Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides. It is formed by reaction of sphingosine with UDP-galactose and then itself reacts with fatty acid-Coenzyme A to form the cerebroside.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.

Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance. (1/1)


The liver is our largest internal organ and it plays major roles in drug detoxification and immunity, where the ingestion of extracellular material through phagocytosis is a critical pathway. Phagocytosis is the deliberate endocytosis of large particles, microbes, dead cells or cell debris and can lead to cell-in-cell structures. Various types of cell endocytosis have been recently described for hepatic epithelia (hepatocytes), which are non-professional phagocytes. Given that up to 80% of the liver comprises hepatocytes, the biological impact of cell-in-cell structures in the liver can have profound effects in liver regeneration, inflammation and cancer. This review brings together the latest reports on four types of endocytosis in the liver -efferocytosis, entosis, emperipolesis and enclysis, with a focus on hepatocyte biology.
Microprocessor sensor technology provides continuous feedback to equalize pressure and maximize patient comfort. The mattress consists of 20, 10 high cell-in-cell designed air bladders. In case of a power failure the air cells within the 10 air cell will remain inflated offering sufficient weight support for the patient. For the home care and long term care markets. Head Pillow feature. CPR feature allows for rapid deflation of mattress system. Static function can suspend the alternating mode (has autorecovery feature). Visible and audible alarms with Alarm Mute feature (3 minute auto-return feature)
A cell-in-cell process identifies the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis. AU - Sottile, Francesco. AU - Aulicino, Francesco. AU - Theka, Ilda. AU - Cosma, Maria Pia. PY - 2016/11/9. Y1 - 2016/11/9. N2 - Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce ...
درباره حنان. کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان با استفاده از فن‌آوری‌ها و استانداردهای نوین در حوزه فن‌آوری اطلاعات با رویکردی کاربرمدار طراحی شده و تمامی فرآیندهای آن مبتنی بر وب صورت می‌پذیرد. در ذیل ویژگی‌های برجسته کتابخانه دیجیتال حنان به صورت مختصر بیان می‌گردد: اساسا مبتنی بر وب و بدون محدودیت کاربر پشتیبانی از تمامی مرورگرها واسط کاربری Multilingual ( چند زبانه ) داینامیک بودن طراحی فیلدهای اطلاعاتی و کاربرگه‌های ورود اطلاعات داینامیک بودن فرمت‌های نمایش اطلاعات مبتنی بر استاندارد DC ذخیره سازی اطلاعات در قالب استاندارد Dubline core مدیریت همزمان منابع ...
In females, it is suggested that cysts form from dividing progenitor cells. During this cyst formation, 4 rounds of division ... Male germ-line stem cells divide asymmetrically to give one stem cell and a spermatogonia cell (unspecialised male germ cell) ... Germ cell nest breakdown involves the degeneration of many germ cell nuclei and the invasion of pre-granulosa cells into the ... In the germ cell nest, one germ cell matures into an oocyte whereas others act as 'nurse cells', transferring their contents ...
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Migrating cells are able to polarize the formation of blebs so blebbing only occurs on the leading edge of the cell.A 2D moving ... Blebs have been seen in cultured cells in certain stages of the cell cycle. These blebs are used for cell locomotion in ... Bleb formation has been artificially induced in multiple lab cell models using different methods. By inserting a micropipette ... In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge of the plasma membrane of a cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology. It is ...
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... formation is a general response of cells which occurs when the capacity of the proteasome is exceeded by the ... In eukaryotic cells, an aggresome refers to an aggregation of misfolded proteins in the cell, formed when the protein ... Consequently, elaborate systems have evolved to protect cells from the deleterious effects of misfolded proteins. Cells mainly ... An aggresome forms around the microtubule organizing center in eukaryotic cells, adjacent to or enveloping the cell's ...
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Formations due to condensation, such as clouds, haze, fog, and mist, are composed of hydrometeors. All precipitation types are ... Owen E. Thompson (1996). Hadley Circulation Cell. Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Channel Video Productions. ... ThinkQuest team 26634 (1999). The Formation of Deserts. Archived 2012-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Oracle ThinkQuest Education ... Michael Pidwirny (2008). "CHAPTER 8: Introduction to the Hydrosphere (e). Cloud Formation Processes". Physical Geography. ...
... peppers purported weight management properties after they revealed that piperine from black pepper extract may block fat cell ... Black pepper extract could fight fat by blocking cell formation. By Nathan Gray ... compound found in the spice could block the formation of new fat cells. ... finding that both black pepper extract and piperine strongly inhibited the fat cell differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell, without ...
We discovered that exposure of cell or tissue lysates to a biotinylated isoxazole (b-iso … ... Eukaryotic cells contain assemblies of RNAs and proteins termed RNA granules. Many proteins within these bodies contain KH or ... Cell-free formation of RNA granules: low complexity sequence domains form dynamic fibers within hydrogels Cell. 2012 May 11;149 ... DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.017 Abstract Eukaryotic cells contain assemblies of RNAs and proteins termed RNA granules. Many ...
... landscape artist Charles Jencks developed this amazing project entitled Cells of Life. It was completed as part of Jupiter ... Gorgeously Sculpted Formations Represent the Life of a Cell. By Katie Hosmer on August 21, 2013 ... The foundation for Jencks creation was based on the concept of the life of a cell, as well as the cell division process called ... He sculpted hill formations into layered spirals, merged sections of land together with bridges, and organized the complete ...
... we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced pluripotent stem cell- ... The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted ... We will continue to study the application of this culture protocol to cell-based cholestasis assay system. As a result, the ... After the model substrates of the biliary efflux transporters were taken up into cells, their subsequent excretion into the ...
Coilin is considered to be the CB marker protein and is essential for proper CB formation and composition in mammalian cells. ... Furthermore, all the phosphomutant cells lines show a significant reduction in CB formation when compared to wild-type after ... and are often found in cells with high transcriptional demands such as neuronal and cancer cells, but can also be observed less ... Cell proliferation studies on these lines reveal that only wild-type coilin and the OFF mutant are sufficient to rescue the ...
The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, ... The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, ... but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice ... but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice ...
Bisphenol S found to trigger the formation of fat cells in our bodies. Wednesday, February 27, 2019 by: Rhonda Johansson Tags: ... A 2016 study published in Endocrinology revealed that BPS exposure can induce the formation of human fat cells. For the ... Studies are now showing that the chemical replacement for bisphenol A (BPA) may trigger the formation of fat cells, suggesting ... "The study is the first to show that BPS exposure can induce the formation of human fat cells." ...
Creatine Stimulates Muscle Growth by Triggering Satellite Cell Formation by AST Sports Science time to read: 2 min ... Creatine Stimulates Muscle Growth by Triggering Satellite Cell Formation. by AST Sports Science , Research ... process by stimulating the formation of muscle satellite cells.. Years ago scientists thought that only anabolic steroids ... These satellite cells are located deep within muscle fibers, between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. In response to mechanical ...
Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced micronucleus formation in breast cancer cells Author: Kabil, Alena ISNI: 0000 ... Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced micronucleus formation in breast cancer cells Aneuploidy, or numerical changes ... When MCF-7 cells were exposed to estrogenic agents in combination with the specific kinase inhibitors PP2 and PD 98059, ... These findings suggest that the Src/Raf/Erk pathway plays a role in micronucleus formation by estrogenic compounds. Enhanced ...
HZB team was able to experimentally investigate the colloidal chemistry of perovskite precursor solutions used for solar cell ... Perovskite Solar Cells: Insights into early stages of structure formation. Using Small-Angle Scattering the early stages of ... Observing the formation of structures. Now, an HZB team led by Prof. Antonio Abate has used small-angle scattering to ... structure formation in precursor solutions of perovskite solar cells have been explored. © M. Flatken/HZB ...
Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. Wang HR, Zhang Y, Ozdamar B, Ogunjimi ...
Organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as an important class of next generation solar cells due to their remarkably low ... In situ investigation of the formation and metastability of formamidinium lead tri-iodide perovskite solar cells† ... In situ investigation of the formation and metastability of formamidinium lead tri-iodide perovskite solar cells J. A. Aguiar, ... Organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as an important class of next generation solar cells due to their remarkably low ...
NAC promotes stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cell formation and potent antitumor immunity in vivo. We have demonstrated that ... Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) immunotherapy of antitumor T cells redirected with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or T cell ... Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) immunotherapy benefits from early differentiated stem cell memory T (Tscm) cells capable of ... Notch-mediated conversion of activated T cells into stem cell memory-like T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Nat Commun. 2017; ...
Their up-regulation promotes cell survival and repression of T cell-specific gene expression programs that are characteristic ... We used anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with and without the characteristic t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation to study the ... The deregulated genes are in spatial proximity within the nuclear space of t(2;5)-negative ALCL cells, facilitating their ... deregulation and spatial genome reorganization near breakpoints prior to formation of translocations in anaplastic large cell ...
LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACT: Lung tumor cell migration and metastasis formation is conversely regulated by transmembrane and ... LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACT: Lung tumor cell migration and metastasis formation is conversely regulated by transmembrane and ... LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACT: Lung tumor cell migration and metastasis formation is conversely regulated by transmembrane and ... LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACT: Lung tumor cell migration and metastasis formation is conversely regulated by transmembrane and ...
Effect of epidermal growth factor administration on intestinal cell proliferation, crypt fission and polyp formation in ... Effect of epidermal growth factor administration on intestinal cell proliferation, crypt fission and polyp formation in ... Cell proliferation and crypt fission were analysed using microdissection techniques and the number and size of polyps in the ... EGF did not initiate polyp formation in control or Min mice. However, as polyp size is an important determinant for subsequent ...
Longitudinal high-throughput TCR repertoire profiling reveals the dynamics of T cell memory formation after mild COVID-19 ... Longitudinal high-throughput TCR repertoire profiling reveals the dynamics of T cell memory formation after mild COVID-19 ... Longitudinal high-throughput TCR repertoire profiling reveals the dynamics of T cell memory formation after mild COVID-19 ... Longitudinal high-throughput TCR repertoire profiling reveals the dynamics of T cell memory formation after mild COVID-19 ...
Proper regulation of the formation and stabilization of epithelial cell-cell adhesion. * Post author By exposed ... 1988 However Nectins are also crucial for the formation of all other cell-cell junctions (Honda et al. 2003 Ikeda et al. 1999 ... Early experiments showed that the E-cadherin complex is a master regulator of cell-cell adhesion because the formation of all ... 2000 Thus much is known about the regulation of actin dynamics downstream of cell-cell junction formation. Conversely however ...
KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 ... In conclusion, KLF2 alleviated endothelial cell injury and inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by ... KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 ... KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 ...
... ... 2005)‎. Improved Dengue Virus Plague Formation in BHK21 and LLCMK Cells: Evaluation of some Factors.. WHO Regional Office for ...
Human IgM Inhibits the Formation of Titan-Like Cells in Cryptococcus neoformans. ... neoformans grown in titan cell-inducing medium with IgM, not IgG, inhibited titan-like cell formation. (iii) Absorption of IgM ... Human IgM Inhibits the Formation of Titan-Like Cells in Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal Article (Journal Article) ... neoformans titan cell formation in vitro (i) Fluorescence microscopy showed normal human IgG and IgM bind C. neoformans (ii) C ...
Measurement of aggregate formation and abnormal cell nuclei. Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde at 72 h after ... COS-7 cells (the only cell model that has been reported to show aggregation and cell death as a readout for mutant OPMD ... Bacterial and yeast chaperones reduce both aggregate formation and cell death in mammalian cell models of Huntingtons disease ... Congo red, doxycycline, and HSP70 overexpression reduce aggregate formation and cell death in cell models of oculopharyngeal ...
... but rather to contribute to microenvironment formation for bone formation by differentiating tissue stem cells into osteoblasts ... In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells during ectopic bone formation of mouse femoral muscle were traced using a GFP ... The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow ... The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow ...
Gene expression patterns associated with in vitro tracheary element formation in isolated single mesophyll cells of Zinnia ... on differentiation to tracheary elements of isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans and formation of secondary cell walls. ... Plant and Cell Physiology 24(4): 603-614, 1983. Relationship between tracheary element differentiation and the cell cycle in ... Tracheary element formation from isolated Zinnia leaf mesophyll cells is an excellent system for the dissection of patterned ...
However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the ... However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the ... However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the ... However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the ...
Longitudinal tracking of individual T-cell clones reveals the expansion of pre-existing T-cell memory in response to SARS-CoV-2 ... T cells produce signalling molecules that regulate myeloid cell behaviour, drive, and support CD8 response and the formation of ... and human iNKT cells. Strikingly, we found that regulatory iNKT cells, such as adipose iNKT cells, undergo blunted activation, ... T cells by antigen-specific B cells, but there might be other mechanisms such as the migration of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells ...
Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic co…. ... Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic contact.. AUTHORS. Ray TA , ... Here we identify the earliest events that initiate formation of the direction-selective circuit in the inner plexiform layer of ... We demonstrate that radially-migrating newborn starburst amacrine cells establish homotypic contacts on arrival at the inner ...
The HeLa cells depleted of HURP eventually escaped from their cell cycle arrest induced by unattached chromosomes. The same was ... William A. Wells; Biased spindle formation . J Cell Biol 19 June 2006; 173 (6): 825b. doi: ... Almost half of all HURP-depleted cells had one or more unaligned chromosome during metaphase. The kinetochores of these ... This suggests that the mitotic checkpoint is weak in certain tumor-derived cells, which would promote genomic instability. ...
Physicochemical parameters influencing the formation of biofilms compared in mutant and wild-type cells of Pseudomonas ... Certain of these gacS mutant cells displayed strong interactions of the AFM tip with cell boundaries, the role of which in ... Physicochemical parameters influencing the formation of biofilms compared in mutant and wild-type cells of Pseudomonas ... Tapping mode atomic force microscopy revealed elongated cell structure in both of the mutant biofilm cells. Digital pulsed ...
muscarinic-receptor, inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-formation, ethanol, protein kinase C, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. in ... 5-trisphosphate-formation; ethanol; protein kinase C; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{5}}, pages ... Ethanol caused an increase in the EC50 value of carbachol for the initial rate of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, ... Ethanol caused an increase in the EC50 value of carbachol for the initial rate of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, ...
  • The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted during the early stage of drug development. (
  • A study involving a series of in-vitro (test tube) analyses have now revealed that creatine monohydrate has the rare capacity to directly stimulate growth in muscle cells. (
  • These in-vitro studies reveal what happens within the cells that builds the understanding of what is actually triggering effects. (
  • An in vitro AS model was established by the induction of oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (
  • In vitro , Ptn stimulated human adipose tissue derived ASCs to differentiate into lipid-laden adipocytes by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα), with differentiated cells increasingly secreting adiponectin, leptin, glycerol and total triglycerides. (
  • We demonstrate that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), one such factor that is known to be potent against angiogenesis, promotes osteoblastogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, but does not need co-encapsulation of cells in alginate bead scaffolds for osteogeneration in vivo. (
  • Potential in vitro effects of carbon nanotubes on human aortic endothelial cells. (
  • They did this by reconstructing the Min protein system in an in-vitro flow cell, with the results showing the same protein patterns as were revealed in the simulation. (
  • Solutions will be evaluated for establishment of a human PSC-derived in vitro retina model system that resembles the morphology of a healthy-native retina and is viable through formation of photoreceptor outer segments and/or long-term survival of retinal ganglion cells with extension of axonal processes. (
  • Human alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells are cultured on either side of the porous membrane. (
  • Carcinogenesis - The generation of cancer from normal cells, correctly the formation of a carcinoma from epithelial cells. (
  • Macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells then mobilize T cells and neutrophils with interleukin 8 (IL-8). (
  • We discovered that exposure of cell or tissue lysates to a biotinylated isoxazole (b-isox) chemical precipitated hundreds of RNA-binding proteins with significant overlap to the constituents of RNA granules. (
  • The research team found that cells that were exposed to even the tiniest concentrations of BPS exhibited a large accumulation of lipids, or fat-like substances that collect in the blood and tissue. (
  • 11- 13 A causal role for aggregation in cell death in tissue culture models of OPMD is supported by complementary data from our lab and Rouleau's group. (
  • Proper regulation of the formation and stabilization of epithelial cell-cell adhesion is crucial in embryonic morphogenesis and tissue repair processes. (
  • Thus, the main role of bone marrow-derived cells in ectopic osteogenesis may not be to induce bone regeneration by differentiation into osteoblasts, but rather to contribute to microenvironment formation for bone formation by differentiating tissue stem cells into osteoblasts. (
  • Periosteum is vital for fracture healing, as a highly vascular and multipotential stromal cell- (MSC-) rich tissue. (
  • I-L ) Cyclin E + /GFAP + cells were broadly observed in the spared tissue (insert in L). ( M-P ) E2F5 is not only expressed by GFAP + hypertrophic astrocytes (insert in P) in the lesion scar border, but also in the central lesion area where GFAP + astrocytes are absent. (
  • Here, we report that Pyrintegrin (Ptn), a 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidine known to promote embryonic stem cells survival, is robustly adipogenic and induces postnatal adipose tissue formation in vivo of transplanted adipose stem/progenitor cells (ASCs) and recruited endogenous cells. (
  • Remarkably, Ptn-adsorbed 3D scaffolds implanted in the inguinal fat pad had enhanced adipose tissue formation, suggesting Ptn's ability to induce in situ adipogenesis of endogenous cells. (
  • Bone engineering is a rapidly developing area of reconstructive medicine where bone inducing factors and/or cells are combined with a scaffold material to regenerate the structure and function of the original tissue. (
  • Soft tissue injuries that occur during foundations of growth characteristics of S. iniae and its in- teractions with piscine host cells have recently been com- the preparation of fresh fi sh from wet markets usually result plemented by molecular studies. (
  • Also, based on findings on cell functions at the tissue level obtained by the analysis of the organ on a chip, cell delivery therapy was investigated. (
  • In order to recapitulate the ocular fundus functions, neural supporting cells such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were cultured within a three-dimensional microfluidic device, and cell responses at the tissue level to changes in the microenvironment were analyzed. (
  • Also, the obtained results were applied to control the tissue functions of RPE cells cultured on the polymeric nanosheets, which was extended to a method to deliver an RPE sheet into the subretinal space. (
  • Journal Article] Three-dimensional co-culture of C2C12/PC12 cells improves skeletal muscle tissue formation and function. (
  • The application of electrodes causes the contraction of myocytes (muscle cells) leading to the finding of a relationship between tissue stress and the radius of curvature produced in the muscular thin films during contraction. (
  • Once the mutation occurs it may be passed on to each successive generation of cells in the same organ or tissue, but it will not be passed on to offspring. (
  • As cells age, they can undergo cellular senescence , which contributes to tissue dysfunction and age-related disorders. (
  • The roles of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) in regulating cell and tissue function. (
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (
  • Normal functioning of each cell, tissue and organ in our body requires that our red blood cells are able to do their job of delivering oxygen and removing waste products (metabolites) by passing through the micro-circulation, that intricate web of tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that serves every part of our body. (
  • Tissue-on-a-chip systems that use cells grown in 2-D co-culture and do not fully represent the structure, morphology, and function of the human retina are also not of interest. (
  • Stem cell biology is an important study field to understand tissue regeneration and the implementation of regenerative medicine 11 . (
  • This study takes advantage of the unique epidemiological study, coordinated by IARC, of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-incidence populations, which provides a large series of tumour, tumour-adjacent normal, and surrogate tissue samples with high-quality epidemiological and clinical data. (
  • My team and I also have used NIH funding to identify an essential peptide-a small piece of protein-that seems to be able to stop and possibly reverse the formation of fibrosis in mouse and human tissue. (
  • At the onset of collective cell migration, a subset of cells within an initially homogenous population acquires a distinct 'leader' phenotype with characteristic morphology and motility. (
  • However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the migration process remain to be determined. (
  • Collectively, our findings suggest that a reduction of mechanical force near the boundary promotes Notch1-Dll4 signalling to dynamically regulate the density of leader cells during collective cell migration. (
  • This study is aimed at comparing human periosteum and donor-matched iliac crest BM MSC content and characterising MSCs in terms of colony formation, growth kinetics, phenotype, cell migration patterns, and trilineage differentiation capacity. (
  • Live cell tracking allowed determination of unique morphological and migration characteristics of periosteal MSCs that can be used for the development of novel bone graft substitutes to be preferentially repopulated by these cells. (
  • We show that Gem co-localizes with F-actin and is involved both in T-cell spontaneous cell migration as well as chemotaxis in the presence of SDF-1/CXCL12. (
  • Importantly, gem knock-down in HTLV-1-infected cells decreases cell migration and conjugate formation. (
  • Nanowerk News ) For many processes important for life such as cell division, cell migration, and the development of organs, the spatially and temporally correct formation of biological patterns is essential. (
  • The common themes include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle and apoptosis, cell polarity and migration, cell-cell interactions, pattern formation and organ development. (
  • It inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration [5]. (
  • Viable cells may remain in non-phagocytic cells ( EMPERIPOLESIS ), undergo cell division, pass through and then out of the host cell ( TRANSCELLULAR CELL MIGRATION ), or trigger APOPTOSIS of the invaded cell. (
  • Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that line the airway. (
  • The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. (
  • Therefore, we thoroughly explored the phenotype of human endothelial cells undergoing replicative senescence (sHUVECs) and observed elongated/branched mitochondria, accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs), increased ROS and IL-1β production and reduced expression of Bcl-2 compared to younger cells (yHUVECs). (
  • The osteogenic phenotype of cultured cell-scaffold constructs was heightened with a sol-gel derived titania coating, but not with a mixed titania-silica coating. (
  • This study ( EpiDRIVERS ) aims to test the hypothesis that ERGs, when disrupted through genetic or non-mutational mechanisms, may act as drivers ("epidrivers") in cancer development and confer a cancer cell phenotype (and potentially synergize with environmental exposure) (Figure 7). (
  • A 3-D human retina organoid system that mimics the physiological and morphological features of the in vivo biology, consists of the major retina cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells and Muller glia) with appropriate lamination and synaptic organization, and represents their biological functions and interplay. (
  • Molecular biology studies are supported by strong research and training programs in cell biology, developmental biology and genetics. (
  • "Our findings suggest that piperine, a major component of black pepper, inhibits fat cell differentiation by down-regulating the transcriptional activity of PPARγ (and LXRα) and suppressing the expression of PPARγ (and LXRα)," ​ said the researchers, led by Soo-Jong Um from Sejong University, Korea. (
  • Um and his colleagues investigated the underlying mechanisms of the fat-fighting activity of black pepper extract and its constituent piperine - finding that both black pepper extract and piperine strongly inhibited the fat cell differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell, without affecting cytotoxicity. (
  • The possible roles of these differentiation-specific genes during tracheary element formation are discussed. (
  • Osteogenic differentiation in static cultures and ectopic bone formation in cell seeded scaffolds were enhanced in composites, with 30 wt-% of bioactive glass filler. (
  • Mast cells also release chemotactic factors that contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, whose proliferation and differentiation from bone marrow progenitors is promoted by IL-5. (
  • Significant advances over currently available protocols in areas such as duration of culture, yield, and maturity/differentiation of all cell types in appropriate numbers and ratio. (
  • This leads skin cells to renew their cell cycle of proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate (PMA)‑induced THP‑1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages which were transformed to foam cells by ox‑LDL incubation. (
  • For many years, researchers have been focused on other cell types, like endothelial cells and macrophages, but more recent studies have highlighted a role of smooth muscle cells in plaque formation. (
  • Moreover, cortistatin reduced the capacity of endothelial cells to bind and recruit immune cells to the plaque and impaired the formation of foam cells by enhancing cholesterol efflux from macrophages . (
  • Pathogenic Salmonella species are engulfed by the phagocytic cells of the gut, which then present them to the macrophages of the lamina propria. (
  • Major light microscopic alterations observed were proliferation and hypertrophy of the terminal bronchiolar cells, consisting of ciliated and Clara cells, hypersecretion of the epithelial mucin in the goblet cells of both the bronchial and the proximal bronchiolar epithelium, hyperplasia of alveolar epithelium, mobilization of alveolar macrophages and occasional presence of peribronchial or bronchiolar chronic inflammation. (
  • Submicroscopic changes of pulmonary alveoli were represented by focal thickening of the basement membrane, multiple foci of hyperplastic type II cell (the precondition of the alveologenic tumor), active discharge of osmiophilic lamellar bodies from the type II cell and phagocytosis of the bodies by macrophages, appearance of cholesterol crystalloids in the macrophages, degeneration of alveolar septal cells and occasional appearance of a large nucleus with swelling of the capillary endothelium. (
  • Eukaryotic cells contain assemblies of RNAs and proteins termed RNA granules. (
  • Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. (
  • The formation of intracellular amyloid-like inclusions by mutant proteins is a feature of two groups of codon reiteration diseases, for which there are currently no treatments. (
  • In mammalian cell based models of both polyglutamine and polyalanine diseases, the mutant proteins are much more prone to aggregate formation than their wild-type counterparts and cause significantly more cell death. (
  • 2010 preceding the Meisoindigo formation of apical TJs (Fanning and Anderson 2009 For Cadherin-actin linkage α-catenin is crucial but additional proteins including EPLIN and Vinculin could be needed as well (Abe and Takeichi 2008 Watabe-Uchida et al. (
  • PEDF-mediated bone formation in a muscle pocket in vivo model was confirmed by microcomputed tomography (microCT), histology (haematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue staining), immunostaining for bone markers and for collagen I-processing proteins (heat shock protein 47 and membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase). (
  • The formation of protein-network by interactions of the proteins with anti-pathogen activity released from lutoids and accumulation of protein-network by binding to the cytoskeleton are crucial for the rapid occlusion of laticifer cells in rubber tree. (
  • The proper distribution of proteins is important for the development and function of both individual cells and whole organisms. (
  • We first demonstrate that Gem, a member of the small GTP-binding proteins within the Ras superfamily, is expressed both at the RNA and protein levels in Tax-expressing cells and in HTLV-1-infected cell lines. (
  • Upon delivery to the plasma membrane, most SNARE clusters in resting cells do not produce detectable FRET between t-SNARE proteins. (
  • The free radicals and oxidative environment can damage DNA proteins and lipids in the skin cells. (
  • The bacterium E. coli uses various Min proteins circulating in a cell to determine at which location cell division takes place. (
  • A decisive factor here is that the proteins involved occur at different frequencies depending on their location in the cell and chemical state - which is to say, they have a variety of different densities. (
  • We've now managed to reduce the complexity of this system by developing a theory that is based solely on the total densities of the proteins, such that we can completely mirror the dynamics of pattern formation," says Frey. (
  • The vascular endothelium is formed by a sheet of endothelial cells tethered together by junctional proteins such as tight and adherens junctions. (
  • Thus in vivo trials in patients with sickle-cell disease are suggested. (
  • There is now increasing evidence that ISCs are involved in the occurrence of vaso-occlusive and haemolytic crises in sickle-cell disease [5-12]. (
  • B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). (
  • The National Reference Centre for Sickle Cell Disease is a specialized medical centre that aims to be a one-stop shop for people who suffer from sickle cell disease. (
  • Takabatake K, Tsujigiwa H, Song Y, Matsuda H, Kawai H, Fujii M, Hamada M, Nakano K, Kawakami T, Nagatsuka H. The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Transplantation Model. (
  • In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells during ectopic bone formation of mouse femoral muscle were traced using a GFP bone marrow transplantation model. (
  • Ectopic bone formation was histologically assessed at postoperative days 7, 14, and 28. (
  • Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts and osteocytes involved in ectopic bone formation were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts and hematopoietic cells involved in bone formation were GFP-positive. (
  • Nagatsuka, H. The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Transplantation Model. (
  • Furthermore, bioactive modifications were applied to these basic scaffold types, and their effect on the osteogenic responses was evaluated in cell culture and ectopic bone formation studies. (
  • The latter coating also resulted in delayed ectopic bone formation in bone marrow stromal cell seeded scaffolds. (
  • Alginate bead-encapsulated PEDF induces ectopic bone formation in vivo in the absence of co-administered mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • 1 Nevertheless, strategies that target protein misfolding frequently reduce aggregate formation and cell death in parallel. (
  • 11, 14 Rouleau and colleagues found that oligomerisation of PABP2 is mediated by two potential oligomerisation domains (ODs)-deletions in either of these domains inactivated oligomerisation of mutant PABP2 and also reduced the cell death caused by this protein. (
  • These contacts, mediated by the cell-surface protein MEGF10, trigger neuropil innervation resulting in generation of two sublayers comprising starburst-cell dendrites. (
  • Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibited both phases of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, whereas okadaic acid and modulators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase were without any effect. (
  • A new study shows targeting a protein in smooth muscle cells can block and decrease buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in mouse models, according to researchers with UTHealth Houston. (
  • We found that if we block a specific protein in smooth muscle cells, we can effectively block the majority of plaque formation from occurring in an animal model. (
  • Interestingly, this protein is activated in smooth muscle cells by too much cholesterol in the cells," Milewicz says. (
  • A protein-network appeared rapidly after tapping and accumulated gradually along with the latex loss at the severed site of laticifer cells. (
  • The protein-network at the wounded site of laticifer cells provides not only a physical barrier but also a biochemical barrier to protect the wounded laticifer cells from pathogen invasion. (
  • The rapid healing of wounded cell itself occurs in such case as the occlusion of severed sieve tube by callose accumulation at sieve plates and possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores when the phloem is occasionally injuried [ 26 ]. (
  • Relatively little is known about the mechanisms of protein localization in plant cells. (
  • Protein body formation in maize endosperm provides a useful system in which to study these mechanisms. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that the cytoskeleton may play a role in protein body formation, since actin, the protein synthesis factor EF-1α (which associates with the cytoskeleton in other systems), and polysomes, including zein polysomes, were found associated with protein bodies following endosperm homogenization. (
  • To determine whether the cytoskeleton, EF-1α, and protein bodies are associated in situ, these components were visualized in intact endosperm cells. (
  • One possible role of the cytoskeletal network around protein bodies is the transport and or anchoring of zein mRNAs to sites of protein body formation. (
  • A team of Australian scientists, however, has recently discovered that, during exercise, mice produce a selenium-containing protein that helps the brain synthesize new brain cells. (
  • Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. (
  • The healthy gene makes a protein that forms a channel for the movement of chloride molecules in and out of cells that produce sweat, mucus, tears, semen, and digestive enzymes, said co-senior investigator David Whitcomb, chief of gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition, Pitt School of Medicine. (
  • The scientists illustrated the potential of their approach with the Min protein system, a paradigmatic model for biological pattern formation. (
  • A 2016 study published in Endocrinology revealed that BPS exposure can induce the formation of human fat cells . (
  • The study is the first to show that BPS exposure can induce the formation of human fat cells. (
  • Overall, the results indicate that SWCNT and MWCNT exposure induce direct effects on endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on synaptobrevin. (
  • Expression of tetanus toxin light chain (which cleaves neuronal synaptobrevin) and genetic mosaics were used to analyze neuropil pattern formation and levels of selected neural adhesion molecules in the optic lobe. (
  • Our results demonstrate the requirement of neuronal synaptobrevin for regulation of cell adhesion molecules and development of the fine structure of the optic lobe. (
  • Co-senior author Min Goo Lee of Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea, conducted careful tests of CFTR in pancreatic cell models and determined that a molecular switch inside the cell called WINK1 made CFTR channels secrete bicarbonate rather than chloride molecules. (
  • IgE molecules bind to IgE receptors located on mast cells. (
  • Endothelial cells regulate the passage of gases, fluid and various molecules across blood vessels by acting as selective filters. (
  • The secondary wall is synthesized just outside the plasma membrane of vascular vessels and fiber cells in xylem, which require mechanical rigidity and stability to retain water in the vessel, endure the internal pressure of water transport and support the plant's aerial structures. (
  • KLF2 overexpression attenuated ox‑LDL‑induced endothelial cell injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased levels of TNF‑α, IL‑6, IL‑1β, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 and E‑selectin. (
  • Cortistatin is a neuropeptide expressed in the vascular system and atherosclerotic plaques that regulates vascular calcification and neointimal formation, and inhibits inflammation in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases . (
  • The lung-on-a-chip can also represent complex whole organ-level response, such as pulmonary inflammation, by the introduction of blood-borne immune cells to the fluid within the vascular channel. (
  • At a magnification of 7766X, this 2005 scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image revealed a number of red blood cells (RBCs) found enmeshed in a fibrinous matrix on the luminal surface of an indwelling vascular catheter. (
  • abstract = "Treatment of cultured bovine carotid artery endothelial cells with 10-7M plasmin increased the cellular diacylglycerol which was determined by the formation of [3H]palmitate-labeled diacylglycerol and diacylglycerol mass. (
  • In this study, we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPSC-Heps). (
  • The findings were published online in Cell Stem Cell on December 1, 2022. (
  • Other types of laboratory-based dental stem cell therapies are under development. (
  • Stem cell transplants could be a promising treatment for those with very severe scleroderma. (
  • There is a lot of interest in a recent NIH-funded study that found that stem cell transplants for people with severe scleroderma could have long-term, beneficial results, says Dr. Varga. (
  • But Dr. Varga and others warn that a stem cell transplant is not appropriate for every patient and can involve dangerous side effects. (
  • 11, 15 Members of the HSP70 and HSP40 family members are recruited to polyQ inclusions in vivo and in cell models. (
  • Studies conducted in vivo more than two decades ago suggested that the postcapillary venules were more important than the arterial vessels in the process of edema formation. (
  • In the case of ciprofloxacin therapy in a Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, S. Tm) mouse infection model, this has been traced to tolerant bacterial cells surviving in lymph node monocytes (i.e., classical dendritic cells). (
  • Although the action of estrogenic compounds is well explained by their ability to bind and activate the estrogen receptor, there are still many uncertainties surrounding the mechanism underlying the ability of steroidal compounds to stimulate micronuclei formation. (
  • 2005 Cadherin-induced activation of PI3-kinase and Rac1 leads to membrane and actin dynamics to further stimulate junction formation along the membrane (Noren et al. (
  • Activated TH2 stimulate the formation of IgE by B cells. (
  • Tan Z, Ren H, Liu Y, Yang H, Luo Q and Deng X: KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 and enhancing autophagy. (
  • Human IgM Inhibits the Formation of Titan-Like Cells in Cryptococcus neoformans. (
  • Inhibits the formation of comedones resulting from oil and skin cells that become trapped in the pore. (
  • Since these anti-estrogens interfere with the transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor and block promotion of estrogen receptor-dependent gene expression, it appears that this process is not involved in micronucleus formation. (
  • These data suggest that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes occurs before the formation of translocations, and that aberrant transcriptional activity of genomic regions is linked to their propensity to undergo chromosomal translocations. (
  • v) Comparative transcriptional analysis of cell wall, capsule, and stress response genes showed that C. neoformans grown with IgM, not IgG or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), had decreased expression of chitin synthetase, CHS1, CHS2, and CHS8, and genes encoding cell wall carbohydrate synthetases α-1-3-glucan (AGS1) and β-1,3-glucan (FKS1). (
  • EGF did not initiate polyp formation in control or Min mice. (
  • Human studies have shown associations between cryptococcal meningitis and reduced IgM memory B cell levels, and studies in IgM- and/or B cell-deficient mice have demonstrated increased Cryptococcus neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain. (
  • Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild type mice. (
  • Using a knockout method, researchers fed genetically modified mice a high fat diet and caused the mice to have high cholesterol levels in their blood to drive atherosclerotic plaque formation. (
  • Cortistatin reduces atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoE-deficient mice and the formation of foam cells. (
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced micronucleus formation in breast cancer cells Aneuploidy, or numerical changes of chromosomes, has been documented in almost all solid tumours and the frequency of micronucleus formation is commonly taken as a biomarker of aneuploidy. (
  • Therefore, we wanted to evaluate if the alternative mechanisms of estrogen receptor activation could be involved in the formation of micronuclei by estrogenic compounds. (
  • We used anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with and without the characteristic t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation to study the mechanisms of formation of translocations and of ALCL transformation. (
  • which mechanisms this influences their formation is not well understood. (
  • Scientists have shed further light into the mechanisms through which the potato blight pathogen interacts with plant cells to promote disease. (
  • The mechanisms by which a cell becomes internalized in another. (
  • However neither the dynamics and cross-reactivity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response nor the diversity of resulting immune memory are well understood. (
  • Certain CD4+ clones were detected in the memory fraction at the pre-infection timepoint, suggesting participation of pre-existing cross-reactive memory T cells in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • for instance during dorsal closure angiogenesis immune responses wound healing and tumorigenesis) is governed by the same basic principles (Cavey and Lecuit 2009 Engagement of cell-cell junction receptors activates several signaling pathways that regulate actin conformation. (
  • T cells play a key role in the adaptive antiviral immune response by killing infected cells and facilitating the selection of virus-specific antibodies. (
  • Specific antibodies called ANCAs cause inflammation by attaching to immune cells called neutrophils. (
  • In GPA, inflammation causes the formation of granulomas, small clusters of immune cells. (
  • At 7wk, HF-fed animals exhibited several immune alterations (blood leukocyte/neutrophil number, lymph node B-cell proportionality)-effects which were more pronounced in SD rats. (
  • In the study, chemotherapy and radiation were used to wipe out the person's immune system, and then the person's own stem cells were used to rebuild a new system. (
  • The regenerative medicine is the combination of cells, material engineering, and biochemical factors to improve or replace the biological functions attempting to promote the medicine advancement. (
  • Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism ," explained senior author Ella Atlas. (
  • The new study is published in Cell Metabolism. (
  • Vitamin B-12 is also essential for proper red blood cell production, homocysteine metabolism, and the maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Folic Acid also promotes nervous system health, supports energy metabolism, and plays a significant role in the formation of new cells. (
  • Another focus in this area is aimed at identifying epigenetic markers of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, focusing on high-incidence populations of the world (EpiESCC). (
  • The goal of this project is to understand the underlying biological causes of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-incidence regions by investigating epigenetic (DNA methylation) aberrations driven by risk factors and identifying molecular markers for risk stratification and early detection. (
  • It is suggested that the neoplastic cells were transformed from type II alveolar epithelium via its hyperplastic form. (
  • The munc18-1-syntaxin interactions must form before syntaxin encounters SNAP-25 in the Golgi complex, preventing the formation of intracellular exocytotic SNARE complexes there. (
  • Previous studies performed with rat hepatocyte primary cultures showed that toxic concentrations of AZA (25-250 μ M) led to profound intracellular GSH depletion, mitochondrial injury, metabolic activity reduction, decreased adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) levels, and cell death due to necrosis, not apoptosis. (
  • 2008 Engagement of Cadherin adhesion induces Myosin II activation which in turn promotes the accumulation of Cadherins at sites of cell-cell adhesion (Shewan et al. (
  • Conversely however the conformation of the actin cytoskeleton also influences cell-cell adhesion complexes. (
  • For example perturbing actomyosin contractility strongly affects cell-cell adhesion formation and maturation (Angres et al. (
  • 2010 During junction formation it is not clear which of the different adhesion complexes forms a Meisoindigo functional link with actomyosin. (
  • Early experiments showed that the E-cadherin complex is a master regulator of cell-cell adhesion because the formation of all junctions can be inhibited by E-cadherin-blocking antibodies (Gumbiner et al. (
  • 2007 As TJ complexes form only after Nectin and Cadherin junctions have formed it is not likely that these complexes are crucial in the actin-dependent initial formation of cell-cell adhesion. (
  • In addition to cell and surface adhesion, the 'glue' also forms a matrix. (
  • The host cell may engulf another as do PHAGOCYTIC CELLS , or the host cell may be invaded by another cell ( ENTOSIS ), or internalization processes may involve the cooperation of both the host cell and the cell being internalized. (
  • In addition, KLF2 overexpression inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells and promoted lipid efflux. (
  • ox‑LDL induced decreased KLF2 expression in THP‑1 macrophage derived foam cells and KLF2 overexpression activated Nrf2 expression and enhanced autophagy. (
  • In conclusion, KLF2 alleviated endothelial cell injury and inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 and enhancing autophagy. (
  • CONCLUSIONS-: A deficiency of catK reduces plaque progression and induces plaque fibrosis but aggravates macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. (
  • Formation of non-growing Salmonella persisters is stimulated by macrophage phagocytosis. (
  • 2000 Thus much is known about the regulation of actin dynamics downstream of cell-cell junction formation. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of purified single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and MWCNT) on human aortic endothelial cells by evaluating actin filament integrity and VE-cadherin distribution by fluorescence microscopy, membrane permeability by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, proliferation/viability by WST-1 assay, and overall functionality by tubule formation assay. (
  • Marked actin filament and VE-cadherin disruption, cytotoxicity, and reduced tubule formation occurred consistently at 24 h post-exposure to the highest concentrations [50-150 microg/10(6) cells (1.5-4.5 microg/ml)] for both SWCNT and MWCNT tested in our studies. (
  • Lo WK, Shaw AP, Paulsen DF , Mills A. Spatiotemporal distribution of zonulae adherens and associated actin bundles in both epithelium and fiber cells during chicken lens development. (
  • Las células viables pueden mantenerse en células no fagocíticas (EMPERIPOLESIS), sufrir la división celular, pasar a través de la célula hospedera y luego salir de ella (MIGRACIÓN TRANSCELULAR DE CÉLULAS) o desencadenar la APOPTOSIS de las células invadidas. (
  • Further on, using anti-kinetochore CREST antibody staining, a high proportion of micronucleus containing kinetochores was observed when the breast cancer cells were treated with compounds able to activate non-genomic signaling pathways, indicating that such processes are relevant to the induction of micronuclei by estrogens. (
  • 10, 11 In such models, aggregate formation and cell death can be reduced by overexpressing yeast and bacteria derived chaperones that do not appear to protect against some other cell death pathways. (
  • IgM also decreased expression of RIM101 and HOG1, genes encoding central regulators of C. neoformans stress response pathways and cell morphogenesis. (
  • We are trying to identify new pathways that cause atherosclerotic plaque buildup, in particular pathways that involve a certain cell type, called smooth muscle cells," says Dianna Milewicz, MD, PhD, lead author of the study and a professor and President George Bush Chair in Cardiovascular Medicine at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston. (
  • ACMS is a useful tool for identifying the bioactivation or detoxifying pathways of a drug/xenobiotic by comparing the effects of specific enzyme modulators on cell viability induced by the drug/xenobiotic being investigated. (
  • HUVECs viability, levels of inflammatory factors, formation of foam cells and cholesterol efflux were respectively analyzed by CCK‑8 assay, ELISA and Oil Red O staining. (
  • Cortistatin reduced Th1/Th17-driven inflammatory responses and increased regulatory T cells in atherosclerotic arteries and lymphoid organs. (
  • As the neurons deteriorate, they release inflammatory factors that trigger a cascade of brain inflammation and cause other brain cells to run haywire. (
  • A massive inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells was frequently seen in the deeper portions or along the periphery of the plaques. (
  • Multipotential ability of bone marrow-derived cells has been clarified, and their involvement in repair and maintenance of various tissues has been reported. (
  • However, the role of bone marrow-derived cells in osteogenesis remains unknown. (
  • Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced hematopoietic cells with GFP-positive donor cells. (
  • These results indicate that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. (
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess potential of bone formation and were proposed as ideal material against osteoporosis. (
  • We will continue to study the application of this culture protocol to cell-based cholestasis assay system. (
  • As a result, the culture protocol could lead to a highly predictable, robust cell-based cholestasis assay system because it forms functional bile canaliculi reproducibly and efficiently. (
  • 1998), a mammalian cell cytogenetic assay (Jantunen et al. (
  • 1986), a human cell micronucleus assay (Budinsky et al. (
  • 2013), a human cell gene mutation assay in the TK locus (Budinsky et al. (
  • A human cell gene mutation assay in the HPRT locus is also available, although experimental methodology is limited (Budinsky et al. (
  • Treatment of the cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused activation of NF-B and rapid proteolysis of IB- as determined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, gene transfection, and Western blot. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate whether Krüppel like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) could protect against endothelial cell injury and promote cholesterol excretion from foam cells through autophagy. (
  • This tells us that blocking PERK in smooth muscle cells is important in plaque formation. (
  • Now that we know this buildup can be blocked by targeting smooth muscle cells, we can use medication that is already available and target this pathway to help patients with atherosclerotic plaque buildup. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Plaque formation of dengue viruses in LLC-MK 2 cell cultures. (
  • Mesothelial cell linings were occasionally seen on the plaque surface. (
  • This suggests that plaque formation is governed primarily by individual susceptibility. (
  • For comparison purposes, some groups of cells were exposed to the chemical dexamethasone, a corticosteroid medication known to trigger fat cell formation and the accumulation of lipids. (
  • The contribution of the arterial versus venous circulation to edema formation and peritoneal fluid accumulation is poorly understood. (
  • These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. (
  • Likewise, a range of symptoms will arise if cells in the areas of the brain/pituitary which regulate functions such as body temperature, diurnal rhythms, etc. are stressed in the same way. (
  • We demonstrate that radially-migrating newborn starburst amacrine cells establish homotypic contacts on arrival at the inner retina. (
  • Plaques apparently originate from beneath mesothelial cells and grow from their bases. (
  • check the tag ADOLESCENCE HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition in Adolescence FX - Adolescent Nutrition Physiology MH - Peritoneal Stomata UI - D054048 MN - A01.047.025.600.700 MN - A10.810 MS - Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. (
  • By electron microscopy, short microvilli, tight junctions between two adjacent cells, appearance of osmiophilic lamellar bodies, large mitochondria of irregular shape, well developed Golgi complexes, continuous or discontinuous basement membranes, occasional appearance of "sequestration" and of crystalloids and lack of both cilia and mucous secretory granules were observed as characteristic features of the neoplastic cells. (
  • Effet des hormones sexuelles sur la maturation testiculaire et la formation du complexe synaptonemal chez la souris / par Masumbuko, Mungo Bushwasea. (
  • Their up-regulation promotes cell survival and repression of T cell-specific gene expression programs that are characteristic for ALCL. (
  • Here we use single-cell gene expression analysis and computational modelling to show that the leader cell identity is dynamically regulated by Dll4 signalling through both Notch1 and cellular stress in a migrating epithelium. (
  • The effect of ethanol on muscarinic receptor-stimulated formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate was studied in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (
  • Because the human brain contains a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids and has a tremendous amount of blood flowing through it, it is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage that can destroy neurons and supporting cells. (
  • More specifically, each organ-on-a-chip is fabricated on a clear polymer containing hollow microfluidic channels lined with living human cells. (
  • Furthermore, greater precision can be produced by the utilization of human cells. (
  • Measured by its ability to inhibit the biological activity of Neuregulin-1-beta 1 on MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells. (
  • Retina organoids that are generated entirely from human cells (e.g. derived from iPSCs, hESCs, multipotent cells, or adult cells subjected to a combination of transdifferentiation and/or reprogramming methods). (
  • Organ-on-a-chip devices can overcome the limitations of conventional two-dimensional cell culture methodologies, allowing for the establishment of models that mimic the three-dimensional arrangement of different cell types closer to the physiological condition. (
  • The structure of individual organ-on-chip systems varies because the arrangement of organ specific cell types within the microfluidic device is made to resemble the basic morphology of the organ. (
  • The majority of organ-on-a-chip models utilize a porous membrane as a substrate for defining cell layers. (
  • Abolishing MEGF10-mediated contacts profoundly delays and ultimately disrupts sublayer formation, leading to broader direction tuning and weaker direction-selectivity in retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Components (neurons, retinal pigment epithelium [RPE], glia) may be produced separately or dissociated and recombined (1) if protocol addresses a significant biological or technical hurdle and (2) if in the process of re-assembly, specific functions/roles of cell types are delineated. (
  • Characterization of retinal cell types, retina organoid structure, and retina organoid function are expected. (
  • Off-cone), and Retinal Ganglion Cells (identify at least three subtypes). (
  • When that doesn't happen, the acids cause the inflammation, cyst formation, and scarring of severe pancreatitis. (
  • This suggests that the mitotic checkpoint is weak in certain tumor-derived cells, which would promote genomic instability. (
  • Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II - two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure - revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. (
  • Many of the characteristics of ISCs such as cell shrinkage, membrane stiffness, and reduced osmotic fragility and deformability have all been found to be related to their high calcium level [13,14]. (
  • Membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells must be strictly regulated both temporally and spatially. (
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (
  • Using small-angle scattering at the PTB X-ray beamline of BESSY II, an HZB team was able to experimentally investigate the colloidal chemistry of perovskite precursor solutions used for solar cell production. (
  • While conventional methods have so far limited us to measure only highly diluted precursor solutions, HZB's ASAXS instrument at PTB's FCM beamline at BESSY II makes it possible to study the precursor at a concentration applicable for solar cell fabrication," emphasizes Marion Flatken, who carried out the measurements as part of her PhD thesis. (
  • Creatine monohydrate seems to cause this anabolic effect by increasing the activity of muscle "precursor" cells called "satellite cells" located deep within the muscle fiber. (
  • The major effect of all NSAIDs is to decrease the synthesis of prostaglandins by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from the precursor, arachidonic acid. (
  • Addgene: Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. (
  • Most but not all cell types are competent for degradation. (
  • The foundation for Jencks' creation was based on the concept of the life of a cell, as well as the cell division process called mitosis. (
  • These findings suggest that the Src/Raf/Erk pathway plays a role in micronucleus formation by estrogenic compounds. (
  • The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2 hrs at 37°C was found to be 400 μ M. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH-) depleted hepatocytes were used. (
  • The addition of N -acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. (
  • Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. (
  • We hypothesize that the direct contact of carbon nanotubes with endothelial cells will result in dose-dependent effects related to altered cell function and cytotoxicity which may play a role in potential adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular outcomes. (
  • It's commonly known that physical activity boosts the brain's ability to form new brain cells - or neurons. (
  • The formation of compartments inside the microfluidic device increases control of the microenvironment by confining cells. (
  • Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. (
  • In the past decade, mathematical modeling has become an important tool to study the regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules and their relation to the emergence of persister cells. (
  • Resveratrol reverses TGF-β1-mediated invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells via the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy signal axis - Phytother Res 2022 Sep 9 - 'Taken together, our study provided novel insight into the anticancer effects of Resv and revealed that targeting the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy pathway can serve as a new therapeutic target against breast cancer' - See resveratrol products at . (