Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides. It is formed by reaction of sphingosine with UDP-galactose and then itself reacts with fatty acid-Coenzyme A to form the cerebroside.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.

Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance. (1/1)


The liver is our largest internal organ and it plays major roles in drug detoxification and immunity, where the ingestion of extracellular material through phagocytosis is a critical pathway. Phagocytosis is the deliberate endocytosis of large particles, microbes, dead cells or cell debris and can lead to cell-in-cell structures. Various types of cell endocytosis have been recently described for hepatic epithelia (hepatocytes), which are non-professional phagocytes. Given that up to 80% of the liver comprises hepatocytes, the biological impact of cell-in-cell structures in the liver can have profound effects in liver regeneration, inflammation and cancer. This review brings together the latest reports on four types of endocytosis in the liver -efferocytosis, entosis, emperipolesis and enclysis, with a focus on hepatocyte biology.
Microprocessor sensor technology provides continuous feedback to equalize pressure and maximize patient comfort. The mattress consists of 20, 10 high cell-in-cell designed air bladders. In case of a power failure the air cells within the 10 air cell will remain inflated offering sufficient weight support for the patient. For the home care and long term care markets. Head Pillow feature. CPR feature allows for rapid deflation of mattress system. Static function can suspend the alternating mode (has autorecovery feature). Visible and audible alarms with Alarm Mute feature (3 minute auto-return feature)
A cell-in-cell process identifies the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis. AU - Sottile, Francesco. AU - Aulicino, Francesco. AU - Theka, Ilda. AU - Cosma, Maria Pia. PY - 2016/11/9. Y1 - 2016/11/9. N2 - Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce ...
درباره حنان. کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان با استفاده از فن‌آوری‌ها و استانداردهای نوین در حوزه فن‌آوری اطلاعات با رویکردی کاربرمدار طراحی شده و تمامی فرآیندهای آن مبتنی بر وب صورت می‌پذیرد. در ذیل ویژگی‌های برجسته کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان به صورت مختصر بیان می‌گردد: اساسا مبتنی بر وب و بدون محدودیت کاربر پشتیبانی از تمامی مرورگرها واسط کاربری Multilingual ( چند زبانه ) داینامیک بودن طراحی فیلدهای اطلاعاتی و کاربرگه‌های ورود اطلاعات داینامیک بودن فرمت‌های نمایش اطلاعات مبتنی بر استاندارد DC ذخیره سازی اطلاعات در قالب استاندارد Dubline core مدیریت همزمان منابع ...
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Finally at the end of synaptogenesis, there is an apposition of extracellular matrix between the cells with the formation of a ... Layer targeting relies typically on cell-cell interactions and extracellular cues. Axons express patterns of cell-surface ... Target selection is the process by which axons (nerve fibres) selectively target other cells for synapse formation. Synapses ... Washbourne, P. (2004-10-20). "Cell Adhesion Molecules in Synapse Formation". Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (42): 9244-9249. doi: ...
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Embryonic tissue is made up of actively growing cells and the term is normally used to describe the early formation of tissue ... apical cell The small apical cell is on the top and contains most of the cytoplasm, the aqueous substance found within cells, ... Then the zygote undergoes an asymmetric transverse cell division that gives rise to two cells - a small apical cell resting ... Pollen grains consists of three cells - one vegetative cell containing two generative cells. According to Maraschin et al., ...
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Formation of the primitive streak is reliant upon nodal signaling in the Koller's sickle within the cells contributing to the ... cells in the body are either organized into sheets of connected cells (as in epithelia), or as a mesh of isolated cells, such ... The localization of the cell adhesion and signaling molecule beta-catenin is critical to the proper formation of the organizer ... Chuai M, Zeng W, Yang X, Boychenko V, Glazier JA, Weijer CJ (2006). "Cell movement during chick primitive streak formation". ...
... the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell (1908), and the Townsend cell (1904). The cells vary in construction and ... Landolt, D.; Ibl, N. (1972). "Anodic chlorate formation on platinized titanium". Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. Chapman ... The building that houses the many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are ... The "rocking" cells used have been improved over the years. Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes clad with platinum or ...
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... open cell cloud formations often result. This MODIS image shows open cell cloud formation over the Atlantic Ocean off the ... What atmospheric scientists refer to as open cell cloud formation is a regular occurrence on the back side of a low-pressure ... This particular formation is the result of a low-pressure system sitting out in the North Atlantic Ocean a few hundred miles ... Cold air is being drawn down from the north on the western side of the low and the open cell cumulus clouds begin to form as ...
Linna J., Moke M., Chen H.W. (1991) Isoprenoid Formation and Cell-Mediated Immunological Functions. In: Friedman H., Specter S ... R. B. Herberman, ed., NK cells and other natural effector cells, Academic Press, New York, London (1982).Google Scholar ... Incorporation of a product of mevalonic acid metabolism into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cell nuclei, J. Cell. Bid. 107: ... H. W. Chen, The role of cholesterol metabolism in cell growth, Fed. Proc. 43:126 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
We investigated the potential mechanism for CD9-mediated cellular senescence and its role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. ... Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice and Ldlr−/− mice. ... These results suggest that CD9 plays critical roles in endothelial cell senescence and consequently the pathogenesis of ... CD9 is upregulated in senescent endothelial cells, neointima hyperplasia, and atherosclerotic plaques. However, its role in ...
... is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells ... Piceatannol could help block fat cell formation. April 4, 2012 ... blocking insulins ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation. ... "These precursor cells, even though they have not accumulated lipids, have the potential to become fat cells," Kim said. "We ... the process in which early stage fat cells become mature fat cells," Kim said. "In the presence of piceatannol, you can see ...
Shear stress also increased formation of colonies of progenitor cells that give rise to specific lineages of blood cells (red ... When specific cells from the mutant embryos were exposed in vitro to shear stress, markers of blood stem cells and numbers of ... weve taken a leap forward in understanding how to direct blood formation from embryonic stem cells in the petri dish," says ... they investigated the effects of mechanical stimulation on blood formation in cultured mouse embryonic stem cells. ...
Matrix-embedded cells control osteoclast formation.. Xiong J1, Onal M, Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Manolagas SC, OBrien CA. ... thereby linking bone formation to resorption. However, RANKL is expressed by a variety of cell types, and it is unclear which ... These results suggest that the rate-limiting step of matrix resorption is controlled by cells embedded within the matrix itself ... The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and thought to be ...
The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is essential for specifying the Treg cell lineage during development, and ... continued expression of Foxp3 in mature Treg cells is necessary for suppressive function. Loss of … ... cells are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. ... Regulatory T cell identity: formation and maintenance Trends ... We integrate emerging principles in Treg cell lineage maintenance with the mechanisms that allow Treg cells to sense and ...
The finding has important implications for developing stem cell therapies for blood diseases. ... Researchers have discovered that cells in an embryo are prompted to develop into blood cells by the force of rushing fluid ... Flow Forces Promote Embryonic Blood Cell Formation. A red blood cell colony emerges from embryonic cells in response to fluid ... It also plays a role in blood cell development. Adding a compound that inhibits NO production diminished the formation of cell ...
... is significantly higher in hESCs cell lines than in other cell types (e.g., tissue-specific stem cells and nontransformed cell ... Moreover, differentiated cell types from hPSCs [i.e., dopaminergic neuronal cells and smooth-muscle cells (SMCs)] survived well ... QC Induces Selective Cell Death of Residual Pluripotent Cells Without Affecting Differentiated Cells and Prevents Teratoma ... 2010) Functional recapitulation of smooth muscle cells via induced pluripotent stem cells from human aortic smooth muscle cells ...
Tumor cells exhibit an amoeboid movement similar to that of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes... ... Active tumor cell motility has long been appreciated to play a major role in invasion and metastasis. ... Wang, Y.L. Dynamics of the cytoskeleton in live cells. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 3:27-32; 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... You, J.; Dong, C. Analysis of pseudopod formation during tumor cell migration. Submitted; 1994.Google Scholar ...
Importantly, ASAH1-null cells also lose the ability to form cancer-initiating cells and to undergo self-renewal, which is ... Here we used CrispR-Cas9-mediated gene editing to delete the gene encoding for AC, ASAH1, in human A375 melanoma cells. ASAH1- ... As seen with administration of exogenous ceramide, AC ablation blocks cell cycle progression and accelerates senescence. ... suggestive of a key role for AC in maintaining malignancy and self-renewal of invasive melanoma cells. The results suggest that ...
Yet, this approach did lead to bone formation when cultured adult stem cells from bone marrow were used. This direct approach ... "Pioneering Induction Of Bone Formation Using Embryonic Stem Cells." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 14 May. 2008. Web. ... 2008, May 14). "Pioneering Induction Of Bone Formation Using Embryonic Stem Cells." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... Popular in: Stem Cell Research. * What are stem cells, and what do they do? ...
Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila. D Loncar and S J Singer ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ...
In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells.. Kerman BE1, Kim HJ1, Padmanabhan K2, Mei A1, Georges S1, Joens MS3, ... Myelin formation in microfluidic devices. (A,B) Microfluidic device used for the myelin formation assay. (A) Left, top view; ... myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell- ... Quantification of myelin formation. (A) A representative image of the entire myelination compartment at 2 weeks of co-culture. ...
Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ... Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ... Aldosterone Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Formation. Takeshi Marumo, Hideki Uchimura, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Keiichi ...
These cell contacts are characterized by two distinct dynamics in vivo: transient contacts resulting from promigratory ... T cell activation and function require a structured engagement of antigen-presenting cells. ... T cell activation and function require a structured engagement of antigen-presenting cells. These cell contacts are ... Functional anatomy of T cell activation and synapse formation Annu Rev Immunol. 2010;28:79-105. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol- ...
... 24.01.2020 ... These processes take place in brain cells called astrocytes, revealing another important way in which these cells help neurons. ... Astrocytes »Hirase »RIKEN »brain cells »cAMP »calcium levels »energy metabolism »memory consolidation »mouse brain »neurons » ... Further reports about: , Astrocytes , Hirase , RIKEN , brain cells , cAMP , calcium levels , energy metabolism , memory ...
Monoclonal Antibody Syncytium Formation. Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Syncytium Formation. Monoclonal ... 2019 Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.. Email: [email protected] ... Background: DNA repair systems operate in all living cells to manage a variety of DNA lesions. Nucleotide excision repair (NER ... Background: DNA repair systems operate in all living cells to manage a variety of DNA lesions. Nucleotide excision repair (NER ...
... is a key regulator of new nerve cells in the adult brain, a Swansea-led research team has discovered. It could help pave the ... UAG blocks the process of brain cell formation prompted by AG * The Parkinsons patients with dementia were the only one of the ... The research team focused on the gut hormone acyl-ghrelin (AG), which is known to promote brain cell formation. A structure ... Blood-borne factors such as hormones regulate the process of brain cell formation - known as neurogenesis - and cognition in ...
"Cell sheet transplantation of cultured mesenchymal stem cells enhances bone formation in a rat nonunion model," Bone, vol. 46, ... cells reveal functionally distinct subpopulations in mesenchymal stem cells," Stem Cell Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 152-165, ... Y. Matsuzaki, Y. Mabuchi, and H. Okano, "Leptin receptor makes its mark on MSCs," Cell Stem Cell, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 112-114, ... Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Anchored Multilayered Mesenchymal Cell Sheets Accelerate Periosteal Bone Formation. Kentaro ...
Here, we developed a multilayered cell-based bone formation system using cells coated with fibronectin-gelatin (FN-G) nanofilms ... Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Anchored Multilayered Mesenchymal Cell Sheets Accelerate Periosteal Bone Formation. Kentaro ... The multilayered mesenchymal cells (MLMCs) were formed after two days of culture and were shown to express higher levels of BMP ... Cell-based regenerative therapy has the potential to repair bone injuries or large defects that are recalcitrant to ...
... an increase in both the number of supporting cells around each hair cell and the number of hair cells that each supporting cell ... Pattern Formation in the Basilar Papilla: Evidence for Cell Rearrangement Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... significant increase in the ratio of supporting cells to hair cells cannot be accounted for by an increase in supporting cell ... Pattern Formation in the Basilar Papilla: Evidence for Cell Rearrangement. Richard Goodyear and Guy Richardson ...
Topography-mediated myofiber formation and endothelial cell sprouting. Almonacid Suarez, A. M., 2020, [Groningen]: University ... Subsequently, endothelial cells (ECs) were added to the same directional topographic systems, showing that ECs formed unstable ... In conclusion, our results showed that aligned topography has a tremendous impact on myotube development and endothelial cell ... Directional topography is often used in cell alignment. This thesis explores the influences of directional topography and ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... Posted in: Cell Biology. Tags: Cell, Children, Endometrium, Fertility, Hospital, Infertility, Medical School, Newborn, Receptor ... While it is not surprising that Misr2+ cells would play a role in inhibiting the formation of a uterus in males, researchers ... Finding cells marked by Misr2 allows further investigation of how these cells can contribute to uterine pathologies causing ...
br, We propose a model of foam cell formation accounting for macrophage RCT. This model is presented as a system of non-linear ... Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed ... HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. , ... Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. ...
Natural antioxidant compounds like flavonoids and phenolic acids could inhibit the formation of fat formation from fat cells, ... could inhibit the formation of fat formation from fat cells, suggests new research from Taiwan. ... fat cells). The researchers chose the 3T3-L1 cell line because it has been used widely for several decades as a cell model for ... Antioxidants may stop fat cells formation, says study. By Stephen Daniells 12-Nov-2007. - Last updated on 19-Jul-2008 at 17:11 ...
A new study has revealed that key receptors on brain cells that function like gateways are essential to enable habit ... Dopamine is a chemical that helps brain cells in communication. If they were full, they would not push the lever. But just as ... "The NMDA receptor is a commander, which is why its called a master switch for brain cell connectivity," said Wang, the studys ... A new study has revealed that key receptors on brain cells that function like gateways are essential to enable habit ...
Subapical cells can branch, and then the branched cell grows like an apical cell. Apical and branched subapical cells have ... cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation, and cell death. For example, pattern formation in insect and animal embryos initially ... Apical cells have active mitotic cycles, whereas subapical cells are arrested for growth and mitosis until branch formation ... Subapical cell growth occurred isotropically, with cells becoming swollen and rounded. In contrast, the apical cell underwent ...
What is the cause of the microisland formation? Is it a good or bad thing to have in cell culture? If it is bad, how can I ... After about 5-7 days in-vitro, I see microisland formation. ... posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi, I am currently making ... MNFS60 cells are dying. Started by biouser, 23 Jan 2019 cell culture, MNFS60 cells and 1 more... * 2 replies ... Adherent cells detach themselve from petri dish (problems in cell culture) Started by Tovusdavaz, 01 Sep 2020 cell culture, ...
A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern ... They also found that blocking Nodal signaling reduced melanoma cell invasiveness, as well as cancer cell colony formation and ... Strikingly, nodal inhibition promoted the reversion of these cells toward a normal skin cell type. Like embryonic stem cells, ... Protein Involved In Embryo Formation Found In Malignant Cells. by Medindia Content Team on July 31, 2006 at 8:08 PM Cancer News ...
  • When specific cells from the mutant embryos were exposed in vitro to shear stress, markers of blood stem cells and numbers of blood cell colonies were restored. (
  • In the lab, there was clear evidence that these stem cells were differentiating into the bone lineage "in vitro", however this process stalled after implantation and no bone tissue was formed. (
  • In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells. (
  • Pre-vascularization of in vitro three-dimensional tissues created by cell sheet engineering," Biomaterials , vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 3903-3909, 2010. (
  • As a result, we showed that pre-aligned myotubes support early network sprouting of microvascular endothelial cells by providing collagen fibers and laminin but require accessory cells such as pericytes to complete the vascularization process in vitro. (
  • FReP cells display myogenic differentiation potential in vitro. (
  • A ) Myogenic markers ACTN, MYOD, ACTA1, myosin, and desmin were found in FReP cells after cultivation using the established in vitro 2-stage skeletal myogenic differentiation protocol. (
  • B ) A PCR array revealed significantly upregulated myogenesis-related genes in FReP cells during the 3-week in vitro myogenic differentiation period. (
  • C ) The creatine kinase activity assay suggests that, after undergoing myogenic differentiation, FReP cells have biological activities similar to those of human satellite cells in vitro. (
  • After about 5-7 days in-vitro, I see microisland formation. (
  • Finally, downregulation of GIT1 by siRNA significantly inhibited VEGF-induced EC migration and tube formation in vitro. (
  • Here we combined autologous cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) with nanotopographically defined hydrogels mimicking the native myocardial matrix , to form in vitro cardiac stem cell niches, and control cell function and fate. (
  • This was true both when the antigen was given in vivo together with the endotoxin as well as when the cells were exposed to antigen in vitro . (
  • When a combined in vitro digestion/cell model was used, the cellular MT concentrations in white or red beans and fish samples were no different to the cell baseline. (
  • Under the conditions of this in vitro model, Caco-2 cell monolayers are not useful for evaluating the Zn availability from foods . (
  • The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). (
  • Culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) as in vitro multicellular aggregates has been increasingly used as a method to model early embryonic development. (
  • In this review, we systematically present and compare the techniques that have drawn the most attention in this field and that generally have focused on four important issues: the scaffold material selection, the scaffold material production, cellular selection and in vitro cell culture. (
  • and (4) in vitro cell culture. (
  • these studies indicated that the zinc finger protein Bcr1 is required for biofilm formation in vitro ( 13 ). (
  • Therefore, Bcr1 appears to govern a mechanism that is required for biofilm formation rather than overall growth in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Mutant and overexpression studies indicate that ALS3 is a pivotal Bcr1 target: an als3 / als3 mutant is defective in biofilm formation in vitro, and overexpression of ALS3 permits biofilm formation by a bcr1 / bcr1 mutant in vitro and in vivo ( 11 ). (
  • Indeed, overexpression of either ALS1 or HWP1 in a bcr1 / bcr1 mutant permits improved biofilm formation in vitro, thus implicating these two genes as functional Bcr1 targets as well ( 11 ). (
  • Assays generally used to test such "stemness" include genomic profiling for relative quantification of pluripotency genes, immunocytochemistry to detect pluripotency markers, embryoid body formation to test 3-germ-layer differentiation capability in vitro or in vivo , and teratoma formation to test 3-germ-layer differentiation capability in vivo ( Table 1 ). (
  • Notwithstanding the in vitro assays, teratoma formation in vivo is considered the most stringent of pluripotency assays because it provides more reliable and comprehensive confirmation than does testing cells on a simplified, artificial petri dish. (
  • Ceramide is also involved in the control of stem-cell differentiation and embryo development 23 . (
  • In this study, we found that in females the cells continued to express the receptor to MIS, past the period of sexual differentiation in mice, rats, and humans. (
  • MULTICELLULAR organisms use a variety of molecular signals to establish patterns of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation, and cell death. (
  • Septa may play a variety of roles, such as preventing loss of cytoplasm during hyphal damage ( R ichle and A lexander 1965 ) and partitioning cell growth and differentiation ( G ull 1978 ). (
  • Under the same differentiation conditions, parental unreprogrammed BJ fibroblasts and FReP-basal cells were used as negative controls, while retrovirus-mediated BJ-iPSCs and differentiated human satellite cells were used as positive controls. (
  • Recombinant adiponectin blocked fat cell formation in long-term bone marrow cultures and inhibited the differentiation of cloned stromal preadipocytes. (
  • The COX-2 inhibitor Dup-697 prevented the inhibitory action of adiponectin on preadipocyte differentiation, suggesting involvement of stromal cell-derived prostanoids. (
  • Because of its key role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton, we investigated the role of Rho kinase (ROCK), a major downstream effector of Rho, in Schwann cell morphology, differentiation, and myelination. (
  • there was no effect on Schwann cell proliferation or differentiation. (
  • Fifteen proteins have been identified, which involved the different cellular functions, such as regulation of cytosolic calcium concentration, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and lipid metabolism. (
  • A common cell signaling pathway that controls differentiation of stem cells may also control the formation of tumor cells in fat, according to a Purdue University study. (
  • This signaling pathway, called Notch signaling, has been widely reported to determine the identity and control the differentiation of a variety of stem cells in different tissues. (
  • In fat cells, that differentiation is controlled by a regular pattern of Notch signaling. (
  • Aberrant suppression or activation of Notch signaling may disrupt the normal differentiation process and maintenance of stem cells. (
  • These results suggest that nanostructured polymeric materials that closely mimic the extracellular matrix structure on which cardiac cells reside in vivo can be both very effective tools in investigating the mechanisms of cardiac differentiation and the basis for cardiac tissue engineering, thus facilitating stem cell-based therapy in the heart. (
  • Human embryonic stem cells and human induced-pluripotent stem cells are uniquely defined by their pluripotent differentiation potential and endless self-renewing ability. (
  • Cellular senescence is a dynamic process in which cells arrest proliferation. (
  • Betacellulin regulates schwann cell proliferation and myelin formation in the injured mouse peripheral nerve. (
  • This very bizarre behavior may allow these cells to proliferate in non-vascularized areas - thereby letting tumors run wild with blood vessel proliferation (angiogenesis). (
  • 2. Discard data from wells where the cell number or the proliferation index indicate cytotoxic or cytostatic activity. (
  • The purpose of this pilot phase II trial is to identify the molecular and genetic mechanisms by which statins influence breast cancer cell proliferation. (
  • Rationale: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic and redox sensor, is reported to suppress cell proliferation of nonmalignant and tumor cells. (
  • Methods and Results: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia were evaluated in cultured VSMCs and wire-injured mouse carotid arteries from wild-type (WT, C57BL/ 6J), AMPK alpha 2(-/-), and AMPK alpha 1(-/-) mice. (
  • Two groups of researchers from Children's Hospital Boston, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) - presenting multiple lines of evidence from zebrafish, mice and mouse embryonic stem cells - provide an intriguing answer: A beating heart and blood flow are necessary for development of the blood system, which relies on mechanical stresses to cue its formation. (
  • Intrigued by the appearance of blood progenitors in the wall of the developing aorta soon after the heart starts beating, they investigated the effects of mechanical stimulation on blood formation in cultured mouse embryonic stem cells. (
  • The researchers then put mouse embryonic stem cells, developed to the early stages of blood cell development, onto a flat surface. (
  • While searching for a suitable scaffold to use for cartilage tissue engineering with mouse embryonic stem cells, the researchers selected a ceramic material that is often used as bone void filler. (
  • In the lab, mouse embryonic stem cells were seeded onto this ceramic material and induced into the developmental pathway leading to cartilage formation. (
  • Hence, we developed a protocol to generate myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in microfluidic devices. (
  • Lysis of natural killer resistant fresh solid tumor cells by interleukin-2 activated autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes, J. Exp. (
  • Liotta, L.A. Signal transduction for Chemotaxis and haptotaxis by matrix molecules in tumor cells. (
  • Segall, J.E. Chemotaxis of metastatic tumor cells: Clues to mechanisms from the Dictyostelium paradigm. (
  • Liotta, L.A. Two phases of pseudopod protrusion in tumor cells revealed by a micropipette. (
  • Like embryonic stem cells, malignant tumor cells similarly receive and send molecular cues during development that promote tumor growth and metastasis, or cancer spread. (
  • In this study, the researchers showed that aggressive tumor cells, particularly melanoma, are capable of responding to microenvironmental factors as well as influencing other cells via epigenetic (other than genetic) mechanisms, a quality known as bi-directional cellular communication. (
  • These results also highlight the propensity of tumor cells to communicate bi-directionally and survive within an embryonic microenvironment. (
  • Further, the findings illuminate the remarkable plasticity of melanoma cells and the utility of the developing zebrafish as a model for studying the epigenetic modulation of tumor cells. (
  • Surgery is suspected to contribute to metastasis formation activating dormant tumor cells. (
  • The change in circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) was monitored in 66 breast cancer patients operated on with breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and during the further course of the disease, analyzing CETC from unseparated white blood cells stained with FITC-anti-EpCAM. (
  • In addition to tumor cells already released during growth of the tumor, cell seeding during surgery may contribute to the early peak of relapses observed after removal of the primary tumor and chemotherapy may only marginally postpone relapse in patients with aggressively growing tumors. (
  • To address this, we have individually tracked 1,127 single MCF-7 and 696 single T47D human breast tumor cells by eye over the course of 14 days. (
  • One team, led by Leonard Zon, MD, of the Division of Hematology/Oncology at Children's and Director of its Stem Cell research program, used zebrafish, whose transparent embryos allow direct observation of embryonic development. (
  • They showed that shear stress - the frictional force of fluid flow on the surface of cells lining the embryonic aorta - increases the expression of master regulators of blood formation, including Runx1, and of genetic markers found in blood stem cells. (
  • In learning how the heartbeat stimulates blood formation in embryos, we've taken a leap forward in understanding how to direct blood formation from embryonic stem cells in the petri dish," says Daley, who is also affiliated with the HSCI. (
  • The authors of the two papers speculate that drugs that mimic the effects of embryonic blood flow on blood precursor cells, or molecules involved in nitric oxide signaling, might be therapeutically beneficial for patients with blood diseases. (
  • A red blood cell colony emerges from embryonic cells in response to fluid flow. (
  • A major research challenge is to learn how to guide embryonic stem cells to give rise to blood-forming stem cells, and then ultimately to produce all the different types of blood cells in the body, including red blood cells and the cells of the immune system. (
  • Researchers at the University of Twente break new ground by successfully creating bone tissue "in vivo", using embryonic stem cells . (
  • Previous attempts to create bone using embryonic stem cells were unsuccessful. (
  • Hair cells that contact each other at their apical borders are seen during early development, especially on embryonic days (E) 8 and 9, but are no longer observed after E12. (
  • The scientists were able to induce abnormal embryonic skull and backbone formation following the injection. (
  • In addition, one of the hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells, including malignant melanoma, is their unspecified, "plastic" nature, which is similar to that of embryonic stem cells, expressing genes characteristic of multiple cell types, including endothelial, neural and stem cells. (
  • In order to identify genes that are required for these processes, we have conducted an extensive mutagenesis of the third chromosome and screened for mutations disrupting germ cell migration at any point in embryonic development. (
  • Many of these genes are involved in the development of gonadal mesoderm, the tissue that associates with germ cells to form the embryonic gonad. (
  • Moreover, mutations that we isolated affecting embryonic patterning as well as germ cell migration suggest that the origin of gonadal mesoderm lies within the eve domain of the developing mesoderm. (
  • Studies were carried out using vinculin-deficient F9 embryonic carcinoma (gamma229) cells to analyze the relationship between structure and function within the focal adhesion protein vinculin, in the context of control of cell shape, cell mechanics, and movement. (
  • One study observed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) teratoma formation rate to be slower than that of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) due to the heterogeneity in hiPSC gene expression levels that suggests a less stable pluripotent state in these cells ( 14 ), but another study demonstrated hiPSCs to be more efficient ( 15 ). (
  • CD9, a 24 kDa tetraspanin membrane protein, is known to regulate cell adhesion and migration, cancer progression and metastasis, immune and allergic responses, and viral infection. (
  • Pollard, T.D. Membrane-bound myosin-I provides new mechanisms in cell motility. (
  • During cycle 14 interphase, a wave of membrane formation encircles each nucleus inside its own plasma membrane, thereby generating an intact epithelial layer. (
  • The polarized nature of epithelial cells is manifested by the nonrandom partitioning of organelles within the cells, the concentration of intercellular junctions at one pole, and the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane. (
  • Here, we focus on some of the best-studied junctions and membrane-associated protein complexes and their relation to cell polarity. (
  • Vertebrate epithelial cells develop a tight junction (TJ), a specialized plasma membrane microdomain apical to the ZA. (
  • In Drosophila epithelial cells, the septate junction (SJ) lies basal to the ZA and forms a region of close membrane contacts that extends over large parts of the lateral plasma membrane domain. (
  • A plethora of molecules contribute to the formation of spatially and functionally distinct domains in the plasma membrane and the membrane-associated cytoskeleton. (
  • Recent data show that GIT1 traffics between three distinct cellular compartments (cytoplasm, focal adhesions and cell membrane) through interactions with diverse proteins including ARF, Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, p21-activated kinase (PAK), PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX) and paxillin. (
  • Loss of Kif3a retarded lateral membrane specification and completely prevented the formation of three-dimensional spheres in collagen. (
  • Biologists wonder about something similar: when a cell divides, the surface area of the cell membrane grows. (
  • Moreover, when molecules are brought from one organelle to another inside the cell, membrane-enclosed transport vesicles are formed. (
  • So that membranes can be made available quickly, they are stored within the cells in the form of nanotubes, tubular membrane structures similarly to a tarpaulin that has been folded together. (
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam have now discovered a mechanism used by cells to generate stable membrane nanotubes ( 'Membrane nanotubes induced by aqueous phase separation and stabilized by spontaneous curvature' ). (
  • However, motor proteins are not always found in the areas of the cell where membrane nanotubes are formed," says Rumiana Dimova, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces and co-author of the study. (
  • These exert forces on the membrane and thus contribute to the formation of the tubes. (
  • Following furrow ingression, the process of cell separation is completed by a membrane scission reaction. (
  • Using live-cell time-lapse microscopy, I found that Ect2 concentrates not only at the spindle midzone but also accumulates at equatorial plasma membrane during cytokinesis. (
  • I further demonstrated that both guanine nucleotide exchange activity and the membrane targeting domains of Ect2 are essential for RhoA activation, contractile ring formation and cleavage furrow ingression in human cells. (
  • Cells with increased membrane permeability could be identified using fluorescence microscopy by injection of propidium iodide prior to the killing of the rats. (
  • Cellular senescence influences tissue and organismal aging, tissue repair and regeneration, cancer progression and protection, and diverse age-related pathologies, through cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous mechanisms [ 4 ]. (
  • Tissue engineering using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force: Heterotypic layers of cocultured hepatocytes and endothelial cells," Tissue Engineering , vol. 10, no. 5-6, pp. 833-840, 2004. (
  • Step-by-step build-up of biologically active cell-containing stratified films aimed at tissue engineering," Advanced Materials , vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 650-655, 2009. (
  • This thesis explores the influences of directional topography and topography-aligned differentiated myoblasts in combination with endothelial cells in triggering capillary network formation for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. (
  • In addition, different coatings were investigated, such as gelatin, fibronectin, and instructive adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ASC). (
  • To address the emerging demand for safe cell sources in tissue regeneration, we established a novel, protein-based reprogramming method that does not require genome integration or oncogene activation to yield multipotent fibromodulin (FMOD)-reprogrammed (FReP) cells from dermal fibroblasts. (
  • The accessibility of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans to genetic and cell biological analyses, combined with the study of mammalian cells in culture, provides an ideal basis for understanding the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and tissue integrity. (
  • Naturally found in all the body's tissues, copper is a vital component of enzymes responsible for energy production, immune system and nerve function, connective tissue maintenance, red blood cell formation, the body's absorption of iron and much more. (
  • Wood is the vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients upward from the root, also contributing to the formation of the woody element in the stem. (
  • Plant cells can be engineered to produce more or less of a certain cell or tissue, for example. (
  • In addition to the formation of wood tissue, the research sheds light on the development of plants in general. (
  • Recently, actin-rich structures, whose assembly is regulated by c-Src, termed podosomes, were found to contribute to tissue invasion, matrix remodeling and cell motility. (
  • Artificial matrices reproducing mechanical and structural properties of the native tissue may facilitate survival, retention and functional integration of adult stem or progenitor cells, by conditioning the cells prior to, and during, transplantation. (
  • In a rat infarction model, engraftment of nanofabricated scaffolds with CDCs enhanced retention and growth of transplanted cells, and their integration with the host tissue. (
  • Peritoneal exudate cells produced hemagglutinating antibody to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in a replicating tissue culture system for approximately 3 weeks when taken from animals given either primary or secondary injections of BGG. (
  • 1. Seed CHO-K1 cells in imaging grade 96-well plates at 5000 cells/100 μl/well and incubate under standard tissue culture conditions for 24 h. (
  • The role of tissue-resident memory T (T) cells in breast cancer progression has been difficult to study. (
  • Further, we provide examples to demonstrate how aggregation can be used as a tool to select specific subpopulations of cells to create homotypic spheroids, or as a means to introduce multiple cell types to create heterotypic tissue constructs. (
  • We believe the main target for the virus is the red marrow, where it damages the endothelium, the tissue, which normally regulates the migration of maturing cells into the blood,' Reva said. (
  • Proper cell alignment on the nanograft allows for the formation of new blood vessel-like structures, as reported in of Tissue Engineering, Part A ( 'Nanografted Substrata and Triculture of Human Pericytes, Fibroblasts, and Endothelial Cells for Studying the Effects on Angiogenesis' ). (
  • The ability to differentiate into almost all tissue types is the hallmark of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (
  • The investigators delivered secondary neurospheres (free-floating aggregates of cultured neural stem cells) generated from 36 iPSC clones derived in 11 different ways into immunodeficient mice and observed that although c-Myc retrovirus did not significantly affect teratoma-forming propensity, iPSC tissue of origin did have an effect. (
  • This arrangement of cells, in which the apical borders of hair cells do not contact one another, may be generated by contact-mediated lateral inhibition. (
  • Strikingly, nodal inhibition promoted the reversion of these cells toward a normal skin cell type. (
  • Effective Inhibition of Foam Cells Formation by Tanshinone IIA in. (
  • Peptide:MHC complexes that bind weakly to killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) can antagonize the inhibition mediated by high-affinity peptide:MHC complexes and cause NK cell activation. (
  • Reversal of SulA inhibition by blocking protein synthesis in SulA-induced filaments led to a resumption of FtsZ ring formation and division. (
  • SA Inhibition of Apical Hook Formation Requires NPR1. (
  • R. B. Herberman and D. M. Callewaert, Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity by NK cells, Academic Press, New York, London (1985). (
  • Here, we review recent insights into the mechanisms that maintain Treg cell stability and function, and place these findings within the broader understanding of mechanisms that establish Treg cell identity during development. (
  • We integrate emerging principles in Treg cell lineage maintenance with the mechanisms that allow Treg cells to sense and respond to varied inflammatory environments, and outline important areas of future inquiry in this context. (
  • Considering that millions of cells undergo mitosis at any given time in an average human body, the overall fidelity of mitotic mechanisms becomes apparent. (
  • If we are to understand the principles of mitotic spindle formation, the exact mechanisms that govern how sister kinetochores on individual chromosomes establish connections with the opposite spindle poles must be elucidated. (
  • The mechanisms involved are poorly understood but are likely to involve coordinated changes in the glial cell cytoskeleton. (
  • Our results identify Mcl1 as the main anti-apoptotic regulator of activated B cell survival and suggest distinct mechanisms controlling survival of GC and memory B cells. (
  • The team s breakthrough in being able to image single G4s came with a rethink of mechanisms usually used to probe the working of cells. (
  • However, an understanding of the mechanisms that support C. albicans biofilm formation may highlight new targets that permit noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. (
  • The mechanisms guiding germ cells to move through, recognize and adhere to specific cell types are poorly understood. (
  • The researchers' hybrid molecule consists of two parts: the LLP2A part that attaches to mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow, and a second part that consists of the bone-homing drug alendronate. (
  • After the hybrid molecule was injected into the bloodstream, it picked up mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and directed those cells to the surfaces of bone, where the stem cells carried out their natural bone-formation and repair functions. (
  • Finally, resveratrol promotes dose-dependently the expression of osteoblast markers like osteocalcin and osteopontin in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) and stimulates their response to 1,25(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]. (
  • Kim found that piceatannol binds to insulin receptors of immature fat cells in the first stage of adipogenesis, blocking insulin's ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation. (
  • In the online edition of Nature on May 13, 2009, the scientists reported that, compared to cells grown under static conditions, cells exposed to fluid stress expressed higher levels of Runx1 and other genes associated with blood cell development. (
  • Temperature shift analysis revealed that hypD and hypE play general roles in hyphal morphogenesis, since inactivation of these genes resulted in a general widening of apical and subapical cells. (
  • But … to say it's inaccessible because it's condensed makes no sense," said Smith, noting that genes in these tightly coiled regions get turned on, which requires the DNA to be accessed, and that other proteins responsible for keeping chromosomes attached to each other during sex-cell formation reach the DNA at centromeres just fine: "To say it's inaccessible is just ignoring the facts in front of your face. (
  • One by one, Nambiar examined genes known to be involved in sorting chromosomes and recombination during sex-cell formation. (
  • Such analyses have the risk to mask genes, pathways and networks specifically expressed in a particular cell type during lateral root formation. (
  • We investigated the consequences of deleting genes encoding the anti-apoptotic molecules Mcl1 and Bcl2l1 (Bcl-x L ) from B cells using an inducible system synchronized with expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aicda) after immunization. (
  • Researchers map learning-induced chromatin alterations in mouse brain cells, and find that many affect autism-associated genes. (
  • No introns were detected in the coding regions of the 4 Pou-domain genes which suggests that the genes originated by reverse transcription of an ancestral species of Pou-domain mRNA followed by insertion of cDNA molecules into germ cell DNA. (
  • G4s appear to be associated more often with genes involved in cancer, and are detected in larger numbers within cancer cells. (
  • 1985 ) Identification and characterization of 22 genes that affect the vulval cell lineages of the nematode C. elegans . (
  • As seedlings germinate, ethylene production causes nuclear accumulation of EIN3, which activates genes required for apical hook formation. (
  • Most of the major Bcr1-dependent genes specify known or predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface proteins, including the adhesins ALS1 , ALS3 , and HWP1 . (
  • Phenotypic analysis of these mutants demonstrates that germ cell migration can be broken down into discrete developmental steps, with each step requiring a specific set of genes. (
  • In the present study, we analyzed spheroid formation associated genes in GC. (
  • Comprehensive gene expression profile of MKN-45 and MKN-74 GC cell lines that were grown as monolayers or spheroids was obtained by Affymetrix GeneChip, and we found several kinds of genes whose expression was up-regulated or down-regulated in cells that were grown as spheroids. (
  • Among these, 10 kinds of kinesin genes were up-regulated in both MKN-45 and MKN-74 cells that were grown as spheroids. (
  • These results suggest that CD9 plays critical roles in endothelial cell senescence and consequently the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, implying that CD9 is a novel target for prevention and treatment of vascular aging and atherosclerosis. (
  • However, role of endothelial cell senescence in atherosclerosis remains unclear. (
  • In conclusion, our results showed that aligned topography has a tremendous impact on myotube development and endothelial cell guidance. (
  • We previously showed that the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) was a key mediator for thrombin-mediated endothelial cell (EC) focal adhesion turnover and permeability. (
  • Exploration of endothelial cell metabolism during neovessel formation an. (
  • Lauffengurger, D.A. Mathematical model for the effects of adhesion and mechanics on cell migration speed. (
  • EPAC signaling plays a significant role in a number of cellular processes including migration and focal adhesion formation (2), exocytosis (3), insulin signaling (4), axon growth and guidance (5) and neurotransmitter release (6). (
  • Various cell-cell contacts guarantee close adhesion between the cells and provide the barrier function characteristic of epithelia. (
  • These domains mediate cell-cell adhesion by forming elaborate junctions visible under the electron microscope. (
  • The characteristics of these signals suggest that a seam cell must be part of a continuous epithelium in order to develop normally and that signaling may occur via a cell recognition/cell adhesion pathway. (
  • Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. (
  • This dissertation study investigated expression, function and the regulatory mechanism of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of olfactory connections. (
  • Identification and characterization of a novel protocadherin, Pcdh20, provided additional evidence that multiple cell adhesion molecules are involved in the development of the olfactory system. (
  • In combination with several established studies by Sakano and Yoshihara's group, my study further supports the neural identity model and provides a regulatory mechanism involving MeCP2 in the establishment and maintenance of this combinatory cell adhesion molecule expression in the olfactory sensory neurons. (
  • Though many cell adhesion molecule expression patterns were described, few of them were correlated with specific ORs. (
  • On the other side of the coin, it is also unknown whether a specific OR is correlated with a specific set of cell adhesion molecules throughout development. (
  • Using genetic models and surgical manipulations, it is shown that blocking odorant evoked activity alters the expression of selected cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Even though regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression is important for the formation of olfactory axonal converge into glomeruli, the regulatory mechanism of gene expression is undetermined. (
  • Adherence is a critical property for biofilm cells, and one might expect that multiple adhesion molecules would function in successful biofilm formers. (
  • Researchers have discovered that cells in an embryo are prompted to develop into blood cells by the force of rushing fluid being pushed by the beating heart. (
  • Astrocytes are the crucial mediators of these changes, and the researchers were interested in observing, in real time, what happens in these cells when mice are learning. (
  • While it is not surprising that Misr2+ cells would play a role in inhibiting the formation of a uterus in males, researchers found that these cells also actively participate in the formation of the uterus in females. (
  • The researchers chose the 3T3-L1 cell line because it has been used widely for several decades as a cell model for fat cell biology research. (
  • To determine their role in habit formation, GHSU researchers used a genetic trick to selectively disable the NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons and found, for example, mice could be trained to push a lever for food without it becoming an automatic response. (
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (
  • A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern University. (
  • Researchers from the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam have discovered a common link between cancer cells and stem cells. (
  • The researchers expect that the BMI1 gene plays a role in other types of cancer with stem-cell-like characteristics, including breast tumours and leukaemia. (
  • Sticky meshworks of DNA and proteins extruded by white blood cells called neutrophils act as the glue that binds together calcium and cholesterol crystals during gallstone formation, researchers in Germany report August 15 in the journal Immunity . (
  • To further examine the role of NETs and neutrophils in gallstone development, the researchers fed mice a cholesterol-rich diet that induced gallstone formation. (
  • Researchers are exploring stem cells as possible treatments for a wide variety of conditions and injuries, ranging from peripheral artery disease and macular degeneration to blood disorders, skin wounds and diseased organs. (
  • The researchers in Potsdam have reproduced such concentration differences using artificial vesicles the size of a cell, which contain a mixture of two polymers, namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. (
  • Previous research indicating that just dousing a brain with dopamine doesn't rescue the ability to form habits led GHSU researchers to pursue the more sophisticated regulation that must enable habit formation. (
  • In the study, published in the journal Archiv EuroMedica, researchers from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) in Russia, along with their Japanese colleagues probed how Covid-19's impact on red blood cells called erythrocytes affects patients. (
  • As to the site of cell implantation, some researchers have observed that injection site does affect teratoma formation efficiency ( 18 , 19 ), while others have found little or no effect ( 14 ). (
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. (
  • This results in deposition of free and esterified cholesterol in macrophages and generation of foam cells. (
  • Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed phagocytosis. (
  • The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. (
  • The role of resident and exudate macrophages in multinucleate giant cell formation. (
  • Peroxidase cytochemistry which differentiates "resident" from "exudate" peritoneal macrophages in guinea pigs, was used in the investigation of the multinucleate giant cells in foreign body granulomas in the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs. (
  • Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. (
  • Macrophages transform into foam cells upon taking-in lipids. (
  • Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency in macrophages significantly increased the expression of SRA (scavenger receptor A), modified low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation, all of which were abolished by blocking SRA. (
  • The cell cycle culminates in mitosis, when replicated molecules of DNA compacted into chromosomes are equally partitioned between the two daughter cells. (
  • Polarization is reflected in the shape of the cell, the uneven distribution of organelles and molecules, and the oriented alignment of the cytoskeletal networks. (
  • Sometimes, however, corresponding ultrastructures are missing in cells of different species, yet homologous molecules are localized at comparable sites. (
  • Our study confirms that stem-cell-binding molecules can be exploited to direct stem cells to therapeutic sites inside an animal," said Lam, who also is an author of the article. (
  • Thereafter, perpetuation of the gradient does not depend on the continuous presence of an extracellular gradient of diffusible molecules or on maintenance of interactions between cells. (
  • He said: Scientists need special probes to see molecules within living cells, however these probes can sometimes interact with the object we are trying to see. (
  • If certain molecules are present in a larger concentration outside the cell than inside the cell i.e. they form a so-called hypertonic solution then water will flow out of the cell and the cell will contract. (
  • These data uncover that Kif3a regulates the microtubular cytoskeleton in the cell periphery and imply that extra-ciliary Kif3a has an unexpected function in morphogenesis. (
  • LKB1 (liver kinase B1) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor, which regulates the homeostasis of hematopoietic cells and immune responses. (
  • In the airway, the two major differentiated epithelial cell types, secretory and ciliated cells, act together to perform mucociliary clearance, trapping and expelling pathogens from the airway ( Bustamante-Marin and Ostrowski, 2017 ). (
  • Here we show that tetracycline inducible depletion of Kif3a in MDCK cells slows epithelial cell migration. (
  • Leonardo Morsut is Assistant Professor of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California (USC). (
  • essential for cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. (
  • Since GIT1 is a substrate of Src, podosome formation is Src dependent, and VEGF is an essential angiogenic factor, we hypothesized that GIT1 plays an important role in angiogenesis by mediating VEGF-induced EC podosome formation and migration. (
  • These data suggest that GIT1 is an important mediator for VEGF-induced angiogenesis by affecting EC podosome formation and migration. (
  • In addition, the number and size of gallstones were reduced in mice whose diets were supplemented with either a compound that inhibits protein-arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) -an enzyme involved in NET formation-or a beta blocker called metoprolol, which interferes with neutrophil migration and is also widely used for the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. (
  • Kif3a guides microtubular dynamics, migration and lumen formation of MDCK cells. (
  • Outside cilia, Kinesin-2 mediated transport has been implicated in vesicle and N-cadherin transport, but it is unknown if and how extraciliary Kif3a affects basic cellular functions such as migration or the formation of multicellular structures. (
  • This in vivo assay, coupled with noninvasive, longitudinal imaging, have proven to be invaluable not only in the visualization of stem cell survival and migration post-delivery, but also have been crucial in studying the safety and viability of future stem cell applications ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • Suppression of nitric oxide production in mice, by either genetic or chemical means, similarly reduced the number of functional Runx1-expressing blood stem cells. (
  • These embryos had a sharp reduction in progenitor blood cell colonies, along with reduced expression of genetic markers of blood stem cells. (
  • And cancer cells, known for their genetic disarray, often lose or gain chromosomes. (
  • The genetic mediators of persister formation for P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. (
  • An international research group headed by Professor and Research Director Yrjö Helariutta has discovered the genetic process that controls the development of wood cells in the roots of plants. (
  • A fertilised egg cell contains all of the genetic information that the whole organism needs. (
  • Genetic analysis demonstrated that AtFANCD2 acts in parallel to both MUTS HOMOLOG4 ( AtMSH4 ), known for its role in promoting interfering COs and MMS AND UV SENSITIVE81 ( AtMUS81 ), known for its role in the formation of noninterfering COs. (
  • Both genetic and pharmacological approaches that inhibited the formation of these so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) reduced the formation and growth of gallstones in mice. (
  • The number and size of gallstones were smaller in mice with genetic defects that inhibited NET formation, and the size of gallstones was also smaller in mice with fewer neutrophils. (
  • For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. (
  • We have recently taken a genetic approach to the analysis of C. albicans biofilm formation. (
  • Within biofilms, persister cells comprise a small bacterial subpopulation that exhibits multidrug tolerance to antibiotics without undergoing genetic change. (
  • Their studies, published online by the journals Cell and Nature , respectively, on May 13, together offer clues that may help in treating blood diseases such as leukemia, immune deficiency and sickle cell anemia, suggesting new ways scientists can make the types of blood cells a patient needs. (
  • T regulatory (Treg) cells are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. (
  • Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of persistent pain. (
  • The Hendrix lab has long hypothesized that the plastic nature of malignant melanoma cells serves as an advantage by enhancing the cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize virtually undetected by the immune system. (
  • A protein that inhibits apoptosis is essential for the survival of immune memory cells. (
  • Tcell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation initiates tyrosine kinase activation, signaling complex assembly, and immune synapse formation. (
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (
  • L. A. Beck, T. J. Hosick, and M. Sinensky, Incorporation of a product of mevalonic acid metabolism into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cell nuclei, J. Cell. (
  • Cunningham, C.C. Actin structural proteins in cell motility. (
  • We have identified proteins modulated by Tanshinone IIA during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells to uncover its anti-atherosclerotic mechanism. (
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrixassisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to analysis and identify the proteins differentially expressed after Tanshinone IIA treatment of HP-LDL induced RAW264.7 macrophage transformation into foam cell. (
  • During sex-cell formation, two different large molecular machines, each made of multiple proteins, keep chromosomes properly attached to each other. (
  • Once these cells are guided to the bone surface by this molecule, the stem cells differentiate into bone-forming cells and synthesize proteins to enhance bone growth. (
  • Here, we studied the kinetics and mechanics of signaling complex formation in live Jurkat leukemic T cells using signaling proteins fluorescently tagged with variants of enhanced GFP (EGFP). (
  • This gave rise to the de novo protein synthesis theory: the formation of a long-term memory requires the synthesis of new proteins. (
  • In this annual report from the Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, work on the Cell Recognition and Synapse Formation project is explained and major findings with mouse and Drosophila homeobox research are provided. (
  • Shear stress also increased formation of colonies of progenitor cells that give rise to specific lineages of blood cells (red cells, lymphocytes, etc. (
  • In the conducting airway, MCCs are generated by basal stem/progenitor cells and act in concert with secretory cells to perform mucociliary clearance to expel pathogens from the lung. (
  • We found that quercetin/YM155-induced selective cell death is sufficient to completely inhibit teratoma formation after transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cells. (
  • The most rigorous and arguably accurate among current assays is teratoma formation in vivo . (
  • These are key characteristics of robust pluripotency and explain why teratoma formation is widely viewed in stem cell research as the "gold standard" for assessing pluripotency. (
  • Upon engraftment, teratoma formation is affected by three main factors: PSC type, cell number, and delivery route. (
  • Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. (
  • However, the function of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation is unclear. (
  • Here, we investigated the role of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development. (
  • Our findings reveal a new regulatory pathway of YY1/HDACs/miR-155/HBP1 in macrophage-derived foam cell formation during early atherogenesis and suggest that miR-155 is a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. (
  • Whole mounts double-labeled with antibodies to the 275 kDa hair-cell antigen and the tight junction protein cingulin were therefore used to examine the development of cell patterns in the basilar papilla. (
  • These results highlight the pivotal role of CDKN2B in cell fate determination and tumorigenic regulation and reveal an alternative pluripotent/multipotent cell reprogramming strategy that solely uses FMOD protein. (
  • Scientist discovered this protein called Nodal by injecting malignant melanoma cells in developing zebrafish embryos. (
  • Published Thursday in Molecular Cell , the work, done in fission yeast, reveals that a certain protein acts a like a traffic cop. (
  • For example, although epithelial cells in Drosophila do not develop TJs, a distinct region apical to the ZA, the subapical region (SAR), harbors protein complexes that colocalize with tight junctions in vertebrate cells. (
  • Autophagy is a cellular cleaning mechanism that normally clears any protein aggregates or other 'trash' within the cells, but that is somewhat disturbed in Alzheimer's patients. (
  • Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, the protein substance which enables red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. (
  • These inhibitions are associated with a down-regulation of RANK expression at both mRNA and cell surface protein levels and a decrease of NFATc1 stimulation and NF-κB nuclear translocation, whereas the gene expression of c-fms, CD14, and CD11a is up-regulated. (
  • 1990 ) let-60 , a gene that specifies cell fates during C. elegans vulval induction, encodes a ras protein. (
  • Hwp1 is a well-characterized Candida albicans cell surface protein, expressed only on hyphae, that mediates tight binding to oral epithelial cells. (
  • Hwp1 is the first cell surface protein known to be required for C. albicans biofilm formation in vivo and is thus an excellent therapeutic target. (
  • Erythrocytes are red blood cells which are responsible in the body for transport of the iron-rich protein haemoglobin carrying oxygen. (
  • Intact vinculin protein is required for control of cell shape, cell mechanics, and rac-dependent lamellipodia formation. (
  • Constitutively active rac also only induced extension of lamellipodia when microinjected into cells that expressed intact vinculin protein. (
  • The de novo protein synthesis theory of memory formation is a hypothesis about the formation of the physical correlates of memory in the brain. (
  • Protein synthesis inhibitors that work in prokaryotic cells are often used as clinically prescribed antibiotics, while those that act of eukaryotic cells have been adapted for research purposes. (
  • Finally, the team showed that when nitric oxide production was inhibited, in both cell cultures and live mouse embryos, the effects of shear stress on blood progenitor colony formation were reduced. (
  • They also found that blocking Nodal signaling reduced melanoma cell invasiveness, as well as cancer cell colony formation and tumor-forming ability. (
  • Spheroid colony formation is a typically method to identify cancer stem cells (CSC). (
  • Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE −/− mice and Ldlr −/− mice. (
  • Furthermore, adiponectin failed to block fat cell generation when bone marrow cells were derived from B6,129SPtgs2tm1Jed (COX-2+/-) mice. (
  • In a study published today in the journal Cell Reports , Drs. Per Nilsson, Takaomi Saido and their team show for the first time using transgenic mice that a lack of autophagy in neurons prevents the secretion of amyloid beta and the formation of amyloid beta plaques in the brain. (
  • A previous study published by Bi and Kuang in Nature Medicine has shown that when Notch signaling is inhibited in the fat cells of mice, the animals are obesity-resistant and less likely to develop diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. (
  • The findings, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine , show that when Notch signaling is turned up beyond normal levels in mice, those same white fat cells degenerate and turn cancerous. (
  • In vivo experiments in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE −/− mice showed that oral administration of asperlin for 12 weeks remarkably suppressed atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta, as revealed by the reduced aortic dilatation and decreased atherosclerotic lesion area. (
  • Zhou Y, Chen R, Liu D, Wu C, Guo P, Lin W. Asperlin Inhibits LPS-Evoked Foam Cell Formation and Prevents Atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− Mice. (
  • Treated mice that were normally of an age when bone loss would occur also had improved bone formation, as did those that were models for menopause. (
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. (
  • Germ cell numbers varied in trkA gene KO mice from those of wild-type mice at each age evaluated. (
  • In trkC gene KO mice, differences were detected in germ cell numbers when compared to wild-type mice at E17 and E19. (
  • Finally, neointima formation after mechanical arterial injury was increased in AMPK alpha 2(-/-) but not AMPK alpha 1(-/-) mice. (
  • Piceatannol essentially blocks the pathways necessary for immature fat cells to mature and grow. (
  • In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. (
  • B) Quantification of the number of cells immunostained for several markers of oligodendrocytes, neurons (TUJ1) and astrocytes (GFAP) at D8 and D15 (two independent experiments). (
  • These processes take place in brain cells called astrocytes, revealing another important way in which these cells help neurons. (
  • Research showed that NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons in the brain's basal ganglia function like gateways to the brain cells, letting in electrically charged ions to increase the activity and communication of neurons. (
  • The study also reveals that an accumulation of amyloid beta inside neurons is toxic for the cells. (
  • Contrary to what they were expecting, their results showed that a complete lack of autophagy within neurons prevents the formation of amyloid beta plaque around/outside the cells. (
  • Research published in the journal Neuron shows that NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons in the brain's basal ganglia are essential to habit formation. (
  • A line of research investigates long term potentiation (LTP), a process that describes how a memory can be consolidated between two neurons, or brain cells, ultimately by creating a circuit within the brain that can encode a memory. (
  • We investigated the potential mechanism for CD9-mediated cellular senescence and its role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. (
  • A compound found in red wine, grapes and other fruits, and similar in structure to resveratrol, is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity, according to a Purdue University study. (
  • Recent studies have shown that cooperative interactions also function during the formation of a complex cellular structure, the mitotic spindle. (
  • Disruption of carB resulted in a metabolic perturbation that increased cellular ATP and reduced persister formation. (
  • The Machine Part Cell Formation problem is the important step in the design of a Cellular Manufacturing system. (
  • Autophagy, a key cellular auto-cleaning mechanism, mediates the formation of amyloid beta plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • If you're looking to support your cellular energy from the food you eat and support red blood cell formation, B6 is the vitamin for you. (
  • Joint lead researcher Dr Marco Di Antonio, of Imperial, said: For the first time, we have been able to prove the quadruple helix DNA exists in our cells as a stable structure created by normal cellular processes. (
  • The results showed a positive linear correlation between Zn-media concentrations and cellular Zn uptake, and MT formation was observed. (
  • 1 : 5, cellular MT concentrations were no different to untreated cells. (
  • Gonadogenesis in the Drosophila embryo is a complex process involving numerous cellular migratory steps and cell-cell interactions. (
  • Design of prevascularized three-dimensional cell-dense tissues using a cell sheet stacking manipulation technology," Biomaterials , vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1646-1654, 2010. (
  • The significance of the research team's finding is profound in that it implies that through secretion of Nodal, aggressive melanoma cells maintain their plasticity and modulate the microenvironment, as exemplified by their ability to direct the formation of zebrafish tissues. (
  • Plant vascular tissues are composed of xylem, phloem and the intervening procambial or cambial cells ( Eames and MacDaniels, 1947 ). (
  • Plant stems contain most of the collectable terrestrial biomass, but the study of vascular procambium initiation in the stem is impeded because these cells are imbedded under layers of other tissues and are difficult to access. (
  • The formation of water-transporting tissues has been paramount to plants' colonisation of the land. (
  • The multiciliated cell (MCC) is an evolutionarily conserved cell type, which in vertebrates functions to promote directional fluid flow across epithelial tissues. (
  • Two California-based HFSP Long-Term Fellows, Leonardo Morsut and Satoshi Toda, describe their highly innovative research and how they are using synthetic cell biology tools to engineer customized self-organizing tissues. (
  • The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and thought to be supplied by osteoblasts or their precursors, thereby linking bone formation to resorption. (
  • They imitated bone formation in embryos and children, which uses cartilage as a template. (
  • Yet, this approach did lead to bone formation when cultured adult stem cells from bone marrow were used. (
  • This direct approach is, amongst others, involved in the formation of the bone found in the skull. (
  • Bone formation via cartilage as a template proved to be an efficient, if unexpected, approach. (
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes bone marrow stromal cell transplantation-mediated neural regeneration in traumatic brain injury," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 359, no. 1, pp. 40-45, 2007. (
  • Stimulation of endosteal bone formation by systemic injections of recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor in rats," Endocrinology , vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 1276-1284, 1995. (
  • Cell-based regenerative therapy has the potential to repair bone injuries or large defects that are recalcitrant to conventional treatment methods, including drugs and surgery. (
  • Here, we developed a multilayered cell-based bone formation system using cells coated with fibronectin-gelatin (FN-G) nanofilms. (
  • When compared with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), FReP cells exhibited a superior capability for bone and skeletal muscle regeneration with markedly less tumorigenic risk. (
  • A research team led by UC Davis Health System scientists has developed a novel technique to enhance bone growth by using a molecule which, when injected into the bloodstream, directs the body's stem cells to travel to the surface of bones. (
  • There are many stem cells, even in elderly people, but they do not readily migrate to bone," said Wei Yao, the principal investigator and lead author of the study. (
  • Directing stem cells to travel and adhere to the surface of bone for bone formation has been among the elusive goals in regenerative medicine. (
  • For the first time, we may have potentially found a way to direct a person's own stem cells to the bone surface where they can regenerate bone," said Lane, who is an Endowed Professor of Medicine and Rheumatology and an expert on osteoporosis. (
  • This technique could become a revolutionary new therapy for osteoporosis as well as for other conditions that require new bone formation. (
  • Multiple myeloma is characterized by the accumulation of clonal malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, which stimulates bone destruction by osteoclasts and reduces bone formation by osteoblasts. (
  • In turn, the changed bone microenvironment sustains survival of myeloma cells. (
  • Because resveratrol ( trans -3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) is reported to display antitumor activities on a variety of human cancer cells, we investigated the effects of this natural compound on myeloma and bone cells. (
  • In cultures of human primary monocytes, resveratrol inhibits dose-dependently receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand-induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-positive multinucleated cells, TRACP activity in the medium, up-regulation of cathepsin K gene expression, and bone resorption. (
  • Observational Study of the Effects Intravenous Bortezomib Has on Osteoblast (Cell That is Responsible for Bone Formation) Activity in Multiple Myeloma Patients. (
  • Multiple myeloma is different from other tumors in that several osteoclast activating factors (OAF) released from multiple myeloma cells resorb bone and, at the same time, activation of osteoblast is inhibited, leading to unbalance of breakdown and formation of bone. (
  • 2019) Single-cell sequencing of neonatal uterus reveals an Misr2+ endometrial progenitor indispensable for fertility. (
  • Several plant hormones, including ethylene and salicylic acid (SA), affect apical hook formation ( Wang and Guo, 2019 ). (
  • Our work highlights a critical link between the formation of the cardiovascular and hematopoietic systems. (
  • To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). (
  • We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. (
  • The effect of varying the Zn : PA molar ratios (1 : 0, 1 : 1, 1 : 5, 1 : 10, 1 : 20) on the Zn uptake and MT formation was determined. (
  • We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. (
  • We conclude that macrophage LKB1 reduction caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation and the progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • Moreover, other cell types, such as endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. (
  • HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. (
  • Provides 65 mg of iron, which is vital for red blood cell formation. (
  • It's also essential in red blood cell formation. (
  • Tumorigenicity is a well-documented risk to overcome for pluripotent or multipotent cell applications in regenerative medicine. (
  • In 2012, he was awarded an HFSP Long-Term Fellowship to train in the lab of Wendell Lim at the University of California San Francisco where he developed a new class of synthetic receptors called Synthetic Notch receptors that have far-reaching implications for cell therapies for cancer, autoimmunity, and regenerative medicine. (
  • This capability to become any somatic cell type within the human body has garnered significant attention and interest in the fields of cell biology and regenerative medicine. (
  • All multicellular organisms start life as a single cell. (
  • Three-dimensional assemblies of hPSCs facilitate interactions between cells and their microenvironment to promote morphogenesis, analogous to the multicellular organization that accompanies embryogenesis. (
  • A new study has revealed that key receptors on brain cells that function like 'gateways' are essential to enable habit formation. (
  • Productive engagement of MHC class I by inhibitory NK cell receptors depends on the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule. (
  • These data suggests that IL-10 may promote foam cell formation and is dependent on class-A, but not class B scavenger receptors. (
  • The activation of these receptors resulted in Ca2+ flooding the cell, initiating a cascade of secondary messengers. (
  • Similar to other tetraspanins, CD9 generally does not function as a cell-surface receptor, but rather as an organizer of multimolecular complexes, including integrins, immunoglobulin superfamily members such as EWI-F and EWI-2, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, claudin-1, and other tetraspanins [ 10 ]. (
  • These cells are defined by their expression of Misr2+, the receptor for Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), which is secreted by the testes of male embryos to prevent the maturation of structures that would give rise to female reproductive organs. (
  • The NMDA receptor is a commander, which is why it's called a master switch for brain cell connectivity," said Wang, the study's first author. (
  • A single receptor on natural killer cells recognizes an amino acid sequence conserved across Zika, dengue, and related pathogens. (
  • Our data support the hypothesis that a drop in intracellular ATP is a general mechanism of persister formation in bacteria. (
  • We are now presenting a mechanism through which the identity of water-conducting wood cells can be assigned," says Bishopp. (
  • We found that resveratrol reduces dose-dependently the growth of myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226 and OPM-2) by a mechanism involving cell apoptosis. (
  • However, mechanism of spheroid formation remains unclear in gastric cancer (GC). (
  • Using the model haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii DS2, we demonstrated persister cell formation in this domain, with time-kill curves exhibiting a characteristic biphasic pattern following starvation or exposure to lethal concentrations of various biocidal compounds. (
  • The observation of persister cell formation by this haloarchaeon may provide some insights into the survival of these organisms in stressful or dynamic environments. (
  • The low frequency of persister cell formation makes it difficult to isolate and study persisters, and bacterial persistence is often attributed to a quiescent metabolic state induced by toxins that are regulated through toxin-antitoxin systems. (
  • Matrix-embedded cells control osteoclast formation. (
  • However, RANKL is expressed by a variety of cell types, and it is unclear which of them are essential sources for osteoclast formation. (
  • The second team, publishing in Nature , was led by George Q. Daley, MD, PhD, director of the Stem Cell Transplantation Program at Children's Hospital Boston, and Guillermo García-Cardeña, director of the Laboratory for Systems Biology of the Center for Excellence in Vascular Biology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, along with scientists from the Indiana University School of Medicine. (
  • Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and SCW formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses. (
  • Whether AMPK alpha alters vascular neointima formation induced by vascular injury is unknown. (
  • Publishing in Cell , Zon and colleagues discovered that compounds that modulate blood flow had a potent impact on the expression of a master regulator of blood formation, known as Runx1, which is also a recognized marker for the blood stem cells that give rise to all the cell types in the blood system. (
  • Further work showed that nitric oxide, whose production is increased in the presence of blood flow, is the key biochemical regulator: Increasing nitric oxide production restored blood stem cell production in the mutant fish embryos, while inhibiting nitric oxide production led to reduced stem cell number. (
  • That's about when the gene Runx1, a master regulator of blood cell development, becomes activated in the cells that line the blood vessels. (
  • A gut hormone, ghrelin, is a key regulator of new nerve cells in the adult brain, a Swansea-led research team has discovered. (
  • Our work highlights the crucial role of ghrelin as a regulator of new nerve cells in the adult brain, and the damaging effect of the UAG form specifically. (
  • Here, we used a pool-based short hairpin RNA screening approach and identified TRRAP, an essential component of multiple histone acetyltransferase complexes, as a central regulator of MCC formation. (
  • Prior studies indicate that HWP1 expression is dependent upon Bcr1, a key regulator of biofilm formation. (
  • These processes resemble hyphal growth in filamentous fungi in that they involve polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and localized cell wall synthesis. (
  • These dramatic morphogenetic events are likely to reflect major changes in the organization of the glial cell actin cytoskeleton. (
  • These data indicate that vinculin's ability to physically couple integrins to the cytoskeleton, to mechanically stabilize cell shape, and to support rac-dependent lamellipodia formation all appear to depend on its intact three-dimensional structure. (
  • Indeed, sustained suppression of CDKN2B resulted in tumorigenic, pluripotent FReP cells that formed teratomas in vivo that were indistinguishable from iPSC-derived teratomas. (
  • Further analysis with a newly developed rat catheter model has shown that Bcr1 is also required for biofilm formation in vivo: a bcr1 Δ/ bcr1 Δ strain is unable to populate the luminal catheter surface by 48 h after inoculation, whereas the wild-type and bcr1 Δ/ bcr1 Δ+p BCR1 -complemented strains create biofilms within 12 to 24 h ( 11 ). (
  • However, ALS3 is clearly not the sole functional Bcr1 target because an als3 / als3 mutant is capable of biofilm formation in vivo in the rat catheter model ( 11 ). (
  • Following their establishment in vivo , teratomas typically progress by remodeling their microenvironment to support their growth and the formation of blood vessels for nutrients. (
  • These sensitized cells agglutinate in the presence of antibody specific to the adsorbed antigen. (
  • The former are resting cells that are insensitive to CY until exposed to specific antigen, while the latter are drawn from a rapidly replicating precursor pool and are susceptible to CY at all times. (
  • These data provide the first "proof of concept" that small-molecule targeting of hPSC-specific antiapoptotic pathway(s) is a viable strategy to prevent tumor formation by selectively eliminating remaining undifferentiated pluripotent cells for safe hPSC-based therapy. (
  • Acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration using nerve conduits in combination with induced pluripotent stem cell technology and a basic fibroblast growth factor drug delivery system," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A , vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 1370-1378, 2014. (
  • Aggregate formation and suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated progeny. (
  • Moreover, the impact of nitrate availability on the transcriptional regulation of lateral root formation in Arabidopsis and cereals has been studied. (
  • qRT-PCR analysis revealed that up-regulation of KIFC1 in both MKN-45 and MKN-74 cells that were grown as spheroids. (
  • 2018;24:986-993) used single-cell RNA sequencing to identify T cell. (
  • Apical cells have active mitotic cycles, whereas subapical cells are arrested for growth and mitosis until branch formation reinitiates tip growth and nuclear divisions. (
  • In the vegetative mycelium, only tip growing cells contain actively dividing nuclei, which have synchronous mitotic cycles. (
  • This behavior became the foundation of the first robust hypothesis of mitotic spindle formation ( Kirschner and Mitchison, 1986 ). (
  • Although the search-and-capture hypothesis readily explained several key features of mitotic spindle formation, it also presented several conceptual difficulties. (
  • Samples were taken at the indicated time points and the CMI was determined for each sample by counting 200 cells and determining the percentage that contain condensed mitotic chromatin ( n = 3). (
  • In animal cells, the mitotic spindle plays a pivotal role in the formation and placement of the cleavage furrow. (
  • How the mitotic spindle controls cytokinetic events at the cell envelope is a key challenge in cell division research. (
  • Kinesins are categorized into 14 subfamilies and classified as mitotic kinesins, which are involved in cell division, and non-mitotic kinesins, which are principally involved in intracellular transport. (
  • Confirming this observation, a strain of mutant embryos that lacked a heartbeat and blood circulation exhibited severely reduced numbers of blood stem cells. (
  • Similar experiments with cells taken from mouse embryos further supported the idea that biomechanical forces help stimulate the development of blood cells. (
  • Active tumor cell motility has long been appreciated to play a major role in invasion and metastasis. (
  • Here we add data that seeding of cells during surgery may add to the risk of metastasis formation. (
  • Meanwhile, current evidence supports the contribution of breast cancer stem cells in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to. (
  • Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells. (
  • assay has become widely employed to quantify stem-like cells in a population. (
  • This approach removes cell aggregation and potentially shortens a 5- to 14-day assay to a 24 hours. (
  • In a biofilm cell retention assay, we find that the hwp1 / hwp1 mutant is defective in retention of nonadherent bcr1 / bcr1 mutant cells. (
  • Myelin formation was quantified using a custom semi-automated method that is suitable for larger scale analysis. (
  • Finally, early myelination was followed in real time over several days and the results have led us to propose a new model for myelin formation. (
  • Treated Schwann cells branch aberrantly and form multiple, small, independent myelin segments along the length of axons, each with associated nodes and paranodes. (
  • This organization partially resembles myelin formed by oligodendrocytes rather than the single long myelin sheath characteristic of Schwann cells. (
  • a ) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (
  • b ) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (
  • Resistance of primary breast cancer cells with enhanced pluripotency and stem cell activity to sex hormonal stimulation and suppression. (
  • Cooper, J. The role of actin polymerization in cell motility. (
  • The cells of all epithelia analyzed so far have an adhesive belt that encircles the cell just below the apical surface, which is called the zonula adherens (ZA) and is associated with an electron-dense cytoplasmic plaque of actin. (