPs came from the observation that tumor cell-derived HSPs could immunize against tumors, although there were no structural differences between HSPs from normal cells and from cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that tumors that possess an intrinsic defect in the CRT-translocating machinery become resistant to anthracycline chemotherapy due to their incapacity to elicit an anti-cancer immune response. (nature.com)
  • Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a promising therapy for various non-epithelial tumors but has not yet proven successful in ovarian cancer. (dartmouth.edu)
  • However, before reviewing these studies we will briefly introduce some general aspects of the cellular immune system including antigen encounter, antigen processing and presentation and factors influencing the outcome of the immune response in ovarian cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BPS Bioscience have engineered 6 cellular lines, turning them into cell-based reporter assays for Human Immune Checkpoint research. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The cellular origin and the mechanisms regulating this early production of IL-4 at the site of naive T-cell priming are extensively investigated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Whereas the cellular origin and the mechanisms leading to the early production of IL-12 at the time of T-cell priming have been elucidated, 17-19 the origin and the regulation of IL-4 production at priming are still under investigation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The ability of HSPs to potentially bind to the whole cellular peptide repertoire makes them attractive candidates for cancer vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • Germinal centers are the engines of rapid B cell evolution and have exquisitely complex cellular dynamics. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The initial step for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis may be interaction/binding of a drug-associated antigen or metabolite with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type 1 or cellular peptide to form an immunogenic compound. (statpearls.com)
  • It is these "type 2" CD8+ cells that appear to be active in the cellular infiltrate of sclerotic lesions that are in remission (1,3). (bioscience.org)
  • This form of licensing differs from Th cell help by inducing other chemokines, while Th cell-licensed DCs produce CCR5 ligands, iNKT cell-licensed DCs produce CCL17, which attracts CCR4 + CD8 + T cells for subsequent activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Populations of potentially autoreactive cells can be demonstrated, yet appear to ignore their ligands. (sciencemag.org)
  • PD-1 ligands (PD-L1) are found on most cancer cells, allowing them to dodge immune surveillance through its interaction with PD-1. (tebu-bio.com)
  • 5 6 8 25 26 For example, cell-sorted purified and phenotypically naive murine CD4 + T cells were shown to release IL-4 at priming and to develop into Th2 effectors upon in vitro priming with a low concentration of Ag or altered peptide ligands. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It was shown later that implementation of immune response in germinal centers involves (besides T-helpers, follicular T-helpers) T-regulatory cells that could produce a positive effect in FL owing to specific features of the regulation or B-cell response. (scirp.org)
  • Peripheral T cell deletion, anergy and regulation are mechanisms of tolerance induction in these models. (fitness-vip.com)
  • immune response -- regulation. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Documented are rapid up and down-regulation of multiple highly immunogenic surface antigens during infection [ 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • In contrast, IL4/IL10-producing T cells are hypothesized to play a role in down-regulation of the inflammatory response (1,3,16). (bioscience.org)
  • RA is associated to certain alleles of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), and CD4 T cells of RA patients show abnormalities in intracellular signalling, repertoire and aging. (intechopen.com)
  • Not surprisingly, HSPs isolated from cells infected with viruses or bacteria could be used to immunize against the respective viruses ( 15 - 18 ), or intracellular organisms ( 19 , 20 ), because of the ability of HSPs to chaperone corresponding antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These alterations triggered by different external stimuli-ranging from multiple genotoxic stresses to infections caused by several intracellular pathogens, including tumor viruses-are stable and cell type-specific but may not always be heritable. (mdpi.com)
  • IgM is the least specific immunoglobulin class and is mainly present on the surface of the B cell and in the blood. (davidson.edu)
  • The treatment of splenic cells with concanavalin A (ConA) plus CT enhanced the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM by dividing cells that expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), CD19, and CD138 and low levels of B220 a phenotype characteristic of plasma blasts. (asm.org)
  • 1985) 134:3662, observed that a mutant subclone of the mouse thymoma EL-4 line, known as EL4B5, could strongly stimulate B cells of both murine and human origin to proliferate and differentiate into immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells in vitro. (justia.com)
  • 19. Munthe LA, Kyte JA, Bogen B. Resting small B cells present endogenous immunoglobulin variable-region determinants to idiotope-specific CD4 (+) T cells in vivo. (reff.net.ua)
  • Memory cells travel to the primary follicle, where, after exposure to dendritic cells, they differentiate into centroblasts (immunoglobulin class-switch). (medscape.com)
  • The role of CD40 in the development of GN was assessed in murine experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • Mesangial cells and mesangial matrix provide structural support for the glomerular capillaries, lined by specialized fenestrated endothelium, and then the glomerular basement membrane. (asnjournals.org)
  • Second, B cells do not proliferate when they are separated from PMA-treated EL4B5 cells by a semipermeable filter membrane. (justia.com)
  • Expression of CD23 in response to IL-4, GM-CSF, IL-4/GM-CSF was accompanied by changes in cell morphology including depolymerization of isoactin fibers, cell spreading, and membrane ruffling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles which represent the main degradative compartment in eukaryotic cells. (smw.ch)
  • Eculizumab binds to C5 which prevent C5a production and the membrane attack complex. (wikipathways.org)
  • The potential capacity for the immune response to induce or activate disease was clearly recognized at the turn of the 20th century by Paul Ehrlich, who emphasized that the immune system must carefully distinguish between self and non-self in order to avoid autoimmunity. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, the failure to control the outgrowth of autoreactive cells would lead to a state of "horror autotoxicus," or autoimmunity. (jci.org)
  • Our current studies are examining how CD72 regulates the balance between B cell tolerance and autoimmunity in several model systems. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, the ultimate fate of the responding T cell is influenced by the amount of available Ag, the magnitude of the initial inflammatory response, and the type of APC, all of which change throughout the course of infection. (rupress.org)
  • Caprioli F, Marafini I, Facciotti F, Pallone F, Monteleone G (2013) Targeting T cells in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The etiology of IBD remains unknown, but accumulating evidence suggests that environmental factors contribute to trigger in genetically predisposed individuals an exaggerated immune-inflammatory response against components of the luminal flora, which eventually leads to mucosal erosions, ulcers and fistulas [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therefore, and in particular under inflammatory conditions during which stimulated cells are releasing toxic mediators, the numbers of inflammatory cells must be tightly controlled. (smw.ch)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory disease characterized by a perturbed immune response with the consequent production of autoantibodies. (termedia.pl)
  • According to aspects of the invention illustrated herein, there is provided a method of treating, preventing, or reducing the exacerbation of a B-cell-mediated inflammatory condition in a subject, including administering to a subject an effective amount of an isolated binding molecule which specifically binds to CXCL13, wherein said molecule prevents or inhibits CXCL13 activity. (patents.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, considered to result from self-reactivity to myelin antigens. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • C3a and C35 act as potent chemotactic factors, promoting the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • The types of cells present reflect the state of progression of the inflammatory lesion. (bioscience.org)
  • However, when cultured in vitro, FoxP3 Tg B cells responded normally, suggesting that the poor Ab response was a result of defective T cell help in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • B cells play an important role during the normal in vivo immune response. (justia.com)
  • IN VIVO AND IN VITRO observations have indicated that Th subset development is regulated very early in the course of the immune response, at the time when naive CD4 + T cells first encounter Ag presented by dendritic cells (DC). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Finally, the lab is examining the biochemistry of signaling through CD72 to determine the molecular mechanisms by which CD72 regulates B cell responsiveness. (stanford.edu)
  • Importantly, TLR4 mutations also affect the propensity of breast cancer patients to relapse after immunogenic anti-cancer therapy (with anthracyclines or localized radiotherapy), thus providing the first molecular epidemiological evidence that the immune system actually contributes to the efficacy of anti-cancer chemotherapy in humans. (nature.com)
  • The mechanism by which these mutant EL-4 cells activate both murine and human B cells has not been elucidated previously. (justia.com)
  • For CD40 stimulation in LCL analysis, an agonistic mAb to CD40 (mAb89, Immunotech, Luminy, France) was used ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • For optimal stimulation of human B cells, the presence of supernatant from activated human T cells was needed, but a B-cell response also occurred when EL4B5 cells were preactivated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or IL-1. (justia.com)
  • Research has shown combination immunotherapy that provides artificial stimulation of the ICOS pathway, along with inhibition of the CTLA-4 inhibitory pathway, enhances the immune response. (healio.com)