Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Scavenger Receptors, Class A: A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Giant Cells, Foreign-Body: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mice, Inbred C57BLPinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Scavenger Receptors, Class E: A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Group V Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Azo CompoundsPlaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Psychosine: An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides. It is formed by reaction of sphingosine with UDP-galactose and then itself reacts with fatty acid-Coenzyme A to form the cerebroside.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Chylomicron Remnants: Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.TriglyceridesGerminal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Mice, Inbred BALB CMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Mice, Inbred ICRBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.

Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance. (1/1)

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Microprocessor sensor technology provides continuous feedback to equalize pressure and maximize patient comfort. The mattress consists of 20, 10 high cell-in-cell designed air bladders. In case of a power failure the air cells within the 10 air cell will remain inflated offering sufficient weight support for the patient. For the home care and long term care markets. Head Pillow feature. CPR feature allows for rapid deflation of mattress system. Static function can suspend the alternating mode (has autorecovery feature). Visible and audible alarms with Alarm Mute feature (3 minute auto-return feature)
A cell-in-cell process identifies the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor ...
درباره حنان. کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان با استفاده از فن‌آوری‌ها و استانداردهای نوین در حوزه فن‌آوری اطلاعات با رویکردی کاربرمدار طراحی شده و تمامی فرآیندهای آن مبتنی بر وب صورت می‌پذیرد. در ذیل ویژگی‌های برجسته کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان به صورت مختصر بیان می‌گردد: اساسا مبتنی بر وب و بدون محدودیت کاربر پشتیبانی از تمامی مرورگرها واسط کاربری Multilingual ( چند زبانه ) داینامیک بودن طراحی فیلدهای اطلاعاتی و کاربرگه‌های ورود اطلاعات داینامیک بودن فرمت‌های نمایش اطلاعات مبتنی بر استاندارد DC ذخیره سازی اطلاعات در قالب استاندارد Dubline core مدیریت همزمان منابع ...
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Jozwiak J, Jozwiak S (2007). "Giant cells: contradiction to two-hit model of tuber formation?". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 27 (2): ... Inoki K, Zhu T, Guan KL (2003). "TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival". Cell. 115 (5): ... Cell. 126 (5): 955-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.055. PMID 16959574. Ma L, Chen Z, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Pandolfi PP ... Cell. 121 (2): 179-93. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.031. PMID 15851026. Gan B, Yoo Y, Guan JL (2006). "Association of focal ...
Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Mommersteeg MT, Hoogaars WM, Prall OW, de Gier-de Vries C ... "Molecular pathway for the localized formation of the sinoatrial node". Circulation Research. 100 (3): 354-62. doi:10.1161/01. ... facilitate cell transformation and block myogenic differentiation". Oncogene. 21 (24): 3827-35. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205476. ... 2a are functionally distinctive in inhibition of senescence and are overexpressed in a subset of breast cancer cell lines". ...
... when they separate preventing cell cycle arrest and chromosome loss.Human shugoshin is diffusible and mediates formation of ... Cell. 118 (5): 567-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.016. PMID 15339662. Xu Z, Cetin B, Anger M, Cho US, Helmhart W, Nasmyth K, et ... Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. The ... Suzuki H, Akiyama N, Tsuji M, Ohashi T, Saito S, Eto Y (May 2006). "Human Shugoshin mediates kinetochore-driven formation of ...
Additionally, psychosine-induced globoid cell formation from microglia was prevented by either genetic ablation or chemical ... Globoid cells, multinucleated microglia/macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS), are a defining characteristic of GLD. ... 3 that mediated a morphological transformation of microglia into a multinucleated globoid cell type. ... Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease, is a fatal demyelinating disease attributed to mutations in the ...
Giant cell formation by plant pathogenic root knot nematodes (RKN) invokes host genes necessary for nitrogen-nodule formation. ... GFP labeling of the cytoskeleton demonstrated that the initiation of giant cells occurs without RKN attaching to the site of ... cortical cell differentiation and generation of a pseudo nodule. ...
... open cell cloud formations often result. This MODIS image shows open cell cloud formation over the Atlantic Ocean off the ... What atmospheric scientists refer to as open cell cloud formation is a regular occurrence on the back side of a low-pressure ... This particular formation is the result of a low-pressure system sitting out in the North Atlantic Ocean a few hundred miles ... Cold air is being drawn down from the north on the western side of the low and the open cell cumulus clouds begin to form as ...
Linna J., Moke M., Chen H.W. (1991) Isoprenoid Formation and Cell-Mediated Immunological Functions. In: Friedman H., Specter S ... R. B. Herberman, ed., NK cells and other natural effector cells, Academic Press, New York, London (1982).Google Scholar ... Incorporation of a product of mevalonic acid metabolism into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cell nuclei, J. Cell. Bid. 107: ... H. W. Chen, The role of cholesterol metabolism in cell growth, Fed. Proc. 43:126 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells ... Piceatannol could help block fat cell formation. April 4, 2012 ... blocking insulins ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation. ... "These precursor cells, even though they have not accumulated lipids, have the potential to become fat cells," Kim said. "We ... the process in which early stage fat cells become mature fat cells," Kim said. "In the presence of piceatannol, you can see ...
Shear stress also increased formation of colonies of progenitor cells that give rise to specific lineages of blood cells (red ... When specific cells from the mutant embryos were exposed in vitro to shear stress, markers of blood stem cells and numbers of ... weve taken a leap forward in understanding how to direct blood formation from embryonic stem cells in the petri dish," says ... they investigated the effects of mechanical stimulation on blood formation in cultured mouse embryonic stem cells. ...
Matrix-embedded cells control osteoclast formation.. Xiong J1, Onal M, Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Manolagas SC, OBrien CA. ... thereby linking bone formation to resorption. However, RANKL is expressed by a variety of cell types, and it is unclear which ... These results suggest that the rate-limiting step of matrix resorption is controlled by cells embedded within the matrix itself ... The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and thought to be ...
... is significantly higher in hESCs cell lines than in other cell types (e.g., tissue-specific stem cells and nontransformed cell ... Moreover, differentiated cell types from hPSCs [i.e., dopaminergic neuronal cells and smooth-muscle cells (SMCs)] survived well ... QC Induces Selective Cell Death of Residual Pluripotent Cells Without Affecting Differentiated Cells and Prevents Teratoma ... 2010) Functional recapitulation of smooth muscle cells via induced pluripotent stem cells from human aortic smooth muscle cells ...
Tumor cells exhibit an amoeboid movement similar to that of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes... ... Active tumor cell motility has long been appreciated to play a major role in invasion and metastasis. ... Wang, Y.L. Dynamics of the cytoskeleton in live cells. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 3:27-32; 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... You, J.; Dong, C. Analysis of pseudopod formation during tumor cell migration. Submitted; 1994.Google Scholar ...
Yet, this approach did lead to bone formation when cultured adult stem cells from bone marrow were used. This direct approach ... "Pioneering Induction Of Bone Formation Using Embryonic Stem Cells." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 14 May. 2008. Web. ... 2008, May 14). "Pioneering Induction Of Bone Formation Using Embryonic Stem Cells." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... Popular in: Stem Cell Research. * What are stem cells, and what do they do? ...
Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila. D Loncar and S J Singer ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ...
In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells.. Kerman BE1, Kim HJ1, Padmanabhan K2, Mei A1, Georges S1, Joens MS3, ... Myelin formation in microfluidic devices. (A,B) Microfluidic device used for the myelin formation assay. (A) Left, top view; ... myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell- ... Quantification of myelin formation. (A) A representative image of the entire myelination compartment at 2 weeks of co-culture. ...
Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ... Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ... Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ...
... 24.01.2020 ... These processes take place in brain cells called astrocytes, revealing another important way in which these cells help neurons. ... Astrocytes »Hirase »RIKEN »brain cells »cAMP »calcium levels »energy metabolism »memory consolidation »mouse brain »neurons » ... Further reports about: , Astrocytes , Hirase , RIKEN , brain cells , cAMP , calcium levels , energy metabolism , memory ...
Monoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation. Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Syncytium Formation. Monoclonal ... 2019 Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.. Email: [email protected] ... Background: DNA repair systems operate in all living cells to manage a variety of DNA lesions. Nucleotide excision repair (NER ... Background: DNA repair systems operate in all living cells to manage a variety of DNA lesions. Nucleotide excision repair (NER ...
"Cell sheet transplantation of cultured mesenchymal stem cells enhances bone formation in a rat nonunion model," Bone, vol. 46, ... cells reveal functionally distinct subpopulations in mesenchymal stem cells," Stem Cell Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 152-165, ... Y. Matsuzaki, Y. Mabuchi, and H. Okano, "Leptin receptor makes its mark on MSCs," Cell Stem Cell, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 112-114, ... Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Anchored Multilayered Mesenchymal Cell Sheets Accelerate Periosteal Bone Formation. Kentaro ...
Here, we developed a multilayered cell-based bone formation system using cells coated with fibronectin-gelatin (FN-G) nanofilms ... Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Anchored Multilayered Mesenchymal Cell Sheets Accelerate Periosteal Bone Formation. Kentaro ... The multilayered mesenchymal cells (MLMCs) were formed after two days of culture and were shown to express higher levels of BMP ... Cell-based regenerative therapy has the potential to repair bone injuries or large defects that are recalcitrant to ...
... an increase in both the number of supporting cells around each hair cell and the number of hair cells that each supporting cell ... Pattern Formation in the Basilar Papilla: Evidence for Cell Rearrangement Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... significant increase in the ratio of supporting cells to hair cells cannot be accounted for by an increase in supporting cell ... Pattern Formation in the Basilar Papilla: Evidence for Cell Rearrangement. Richard Goodyear and Guy Richardson ...
br, We propose a model of foam cell formation accounting for macrophage RCT. This model is presented as a system of non-linear ... Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed ... HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. , ... Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. ...
Natural antioxidant compounds like flavonoids and phenolic acids could inhibit the formation of fat formation from fat cells, ... could inhibit the formation of fat formation from fat cells, suggests new research from Taiwan. ... fat cells). The researchers chose the 3T3-L1 cell line because it has been used widely for several decades as a cell model for ... Antioxidants may stop fat cells formation, says study. By Stephen Daniells 12-Nov-2007. - Last updated on 19-Jul-2008 at 17:11 ...
A new study has revealed that key receptors on brain cells that function like gateways are essential to enable habit ... Dopamine is a chemical that helps brain cells in communication. If they were full, they would not push the lever. But just as ... "The NMDA receptor is a commander, which is why its called a master switch for brain cell connectivity," said Wang, the studys ... A new study has revealed that key receptors on brain cells that function like gateways are essential to enable habit ...
Subapical cells can branch, and then the branched cell grows like an apical cell. Apical and branched subapical cells have ... cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation, and cell death. For example, pattern formation in insect and animal embryos initially ... Apical cells have active mitotic cycles, whereas subapical cells are arrested for growth and mitosis until branch formation ... Subapical cell growth occurred isotropically, with cells becoming swollen and rounded. In contrast, the apical cell underwent ...
tags: cloud formation x cell & molecular biology x immunology x The Scientist. » cloud formation, cell & molecular biology and ... Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of ... T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow ... The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for ...
A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern ... They also found that blocking Nodal signaling reduced melanoma cell invasiveness, as well as cancer cell colony formation and ... Strikingly, nodal inhibition promoted the reversion of these cells toward a normal skin cell type. Like embryonic stem cells, ... Protein Involved In Embryo Formation Found In Malignant Cells. by Medindia Content Team on July 31, 2006 at 8:08 PM Cancer News ...
Cooperative mechanisms of mitotic spindle formation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... This type of kinetochore-mediated formation of K-fibers has been directly observed in mammalian (PtK) and Drosophila (S2) cells ... The process of mitotic spindle formation. (A) Newt lung cells fixed and stained for microtubules (green) and DNA (blue); images ... Journal of Cell Science is pleased to welcome submissions for an upcoming special issue on Cell Biology of the Immune System ...
  • Nod factor alone is necessary and sufficient to produce many of the initial responses including ionic fluxes, root hair deformation, changes in gene expression, cortical cell differentiation and generation of a pseudo nodule. (ncsu.edu)
  • Globoid cells, multinucleated microglia/macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS), are a defining characteristic of GLD. (uconn.edu)
  • Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease, is a fatal demyelinating disease attributed to mutations in the galactocerebrosidase ( GALC ) gene. (uconn.edu)
  • Shear stress also increased formation of colonies of progenitor cells that give rise to specific lineages of blood cells (red cells, lymphocytes, etc. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the conducting airway, MCCs are generated by basal stem/progenitor cells and act in concert with secretory cells to perform mucociliary clearance to expel pathogens from the lung. (rupress.org)
  • Artificial matrices reproducing mechanical and structural properties of the native tissue may facilitate survival, retention and functional integration of adult stem or progenitor cells, by conditioning the cells prior to, and during, transplantation. (rsc.org)
  • 2) Replicated the finding that implants of ES-derived neural progenitor cells from this lead cell type extend axons out from the spinal cord lesion site in very high numbers and over very long distances. (ca.gov)
  • Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. (osti.gov)
  • Finally, resveratrol promotes dose-dependently the expression of osteoblast markers like osteocalcin and osteopontin in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) and stimulates their response to 1,25(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the first 12 months of this project we have made important progress in the following areas: 1) Identified the lead embryonic stem cell type for potential use in a translational clinical program. (ca.gov)
  • Tcell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation initiates tyrosine kinase activation, signaling complex assembly, and immune synapse formation. (rupress.org)
  • Astrocytes are the crucial mediators of these changes, and the researchers were interested in observing, in real time, what happens in these cells when mice are learning. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers chose the 3T3-L1 cell line because it has been used widely for several decades as a cell model for fat cell biology research. (nutraingredients.com)
  • To determine their role in habit formation, GHSU researchers used a genetic trick to selectively disable the NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons and found, for example, mice could be trained to push a lever for food without it becoming an automatic response. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (the-scientist.com)
  • A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern University. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers map learning-induced chromatin alterations in mouse brain cells, and find that many affect autism-associated genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Researchers from the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam have discovered a common link between cancer cells and stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers expect that the BMI1 gene plays a role in other types of cancer with stem-cell-like characteristics, including breast tumours and leukaemia. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers in Potsdam have reproduced such concentration differences using artificial vesicles the size of a cell, which contain a mixture of two polymers, namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. (nanowerk.com)
  • Previous research indicating that just dousing a brain with dopamine doesn't rescue the ability to form habits led GHSU researchers to pursue the more sophisticated regulation that must enable habit formation. (healthcanal.com)
  • As to the site of cell implantation, some researchers have observed that injection site does affect teratoma formation efficiency ( 18 , 19 ), while others have found little or no effect ( 14 ). (stembook.org)
  • Using a two-photon microscope, the researchers observed the activity of adult-born granule cells in the brains of mice as they walked along a treadmill. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • But despite plant reproduction's central role in agribusiness, researchers have never answered a basic question: Where do plant sex cells come from? (scitechdaily.com)
  • In a set of elegant experiments - Walbot prides herself on "thinking of experiments you can do with basically no money" - the researchers demonstrated that low oxygen levels deep inside the developing flowers are all that is needed to trigger the formation of sex cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Although most researchers assumed that, as in animals, sex cells were developing from a special set of cells with a predetermined predilection for the role, Walbot and Kelliher saw two clues that implied otherwise. (scitechdaily.com)
  • To see if low oxygen alone was responsible for sex cell development, the researchers threaded a plastic hose into the developing anther and piped in mixtures of gases. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The researchers showed that low oxygen levels could even cause cells outside the anther lobes - which would never normally produce pollen - to develop into sex cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Suppression of nitric oxide production in mice, by either genetic or chemical means, similarly reduced the number of functional Runx1-expressing blood stem cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • They showed that shear stress - the frictional force of fluid flow on the surface of cells lining the embryonic aorta - increases the expression of master regulators of blood formation, including Runx1, and of genetic markers found in blood stem cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • These embryos had a sharp reduction in progenitor blood cell colonies, along with reduced expression of genetic markers of blood stem cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • And cancer cells, known for their genetic disarray, often lose or gain chromosomes. (fredhutch.org)
  • The genetic mediators of persister formation for P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • An international research group headed by Professor and Research Director Yrjö Helariutta has discovered the genetic process that controls the development of wood cells in the roots of plants. (redorbit.com)
  • A fertilised egg cell contains all of the genetic information that the whole organism needs. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic analysis demonstrated that AtFANCD2 acts in parallel to both MUTS HOMOLOG4 ( AtMSH4 ), known for its role in promoting interfering COs and MMS AND UV SENSITIVE81 ( AtMUS81 ), known for its role in the formation of noninterfering COs. (plantcell.org)
  • For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. (bl.uk)
  • Within biofilms, persister cells comprise a small bacterial subpopulation that exhibits multidrug tolerance to antibiotics without undergoing genetic change. (asm.org)
  • Here, we tested the generality of this proposal by using a genetic knock-in cell fate mapping strategy in different murine SCI models. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In plants, only a provisional body plan is established in the embryo, and asymmetric cell divisions and highly localized patterns of gene expression continually establish new organs as the plant grows ( M eyerowitz 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • In the developing embryo, morphogenetic movements, such as the invagination of cell sheets or the formation of tubes, rods, or placodes, are associated with a variety of shape changes in epithelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In Utricularia, the formation of the syncytium provides an economical way to redistribute cell components and release nutrients from the digested cell walls, which can now be used for the embryo, and finally to create a large surface for the exchange of nutrients between the placenta and endosperm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cells in the posterior two thirds of the embryo move in two striking counter-rotating flows that meet at the site of streak formation at the posterior end of the embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P21/Waf inhibits cell division and severely limits embryo growth, but does not inhibit streak formation or associated flows. (nih.gov)
  • To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). (jimmunol.org)
  • We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Detailed analysis showed that the YY1/HDAC2/4 complex negatively regulated the expression of miR-155 to suppress oxLDL-induced foam cell formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have identified proteins modulated by Tanshinone IIA during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells to uncover its anti-atherosclerotic mechanism. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our data support the hypothesis that a drop in intracellular ATP is a general mechanism of persister formation in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • We are now presenting a mechanism through which the identity of water-conducting wood cells can be assigned," says Bishopp. (redorbit.com)
  • Autophagy, a key cellular auto-cleaning mechanism, mediates the formation of amyloid beta plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. (riken.jp)
  • Autophagy is a cellular cleaning mechanism that normally clears any protein aggregates or other 'trash' within the cells, but that is somewhat disturbed in Alzheimer's patients. (riken.jp)
  • However, mechanism of spheroid formation remains unclear in gastric cancer (GC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood. (osti.gov)
  • With regards to the source of free plus ends in cells, I predict that preferred mechanism will reflect required spatial location of new filament growth, and required filament length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A compound found in red wine, grapes and other fruits, and similar in structure to resveratrol, is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity, according to a Purdue University study. (scienceblog.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that cooperative interactions also function during the formation of a complex cellular structure, the mitotic spindle. (biologists.org)
  • Disruption of carB resulted in a metabolic perturbation that increased cellular ATP and reduced persister formation. (asm.org)
  • The Machine Part Cell Formation problem is the important step in the design of a Cellular Manufacturing system. (igi-global.com)
  • The results showed a positive linear correlation between Zn-media concentrations and cellular Zn uptake, and MT formation was observed. (rsc.org)
  • 1 : 5, cellular MT concentrations were no different to untreated cells. (rsc.org)
  • Newborn cells are labeled in red, shown here integrating into mature granule cells' existing cellular circuitry. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference atlas, we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal formation through the full rostral-caudal extent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Compared with the planktonic E. coli cells, the biofloc-forming cells improved phenol removal rate by up to 2.2-folds, due to their substantially improved tolerance (up to 149%) to phenol and slightly enhanced cellular activity (20%) of phenol hydroxylase (PheH). (springer.com)
  • Therefore, aggresome formation, but not aggregation of synphilin 1, represents a special cellular response to a failure of the proteasome/chaperone machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo experiments in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE −/− mice showed that oral administration of asperlin for 12 weeks remarkably suppressed atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta, as revealed by the reduced aortic dilatation and decreased atherosclerotic lesion area. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, in vivo antigenic challenge after contraction of the primary response resulted in significantly stronger secondary T cell responses in mice harboring activated lymph nodes, demonstrating that the availability of an activated lymph node supported the generation of T cell memory in an Ag-unrelated manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • The most rigorous and arguably accurate among current assays is teratoma formation in vivo . (stembook.org)
  • We found that the lead candidate cell line, the UCSF4-NSC line, did not exhibit adequate long-term in vivo safety properties. (ca.gov)
  • Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. (osti.gov)
  • Using the model haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii DS2, we demonstrated persister cell formation in this domain, with time-kill curves exhibiting a characteristic biphasic pattern following starvation or exposure to lethal concentrations of various biocidal compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • The observation of persister cell formation by this haloarchaeon may provide some insights into the survival of these organisms in stressful or dynamic environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • The low frequency of persister cell formation makes it difficult to isolate and study persisters, and bacterial persistence is often attributed to a quiescent metabolic state induced by toxins that are regulated through toxin-antitoxin systems. (asm.org)
  • Matrix-embedded cells control osteoclast formation. (nih.gov)
  • The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and thought to be supplied by osteoblasts or their precursors, thereby linking bone formation to resorption. (nih.gov)
  • However, RANKL is expressed by a variety of cell types, and it is unclear which of them are essential sources for osteoclast formation. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, adiponectin failed to block fat cell generation when bone marrow cells were derived from B6,129SPtgs2tm1Jed (COX-2+/-) mice. (jci.org)
  • However, coating the sponge with an adhesive chemical agent is necessary to attach bone marrow cells (BMCs) to the sponge structure. (scirp.org)
  • Piceatannol essentially blocks the pathways necessary for immature fat cells to mature and grow. (scienceblog.com)
  • These inhibitions are associated with a down-regulation of RANK expression at both mRNA and cell surface protein levels and a decrease of NFATc1 stimulation and NF-κB nuclear translocation, whereas the gene expression of c-fms, CD14, and CD11a is up-regulated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a ) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (rupress.org)
  • b ) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (rupress.org)
  • Resistance of primary breast cancer cells with enhanced pluripotency and stem cell activity to sex hormonal stimulation and suppression. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The NMDA receptor is a commander, which is why it's called a master switch for brain cell connectivity," said Wang, the study's first author. (medindia.net)
  • A single receptor on natural killer cells recognizes an amino acid sequence conserved across Zika, dengue, and related pathogens. (the-scientist.com)
  • In cultures of human primary monocytes, resveratrol inhibits dose-dependently receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand-induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-positive multinucleated cells, TRACP activity in the medium, up-regulation of cathepsin K gene expression, and bone resorption. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In TNF-treated cells, TNFR1, TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), Fas-associated death domain protein, and receptor-interacting protein kinase proteins form the signaling complex via modular interaction within their C-terminal death domains. (jimmunol.org)
  • C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is a multifaceted platelet receptor that plays a role in lymph node (LN) homeostasis, maintenance of vasculature integrity, and thrombus formation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In a study published today in the journal Cell Reports , Drs. Per Nilsson, Takaomi Saido and their team show for the first time using transgenic mice that a lack of autophagy in neurons prevents the secretion of amyloid beta and the formation of amyloid beta plaques in the brain. (riken.jp)
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, neointima formation after mechanical arterial injury was increased in AMPK alpha 2(-/-) but not AMPK alpha 1(-/-) mice. (rti.org)
  • Columbia neuroscientists have described the activity of newly generated brain cells in awake mice-a process known as adult neurogenesis-and revealed the critical role these cells play in forming memories. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. (osti.gov)
  • Myelin formation was quantified using a custom semi-automated method that is suitable for larger scale analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, early myelination was followed in real time over several days and the results have led us to propose a new model for myelin formation. (nih.gov)
  • Treated Schwann cells branch aberrantly and form multiple, small, independent myelin segments along the length of axons, each with associated nodes and paranodes. (jneurosci.org)
  • This organization partially resembles myelin formed by oligodendrocytes rather than the single long myelin sheath characteristic of Schwann cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pretreatment with the Src inhibitor PP2 or infection with dominant negative small GTPases also dramatically reduced podosome formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Induction of the cell division inhibitor SulA, a component of the SOS response, or the inhibitor MinCD, a component of the min system, blocked formation of the FtsZ ring and led to filamentation. (asm.org)
  • 4 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor suppresses neointima formation after endothelial injury in rat carotid artery and abdominal aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our findings show that ependymal contribution of progeny after SCI is minimal, local and dependent on direct ependymal injury, indicating that ependyma are not a major source of endogenous neural stem cells or neuroprotective astrocytes after SCI. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The infarcted ventricle wall increased in thickness, with higher cell viability and better collagen organization. (rsc.org)
  • Bacitracin with amylin caused a dramatic decrease in cell viability compared with amylin alone (68 and 25%, respectively, at 10 nmol/l amylin). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The failure of polypeptides to adopt their proper structure is a major threat to cell function and viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results emphasize the dynamically changing composition of signaling complexes and indicate that these complexes can form within seconds of TCR engagement, in the absence of either lipid raft aggregation or the formation of a central TCR-rich cluster. (rupress.org)
  • This approach removes cell aggregation and potentially shortens a 5- to 14-day assay to a 24 hours. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the aggregation and rotary suspension method can be used to support culture and maintenance of hPSC-derived cell populations representing each of the three germ layers, underscoring the utility of this platform for culturing many different cell types. (ca.gov)
  • On the other hand, formation of multiple small aggregates required an entirely different segment within synphilin 1, indicating that aggregation and aggresome formation determinants can be separated genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Whereas C 3 plants carry out photosynthesis in a single photosynthetic cell-type, most C 4 plants compartmentalize photosynthetic reactions between two distinct cell-types known as mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). (nature.com)
  • In order to induce the formation of new memories, this treadmill was lined with distinct textures and surrounded by different multisensory cues. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct neuronal and glial types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These data show that there is coupling between filament disassembly and lamellipodium protrusion in at least two distinct cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their studies, published online by the journals Cell and Nature , respectively, on May 13, together offer clues that may help in treating blood diseases such as leukemia, immune deficiency and sickle cell anemia, suggesting new ways scientists can make the types of blood cells a patient needs. (scienceblog.com)
  • Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of persistent pain. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Hendrix lab has long hypothesized that the plastic nature of malignant melanoma cells serves as an advantage by enhancing the cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize virtually undetected by the immune system. (medindia.net)
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (rupress.org)
  • The significance of PAMPs, such as TLR ligands, in the induction of T cell immunity has been demonstrated in numerous experimental models, showing that delivery of Ag without PAMPs as immune adjuvants results in T cell tolerance. (jimmunol.org)