A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (1/5029)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Ischemic tolerance in murine cortical cell culture: critical role for NMDA receptors. (2/5029)

Murine cortical cultures containing both neurons and glia (days in vitro 13-15) were exposed to periods of oxygen-glucose deprivation (5-30 min) too brief to induce neuronal death. Cultures "preconditioned" by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation exhibited 30-50% less neuronal death than controls when exposed to a 45-55 min period of oxygen-glucose deprivation 24 hr later. This preconditioning-induced neuroprotection was specific in that neuronal death induced by exposure to excitotoxins or to staurosporine was not attenuated. Neuroprotection was lost if the time between the preconditioning and severe insult were decreased to 7 hr or increased to 72 hr and was blocked if the NMDA antagonist 100 microM 3-((D)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid was applied during the preconditioning insult. This was true even if the duration of preconditioning was increased as far as possible (while still remaining sublethal). A similar preconditioning effect was also produced by sublethal exposure to high K+, glutamate, or NMDA but not to kainate or trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (3/5029)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) suppresses hypoxia-induced apoptotic cell death. (4/5029)

To determine the contribution of 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) to cellular processes underlying adaptation to hypoxia, a cell line stably transfected to overexpress ORP150 antisense RNA was created. In human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably overexpressing ORP150 antisense RNA, ORP150 antigen and transcripts were suppressed to low levels in normoxia and hypoxia, whereas wild-type cells showed induction of ORP150 with oxygen deprivation. Inhibition of ORP150 in antisense transfectants was selective, as hypoxia-mediated enhancement of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and GRP94 was maintained. However, antisense ORP150 transfectants displayed reduced viability when subjected to hypoxia, compared with wild-type and sense-transfected HEK cells. In contrast, diminished levels of ORP150 had no effect on cytotoxicity induced by other stimuli, including oxygen-free radicals and sodium arsenate. Although cellular ATP content was similar in hypoxia, compared with ORP150 antisense transfectants and wild-type HEK cells, suppression of ORP150 expression was associated with accelerated apoptosis. Hypoxia-mediated cell death in antisense HEK transfectants did not cause an increase in caspase activity or in cytoplasmic cytochrome c antigen. A well recognized inducer of apoptosis in HEK cells, staurosporine, caused increased caspase activity and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels in both wild-type and antisense cells. These data indicate that ORP150 has an important cytoprotective role in hypoxia-induced cellular perturbation and that ORP150-associated inhibition of apoptosis may involve mechanisms distinct from those triggered by other apoptotic stimuli.  (+info)

Regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1alpha by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (5/5029)

HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha) is a basic-helix-loop-helix PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) transcription factor that, under hypoxic conditions, dimerizes with a partner factor, the basic-helix-loop-helix/PAS protein Arnt, to recognize hypoxia-responsive elements of target genes. It has recently been demonstrated that HIF-1alpha protein but not mRNA levels are dramatically up-regulated in response to hypoxia. Here we show that inhibitors of 26 S proteasome activity produced a dramatic accumulation of endogenous as well as transfected HIF-1alpha protein under normoxic conditions, whereas the levels of Arnt protein were not affected. HIF-1alpha was polyubiquitinated in vivo under normoxic conditions, indicating rapid degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. This degradation process appeared to target a region within the C terminus of HIF-1alpha. Importantly, HIF-1alpha ubiquitination was drastically decreased under hypoxic conditions. Up-regulation of HIF-1alpha protein by proteasome inhibitors did not result in transcriptional activation of reporter genes, indicating either the requirement of additional regulatory steps to induce functional activity of HIF-1alpha or the inability of polyubiquitinated forms of HIF-1alpha to mediate hypoxic signal transduction. In support of both these notions, we demonstrate that HIF-1alpha showed hypoxia-dependent translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and that this regulatory mechanism was severely impaired in the presence of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the mechanism of hypoxia-dependent activation of HIF-1alpha is a complex multistep process and that stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein levels is not sufficient to generate a functional form.  (+info)

Regulation of interleukin-8 expression by reduced oxygen pressure in human glioblastoma. (6/5029)

Oxygen deprivation is an important biological feature of tumor growth. We previously showed that in glioma, anoxia increases expression of IL-8, a chemokine and angiogenic factor. Here, we analysed for the first time the biochemical mechanisms inducing the IL-8 gene upon anoxia in glioma cells, and showed that they differ from those inducing the VEGF gene. Both genes are induced in biologically and genetically heterogenous glioblastoma cell lines (LN-229, LN-Z308, U87MG, T98G), whereas, in gliosarcoma cells (D247MG), only the VEGF gene is induced. The kinetics of IL-8 and VEGF mRNA inductions differ in these cells and reoxygenation experiments showed that the induction is due to the anoxic stress per se. Furthermore, in LN-229 and LN-Z308 cell lines actinomycin D, DRB and nuclear run-on experiments showed that anoxia stimulates increased transcription of both genes. Electromobility shift assays show increased protein binding to the AP-1 site on the IL-8 promoter following anoxia treatment. Finally, in situ hybridization on glioblastoma sections shows that the in vivo expression patterns of IL-8 and VEGF genes overlap, but are not identical. Since intratumoral augmentation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion, following microenvironmental decreases in oxygen pressure, may promote angiogenesis, further definition of these pathways is essential to appropriately target them for antitumoral therapy.  (+info)

Plasmalogens as endogenous antioxidants: somatic cell mutants reveal the importance of the vinyl ether. (7/5029)

Exposure of plasmalogen-deficient variants of the murine cell line RAW 264.7 to short-term (0-100 min) treatment with electron transport inhibitors antimycin A or cyanide (chemical hypoxia) resulted in a more rapid loss of viability than in the parent strain. Results suggested that plasmalogen-deficient cells were more sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during chemical hypoxia; the mutants could be rescued from chemical hypoxia by using the antioxidant Trolox, an alpha-tocopherol analogue, and they were more sensitive to ROS generation by plumbagin or by rose bengal treatment coupled with irradiation. In addition, the use of buffers containing 2H2O greatly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of chemical hypoxia, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen. We used the unique enzymic deficiencies displayed by the mutants to differentially restore either plasmenylethanolamine (the major plasmalogen species normally found in this cell line) or its biosynthetic precursor, plasmanylethanolamine. Restoration of plasmenylethanolamine, which contains the vinyl ether, resulted in wild-type-like resistance to chemical hypoxia and ROS generators, whereas increasing levels of its precursor, which bears the saturated ether, had no effect on cell survival. These findings identify the vinyl ether double bond as a crucial element in cellular protection under these conditions and support the hypothesis that plasmalogens, through the vinyl ether, act as antioxidants to protect cells against ROS. These phospholipids might protect cells from ROS-mediated damage during events such as chemical hypoxia.  (+info)

VEGF deprivation-induced apoptosis is a component of programmed capillary regression. (8/5029)

The pupillary membrane (PM) is a transient ocular capillary network, which can serve as a model system in which to study the mechanism of capillary regression. Previous work has shown that there is a tight correlation between the cessation of blood flow in a capillary segment and the appearance of apoptotic capillary cells throughout the segment. This pattern of cell death is referred to as synchronous apoptosis (Lang, R. A., Lustig, M., Francois, F., Sellinger, M. and Plesken, H. (1994) Development 120, 3395-3404; Meeson, A., Palmer, M., Calfon, M. and Lang, R. A. (1996) Development 122, 3929-3938). In the present study, we have investigated whether the cause of synchronous apoptosis might be a segmental deficiency of either oxygen or a survival factor. Labeling with the compound EF5 in a normal PM indicated no segmental hypoxia; this argued that oxygen deprivation was unlikely to be the cause of synchronous apoptosis. When rat plasma was used as a source of survival factors in an in vitro PM explant assay, inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) all but eliminated the activity of plasma in suppressing apoptosis. This argued that VEGF was an important plasma survival factor. Furthermore, inhibition of VEGF in vivo using fusion proteins of the human Flk-1/KDR receptor resulted in a significantly increased number of capillaries showing synchronous apoptosis. This provides evidence that VEGF is necessary for endothelial cell survival in this system and in addition, that VEGF deprivation mediated by flow cessation is a component of synchronous apoptosis.  (+info)

Cell hypoxia, also known as cellular hypoxia or tissue hypoxia, refers to a condition in which the cells or tissues in the body do not receive an adequate supply of oxygen. Oxygen is essential for the production of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. When the cells are deprived of oxygen, they switch to anaerobic metabolism, which produces lactic acid as a byproduct and can lead to acidosis.

Cell hypoxia can result from various conditions, including:

1. Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxemia) due to lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, or high altitude.
2. Reduced blood flow to tissues due to cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or shock.
3. Anemia, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
4. Carbon monoxide poisoning, which binds to hemoglobin and prevents it from carrying oxygen.
5. Inadequate ventilation due to trauma, drug overdose, or other causes that can lead to respiratory failure.

Cell hypoxia can cause cell damage, tissue injury, and organ dysfunction, leading to various clinical manifestations depending on the severity and duration of hypoxia. Treatment aims to correct the underlying cause and improve oxygen delivery to the tissues.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Fetal hypoxia is a medical condition that refers to a reduced level of oxygen supply to the fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as maternal health problems, complications during pregnancy or delivery, or issues with the placenta. Prolonged fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even fetal death. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor fetal oxygen levels during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the well-being of the fetus.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the body's response to low oxygen levels, also known as hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: an alpha subunit (HIF-1α) and a beta subunit (HIF-1β).

The alpha subunit, HIF-1α, is the regulatory subunit that is subject to oxygen-dependent degradation. Under normal oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1α is constantly produced in the cell but is rapidly degraded by proteasomes due to hydroxylation of specific proline residues by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs). This hydroxylation reaction requires oxygen as a substrate, and under hypoxic conditions, the activity of PHDs is inhibited, leading to the stabilization and accumulation of HIF-1α.

Once stabilized, HIF-1α translocates to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and binds to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding results in the activation of gene transcription programs that promote cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels. These adaptive responses include increased erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and pH regulation, among others.

Therefore, HIF-1α is a critical regulator of the body's response to hypoxia, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Medulloblastoma is a type of malignant brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the skull and controls coordination and balance. It is one of the most common types of pediatric brain tumors, although it can also occur in adults.

Medulloblastomas are typically made up of small, round cancer cells that grow quickly and can spread to other parts of the central nervous system, such as the spinal cord. They are usually treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The exact cause of medulloblastoma is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations or abnormalities that occur during development.

Cerebellar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the cerebellum.

The most common type of cerebellar neoplasm is a medulloblastoma, which arises from primitive nerve cells in the cerebellum. Other types of cerebellar neoplasms include astrocytomas, ependymomas, and brain stem gliomas. Symptoms of cerebellar neoplasms may include headaches, vomiting, unsteady gait, coordination problems, and visual disturbances. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Glioblastoma, also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly aggressive and malignant type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the brain. These tumors are characterized by their rapid growth, invasion into surrounding brain tissue, and resistance to treatment.

Glioblastomas are composed of various cell types, including astrocytes and other glial cells, which make them highly heterogeneous and difficult to treat. They typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 14-15 months from the time of diagnosis, even with aggressive treatment.

Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in personality or behavior, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Standard treatment for glioblastoma typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, despite these treatments, glioblastomas often recur, leading to a poor overall prognosis.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that allows the cell to respond ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.29, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with systematic name hypoxia- ... hypoxia-inducible factor-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2 Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase contains iron ... Hypoxia-inducible+factor-proline+dioxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ...
... and tissue hypoxia is a prominent feature of solid tumors leading to cell metabolism adaptive changes. Hypoxia inducible factor ... which is a non-hypoxia induced transporter found on the surface of aerobic cells. This transporter allows aerobic cancer cells ... glucose transporters and angiogenic factors in pancreatic cancer cells by glucose deprivation and hypoxia". Experimental Cell ... Tumor hypoxia is the situation where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen. As a tumor grows, it rapidly outgrows its blood ...
... on the cell. Hypoxia often keeps cells from differentiating. However, hypoxia promotes the formation of blood vessels, and is ... April 2021). "Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α in renal cell carcinoma with belzutifan: a phase 1 trial and biomarker ... Acker T, Plate KH (2004). "Hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) as important regulators of tumor physiology". Cancer ... Journal of Stem Cells. 10 (2): 97-106. PMID 27125138. Benizri E, Ginouvès A, Berra E (April 2008). "The magic of the hypoxia- ...
And acute IH shows no evidence of the hippocampal cell death found in rats while chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure does ... Intermittent hypoxia (also known as episodic hypoxia) is an intervention in which a person or animal undergoes alternating ... For example, intermittent hypoxia has been shown to induce LTF in rats while continuous hypoxia does not. ... Hypoxia (medical) Hypoxia (disambiguation) Intermittent hypoxic training FSF Editorial Staff (May-June 1997). "Wheel-well ...
Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury. Cases of total oxygen ... Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is ... Blood oxygen saturation may be used for hypoxic hypoxia, but is generally meaningless in other forms of hypoxia. In hypoxic ... There are four categories of cerebral hypoxia; they are, in order of increasing severity: diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal ...
... s (HAPs) are prodrugs that target regions of tumor hypoxia within tumor cells. HAPs may offer the ... so hypoxic tumor cells exhibit greater resistance to chemotherapies and radiation which target rapidly dividing cells or ... thereby never reaching those cells in the hypoxic regions. Secondly, the lower nutrient and oxygen supply to cells in the ... Hypoxia also contributes to the invasive and metastatic phenotypes of aggressive cancers by promoting genetic instability and ...
... but observations in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells indicate that c-Fos is a mediator of c-myc-induced cell death and ... genes associated with hypoxia; and angiogenesis; which makes its dysregulation an important factor for cancer development. It ... as observed in a human T-cell leukaemia cell line. Another possible mechanism of c-Fos involvement in tumour suppression could ... Cell. Biol. 14 (9): 6021-9. doi:10.1128/MCB.14.9.6021. PMC 359128. PMID 8065335. Murphy LC, Alkhalaf M, Dotzlaw H, Coutts A, ...
"Q & A Ben Scheres" (PDF). Cell Press. Retrieved 14 June 2022. "Prof. dr. ir. B.J.G. (Ben) Scheres" (in Dutch). NWO. Retrieved ... Loreti, Elena; Striker, Gustavo (2021). Plant Responses to Hypoxia. MDPI AG. p. 54. ISBN 9783036501482. Retrieved 14 June 2022 ... Among other things, he discovered the role of stem cells in the growth and shape development of roots. He specifically switched ... off individual cells with a laser and blocked individual genes in order to explore their role in development. In 2006 he ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.002. PMC 5036969. PMID 27471965. Brown JM (2007). "Tumor hypoxia in cancer therapy". Oxygen Biology ... Among different cell types, neurons are particularly sensitive to MFN2 defects: to work properly, these cells need functional ... phenotype in cancer cells. MDR cancer cells have a much more aggressive behaviour and they are very invasive with a better ... Cell. 130 (3): 548-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.06.026. PMID 17693261. S2CID 1138255. Filadi R, Pendin D, Pizzo P (February 2018 ...
This gene encodes a member of the hypoxia inducible gene 1 (HIG1) domain family. The encoded protein is localized to the cell ... HIG1 hypoxia inducible domain family member 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIGD1B gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIG1 hypoxia inducible domain family member 1B". Retrieved 2017-10-07. This article incorporates text from the ...
1 Hypoxia miR-26 is involved in responses to low oxygen levels and has been shown to suppress cell apoptosis in a hypoxia ... cell line LoVo cells, compared with other three colorectal cell lines SW480, HT29 and Caco-2. Overexpression of miR-26b ... "Human embryonic stem cells and metastatic colorectal cancer cells shared the common endogenous human microRNA-26b". J Cell Mol ... 2007). "A microRNA signature of hypoxia". Mol Cell Biol. 27 (5): 1859-67. doi:10.1128/MCB.01395-06. PMC 1820461. PMID 17194750 ...
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Due to its similarity in chemical structure to etanidazole, EF5 binds in cells displaying hypoxia. Non-labeled EF5 has been ... Targeting tumor hypoxia in cancer treatment aims to overcome radiotherapy resistance of hypoxic tumors. Thus, a major clinical ... A recent 18F-EF5-PET/MR study showed promising potential in detecting tumor hypoxia in cervical cancer. However, 18F-EF5-PET/CT ... December 2008). "18F-EF5: a new PET tracer for imaging hypoxia in head and neck cancer". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 49 (12): ...
It therefore, causes nutrient and hypoxic stress (or a state of hypoxia). In this regard, cancer cells and stromal cells can ... Semenza GL (February 2012). "Hypoxia-inducible factors in physiology and medicine". Cell. 148 (3): 399-408. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In addition to cell-autonomous changes that drive a cancer cell to proliferate and contribute to tumorigenesis, it has also ... July 1998). "Role of HIF-1alpha in hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, cell proliferation and tumour angiogenesis". Nature. 394 (6692 ...
... hypoxia and Akt-induced stem cell factor; ROS generated via pharmacologic activation of the mitochondrial potassium-sensitive ... "A selective epsilon-protein kinase C antagonist inhibits protection of cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced cell death". The ... Implications in cytoprotection against hypoxia induced cell apoptosis". Cellular Signalling. 26 (9): 1909-17. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Protein kinase C-epsilon protects MCF-7 cells from TNF-mediated cell death by inhibiting Bax translocation". Apoptosis. 12 (10 ...
Semenza, Gregg (February 2012). "Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Physiology and Medicine". Cell. 148 (3): 399-408. doi:10.1016/j. ... Additional related processes included the formation and differentiation of B cells, T cells, endothelial cells, endoderm, and ... HIF, or hypoxia-inducible factors, are responsible for the mediation of hypoxia effects within the body. In addition, HIFs ... Predicted associated biological processes of the gene include regulation of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and ...
"Hypoxia-regulated catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells". Cell and Tissue Research. 372 (2): 433-441. doi:10.1007/s00441- ... In response to fetal hypoxia, catecholamines can maintain glucose levels, but also naturally increases during gestation. ...
... suppresses hypoxia-induced apoptotic cell death". J Biol Chem. 274 (10): 6397-404. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.10.6397. PMID 10037731 ... in HeLa cells". Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17 (1-2): 89-96. doi:10.1159/000091467. PMID 16543725. Takeuchi S (2007). "Molecular ... Hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HYOU1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: HYOU1 hypoxia up-regulated 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ...
Schipani E (2006). "Hypoxia and HIF-1 alpha in chondrogenesis". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 16 (4-5): 539-46. doi ... Furthermore, cell culture experiments with VHL -/- cells have shown that the addition of pVHL can induce a mesenchymal to ... Another theory holds that although in all cells loss of VHL leads to activation of HIF, in most cells this leads to no ... Secondly, the link to Cyclin D1 (as mentioned above) is only seen in renal cells. Finally, many cells in the kidney normally ...
In white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells, purinergic signalling ... Hypoxia-inducible factors also influence adenosine signalling. In the central nervous system (CNS), ATP is released from ... Generally speaking, all cells have the ability to release nucleotides. In neuronal and neuroendocrinal cells, this mostly ... It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. ...
This is an example of histotoxic hypoxia. The most hazardous compound is hydrogen cyanide, which is a gas and kills by ... As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted, meaning that the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy ... the fourth complex of the electron transport chain found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. It ...
Injured axons in the brain's white matter may separate from their cell bodies as a result of secondary injury, potentially ... Examples of such complications include: hypotension (low blood pressure), hypoxia (low blood oxygen saturation), lower cerebral ... cerebral hypoxia (insufficient oxygen in the brain); cerebral edema (swelling of the brain); and raised intracranial pressure ( ...
In red blood cells, GAPDH and several other glycolytic enzymes assemble in complexes on the inside of the cell membrane. The ... Hypoxia also strongly upregulates GAPDH. Therefore, the use of GAPDH as loading control has to be considered carefully. All ... July 2005). "S-nitrosylated GAPDH initiates apoptotic cell death by nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding". Nature Cell ... When cells are exposed to oxidants, they need excessive amounts of the antioxidant cofactor NADPH. In the cytosol, NADPH is ...
Krnjević K (1999). "Early effects of hypoxia on brain cell function". Croat. Med. J. 40 (3): 375-380. PMID 10411965. Hartings, ... such as sickle-cell disease or pregnancy. It is also possible to calculate the risk of stroke in the next decade based on ... the fewer brain cells die. In increasing numbers of primary stroke centers, pharmacologic thrombolysis with the drug tissue ... hypoxia), most commonly due to thromboembolism, and manifests clinically as ischemic stroke. In response to ischemia, the brain ...
Krnjević K (September 1999). "Early effects of hypoxia on brain cell function". Croatian Medical Journal. 40 (3): 375-380. PMID ... The next step in the chain of events is hypoxia, and some oxygen delivery drugs have shown strong effects in animal studies, as ... "Stem Cell Therapeutics Stroke Drug, NTx-265 Fails Phase 2 Trial". BioSpace. Retrieved 2022-06-03. Clinical trial number ... May 2012). "ATP-dependent potassium channel blockade strengthens microglial neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia in rats". ...
... following cell fusion, through chromosomal breaks due to hypoxia induced activation of fragile sites, or reduction in the level ... DMs, like actual chromosomes, are composed of chromatin and replicate in the nucleus of the cell during cell division. Unlike ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.055. PMC 3065307. PMID 21215367. Carroll, S M; DeRose, M L; Gaudray, P; Moore, C M; Needham- ... The presence of DMs in tumor cells is a somewhat rare occurrence, but certain cancers have been found to have a high incidence ...
Vasopressin has been found to inhibit the response of glomus cells to hypoxia, presumably because the usual response to hypoxia ... Glomus cells are the cell type mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. Glomus type I cells are peripheral ... Glomus type II cells are sustentacular cells having a similar supportive function to glial cells. The signalling within the ... Glomus type II cells are not innervated. Glomus type I cells are embryonically derived from the neural crest. In the carotid ...
Takubo, Keiyo; Suda, Toshio (2012-05-01). "Roles of the hypoxia response system in hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells". ... When a cell undergoes symmetric division, it can either produce two differentiated cells or two new stem cells. When a cell ... Production of new stem cells is necessary to maintain this population within the body. Like all cells, hematopoietic stem cells ... "Cited2 Is an Essential Regulator of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (6): 659-665. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2009.11 ...
"Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck ... CA IX is overexpressed in many types of cancer including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as well as carcinomas of the ... It is over-expressed in VHL mutated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and hypoxic solid tumors, but is low-expressed in ... a novel surrogate marker of tumor hypoxia, is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer". Journal of ...
ISSN: 0021-9738 (print), 1558-8238 (online ...
Hypoxia is a known regulator of stem cell fate, the effects of which can be mimicked using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) ... Hypoxia Mimicking Hydrogels to Regulate the Fate of Transplanted Stem Cells. Publication Type : Journal Article ... In this paper we describe the development of hydrogels that mimic the effects of hypoxia on encapsulated stem cells. In vitro, ... HomePublicationsHypoxia Mimicking Hydrogels to Regulate the Fate of Transplanted Stem Cells ...
PMF - Fluorescent Formaldehyde Detection Kit (Cell Permeable). *PMF4 - Fluorescent Formaldehyde Detection Kit (Cell Permeable) ...
NFAT regulation of cystathionine γ-lyase expression in endothelial cells is impaired in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia. ... NFAT regulation of cystathionine γ-lyase expression in endothelial cells is impaired in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.. ... AcetylcholineAnimalsBase SequenceCalcineurinCalciumCells, CulturedCystathionine gamma-LyaseEndothelial CellsHydrogen Sulfide ... "NFAT Regulation of Cystathionine Γ-lyase Expression in Endothelial Cells Is Impaired in Rats Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia." ...
A Hepatocellular carcinoma in humans HepG2 cells are forced to undergo Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) when grown in ... OXPHOS cells and glycolytic cells experienced a reduction in; Contrary to aglycemic cells, glycolytic HepG2 cells showed the ... During hypoxia, ageing hepg2 cells complete the Krebs cycle by switching from the aminotransferase glutaminolytic pyruvate ... As a result, the glycolysis pathway in diabetic HepG2 cells was accelerated by the Hypoxia-Induced Factor (HIF), which was ...
We observed enhanced progenitor cell activity within the CD34+ cell population treated with Delta1 in hypoxia, but the benefits ... To clarify how hypoxia improved Notch-mediated expansion of LTR-HSCs, we performed scRNA-seq of CD34+ cells treated with Delta1 ... 1833 Notch-Mediated Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells By Culture Under Hypoxia Program: Oral and ... Human adult mobilized CD34+ cells were cultured for 21 days under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2) in vessels coated with ...
In transformed cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human gastric carcinoma cells) hypoxia predominantly arrests cells in the S ... cells. Cells (10×103) were grown on a 96-well microtiter plate and treated with hypoxia (200 µM concentration of hypoxia ... in hypoxia-treated cells (200 uM concentration). However, the HIF-2α levels decreased to 4.1% in hypoxia-treated cells after ... Induction of hypoxia using cobalt chloride. Hypoxia of CEC was induced by exposing the cells to cobalt chloride (Sigma-Aldrich ...
The results of this study will improve our understanding of the mechanism by which hypoxia maintains pluripotency of hESCs in ... Immunofluroescence localization of Oct-4 revealed that cultures incubated in hypoxia were less differentiated than cultures ... we used mass spectrometry to investigate changes in protein expression in hESCs cultured in hypoxia. hESCs in feeder free ... Hypoxia has been shown to promote pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but the mechanism by which this occurs in ...
H9c2 cells were subjected to 3‑h hypoxia, followed by 1‑h reperfusion. EGCG and/or zinc were perfused prior to induced hypoxic ... Buja LM and Entman ML: Modes of myocardial cell injury and cell death in ischemic heart disease. Circulation. 98:1355-1357. ... apoptotic protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in H9c2 rat cardiac myoblast cells. *Authors: *Xing Zeng ... apoptotic protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in H9c2 rat cardiac myoblast cells. Mol Med Rep 12: 1850-1856, 2015 ...
Effects of hypoxia on bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells linked to pathogenesis in chronic lung disorders. *Mark ... Alterations in cell viability and metabolic activity were determined.. Results: In BEAS-2B and hAELVi, hypoxia significantly ... Alterations in cell viability and metabolic activity were determined.,br, Results: In BEAS-2B and hAELVi, hypoxia significantly ... br, Methods: Human bronchial (BEAS-2B) and alveolar (hAELVi) epithelial cells were exposed to either hypoxia (1% O,br, 2) or ...
clear cell renal cell carcinoma. HIF. hypoxia-inducible factor. ARNT. aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. CREB. ... Emetine Promotes von Hippel-Lindau-Independent Degradation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma. Hye- ... Emetine Promotes von Hippel-Lindau-Independent Degradation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma. Hye- ... Emetine Promotes von Hippel-Lindau-Independent Degradation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma. Hye- ...
G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis.. Casciello F, Al-Ejeh F, Kelly G ... G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis. ... G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: ...
Angiogenic potential of hypoxia preconditioned human adipose and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparative ... Angiogenic potential of hypoxia preconditioned human adipose and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparative ... Angiogenic potential of hypoxia preconditioned human adipose and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparative ... 1 Stem Cell Institute, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 2 Viet Nam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, ...
We aimed to elucidate the impact of hypoxia on the sensitivity of MB cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. We used two MB cell line ... Using transcriptomic analysis in D283-MED cells, we found a large transcriptional remodelling upon long term hypoxia, in ... This acquired resistance upon chronic hypoxia was present but less pronounced in MEB-Med8A cells. ... In D283-MED and U87MG, chronic hypoxia (5 days), but not acute hypoxia (24 h) induced resistance to chemotherapy and X-ray ...
One of the many lessons we learned from the COVID 19 pandemic is the importance of having sufficient ventilators and other breathing aids to save the lives of people in hypoxic respiratory failure - where they are not getting enough oxygen into their blood to survive. Now, a group of scientists have taken inspiration from the aquatic world of sea cucumbers, freshwater fish
Glycolysis and hypoxia were screened as the main risk factors for OS in HNSCC. Using univariate Cox analysis, 97 prognostic ... This nine-gene signature associated with glycolysis and hypoxia can not only be used for prognosis prediction and risk ... two-factor survival analysis combining the cancer hallmarks and risk scores suggested that HNSCC patients with the high hypoxia ... a new prognostic gene signature in survival prediction and risk stratification for patients with Head and neck squamous cell ...
Results showed that OGD/R induced apoptosis and pyroptosis in microglial cells while hypoxia in OM-MSCs significantly ... Microglial cells are also associated with a novel subtype of pro-inflammatory programmed cell death known as pyroptosis. ... these findings reveal that hypoxia-preconditioned OM-MSC inhibits pyroptotic and apoptotic death of microglial cell in response ... This study investigated whether hypoxic OM-MSCs could inhibit microglial cell death upon I/R insult in vitro. A traditional ...
... and endothelial cell dysfunction resulting in untoward pregnancy outcomes. In this review, we detail these effects and their ... Reductions in uteroplacental flow initiate a cascade of molecular effects leading to hypoxia, thrombosis, inflammation, ... Preeclampsia, Hypoxia, Thrombosis, and Inflammation. Amir A. Shamshirsaz. ,1Michael Paidas. ,1and Graciela Krikun. 1 ... These MPs are small vesicles released from injured or activated cells, primarily leukocytes and endothelial cells [58, 69]. TF- ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that allows the cell to respond ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.29, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with systematic name hypoxia- ... hypoxia-inducible factor-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2 Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase contains iron ... Hypoxia-inducible+factor-proline+dioxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ...
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were pretreated with or without RCE and then exposed to hypoxia (1% O2) for 24 h. Cell ... We found that hypoxia-induced cell death, impaired NO production, and oxidative stress. These responses were significantly ... However, the effects of RCE on response to hypoxia in the endothelium remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the ... In summary, we showed that RCE protected endothelial cells from hypoxic insult and suggested that R. crenulata might be useful ...
... hypoxia). Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth.. Methods: Human and mouse ... hypoxia). Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth.Methods: Human and mouse ... hypoxia). Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth.Methods: Human and mouse ... hypoxia). Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth.Methods: Human and mouse ...
Therefore, we suggest the oyster holobiont may lose some of its nutrient cycling properties under hypoxia and multi-stressor ... Microbes also seemed to have lost some capacity in nutrient cycling under hypoxia and multi-stressor conditions (~50% l... ... Microbes also seemed to have lost some capacity in nutrient cycling under hypoxia and multi-stressor conditions (~ 50% less ... However, there were different physiological trade-offs in oysters exposed to acidification or hypoxia, and the combination of ...
Tired T cells: Hypoxia Drives T cell Exhaustion in the Tumor Microenvironment. ... Read more about Tired T cells: Hypoxia Drives T cell Exhaustion in the Tumor Microenvironment ... Hypoxia-Dependent CAR Stabilizing Construct in T cells Improves Solid Tumor Targeting and Efficacy. ... Read more about Hypoxia-Dependent CAR Stabilizing Construct in T cells Improves Solid Tumor Targeting and Efficacy ...
Cell transfection with a constitutive RIG-I expression vector increased levels of phospho-IRF-3, indicating that RIG-I promotes ... Hypoxia triggers IFN-I production in muscle: Implications in dermatomyositis Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 17;7(1):8595. doi: 10.1038/ ... The aim of this work was to study if RIG-I expression may be modulated by hypoxia using an in vitro approach. We identified ... We observed an increase expression of RIG-I both by Real time PCR and Western blot in hypoxic conditions in human muscle cells ...
However, the in vivo effects of hypoxia on alveolar epithelial transport have not been well studied. Therefore, the objectives ... hypoxia induces a downregulation of the two main Na proteins, the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase. ... In cultured alveolar epithelial cells, hypoxia induces a downregulation of the two main Na proteins, the epithelial Na channel ... Hypoxia reduces alveolar epithelial sodium and fluid transport in rats: reversal by beta-adrenergic agonist treatment Am J ...
Although much is known about the transcriptional response to hypoxia and cobalt, little is known about the all-important cell ... Most striking, hypoxia but not cobalt affected cellular pools of amino acids. Amino acids such as aromatics were elevated ... While hypoxia can affect a variety of enzymatic steps requiring oxygen and heme, cobalt specifically interferes with diiron-oxo ... We find that both hypoxia and cobalt result in a loss of essential sterols and unsaturated fatty acids, but the basis for these ...
Cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen getting to the brain. The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and ... Cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen getting to the brain. The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and ... Some brain cells start dying less than 5 minutes after their oxygen supply disappears. As a result, brain hypoxia can rapidly ... Sometimes a person with cerebral hypoxia is cooled to slow down the activity of the brain cells and decrease their need for ...
Intermittent hypoxia is an angiogenic inducer for endothelial cells: role of HIF-1. Angiogenesis 2009;12:47-67. ... The response of human skeletal muscle tissue to hypoxia. Cell Mol Life Sci 2009;66:3615-23. ... Increased serum erythropoietin but not red cell production after 4 wk of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (4,000-5,500m). J Appl ... The effects of intermittent exposure to hypoxia during endurance exercise training on the ventilatory responses to hypoxia and ...
  • In this study, we investigated the role of hypoxia induced SIRT1 in choroidal neovascularization in relation to age-related macular degeneration. (molvis.org)
  • Our study suggests a crucial role of hypoxia-induced developmental responses in shaping vector tolerance to the pathogen and provides clues for potential molecular targets to control pathogen dissemination. (elifesciences.org)
  • Human adult mobilized CD34+ cells were cultured for 21 days under normoxia (21% O 2 ) or hypoxia (2% O 2 ) in vessels coated with optimized concentrations of Delta1. (confex.com)
  • At optimal coating densities of Delta1, the frequency of LTR-HSCs measured by limiting dilution analysis 16 weeks after transplantation into NSG mice was 4.9- and 4.2-fold higher in hypoxic cultures (1 in 1,586 CD34+ cells) compared with uncultured cells (1 in 7,706) and the normoxia group (1 in 5,090), respectively. (confex.com)
  • To corroborate these findings molecularly, we performed transcriptomic analyses and found significant upregulation of a distinct HSC gene expression signature in cells cultured with Delta1 in hypoxia (Fig. A). Collectively, these data show that hypoxia supports a superior ex vivo expansion of human HSCs with LTR activity compared with normoxia at optimized densities of Delta1. (confex.com)
  • To assess the relative impact of normoxia and hypoxia on the HSC compartment, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of cells within HSC cluster 5 from each culture condition. (confex.com)
  • Immunofluroescence localization of Oct-4 revealed that cultures incubated in hypoxia were less differentiated than cultures incubated in normoxia. (uwo.ca)
  • 2 and IL-8 during hypoxia compared to normoxia. (lu.se)
  • The concentrations of growth factors (such as HGF, bFGF, and VEGF) in the cell culture supernatants collected from culture media of the hypoxia-preconditioned AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs (as well as those from AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs cultured in normoxia) were measured by ELISA. (minervamedica.it)
  • For AT-MSCs, there was a significant increase in VEGF and bFGF production when preconditioned with hypoxia, compared to normoxia, while HGF production was only slightly increased. (minervamedica.it)
  • Methods: Human and mouse breast and ovarian cancer cell lines were co-cultured with human and mouse adipocytes respectively under normoxia or hypoxia. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Metabolite changes under normoxia or hypoxia were measured in the media of human adipocytes by targeted LC/MS. Results: Hypoxic cancer-conditioned media increased lipolysis in both human and mouse adipocytes. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth.Methods: Human and mouse breast and ovarian cancer cell lines were co-cultured with human and mouse adipocytes respectively under normoxia or hypoxia. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Under hypoxia, the CDC proliferation rate increased by 1.4-fold, generating 6 × 10(6) CDCs with higher expression of cardiac stem cell and pluripotency gene markers compared to normoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In hypoxia, IRPTC that express dominant-negative (dn) HIF-1α showed impaired survival in cisplatin injury at variable doses (25-100 μM, 24 h), which was not obvious in normoxia. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Importantly, TGM2-v1 silencing caused a marked and significant reduction of MPM cell viability in hypoxic conditions when compared with normoxia. (units.it)
  • NADPH oxidase activity was raised 2-fold in hypoxic OXPHOS cells but decreased in hypoxic glycolytic cells. (pulsus.com)
  • Conversely, we observed no difference in expression of the homing CXCR4 receptor between cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, indicating that hypoxia increased the absolute numbers of LTR-HSCs but not their homing potential after transplantation. (confex.com)
  • To clarify how hypoxia improved Notch-mediated expansion of LTR-HSCs, we performed scRNA-seq of CD34+ cells treated with Delta1 under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. (confex.com)
  • We identified 6 distinct clusters (clusters 0 to 5) in dimension-reduction (UMAP) analysis, with a comparable distribution of cells per cluster between normoxic and hypoxic cultures. (confex.com)
  • Induction of hypoxia was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and the levels of SIRT1 were noted in a hypoxic condition as well in the cells after blocking SIRT1 activity using sirtinol. (molvis.org)
  • Hypoxic induction was confirmed using flow cytometric analysis, which showed cell cycle arrest starting at a 200 µM concentration of cobalt chloride. (molvis.org)
  • However, its role has not been evaluated in hypoxic choroidal endothelial cells (CECs), the precursor of VEGF-mediated choroidal angiogenesis. (molvis.org)
  • We applied a range of molecular and cellular techniques to measure cell survival, cell cycle progression, protein expression and DNA damage combined with a transcriptomic micro-array approach in D283-MED cells, for global gene expression analysis in acute and chronic hypoxic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whilst U87MG shared the same dampened p53 activity, upon chemotherapeutic drug treatment in chronic hypoxic conditions, these cells used a different mechanism, independent of the DNA damage pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study investigated whether hypoxic OM-MSCs could inhibit microglial cell death upon I/R insult in vitro . (aging-us.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of RCE in endothelial cells challenged with hypoxic exposure and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Targeted metabolomics of the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes media revealed that culture with hypoxic-conditioned media from non-malignant mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) can alter the adipocyte metabolome and drive proliferation of the non-malignant cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • On RNase protection assay of alveolar type II (ATII) cells isolated immediately after hypoxic exposure, steady state levels of mRNA were increased for alpha-rENaC and beta(1)-Na, K-ATPase, whereas the levels of gamma-rENaC and alpha(1)-Na,K-ATPase were unchanged. (nih.gov)
  • Using a defined in vitro model of early chondrogenesis, we attempted to enrich for cells with an enhanced ability for chondrogenic differentiation by pre-exposure of mouse adipose-derived adult stromal cells (ADASs) to a hypoxic (2% oxygen) environment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review examines the recently described effects of hypoxia on CSC in GBM, and the potential promise in targeting the hypoxic pathway therapeutically. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Starting with cell source, choice of donor and recipient, as well as isolation methods, we will then discuss existing expansion protocols (two-/three-dimensional cultivation, basal medium, medium supplements, static/dynamic conditions, and hypoxic/normoxic conditions) and influence of these strategies on the cell functionality after implantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both PWN loading and hypoxia enhanced tracheal elasticity and thickened the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) of the tracheal tubes while a notable upregulated expression of a resilin-like mucin protein Muc91C was observed at the aECM layer of PWN-loaded and hypoxic tracheal tubes. (elifesciences.org)
  • We proposed that hypoxic preconditioning could increase survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via upregulation of Pim-1 and aimed to determine the microRNAs that modulate the expression of Pim-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, gain and loss-of-function studies with miR-206 mimics and inhibitors showed that inhibition of miR-206 in hypoxic MSCs promoted the migration ability of the cells, prevented cell apoptosis, and protected membrane potential of mitochondria, while the benefits were all blocked by Pim-1 inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9 ] reported that hypoxic preconditioning increases survival of cardiac progenitor cells via upregulation of Pim-1, discovering a method for nongenetic modification of Pim-1 in stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypoxic preconditioning was mimicked by treatment with two types of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitors (PHDIs): dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) and 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (BIC). (ox.ac.uk)
  • We propose that HIF-1 mediates cytoprotection against cisplatin injury in hypoxic renal tubular cells, by reducing the number of apoptotic cells through stabilization of mitochondrial membrane integrity and suppression of apoptosis signaling. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We observed a significant induction of TG2 expression and activity when cells from biphasic MPM were grown as a monolayer in chronic hypoxia or packed in spheroids, where the presence of a hypoxic core was demonstrated. (units.it)
  • We showed that the generation of the cleaved form of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 leads to the stabilization of the HIFs in the perivascular and the perinecrotic glioma niche, leading to increased hypoxic signaling and glioma cell stemness. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, we showed that p75 NTR signaling is involved in the activation of the hypoxic signaling pathway and is also regulating glioma cell stemness and migration in hypoxia. (lu.se)
  • 18F]-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a radiolabeled tracer that selectively accumulates in hypoxic cells. (precisionimaging.center)
  • We found that MC-38 mouse colon cancer cells contain functional hypoxic (HIF-1α) and inflammatory (p65/RelA) signaling pathways. (ethz.ch)
  • RNA deep sequencing of HIF-1α and p65/RelA knock-down cells revealed that a surprisingly large fraction of HIF target genes required p65/RelA for hypoxic regulation and a number of p65/RelA target genes required HIF-1α for proinflammatory regulation, respectively. (ethz.ch)
  • Under hypoxic conditions, H2S has higher stability and is synthesized at higher levels with protective effects for the cell. (univaq.it)
  • We speculate that under hypoxic conditions mitochondria undergo these adaptive changes to protect cell respiration from H2S poisoning. (univaq.it)
  • The study found that HBOC relieved hypoxic environment and down-regulate expression of hypoxia -inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) both in regular (100 mm3) and large (360/400 mm3) tumours. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is due to more severe hypoxic regions exist in the large solid tumours compared to the regular counterparts, and HBOC administration may be more effective in alleviating hypoxia in large tumours. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypoxic cancer cells are known to be relatively resistant to radiation killing compared with well oxygenated healthy cells [2,3,7-9]. (who.int)
  • Metronidazole (Flagyl) is a drug used to treat infections and has been studied in the treatment of cancer [10,11] as a radiosensitizer drug, especially for hypoxic cells [9]. (who.int)
  • Metronidazole selectively radiosensitizes hypoxic cells without influencing the radiation response of normal well-oxygenated cells [5,7-9]. (who.int)
  • It is worth mentioning that many of the electron-affinic radiosensitizers of hypoxic cells also have the property of preferential or selective toxicity directed against hypoxic cells even in the absence of radiation [1,2]. (who.int)
  • The enzyme that produces H2S, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), is decreased in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells (EC) following in vivo IH exposure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This pathway is basally active in mesenteric artery endothelial cells, but, after exposure to intermittent hypoxia to mimic sleep apnea, nuclear factor of activated T cells c3 nuclear translocation and CSE expression are decreased, concomitant with decreased CSE-dependent vasodilation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Choroidal endothelial cells (RF/6A) were maintained in a semiconfluent state and hypoxia was induced by exposing the cells to cobalt chloride for 24 h. (molvis.org)
  • Scarabelli TM, Stephanou A, Pasini E, et al: Different signaling pathways induce apoptosis in endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes during ischemia/reperfusion injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Similarly, sEng is a truncated form of receptor for two subtypes of transforming growth factor beta (TGF β ) specifically, TGF β 1 and TGF β 2 which are highly expressed by vascular endothelial cells and syncytiotrophoblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • The number of neovascular endothelial cells was calculated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The endothelial cells appear swollen. (medscape.com)
  • Hantavirus antigens, localized primarily in endothelial cells, have been detected in most organs, with marked accumulations in the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. The aim of this work was to investigate how hypoxia affects human lung epithelial cells in combination with profibrotic stimuli and its correlation to pathogenesis. (lu.se)
  • Thus, under conditions frequently established for solid tumours in vivo, such as aglycemia and hypoxia, the metabolic flexibility of cancer cells is demonstrated. (pulsus.com)
  • Notch activation in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) by treatment with Delta1 ligand has enabled clinically relevant ex vivo expansion of short-term HSPCs. (confex.com)
  • Here, we investigated whether ex vivo culture of HSPCs under hypoxia might limit cellular ER stress and thus offer a simple approach to preserve functional HSCs under high proliferative conditions, such as those promoted in culture with Delta1. (confex.com)
  • In recent years, one of the main research strategies used to induce angiogenesis in vivo has been via stem cell therapy, especially therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (minervamedica.it)
  • Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) has been shown to possess protective activities against hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the in vivo effects of hypoxia on alveolar epithelial transport have not been well studied. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate in an in vivo rat model if hypoxia induces a reduction in vectorial Na and fluid transport across the alveolar epithelium in vivo, and if a change in net fluid transport is associated with modification in the expression and/or activity of Na transport proteins. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that these cells are inherently radio- and chemotherapy resistant, and may be maintained in vivo in a niche characterized by reduced oxygen tension (hypoxia). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Overexpression of Pim-1 in stem/progenitor cells stimulated cell cycling and enhanced cardiac regeneration in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the in vivo administration of cobalt to activate HIF, the number of apoptotic renal tubular cells became much smaller in the outer medulla, compared with the vehicle group. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition with erlotinib reduces hypoxia in vivo. (precisionimaging.center)
  • We sought to determine whether FMISO positron emission tomography (FMISO-PET) could detect changes in hypoxia in vivo in response to EGFR-targeted therapy. (precisionimaging.center)
  • Conclusion: Here, we show that hypoxia in the adipose-tumour microenvironment is the driving force of the lipid uptake in both mammary and ovarian cancer cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this thesis was to evaluate how microenvironmental cues affect the interactions between the tumor microenvironment and glioma stem-like cells in glioblastoma. (lu.se)
  • In papers I and II, we investigated the response of astrocytes to extrinsic factors of the microenvironment, namely radiation and temozolomide treatment, and to intrinsic factors of the microenvironment, namely intermediate and severe hypoxia. (lu.se)
  • The resistance is mainly induced by hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment (TME). (bvsalud.org)
  • Published 15 August 2016 In this study, we provide new insight into how cancer cells adapt to stress factors present within the tumor microenvironment through increased uptake of lipoproteins. (lu.se)
  • Our study results demonstrate that hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride induces SIRT1 and augments HIF-2α, which activates and releases VEGF. (molvis.org)
  • In cultured alveolar epithelial cells, hypoxia induces a downregulation of the two main Na proteins, the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase. (nih.gov)
  • These outcomes reveal that in women, low- to moderate-intensity aerobic trekking induces CD69 T cell activation and promotes anti-stress effects on the high-altitude-induced impairment of the immune responses and the oxidative balance. (unich.it)
  • While LIF induces the differentiation of several myeloid leukemia cells and inhibits their growth, it also promotes tumor progression, metastasis and chemoresistance in many solid tumors. (oncotarget.com)
  • In summary, results from this study demonstrate that hypoxia induces LIF expression in human cancer cells mainly through HIF-2α, which could be an important underlying mechanism for LIF overexpression in human cancers. (oncotarget.com)
  • For example, LIF maintains the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, while induces the differentiation of several myeloid leukemia cells and inhibits their growth [ 1 , 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • This is called tumour hypoxia and leads to resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypoxia is associated with resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (precisionimaging.center)
  • Herein, working on SW480 colon cancer cells, we evaluated the effect of hypoxia on the ability of cells to metabolize H2S. (univaq.it)
  • However, the effects of RCE on response to hypoxia in the endothelium remain unclear. (mdpi.com)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a transcription factor mediating cellular response to hypoxia. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The results of this study will improve our understanding of the mechanism by which hypoxia maintains pluripotency of hESCs in vitro. (uwo.ca)
  • METHODS: Both AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs were obtained from an established cell bank and expanded in vitro . (minervamedica.it)
  • Taken together, these findings reveal that hypoxia-preconditioned OM-MSC inhibits pyroptotic and apoptotic death of microglial cell in response to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion insult by activating HIF-1α in vitro . (aging-us.com)
  • In vitro expansion of adipose-derived adult stromal cells in hypoxia enhances early chondrogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In most cases, clinically relevant cell numbers for MSC-based therapies can be only obtained by in vitro expansion of isolated cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, current protocols used to expand CDCs require at least 1 month in vitro to obtain sufficient cells for transplantation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also examined the functional role of HIF-1 in vitro using immortalized rat proximal tubular cells (IRPTC). (elsevierpure.com)
  • The in vitro effects of metronidazole on the production of reactive oxygen species by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were studied by means of nitroblue tetrazolium and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. (who.int)
  • Discussion: In conclusion, our data indicate that bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells respond differently to hypoxia and profibrotic stimuli. (lu.se)
  • Results: In BEAS-2B and hAELVi, hypoxia significantly dowregulated genes related to fibrosis, mitochondrial stress, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation whereas VEGF receptor 2 increased. (lu.se)
  • Reductions in uteroplacental flow initiate a cascade of molecular effects leading to hypoxia, thrombosis, inflammation, and endothelial cell dysfunction resulting in untoward pregnancy outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • Two main features common to all solid tumors are tissue hypoxia and inflammation, both of which cause tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance and increased mortality. (ethz.ch)
  • However, the interplay between hypoxia and inflammation on the molecular level remains to be elucidated. (ethz.ch)
  • Hypoxia and inflammation in children with sickle cell disease: implications for hippocampal functioning and episodic memory. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypoxia lessened the cellular stress response in both progenitors and HSCs, but the mitigation was more apparent in the HSC population (Fig. C, grey plots), and decreased apoptosis was observed only within the HSC-enriched cluster 5 (Fig. D). These findings are consistent with several reports indicating that HSCs are more vulnerable to strong ER stress than downstream progenitors due to their lower protein folding capacity. (confex.com)
  • Wang GW, Zhou Z, Klein JB and Kang YJ: Inhibition of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in metallothionein-overexpressing cardio-myocytes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Results showed that OGD/R induced apoptosis and pyroptosis in microglial cells while hypoxia in OM-MSCs significantly attenuated these effects. (aging-us.com)
  • In this study, we investigated a role of HIF in tubular cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In this study, we investigate the influence of AST against glutamate- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress-induced necrosis, in primary rat RGC cultures. (molvis.org)
  • Alterations in cell viability and metabolic activity were determined. (lu.se)
  • Metabolic activity was significantly increased by hypoxia in both epithelial cell types. (lu.se)
  • These metabolic shifts in adipocytes could assist both mammary epithelial and cancer cells to bypass the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on proliferation and thrive. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In this thesis, extracellular flux technology and metabolomics were applied in a hypoxia-reoxygenation model to investigate the metabolic adaptations that occur in dynamic changes in oxygen and nutrient availability in cancer cells. (uab.edu)
  • Also, hypothermia due to total immersion in near-freezing water may protect the brain from hypoxia by decreasing metabolic demands. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Published 20 April 2016 Hypoxia modulates global membrane proteome turnover in cancer cells, providing opportunities for tumor specific drug delivery. (lu.se)
  • HBOC alleviated tumour hypoxia during radiotherapy more intensely in large solid tumours than regular ones. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a nano- oxygen carrier, Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) administration is a promising strategy to alleviate tumour hypoxia which may remodel TME to ameliorate radiation resistance and enable RT more effective. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypoxia is a known regulator of stem cell fate, the effects of which can be mimicked using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors such as dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). (amrita.edu)
  • Sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and intermittent hypoxia (IH, 20 episodes/h of 5% O2-5% CO2 for 7 h/day) to mimic sleep apnea increases blood pressure and impairs hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced vasodilation in rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In silico analysis identified putative nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) binding sites in the CSE promoter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The observations that IH exposure decreases NFATc3 activation and CSE-dependent vasodilation support a role for NFAT in regulating endothelial H2S production.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study identifies the calcium-regulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells as a novel regulator of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As a result, the glycolysis pathway in diabetic HepG2 cells was accelerated by the Hypoxia-Induced Factor (HIF), which was preceded by galactolysis. (pulsus.com)
  • Hypoxia is a critical pathological factor in a variety of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. (molvis.org)
  • Activated SIRT1 signals hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α, which transactivates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin. (molvis.org)
  • The role of SIRT1 in the activation of HIF-2α and nuclear factor-κB (RelA/p65) during hypoxia in the presence or absence of SIRT1 was assessed using immunoblot analysis. (molvis.org)
  • Inactivation of VHL ubiquitin ligase is associated with normoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and 2-α (HIF-1α and HIF-2α), transcriptional regulators of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, survival, and glucose utilization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the two-factor survival analysis combining the cancer hallmarks and risk scores suggested that HNSCC patients with the high hypoxia or glycolysis & high risk-score showed the worst prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the effects of OM-MSCs were mediated by Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α). (aging-us.com)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.29, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with systematic name hypoxia-inducible factor-L-proline, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction hypoxia-inducible factor-L-proline + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxia-inducible factor-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2 Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase contains iron, and requires ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that allows the cell to respond physiologically to low concentrations of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, there are three isoforms of hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibition: Robust new target or another big bust for stroke therapeutics? (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine superfamily, is a pleiotropic protein expressed in multiple types of tissues and cells which regulates an array of important biological functions. (oncotarget.com)
  • The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 were detected by Western blot. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate can inhibit hypoxia induced retinal neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor pathway related proteins by sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate. (ijpsonline.com)
  • As a result, brain hypoxia can rapidly cause severe brain damage or death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brain hypoxia is a form of oxygen deficiency affecting the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency because the brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are several causes of brain hypoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Read on to learn more about brain hypoxia, also known as cerebral hypoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of a lack of oxygen to the brain, or brain hypoxia, may be mild or severe and depend on the level and duration of oxygen deprivation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are many reasons why someone may experience brain hypoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain hypoxia can affect anyone who experiences a shortage or lack of oxygen to the brain, but some people are at higher risk than others. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People experiencing exposure to intense smoke or carbon monoxide through their job, such as firefighters, may be at increased risk of brain hypoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor will usually diagnose brain hypoxia based on a person's medical history, a physical examination, and other tests. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Thus, glutaminolysis plays a major role in normoxic OXPHOS HepG2 cells. (pulsus.com)
  • The sulfide-oxidizing activity was assessed by high-resolution respirometry, measuring the stimulatory effect of sulfide on rotenone-inhibited cell respiration in the absence or presence of antimycin A. Compared to cells grown under normoxic conditions (air O2), cells exposed for 24 h to hypoxia (1% O2) displayed a 1.3-fold reduction in maximal sulfide-oxidizing activity and 2.7-fold lower basal O2 respiration. (univaq.it)
  • ADASs were subsequently expanded in 2% or 21% oxygen environments, resulting in 2 groups of cells, and then early chondrogenic differentiation was induced at 21% oxygen tension using a 3-dimensional micromass culture system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The observed difference in cell viability in hypoxia was associated with the increased number of apoptotic cells in dnHIF-1α clones (Hoechst 33258 staining). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Notably, a TG2-selective irreversible inhibitor that reacts with the intracellular active form of TG2, but not a non-cell-permeable inhibitor, significantly compromised cell viability in MPM spheroids. (units.it)
  • The number of live RGCs was then counted using a cell viability assay. (molvis.org)
  • Under hypoxia, RGC viability was reduced to 66%, and astaxanthin administration resulted in a significant increase in viability to 67%, 77%, and 93%, respectively. (molvis.org)
  • Both MnQ2 and MnM2 abated endogenous ROS and mitochondrial [Formula: see text], decreased cell lipid peroxidation, reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, in terms of efficiency of the respiratory chain and preservation of membrane potential (Δψ) and permeability, decreased the activation of pro-apoptotic caspases 9 and 3, and increased cell viability. (unifi.it)
  • Inactivating mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL ) tumor suppressor gene are associated with inherited VHL syndrome, which is characterized by susceptibility to a variety of neoplasms, including central nervous system hemangioblastoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hypoxia changes the cellular redox state and activates class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1). (molvis.org)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether astaxanthin confers a neuroprotective effect against glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxia-induced apoptotic or necrotic cell death in primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (molvis.org)
  • Our results suggest that astaxanthin has a neuroprotective effect against RGC death induced by glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxia, which induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. (molvis.org)
  • As oxidative stress model, H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. (unifi.it)
  • By releasing DMOG from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden alginate hydrogels, it is possible to stabilize HIF-1α and enhance its nuclear localization. (amrita.edu)
  • Huang Y , Tan F , Zhuo Y , Liu J , He J , Duan D , Lu M , Hu Z , . Hypoxia-preconditioned olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells abolish cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced pyroptosis and apoptotic death of microglial cells by activating HIF-1α. (aging-us.com)
  • Research has been directed at developing treatments that modulate inflammatory responses and protect against cell death caused by cerebral I/R. Key among such treatments include mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. (aging-us.com)
  • A unique type of MSC termed olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cell (OM-MSC) confers neuroprotection by promoting the secretion of paracrine factors, and neuroprotection. (aging-us.com)
  • Despite almost 50 years of research and over 20 years of preclinical and clinical studies, the question of curative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) is still widely discussed in the scientific community. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into cells and tissues of one germ layer, here the mesodermal lineage, and are consequently multipotent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which includes a group of heterogeneous tumors from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx, is the seventh most common cancer in the world [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that many solid tumors, including GBM, are maintained by a subset of cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Tumors are not simply a compilation of molecularly and phenotypically identical neoplastic cells. (lu.se)
  • Here, we report that hypoxia, a hallmark of solid tumors, induced LIF mRNA expression in human colorectal cancer cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • The immediate partial restoration of respiration upon addition of membrane-permeant dimethyl-2- oxoglutarate to inhibited cells demonstrated the absence of 2OGdehydrogenase substrate post aminotransferase inhibition.Surprisingly, the AOA (bithionol) inhibition stopped after 72 hours of 5% O2 hypoxia, and respiration was fully recovered. (pulsus.com)
  • Our findings revealed α-KG partially reversed pharmacological inhibition of CI and continued to offer partial protection from mitochondrial damage after hypoxia-reoxygenation. (uab.edu)
  • Furthermore, telomerase (TERT), cytokines/ligands involved in stem cell trafficking (SDF/CXCR-4), erythropoiesis (EPO), and angiogenesis (VEGF) were increased under hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Microglial cells are the first line immune cells that initiate inflammatory responses following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury. (aging-us.com)
  • Here, we exposed oysters to acidification and hypoxia to examine their physiological responses (molecular defense and immune response), changes in community structure of their associated microbial community, and changes in water nutrient concentrations to evaluate how acidification and hypoxia will alter the oyster holobiont's ecological role. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, whether pathogens can actively cause hypoxia in vectors and exploit hypoxia responses to promote their vector competence is still unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • This valuable work explores how pathogens can cause hypoxia in insect vectors and how responses to hypoxia can be exploited to promote vector competence. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the population living in the United States is genetically mixed and has varied responses to the added stress of altitude-induced hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • Since EGCG + Zn2+ may, at least in part, protect cardiac myocytes against H/R‑induced apoptotic cell death, the PI3K/Akt pathway of EGCG may be enhanced by its interactions with zinc during H/R injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • RESULTS: The data showed that preconditioning with hypoxia promoted the secretion of bFGF, VEGF, and HGF by both AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs. (minervamedica.it)
  • Proliferation and lipid uptake in cancer cells were measured by commercial assays. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We evaluated cell stemness by using multiple functional assays in combination with stem cell marker expression analysis. (lu.se)
  • Based on citrate synthase activity assays, mitochondria of hypoxia-treated cells were 1.8-fold less abundant and displayed 1.4-fold higher maximal sulfide-oxidizing activity and 2.6-fold enrichment in SQR as evaluated by immunoblotting. (univaq.it)
  • The obesogenic and tumour micro-environment share a common pathogenic feature, oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). (ed.ac.uk)
  • The more lipophilic MnQ2 showed more rapid cell and mitochondrial penetration than MnM2. (unifi.it)
  • Mutations in the VHL gene are also found in the majority of sporadic clear cell renal carcinoma, the most common malignant neoplasm of the human kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Emetine-induced HIF-2α down-regulation was confirmed in three additional VHL-renal cancer cell lines, was insensitive to the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxaloyl glycine, and did not require neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated-8, suggesting that emetine accesses a previously undescribed cullin-independent proteasome degradation pathway for HIF-2α. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hantavirus particles are not found within the renal tubular cells of patients with HPS. (medscape.com)
  • Renal cell dysfunction and decreased levels of vasopressin (ADH) lead to production of a large volume of dilute urine (cold diuresis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cerebral hypoxia can usually be diagnosed based on the person's medical history and a physical exam. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Hepatocellular carcinoma in humans HepG2 cells are forced to undergo Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) when grown in aglycemic conditions with galactose and glutamine.These OXPHOS cells serve as a prototype for cancer cells' combined aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS bioenergetics. (pulsus.com)
  • It was our goal to identify the portions of the glutaminolytic pathway that involved the aminotransferase reaction that supplied 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to the Krebs cycle active segment with Aconitase And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is typically inactive in cancer cells because citrate is exported from the mitochondria. (pulsus.com)
  • G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis. (atsbio.com)
  • The hallmarks of cancer can show the basic characteristics of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we test how hypoxia changes the metabolome of adipocytes to assist cancer cell growth. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This led to increased transfer of lipids to cancer cells and consequent increased proliferation under hypoxia. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Major differences were reported in gene expression between human and mouse macrophages in the setting of lung cancer, whereas gene expression in other immune cell populations closely correlated between species. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, the cancer cells themselves are highly plastic, with some of the cells exhibiting stem-like phenotypes. (lu.se)
  • Functional imaging of hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could allow early assessment of tumor response and guide subsequent therapies. (precisionimaging.center)
  • arations verified the presence of cancer cells in all samples. (lu.se)
  • Using this cell line, we have identified emetine as a specific inhibitor of HIF-2α protein stability and transcriptional activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using transcriptomic analysis in D283-MED cells, we found a large transcriptional remodelling upon long term hypoxia, in particular the expression of a number of genes involved in detection and repair of double strand breaks (DSB) was altered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of the grapevine ERF-VII homologues, which in other species are oxygen labile and function in transcriptional regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • A single-cell atlas of mouse brain macrophages reveals unique transcriptional identities shaped by ontogeny and tissue environment. (nature.com)
  • To gain insight into this mechanism, we used mass spectrometry to investigate changes in protein expression in hESCs cultured in hypoxia. (uwo.ca)
  • Without altering HIF-2α mRNA level, emetine rapidly and dramatically down-regulated HIF-2α protein expression in 786-O cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On Western blots of ATII cell membranes, alpha-ENaC subunit protein slightly increased, whereas the amount of alpha(1)- and beta(1)-Na,K-ATPase protein were unchanged with hypoxia. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, hypoxia-induced decrease in ALC was completely reversed by intra-alveolar administration of the beta(2) agonist, terbutaline (10(-4) M). These results suggest that hypoxia-induced decrease in Na transport is not simply related to a downregulation of Na transport proteins but rather to a decrease in Na protein activity by either internalization of the proteins and/or direct alteration of the protein in the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Further experiments revealed that hypoxia in the trachea increased the levels of a protein called Muc91C in the apical extracellular matrix. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) and from human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs). (minervamedica.it)
  • To investigate the mechanism of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate inhibiting hypoxia induced retinal neovascularization in rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Preconditioning of Cardiosphere-Derived Cells With Hypoxia or Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase Inhibitors Increases Stemness and Decreases Reliance on Oxidative Metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hypoxia increased the expression of Tenascin-C, whereas both hypoxia and TGF-β1 stimuli increased the release of VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B. (lu.se)
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant embryonal brain tumour originating from neural stem cells or granule-cell progenitors of the cerebellum, due to a deregulation of signalling pathways involved in neuronal development such as Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LIF functions through binding to its receptor complex composed of LIF receptor (LIF-R) and glycoprotein gp130 to selectively activate different signaling pathways, including Jak/Stat3, ERK/MAPK, PI3K/AKT and mTOR pathways, depending upon different context of cells and tissues [ 6 - 8 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • We used two MB cell line (D283-MED and MEB-Med8A) and a widely used glioblastoma cell line (U87MG) for comparison. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We addressed how treatments and hypoxia affect tumor-associated astrocytes in ways that consequently alter glioma cell properties, and how hypoxia and pseudo-hypoxia are involved in stemness maintenance in glioblastoma. (lu.se)
  • For this work, we used genetically engineered mouse models of glioma, primary stromal and glioma cell lines, classical glioblastoma cell lines, and organotypic slice cultures. (lu.se)
  • Despite the positive molecular adaptations observed after various IHT modalities, the characteristics of optimal training stimulus in hypoxia are still unclear and their functional translation in terms of whole-body performance enhancement is minimal. (bmj.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the current study was the first to demonstrate that EGCG + Zn2+ protects H9c2 cells against H/R injury through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, as determined by western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Together our results demonstrate a new mechanism explaining hypoxia-induced resistance involving the alteration of the response to DSB in D283-MED cells, but also highlight the cell type to cell type diversity and the necessity to take into account the differing tumour genetic make-up when considering re-sensitisation therapeutic protocols. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that PWN loading activates hypoxia in tracheal system of the vector beetles. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using Pine Wood Nematode (PWN) infection of pine sawyer beetles the authors demonstrate that PWN loading activates hypoxia in the vector's tracheal system. (elifesciences.org)
  • In D283-MED and U87MG, chronic hypoxia (5 days), but not acute hypoxia (24 h) induced resistance to chemotherapy and X-ray irradiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the patient's risk status, the physicians intended to perform allogeneic stem cell transplantation after induction and consolidation chemotherapy, which was scheduled to end in January 2013, and a conditioning chemotherapy regimen, which was planned to be given in March. (cdc.gov)
  • Although it is expressed in tubular cells of the ischemic kidney, its functional role is not fully clarified in the pathological context. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We aimed to elucidate the impact of hypoxia on the sensitivity of MB cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis suggested that matrix metalloproteinase synthesis was inhibited in cells expanded in 2% oxygen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, treatment with PHDIs for 24 h increased cell proliferation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hyaline membranes appear along with a proliferation of type 2 alveolar lining cells. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen getting to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebral hypoxia affects the largest parts of the brain, called the cerebral hemispheres. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In cerebral hypoxia, sometimes only the oxygen supply is interrupted. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebral hypoxia is an emergency condition that needs to be treated right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sometimes a person with cerebral hypoxia is cooled to slow down the activity of the brain cells and decrease their need for oxygen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Complications of cerebral hypoxia include a prolonged vegetative state. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Controlling the phenotype of transplanted stem cells is integral to ensuring their therapeutic efficacy. (amrita.edu)
  • However, sustained engraftment of the expanded cells was not observed after transplantation, suggesting ineffective expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with long-term repopulating activity (LTR-HSCs). (confex.com)
  • Hypoxia has been shown to promote pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but the mechanism by which this occurs in poorly understood. (uwo.ca)
  • However, genetic modification of stem cells is not the first promising option in their utilization for tissue regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, p53 activation by etoposide was reduced, and cell survival enhanced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aims to construct a new prognostic gene signature in survival prediction and risk stratification for patients with Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found clear physiological stress in oysters exposed to acidification, hypoxia, and their combination but low mortality. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, we suggest the oyster holobiont may lose some of its nutrient cycling properties under hypoxia and multi-stressor conditions although the oysters can regulate their physiological processes to maintain homeostasis on the short-term. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report that CDC culture can be optimized by preconditioning the cells under hypoxia (2% oxygen), which may reflect the physiological oxygen level of the stem cell niche. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Introduction: Chronic lung disorders involve pathological alterations in the lung tissue with hypoxia as a consequence. (lu.se)
  • The bronchial epithelium appears more responsive to changes in oxygen levels and remodelling processes compared to the alveoli, suggesting that hypoxia may be a driver of pathogenesis in chronic lung disorders. (lu.se)
  • This acquired resistance upon chronic hypoxia was present but less pronounced in MEB-Med8A cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate is an effective monomer extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza ( S. miltiorrhiza ), it has the effects of scavenging oxygen free radicals, placing myocardial damage, and inhibiting the function of white blood cells, placing myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often require its use[ 4 - 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • People with severe hypoxia may need a machine known as a ventilator to breathe for them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sickle cell anemia (SCA), which primarily affects Black or African American persons, is associated with severe complications and reduced life expectancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Hypoxia can modify the adipocyte metabolome towards accelerated lipolysis, glucose deprivation and reduced ketosis. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Glycolysis and hypoxia were screened as the main risk factors for OS in HNSCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This nine-gene signature associated with glycolysis and hypoxia can not only be used for prognosis prediction and risk stratification, but also may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with HNSCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To compensate for the demands of rapidly proliferating cells, many cancers exhibit an increased demand for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and glutaminolysis. (uab.edu)