Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.
Huynh, W. U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul (March 29, 2002). "Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells". Science. American ... a company that makes crystalline nanoscale tags that are used in the study of cell behavior. (Quantum Dot is now part of Life ... Alivisatos went on to use his techniques to create an entirely new generation of hybrid solar cells that combined ... Gur, I.; Fromer, N. A.; Geier, M. L.; Alivisatos, A.P. (October 21, 2005). "Air-Stable All-Inorganic Nanocrystal Solar Cells ...
Cell Biol. 77 (3): 223-8. doi:10.1139/bcb-77-3-223. PMID 10505793. Tanahashi N, Murakami Y, Minami Y, Shimbara N, Hendil KB, ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Tanaka K (2000). "Hybrid proteasomes. Induction by interferon-gamma and contribution to ATP-dependent proteolysis". J. Biol. ... Cell Biol. 3 (1): 93-6. doi:10.1038/35050618. PMID 11146632. S2CID 19161960. Kamitani T, Kito K, Fukuda-Kamitani T, Yeh ET ( ...
... in hybrid solar cells[edit]. Colloidal quantum dots are also used in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. These ... Semiconductor quantum dots have also been employed for in vitro imaging of pre-labeled cells. The ability to image single-cell ... PSS hybrid solar cells.[67]. Quantum dot with nanowire in solar cells[edit]. Another potential use involves capped single- ... Fast-growing tumor cells typically have more permeable membranes than healthy cells, allowing the leakage of small ...
A Turbo Hybrid, 111 kW (149 hp; 151 PS) 1.4 L TSI intercooled turbocharged engine mated with a 20 kW (27 hp; 27 PS) electric ... The Bora HyMotion was a hydrogen powered Mark 4 with a 75 kW fuel cell that could accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (60 mph) in 12.5 ... ". "Fuel cells start to look real". Society of Automotive Engineering. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. ... The Jetta Turbo Hybrid has an estimated combined fuel economy of 5.2 L/100 km (54 mpg‑imp; 45 mpg‑US). The 2013 Volkswagen ...
Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2008 (12): 2. December 2008. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(08)70429-2. "Proterra Prototype Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus ... Eudy, Leslie; Chandler, Kevin (October 2011). National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Proterra Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus Report, Columbia ... doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(12)70059-7. "Proterra Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus in DoD Hydrogen Energy Cycle Pilot Project". Green Car ... Transporting America: Proterra on YouTube "The Hydrogen Hybrid Bus [HFC35]: Part of the National Fuel Cell Bus Program". ...
3→q34.11 by radiation hybrid mapping". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 87 (3-4): 271-2. doi:10.1159/000015445. PMID 10702691. S2CID ... "High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells". Science. 307 (5715): 1621-5. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Cell Genet. 94 (1-2): 33-8. doi:10.1159/000048779. PMID 11701951. S2CID 27666742. Lizcano JM, Deak M, Morrice N, Kieloch A, ... Involved in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. Inhibition of activity results in apoptosis. May contribute to ...
Consider a series-parallel battery arrangement with all good cells, and one becomes shorted or dead:. *The failed cell will ... Hybrid topology/double conversion on demand[edit]. These hybrid Rotary UPS[7] designs do not have official designations, ... For cells that are supposed to operate within a specific discharge window, new cells with more capacity may cause the old cells ... A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long ...
Hybrid trench isolation is another approach. While floating body effect presents a problem in SOI DRAM chips, it is exploited ... Another similar technology (and Z-RAM competitor) developed at Toshiba and refined at Intel is Floating Body Cell (FBC). ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Nick Farrell (11 Dec 2006). "Intel talks up Floating Body Cells". The Inquirer. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yoshiko Hara (7 Feb 2002). "Toshiba cuts capacitor from DRAM cell design". EE Times. ...
"Cell Phone Battery Guide". Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010. Example of a Triple SIM hybrid ... Some manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources, including solar cells. Various initiatives, such as ... A hybrid mobile phone can take more than one SIM card, even of different types. The SIM and RUIM cards can be mixed together, ... Radiolinja). Those cell phones that do not use a SIM card have the data programmed into their memory. This data is accessed by ...
Hybrid vehicles. Recuperation. Polarized. Low operating voltage per cell. (Stacked cells provide higher operating voltage.) ... Low operating voltage per cell. (Stacked cells provide higher operating voltage.) Relatively high cost. ... Hybrid capacitors Lithium ion capacitors (LIC). Helmholtz double-layer plus faradaic pseudo-capacitance. Anode doped with ... Hybrid capacitors - capacitors with special and asymmetric electrodes that exhibit both significant double-layer capacitance ...
"A synthetic-natural hybrid oscillator in human cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (39): 17047-17052. ... Jones, Daniel L.; Brewster, Robert C.; Phillips, Rob (2014-12-19). "Promoter architecture dictates cell-to-cell variability in ... By engineering genetic regulatory circuits, cells can be modified to take information from their environment, such as nutrient ... Molecular Cell. 43 (4): 505-514. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2011.08.003. ISSN 1097-2765. Kelly, Daniel P.; Scarpulla, Richard C. ( ...
"Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168 (3): 473-486.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.036. PMC ... Kingsbury, Noel (2009). Hybrid: The History and Science of Plant Breeding. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-43705-7 ... Cooper GM (2000). "Cells As Experimental Models". The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Patel P (June 2018). "Microbe ... DNA is generally inserted into animal cells using microinjection, where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear envelope ...
Progenitor cells such as the hematopoietic stem cell divide in a process called mitosis to produce precursor cells. These ... ISBN 978-0-914168-88-1. Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Wall, Hans van der (3 January 2013). Radionuclide and Hybrid ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Osteoblasts are mononucleate ... Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. ...
Steven AC, Baumeister W (2008). "The future is hybrid". Journal of Structural Biology. 163 (3): 186-95. doi:10.1016/j.jsb. ... electron microscopy and cell and tissue imaging. In contrast, visualization of trajectories has long been a prominent part of ... from cells to molecules". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 74: 833-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.73.011303.074112. PMID ... A Survey of Cell Biology (Submitted manuscript). International Review of Cytology. 255. pp. 133-76. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(06) ...
"Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells". Nature Communications. 6: 7497. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.7497E. doi ... "Benchmarking Chemical Stability of Arbitrarily Mixed 3D Hybrid Halide Perovskites for Solar Cell Applications". Small Methods. ... "Atomistic Origins of High-Performance in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells". Nano Letters. 14 (5): 2584-2590. arXiv: ... At room temperature the ions have the CN axis aligned towards the face directions of the unit cells and the molecules randomly ...
Stanners CP, Eliceiri GL, Green H (1971). "Two types of ribosome in mouse-hamster hybrid cells". Nat New Biol. 230 (10): 52-4. ... a synthetic cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle first published in 1959 in Science that can be used to maintain cells ... Eagle developed his earlier "Basal Medium Eagle" (BME) in 1955-1957 on mouse L cells and human HeLa cells, with 13 essential ... EAGLE H (1955). "The specific amino acid requirements of a mammalian cell (strain L) in tissue culture". J Biol Chem. 214 (2): ...
Cell durability is currently insufficient for commercial use. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells can be manufactured ... Becker, Markus; Klüner, Thorsten; Wark, Michael (2017-03-14). "Formation of hybrid ABX3 perovskite compounds for solar cell ... "Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells". Nature Communications. 6: 7497. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.7497E. doi ... These films can be a couple of nanometres thick or as small as a single unit cell. The well-defined and unique structures at ...
"Cell. 135 (4): 726-37. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.037. PMC 2703716. PMID 19013280.. ... both of which have been linked to fitness reduction in the resulting hybrids. Hybrid dysgenesis has also been shown to be ... Some elements can preferentially be transmitted in egg cells as opposed to polar bodies during meiosis, where only the former ... "The Plant Cell. 16 (Suppl): S154-69. doi:10.1105/tpc.015966. PMC 2643387. PMID 15131248.. ...
"Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ... The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT - a nucleus ... These cells would appear as rapidly dividing cancer cells that do not respond to the body's natural cell signaling process. ... Trounson A, DeWitt ND (2013). "Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6 ...
Jerry Garrett (2010-07-21). "As Honda Ramps Up E.V.'s and Hybrids, Fuel Cell Program Lags". New York Times-Wheels blog. ... "Overview of Honda Clarity". Ohnsman, Alan; Seeley, Tina (18 May 2009). "Fuel cells valid despite cuts, car firms vow". Arkansas ... "Vehicle Specifications 2020 Honda Clarity Plug-in Hybrid". owners.honda.com. Retrieved 2021-02-05. "Clarity Plug-in Hybrid ... The Clarity Fuel Cell is eligible for a federal tax credit of US$8,000, as the tax credit for fuel-cell vehicles was given in ...
... monophosphate in somatic cells. beta-Adrenergic and PGE1 receptors in parental and hybrid cells". The Journal of Biological ... on the cell membrane and actions within the cell. Rodbell had shown in the 1960s that GTP was involved in cell signaling. It ... interaction of components following cell-cell and membrane-cell fusion". Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 3 (4): 227-38. ... This was due to loss of proteins in these cancer cells. When he introduced the missing protein from normal cells into the ...
"Episomal Maintenance of Plasmids with Hybrid Origins in Mouse Cells". Journal of Virology. 79 (24): 15277-15288. doi:10.1128/ ... QMCF cell lines express Large-T antigen and EBNA-1 proteins which bind the viral sequences on the QMCF plasmid and hence ... Thereafter 1-6 µg of plasmidial DNA is transfected by electroporation into QMCF cells (CHO or HEK293 based cells) for ... Compared to usage of stable cell line, QMCF technology is a rapid method leaving out time-consuming clone selection step during ...
... phage DNA segments and their propagation in cultured monkey cells". Cell. 9 (4): 695-705. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(76)90133-1. ... Viral capsid- nanoparticle hybrid structures, which combine the bio-activities of virus capsids with the functions of ... Recently, a plant pathogenic virus are reported to used to synthesize a noble hybrid metal nanomaterials used as bio- ... Plant virus nanoparticles are non-infectious to mammalian cells also proved by Raja muthuramalingam et al. 2018. Plant viruses ...
Tompkins V, Hagen J, Zediak VP, Quelle DE (2006). "Identification of novel ARF binding proteins by two-hybrid screening". Cell ... 2004). "Proteomics analysis of the centromere complex from HeLa interphase cells: UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB-1) is a ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e. ...
Hybrid solar lighting is more efficient than photo-voltaic cells. Natural Light- Numerous museums use natural light instead of ... optics to channel sunlight into an enclosed space while directing infrared light into a concentrating thermo-photo-voltaic cell ... Hybrid Solar Lighting- Hybrid solar lighting combines solar power and fiber ... Beyond halogen and incandescent light options, museums use LEDs, CFLs, fiber optics, hybrid solar lighting and natural light. ...
The efficiency of a hybrid photovoltaic cell that contains piezoelectric materials can be increased simply by placing it near a ... Heidi Hoopes (November 8, 2013). "Good vibrations lead to efficient excitations in hybrid solar cells". Gizmag.com. Archived ... A small crystal is expanded by applying a current that moves a lever to raise individual braille cells. Piezoelectric actuator ... The effect was demonstrated with organic cells using zinc oxide nanotubes. The electricity generated by the piezoelectric ...
... both of which have been linked to fitness reduction in the resulting hybrids. Hybrid dysgenesis has also been shown to be ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.037. PMC 2703716. PMID 19013280. Queller DC, Ponte E, Bozzaro S, Strassmann JE (January 2003). " ... Some elements can preferentially be transmitted in egg cells as opposed to polar bodies during meiosis, where only the former ... If the hybrid offspring are to be harvested for their seed (like maize), and therefore needs to be male fertile, the parental ...
... binding protein and eRF3 are associated in vivo in human and Xenopus cells". Biology of the Cell. 94 (4-5): 205-16. doi:10.1016 ... Tompkins V, Hagen J, Zediak VP, Quelle DE (Mar 2006). "Identification of novel ARF binding proteins by two-hybrid screening". ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. S2CID 13709685. Chauvin C, Salhi S, Jean-Jean O (Aug 2007 ... Janzen DM, Geballe AP (2004). "The effect of eukaryotic release factor depletion on translation termination in human cell lines ...
"A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... to chromosome band 11q12 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell ... AHNAK has been shown to be essential for pseudopod protrusion and cell migration. AHNAK has been shown to interact with S100B. ... Tompkins V, Hagen J, Zediak VP, Quelle DE (March 2006). "Identification of novel ARF binding proteins by two-hybrid screening ...
These two cell types are hybridised, yielding hybrid-hybridomas or quadromas, which produce hybrid (trifunctional) antibody as ... natural killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells to the tumor cells, leading to their destruction. ... These drugs evoke the removal of tumor cells by means of (i) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity, a process also ... Staerz, UD; Kanagawa, O; Bevan, MJ (1985). "Hybrid antibodies can target sites for attack by T cells". Nature. 314 (6012): 628- ...
... hybrid car battery disconnect, tweak ubuntu battery life, aa rechargeable batteries review 2014, 12v5ah lawn mower battery, car ... As with other hybrid battery packs, the cells are similar in shape to a size D flashlight battery. The hybrid system is used to ... The Ford Escape Hybrids battery pack, made by Sanyo, consists of 250 individual nickel metal hydride cells. The Honda ... The total number of cells is 168, compared with 228 cells packaged in 38 modules in the first generation Prius.. The discharge ...
The vehicle uses a relatively small fuel cell stack to provide average power demands, and a battery pack to provide peak power ... This paper describes the design and construction of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on the conversion of a five ... Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles-PT-85 Related Topics: Hybrid electric vehicles Fuel cells Battery Packs ... The Virginia Tech Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle was tested on the EPA City and Highway driving cycles to provide data for ...
A fuel cell produces electricity silently and without combustion, using hydrogen or methanol as fuel, and the only thing that ... HYBRIDS AND FUEL CELLS: THE MOTOR OF THE FUTURE. By Evelyn Kanter ... But hybrids are just one of the so-called alternative fuel ... Toyota also has a hybrid, the Prius, similar in size and price to the Honda. In a hybrid, the electric system helps out the ... Even as Ford takes an excursion into the super-size SUV, it has invested millions into research and development of hybrid ...
The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is ... Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells. S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir, M. Y. Sulaiman, N. Ahmad-Ludin, M. A. Ibrahim, ... This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells. ... which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help ...
... cell lines arise through intentional or nonintentional fusion of somatic cells having different origins. Hybrid cell lines can ... a hybrid cell may display characteristics of one of the parental cell type or of both. In some instances, the hybrid cell line ... In this article, we describe the various approaches that have been used for identifying hybrid cell lines and the results that ... since the results obtained may not conform to the results expected for the two parental cell types. Thus, depending on the ...
The present coassembly method is likely to create cell-like hybrids from any biological membrane including human cells and thus ... Bioactive cell-like hybrids. Qi Xiao, Srujana S. Yadavalli, Shaodong Zhang, Samuel E. Sherman, Elodie Fiorin, Louise da Silva, ... Bioactive cell-like hybrids. Qi Xiao, Srujana S. Yadavalli, Shaodong Zhang, Samuel E. Sherman, Elodie Fiorin, Louise da Silva, ... into the structure of the hybrid vesicle. These cell-like hybrid structures provide a platform that should be readily ...
... piecewise linear hybrid system model as an analysis tool for the dynamics of Delta-Notch signaling in a network of cells. In ... we present the hybrid system model of the cell network, perform a convergence analysis, and validate with simulation results. ... in a biological control mechanism for cell di#erentiation known as Delta-Notch signaling. This switchisshown to be a good ... hybrid system model biological cell network signaling cell network simulation result good approximation certain protein ...
... that an ultimate efficiency of 30 percent should be attainable with such tandem cells. They discovered a structurally stable ... Tandem solar cells based on silicon and perovskites have raised high hopes for future high efficiency solar modules. A team led ... A tandem solar cell works by absorbing the high energy photons (visible light) in a top cell which generates a high voltage, ... Optimum band gap for hybrid silicon/perovskite tandem solar cell. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie ...
... cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation. V M Richon, Y Webb, R Merger ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ...
Researchers can create hybrid embryos by the transferring nuclei from human cells into animal egg cells from which the nucleus ... Creating hybrid embryos would bypass the shortage in human eggs, and will enable researchers to use stem cells from the embryos ... HFEA set to approve use of hybrid embryos for stem cell research. Posted by Mo on September 5, 2007 ... looks set to approve the use of hybrid embryos for stem cell research at a meeting later on today.. ...
... was an extraordinarily potent stimulant of phosphoinositide breakdown in the neuroblastoma hybrid NCB-20 cells. 2. Maximal ... Minna, J. D., Glazer, D., and Nirenberg, M. (1972). Genetic dissection of neuronal properties using somatic cell hybrids.Nature ... Maitotoxin (MTX) was an extraordinarily potent stimulant of phosphoinositide breakdown in the neuroblastoma hybrid NCB-20 cells ... maitotoxin NCB-20 cells calcium channels phosphoinositide breakdown This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ...
In addition, NSC-34 cells induce acetylcholine receptor clusters on cocultured myotubes, and undergo a vimentin-neurofilament ... Neuroblastoma x spinal cord (NSC) hybrid cell lines resemble developing motor neurons.. Cashman NR1, Durham HD, Blusztajn JK, ... We have developed a series of mouse-mouse neural hybrid cell lines by fusing the aminopterin-sensitive neuroblastoma N18TG2 ... NSC cell lines appear to model selected aspects of motor neuron development in an immortalized clonal system. ...
This hybrid photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic device allows tunable control over the branching ratio between two high-value ... Solar energy is widely used for fuel production and energy storage, but the majority of photoelectrochemical cells cannot ... However, the majority of solar photoelectrochemical cells cannot drive the overall photosynthesis reactions without the ... All-in-one derivatized tandem p+n-silicon-SnO2/TiO2 water splitting photoelectrochemical cell. Nano Lett. 17, 2440-2446 (2017). ...
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Production MethodsVertical FarmingZero Emission Electric Vehicle ChargingSee all reports on the topic ... Electric, Hybrid & Fuel Cell Light Commercial Vehicles 2021-2041: IDTechEx. HomeResearch ReportsElectric, Hybrid & Fuel Cell ... Hybrid & Fuel Cell Light Commercial VehiclesElectric, Hybrid and Fuel Cell BusesElectrically Smart RoadsEnergy Independent ... Source: IDTechEx Electric, Hybrid & Fuel Cell Light Commercial Vehicles 2021-2041, ACEA ...
Asthma occurs when immune cells go into overdrive and release inflammatory chemicals called cytokines.... ... A recently discovered class of immune cell may hold the key to new treatments for asthma - and explain why existing therapies ... NKT cells are hybrids: they kill invading microbes, like natural killer immune cells, but they also bind to antigens - foreign ... These inhibit many immune cells, but do not work on NKT cells, Akbari says. However, while DPPE-PEG shows promise, more work is ...
Hybrid solar cells based on dye-sensitized solar cells are formed with inorganic materials (TiO2) and organic materials. Hybrid ... Inorganic materials in hybrid cells are used as the acceptor and electron transporter in the structure. The hybrid photovoltaic ... Hybrid solar cells combine advantages of both organic and inorganic semiconductors. Hybrid photovoltaics have organic materials ... Controlling the interface of inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells can increase the efficiency of the cells. This increased ...
The global market for materials used in automotive batteries and fuel cells should grow from $8.2 billion in 2018 to reach $ ... This report covers materials used in the following types of EVs that use motive power batteries and fuel cells:. *Passenger ... Advanced Materials in Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid Automotive Batteries. Single User License: $5500 Member Price: FREE Buy ... Advanced Materials in Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid Automotive Batteries. Oct 2019, FCB047A, BCC Publishing ...
A cell hybrid has been selected from fusion of a mouse myeloma and rat spleen cells immunized against mouse lymphoma cells that ... Biological context of Hybrid Cells. *Using somatic cell hybrids and cloned cDNA probes for these proteins, we have assigned the ... Chemical compound and disease context of Hybrid Cells. *A monoclonal antibody-producing hybrid cell line was obtained by fusing ... Dopamine depolarising response in a vertebrate neuronal somatic cell hybrid [29].. *These reconstituted hybrid cells could ...
... the first part including a portion of the binding domain of a cell-binding ligand, which portion is able to cause the hybrid ... the hybrid molecule does not include an enzymatically-active portion of the protein, (ii) the first part and the second part ... is capable of translocating such effector region across the cytoplasmic membrane of the cell. ... molecule of the invention to bind to an animal cell; and (b) the second part including a portion of a translocation domain of a ...
... hybrid,fuel,cell,produces,electricity,directly,from,biomass,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology ... Although low temperature fuel cells powered by methanol or hydrogen ha...Now researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology ... Metastatic tumor a hybrid of cancer cell and white blood cell. 9. Origin of species: Protein imbalances doom hybrids. 10. ... Solar-induced hybrid fuel cell produces electricity directly from biomass. ...Although low temperature fuel cells powered by ...
Fuel cells are not the sole energy source in this hybrid automobile. The battery stacks, which may be charged from an outlet in ... and found solutions to all the barriers preventing development of a hybrid fuel cell automobile using hydrogen fuel cells and ... Another problem in the conceptualization of hybrid fuel cell vehicles is hydrogen storage. While hydrogen is easily stored as a ... Home / Power and Electrical Engineering / Obstacles fall to feasibility of hybrid fuel cell vehicle ...
... as well as for heating the fuel cell system to a working temperature. After the working temperature is reached, the fuel cell ... Liquid fuel is used to supply energy to the internal-combustion engine drive and the fuel cell system. The internal-combustion ... Subsequently, an electric driving motor, which is fed by the fuel cell system, alone or together with the internal-combustion ... A vehicle has an internal-combustion engine drive and a fuel cell drive system. ...
The only waste the hydrogen fuel cell would produce would be clean water, which easyJet could theoretically use to refill the ... EasyJet unveils plan for hybrid planes using hydrogen fuel cells. by CNN ... This hybrid concepts part of easyJets goal to reduce its fuel emissions by 7% by 2020, but its not the only measure the ... The cells would capture energy from the aircraft breaking on landing, and would charge lightweight batteries when the plane is ...
... if hybrid seeds are being planted, chances are some might be genetically engineered (GE) and technically genetic ... is not considered an excluded method when the donor cells/protoplasts fall within the same taxonomic plant family, and when ... Not all F1 hybrids are developed using CMS GE cell fusion. In the world of seed breeding, there are open-pollinated, hybrid, ... cell fusion hybrid seeds as GE and GMOs, excluding cisgenic cell fusion as a "traditional method" and not genetic engineering/ ...
It consists of a cubic unit-cell (S.G. Fd-3m, a = 72.26 Å, V = 387,000 Å3) far beyond the current possibilities for solving the ... They exist either as purely inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic frameworks. The current challenge [1] is to obtain giant ... This is particularly possible with hybrid solids, which are constructed from inorganic building units and organic moieties. For ...
Hybrid cell chemotaxis toward CSF1 and SDF1 is statistically significant relative to unfused MC38 cells after 24 hours (P , ... Cell fusion potentiates tumor heterogeneity and reveals circulating hybrid cells that correlate with stage and survival.. Gast ... RFP/GFP coexpressing cells analyzed for cell surface MФ identity. All boxes represent hybrid populations. Open box denote ... Fusion hybrids (cells harboring hematopoietic and epithelial properties) are readily detectible in cell culture and tumor- ...
... and to accentuate the branching processes of the cell. ... Conceptual illustration of a dendritic cell, a type of immune ...
  • Hybrid solar cells combine advantages of both organic and inorganic semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybrid photovoltaic devices have a potential for not only low-cost by roll-to-roll processing but also for scalable solar power conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar cells are devices that convert sunlight into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrons in a solar cell absorb photon energy in sunlight which excites them to the conduction band from the valence band. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic solar cells use organic materials in their active layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hybrid solar cells, an organic material is mixed with a high electron transport material to form the photoactive layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlling the interface of inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells can increase the efficiency of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesoporous films have been used for a relatively high-efficiency hybrid solar cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of mesoporous thin film solar cells usually includes a porous inorganic that is saturated with organic surfactant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have been able to grow nanostructure-based solar cells that use ordered nanostructures like nanowires or nanotubes of inorganic surrounding by electron-donating organics utilizing self-organization processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. (hindawi.com)
  • Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. (hindawi.com)
  • This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Tandem solar cells based on silicon and perovskites have raised high hopes for future high efficiency solar modules. (eurekalert.org)
  • A tandem solar cell works by absorbing the high energy photons (visible light) in a top cell which generates a high voltage, and the lower energy photons (Infra red) in a rear cell, which generates a lower voltage. (eurekalert.org)
  • A team led by perovskite solar cell pioneer Prof. Henry Snaith FRS at the University of Oxford, in collaboration with silicon solar cell experts Prof. Bernd Rech and Dr. Lars Korte of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, have shown that an ultimate efficiency of 30% should be attainable with such tandem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the majority of solar photoelectrochemical cells cannot drive the overall photosynthesis reactions without the assistance of an external power source. (nature.com)
  • This hybrid photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic device allows tunable control over the branching ratio between two high-value products of solar energy conversion, requires relatively simple modification to existing photovoltaic technologies, and circumvents the photocurrent mismatches that lead to significant loss in tandem photoelectrochemical systems comprising chemically stable photoelectrodes. (nature.com)
  • Solar water splitting cells. (nature.com)
  • Solar-induced hybrid fuel cell produces electricity directly fr. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new type of low-temperature fuel cell that directly converts biomass to electricity with assistance from a catalyst activated by solar or thermal energy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell was described February 7, 2014, in the journal Nature Communications . (bio-medicine.org)
  • innovations-report provides in-depth and informative reports and articles on subjects ranging from wind energy, fuel cell technology, solar energy, geothermal energy, petroleum, gas, nuclear engineering, alternative energy and energy efficiency to fusion, hydrogen and superconductor technologies. (innovations-report.com)
  • We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. (hindawi.com)
  • Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Thin film crystalline silicon (TF c-Si) solar cells show a great potential in the worldwide application of photovoltaic technologies. (hindawi.com)
  • For this reason, advanced light trapping strategies in solar cells are essential since they increase the absorption of incident sunlight. (hindawi.com)
  • The question whether random or periodic photonic nanostructures lead to better light trapping in solar cells is currently hotly debated and remains controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • Lots of works have been done to find which structure behaves better in enhancing light absorption in solar cells, the random structure or the periodic structure. (hindawi.com)
  • 17 ] demonstrated that certain randomness could give broadband and isotropic photocurrent enhancement in TF c-Si solar cells. (hindawi.com)
  • 18 ] have conducted a symmetric study comparison between solar cells with periodic and random nanohole, and they found that random nanohole behaves better in the light absorption enhancement performance. (hindawi.com)
  • As such, it could be a promising replacement material for indium tin oxide (ITO), the current standard material for transparent electrodes used for electrodes in LCD displays, solar cells, iPad and smart-phone touch screens, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays for televisions and computer monitors. (nanowerk.com)
  • The reason for this, in terms of applicability to solar cells, is primarily the challenge of photophysical characterization of the nanohybrids. (nanowerk.com)
  • With this in mind, researchers at Ohio State University recently announced their creation of a new hybrid device that can act both as a solar cell, producing energy from sunlight, and as a battery storing that energy. (singularityhub.com)
  • The new device, the brainchild of Dr. Yiying Wu, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry, may overcome some limitations in both solar cell and battery technology. (singularityhub.com)
  • Usually, up to 20% of the energy produced by a solar cell is lost as it travels to and charges a battery. (singularityhub.com)
  • But since this new device combines the solar cell and battery into one device, nearly 100% of the energy produced can be stored. (singularityhub.com)
  • Next, the researchers overcame several technological challenges to combine this Li-air battery with a solar cell to provide the energy. (singularityhub.com)
  • However, most solar cells are solid and mostly impermeable to air. (singularityhub.com)
  • So the team designed a novel mesh-like solar cell made from microscopic rods of titanium dioxide. (singularityhub.com)
  • GaAs nanowire/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this paper, a new type of hybrid solar cell based on a heterojunction between poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and vertically aligned n-type GaAs nanowire (NW) arrays is investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The morphology of GaAs NW arrays strongly influences the characteristics of the GaAs NW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Scientists have developed a new hybrid solar cell that harnesses the sun's light and heat to create more energy than ever before, thanks to the pairing of a photovoltaic cell with polymer films. (inhabitat.com)
  • The resulting hybrid solar cell can produce up to five times the voltage of existing technology. (inhabitat.com)
  • Although this type of solar cell is a great deal more expensive than others, the researchers behind the breakthrough are hopeful that consumers will find the increased solar energy production far outweighs the higher cost. (inhabitat.com)
  • Each generation of new solar cells is more efficient than the previous at turning the sun's light into energy. (inhabitat.com)
  • Developers are attempting to make the cells more efficient, sometimes by simply adding more surface area as in these double-sided solar panels. (inhabitat.com)
  • However, even the latest iterations still fail to make use of much of the sun's radiation, even though the solar cells are exposed to it. (inhabitat.com)
  • Hybridizing the material solar cells are composed of is one way to increase efficiency, so researchers are experimenting with various substances to make that happen. (inhabitat.com)
  • The PEDOT film, which heats up in response to light, is layered with a dye-sensitive solar cell and then placed atop a pyroelectric thin film and a thermoelectric device, both of which can convert heat into electricity. (inhabitat.com)
  • The result is a contraption that harnesses solar energy at a rate of more than 20 percent higher than the solar cell on its own. (inhabitat.com)
  • It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this contribution, we present a new hybrid solar cell design. (spie.org)
  • A polymer with tailored chemical functionality was introduced as a processing additive to control the film formation of the CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite structure, leading to enhanced photovoltaic performance in a PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCBM-based planar heterojunction solar cell under optimized conditions. (rsc.org)
  • At optimized conditions, the planar heterojunction solar cell composed of a thin layer of perovskite-polymer film (∼50 nm) exhibits an average PCE of 6.16% with a V oc of 1.04 V, a J sc of 8.85 mA cm −2 and a FF of 0.65, which are much higher than those of the control device with a pristine perovskite film. (rsc.org)
  • 1. Characterise hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells using advanced spectroscopic methods to gain a better understanding of the working mechanism of the solar cells. (europa.eu)
  • 2. Compare hybrid solar cells consisting of different materials and prepared by different methods and identify loss processes in the solar cells. (europa.eu)
  • 3. Use the gained knowledge to propose new materials combinations and to obtain an optimum match of solar cell components. (europa.eu)
  • More efficient hybrid solar cells will be constructed. (europa.eu)
  • In the first phase of the project, hybrid solar cells using blends of cadmium sulfide and the polymer, poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) as active layers were characterised using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. (europa.eu)
  • Cadmium sulphide and P3HT show complementary absorption spectra (Figure 1a) and either material can be excited to generate charges in the solar cell. (europa.eu)
  • The use of an inorganic absorber with a broader absorption spectrum was suggested for the improvement of hybrid solar cells. (europa.eu)
  • Another hybrid solar cell system, which was studied, consisted of mesoporous titanium dioxide substrates with metal sulfides as absorbers and organic hole conductors. (europa.eu)
  • Optimised antimony sulfide solar cells showed power conversion efficiencies of 3.5% with P3HT as the hole conductor and were significantly better than solar cells with cadmium sulfide due to a much improved photocurrent, matching the differences in light harvesting. (europa.eu)
  • Bismuth sulfide solar cells showed very poor performances with very limited photocurrent generation. (europa.eu)
  • These differences in performance were further elucidated using photoelectron spectroscopy in order to study the energy alignment and driving forces for charge separation in the solar cell (Figure 2b). (europa.eu)
  • This result explains why bismuth sulfide was not successful in solar cells in combination with titanium dioxide and suggest antimony sulfide as a good alternative solar cell material with minimised losses due to charge separation. (europa.eu)
  • Scientists have gained new insights into a fundamental mystery about hybrid perovskites, low-cost materials that could enhance or even replace conventional solar cells made of silicon. (phys.org)
  • The study is the first to probe the inner workings of hybrid perovskites at the atomic scale using laser pulses that match the intensity of solar radiation, and thus mimic natural sunlight. (phys.org)
  • The authors say their discovery could lead to improvements in the performance of perovskite solar cells and a new way to probe their functionality. (phys.org)
  • Most solar cells today are made of purified silicon manufactured at temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,600 degrees Celsius). (phys.org)
  • Perovskite solar cells, although far less durable, are thinner and more flexible than silicon cells and can be produced near room temperature from a hybrid mixture of cheap organic and inorganic materials , like iodine, lead and methylammonium. (phys.org)
  • Researchers, including Stanford co-author Michael McGehee, have shown that perovskite solar cells are as efficient at converting light to electricity as commercially available silicon cells and can even outperform them. (phys.org)
  • All solar cells operate on the same principle. (phys.org)
  • Pure silicon, with its highly ordered atomic structure, provides a direct path for electrons and holes to travel through the solar cell. (phys.org)
  • A better understanding of this behavior will enable manufacturers to design solar cells with increased efficiency. (ornl.gov)
  • Hybrid perovskites hold promise to be more efficient in converting light into energy than traditional solar cell materials. (ornl.gov)
  • The inside back cover image of the Nov. 20, 2017 issue of Advanced Materials illustrates how ion migration in a hybrid perovskite crystal affects solar cell performance in different areas of the crystal. (phys.org)
  • A team of researchers led by the University of California San Diego has for the first time observed nanoscale changes deep inside hybrid perovskite crystals that could offer new insights into developing low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. (phys.org)
  • Using X-ray beams and lasers, researchers studied how a new promising class of solar cell materials , called hybrid perovskites, behaves at the nanoscale level during operation. (phys.org)
  • Limiting it could be a key to improving the quality of these solar cells ," said David Fenning, a professor of nanoengineering and member of the Sustainable Power and Energy Center at UC San Diego. (phys.org)
  • They are promising materials for making next-generation solar cells because they are inexpensive to manufacture and are considerably efficient at converting light to electricity. (phys.org)
  • Microscopic techniques typically used to study solar cells often end up damaging the hybrid perovskites or can't image beyond their surfaces. (phys.org)
  • A good solar cell material emits light very well, so the higher the photoluminescence, the more efficient the solar cell should be. (phys.org)
  • We watch the bromine ions migrate within minutes and see that the resulting bromine-rich areas have the potential to become better solar cells while the performance is degraded in bromine-poor areas," Fenning said. (phys.org)
  • A team of Chinese researchers has demonstrated a method which enables solar cells to generate electricity from the falling of raindrops, improving their efficiency and allowing them to generate energy even at night. (theiet.org)
  • One of the greatest drawbacks is the still-limited efficiency of solar cells, particularly during cloudy and rainy weather when little sunlight can reach the cells. (theiet.org)
  • However, a team of researchers based at Soochow University in China has developed hybrid solar cells which are capable of generating energy even during a rainy spell. (theiet.org)
  • Previous attempts to improve the efficiency of solar cells under rainy conditions have involved the addition of a pseudocapacitor (a component of a supercapacitor) or a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG, a useful device which converts mechanical energy into electricity) to an existing solar cell. (theiet.org)
  • Meanwhile, the other polymer is placed between the TENG and the solar cell and acts as a mutual electrode for the devices, conducting energy from the TENG to the cell. (theiet.org)
  • Such a hybrid solar cell would be capable of generating energy even during a dark and rainy light thanks to the incorporation of the TENG. (theiet.org)
  • The hybrid energy harvesting system […] can combine the advantages of high current level of a solar cell and high voltage of a TENG device, promising an efficient approach to collect energy from the environment in different weather conditions," the researchers wrote in ACS Nano . (theiet.org)
  • In competition with Si-based solar cells, which have, or areexpected to have,high stability and efficiency, thirdgeneration solar cells offer the use of low cost materials and production and can therefore be an alternative for future light energy conversion technology. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this work, two categories of QDs, Cd-free and Cd-based QDs were employed as sensitizers in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • Mn doping as a bandgap engineering tool for Cd-based type IIZnSe/CdS QDs wasemployed to boostthe solar cell efficiency. (diva-portal.org)
  • Scientists at the University of Cambridge in the UK have found a way to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic cells by as much as 25% through harnessing more of the sun's spectrum than most traditional silicon-based solar cells can. (techcrunch.com)
  • Most current solar cells lose blue photon energy as heat, leaving them unable to turn more than about 34% of the sunlight they absorb into power. (techcrunch.com)
  • The greatest costs in building a solar power plant are installation hardware, labor and land, so a cheaper solar cell is only a piece of the puzzle. (techcrunch.com)
  • In the recent years functionalize graphene and inorganic quantum dots have emerged as strong acceptor material for the organic solar cells. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Again according to the article, plug-in hybrids will work best with both kinds of batteries on board with the NiMh batteries supplying short range needs and the Li ion batteries meeting the longer range needs. (amazonaws.com)
  • A German-Spanish research team has recently published a paper in Angewandte Chemie International Edition 'Towards Tunable Graphene/Phthalocyanine PPV Hybrid Systems' where they present a chemical approach towards non-covalently functionalized graphene, which is generated from vastly available and low-priced natural graphite. (nanowerk.com)
  • Schematic of the electron-transfer pathway in the exfoliated graphene/zinc phthalocyanines hybrid. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, the investigation of novel electron donor-acceptor hybrids involving graphene is far more challenging than the exploitation of carbon nanotubes in the same context. (nanowerk.com)
  • In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we discuss different aspects relevant to nanoscale architecture of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterials (G-MNM) hybrid nanostructures based on graphene as a multifunctional platform. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nanoscale architecture is key for the performance of these novel materials, aspects such as size, geometry, chemistry of the building blocks, relative orientation of crystals, as well as the limitations and fabrication methods must be considered during development of devices that make use of graphene hybrids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. (mdpi.com)
  • Chung, J.H. Neurogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Graphene-Polycaprolactone Hybrid Nanofibers. (mdpi.com)
  • We present evidence that fusion of neoplastic cells with leukocytes (for example, macrophages) contributes to tumor heterogeneity, resulting in cells exhibiting increased metastatic behavior. (nih.gov)
  • 1998) Autologous and allogeneic hybrid cell vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • The work used DNA fingerprinting of a bone marrow transplant patient with cancer, along with DNA fingerprinting of the patient's bone marrow donor, to show that subsequent metastatic cancer cells in the patient's body carried parts of both genomes, fused together into a hybrid cancer cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • John isolated metastatic cancer cells using technology available at the CU Cancer Center, and Greg did DNA fingerprinting. (innovations-report.com)
  • The purpose of these studies was to determine whether the metastatic phenotype will dominate when metastatic and nonmetastatic clones of the K-1735 mouse melanoma are hybridized by somatic cell fusion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The tumorigenicity and metastatic capacity of cell hybrids formed by somatic cell fusion of nonmetastatic and metastatic clones were examined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To do so, near-tetraploid hybrids containing a nearly complete chromosomal complement from both parental cells were injected i.v. into syngeneic mice, and the number of metastatic nodules in the lung was determined at 45 days or when the mice became moribund. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Seven of nine hybrids produced from the fusion of metastatic and nonmetastatic clones exhibited a highly metastatic phenotype, although in most cases the metastatic potential of the hybrids was lower than that of the metastatic parent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The metastatic potential of the hybrids was directly correlated with their growth in the subcutis of nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that the metastatic capacity of K-1735 cells predominates in somatic cell hybrids between nonmetastatic and metastatic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When fusion of nonmetastatic and metastatic cells yields a hybrid with nonmetastatic properties, it may be due to suppression of growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This increases the theoretical maximum efficiency by about 50% in comparison to a standalone silicon cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • To maximise efficiency, the amount of light absorbed in top cell has to precisely match the light absorbed in the rear cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hybrid vehicles are typically tuned for efficiency, not power, and an emphasis is placed on lightweight materials. (brighthub.com)
  • The BC Transit fleet is the first that incorporates Ballard's heavy-duty fuel cell module into a hybrid fuel cell / battery architecture with an electric drive, which enables higher vehicle efficiency and improved fuel cell durability. (altenergymag.com)
  • Ballard's heavy duty fuel cell module, the FCvelocity®-HD6, delivers enhanced fuel cell durability and improved efficiency at a reduced cost, while offering an industry leading 12,000 hours/five year warranty. (altenergymag.com)
  • The suppression of reflectance and the interpenetrating heterojunction interface of GaAs NW arrays offers great improvements in efficiency relative to a conventional planar cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, as real fuel cells operate at around 50-percent efficiency , only a quarter of the initial energy (fossil or renewable) is available to power the fuel cell vehicle-compared to more than 80 percent of the initial electrical energy that remains available to power an electric vehicle. (greencarreports.com)
  • Mitchison, N. A. (1990) An exact comparison between the efficiency of two-and three-cell-type clusters mediating helper activity. (springer.com)
  • The efficiency of this hybrid process is significantly greater than that of modern gas and steam turbine power plants, which can reach an efficiency approroaching 60 percent. (typepad.com)
  • The lower optical polaronic charge density and poor charge transfer between donor/acceptor is the main reason for the low efficiency of hybrid system. (techconnectworld.com)
  • The process, as outlined by Cell Journal, involves the in vitro grafting of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)-obtained by undifferentiating human skin cells back to embryonic-like stem cells-into cattle or pig blastocysts. (culture-of-life.org)
  • Experts in the field discuss the production of embryonic-like pluripotent stem cells by altered nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis and reprogramming of adult somatic cells. (springer.com)
  • Hybrid (both intra-species and inter-species) cell lines arise through intentional or nonintentional fusion of somatic cells having different origins. (intechopen.com)
  • Fusion of cells occurs normally in vivo, such as of muscle cells, bone cells, macrophages, during fertilization of germ cells, and in placenta formation [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Somatic cell hybrid cell lines (or more simply hybrid cell lines) are cell lines that arise through intentional or nonintentional fusion of somatic cells having different origins [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Currently, electrically induced cell fusion is also being used to develop cancer cells with increased immunogenicity by fusion with dendritic cells for development of anti-tumor vaccines [ 14 , 15 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Cell fusion can be important in the establishment and evolution of cell lines (e.g., [ 16 ]) and can lead to cancer progression and metastasis via genetic instability [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Numerous examples have been documented [ 21 ], including a case where a patient-derived xenograft model underwent spontaneous fusion with normal mouse stromal cells, forming a hybrid cell that was more tumorigenic than the parental lines [ 22 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • High Mowing Organic Seeds , an organic seed company based in Wolcott, VT, bans the sale of hybrid seeds produced by a commonly used industry method called cell fusion to manipulate plant DNA - because the seeds are viewed as GMOs. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • We do not support or sell cisgenic (within the same plant family) CMS cell fusion seeds as we believe the process is the same as GMO," says Tom Furber, general manager of the company. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Other organic seed companies which have similarly adopted a policy of banning cell fusion-created F1 hybrid seeds, because company owners view the process as genetic engineering, are challenging the current USDA National Organic Program which permits cisgenic cell fusion hybrid seed in organic production. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In organic farming, transgenic (between different biological families) GE is banned, but cisgenic (within the same species family) GE used in the cell fusion process is permitted under USDA organic regulations. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • By international organic certification standards, cell fusion is classified as genetic engineering, but these standards established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are being ignored by the United States, Europe and other countries. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • aunched a consumer campaign to ban cell fusion mutagenesis in the USDA NOP organic production standards. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Cisgenic cell fusion is a biotechnical process of mutagenesis whereby the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced with a nucleus from a different plant within the same botanical family. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Cell fusion is also called protoplast or somantic fusion and can involve a mutant gene with the purpose of creating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which allows classified F1 hybrids to avoid inbreeding. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • While natural CMS plant lines do occur, it is rare, so cell fusion is used to transfer a single wild mutant CMS gene on a mass scale from one species to another cisgenically - as in a radish to cabbage or sunflower to chicory. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Cell-fusion is a controversial topic and IFOAM would like to ban it from organics completely, as they consider it a form of GM. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Several of the large production research seed companies that produce organic seed are not talking when asked which of their hybrids are produced using cell fusion-mediated CMS. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Not all F1 hybrids are developed using CMS GE cell fusion. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Cell fusion potentiates tumor heterogeneity and reveals circulating hybrid cells that correlate with stage and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Fusion hybrids (cells harboring hematopoietic and epithelial properties) are readily detectible in cell culture and tumor-bearing mice. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro-derived MФ-cancer cell fusion hybrids. (nih.gov)
  • E ) Karyotype and X (red) and Y chromosome (green) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of parental MФs, unfused MC38 cancer cells, and fusion hybrids. (nih.gov)
  • F ) Fusion hybrids (red sphere, n = 45) cluster as a unique population based on their chromosome number and sex chromosomes, relative to MФs (white sphere, n = 27) and MC38s (black sphere, n = 28). (nih.gov)
  • The fusion of pluripotent embryonic cells with somatic cells results in reprogramming of the somatic cell genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As this timing corresponds with the timing of cell cycle completion in embryonic stem cells and fusion hybrids (approximately 22 hours), we postulate that pluripotential reprogramming of the somatic cell genome begins during the first cell cycle after the fusion of a somatic cell with a pluripotent cell and has been completed by day 2 postfusion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1994) Effective tumour vaccine generated by fusion of hepatoma cells with activated B cells. (springer.com)
  • The problem is there has been no way to prove this through genetic analyses of the tumor cells - they are too similar to the patient's non-tumor cells and so you can't tell if the mutations that allow a cancer cell to travel arose in the cell itself or through fusion with another source. (innovations-report.com)
  • Is fusion the mechanism that allows all cancer cells to travel? (innovations-report.com)
  • Fusion of two cell lines with different amino acid analog or herbicide resistances allows selection of heterokaryons from unfused and homologous fusion products through the use of resistance complementation. (illinois.edu)
  • Benomyl, which inhibits nuclear fusion in yeast, did not appreciably reduce nuclear fusion in plant cell hybrids, based on complementation frequencies of 5MT and A2C, or 5MT and S-2(aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) resistant cell lines fused with the glyphosate resistant line. (illinois.edu)
  • T cell clones were pre-activated with IL-2 as well as specific Ag before fusion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic photovoltaics are the main kinds of organic photovoltaic devices currently studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The challenge for biomass fuel cells is that the carbon-carbon bonds of the biomass a natural polymer cannot be easily broken down by conventional catalysts, including expensive precious metals, Deng noted. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. (epfl.ch)
  • Genetic dissection of neuronal properties using somatic cell hybrids. (springer.com)
  • This book begins with an accurate synopsis of stem cell research, embryological development, genetic modification, and the scientific perspectives on the definition of death. (springer.com)
  • Non-viral vectors such as those engineered in this study are used for transfection the process of introducing foreign genetic material (in this case, DNA called a plasmid) into a cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • The vectors are essentially vehicles that carry the genetic matter into the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • By using a somatic cell genetic approach, we demonstrate that LFA-3 is not a major histocompatibility complex-encoded molecule, and that its gene locus maps to human chromosome 1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, we have used genetic techniques to demonstrate that LFA-3 may serve a role in CTL-target cell interactions at the target cell level, but is not a molecule absolutely required for human allospecific CTL recognition of HLA antigens expressed on mouse cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Of 30 neuroblastoma-spinal cord (NSC) hybrids displaying a multipolar neuron-like phenotype, 10 express choline acetyltransferase, and 4 induce twitching in cocultured mouse myotubules. (nih.gov)
  • Cells undergoing these transitions often attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) or partial EMT phenotype that allows collective cell migration and presumably is responsible for observed clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). (utoronto.ca)
  • Meanwhile, separate studies in mice have shown NKT cell activation alone is enough to trigger asthma, prompting researchers to speculate that NKT cells might be equally, or more, important than TH2 cells in the development of the disease. (sott.net)
  • Akbari's team has now used a drug called DPPE-PEG to inhibit the action of NKT cells in mice and found that it prevented the type of asthma linked to allergies. (sott.net)
  • But since the allergen his team used to trigger asthma in the mice was an egg protein, it is unlikely to have been this that stimulated the NKT cells in the first place. (sott.net)
  • But, when the scientists looked at mice missing B cells, they still found the IDO-producing cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • While their studies are in mice, the cells also are in humans, showing up in some unfortunate places such as the drainage system for tumors, melanoma or even HIV where they likely help the diseases survive. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In whole mounts of seminiferous tubules of C3H/101 F1 hybrid mice, spermatogonia were counted in various stages of the epithelial cycle. (nih.gov)
  • A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are about 35,000 stem cells per testis, constituting about 0.03% of all germ cells in the testis. (nih.gov)
  • Production of t-t hybrids from t cell clones. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To test whether the activity of daunorubicin reductase or NADPH diaphorase independently influences in vitro daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity, we developed somatic cell hybrid clones to partially isolate these factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been assumed, without direct evidence, that T cell hybridomas and non-transformed T cell clones are both good models of normal Ag-specific T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • To compare directly the difference in activation of cloned normal T cells and T hybridoma cells with the same TCR, cloned T hybridoma cells were obtained by fusing pre-established, myoglobin-specific, Iad-restricted T cell clones (14.5 and 9.27) with BW5147 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, although our results generally support the validity of T cell hybridomas as faithful models of the corresponding T cell clones, a number of subtle and not-so-subtle differences indicate that caution must be used in such an extrapolation. (jimmunol.org)
  • A significant contribution of the LFA-3 molecule to CTL reactivity was not observed, however, because the presence of LFA-3 did not restore recognition by CTL clones previously found incapable of lysing HLA-A2-expressing mouse transfectants, nor was it required by those human CTL that could lyse mouse cell transfectants. (jimmunol.org)
  • A series of obstacles fell before the onslaught of a Penn State engineering graduate class as they tackled and found solutions to all the barriers preventing development of a hybrid fuel cell automobile using hydrogen fuel cells and battery storage. (innovations-report.com)
  • On Tuesday easyJet announced plans to trial the use of hydrogen fuel cells on their planes. (gantdaily.com)
  • The concept relies on hydrogen fuel cells which would be stored in the aircraft hold, and would allow a plane to taxi to and from the runway without using any fuel. (gantdaily.com)
  • The electricity to power those motors, however, will come from one of two competing technologies: high-capacity batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. (greencarreports.com)
  • Thank you for an article that helps me understand the differing battery configurations and types available for mainstream hybrid vehicles. (amazonaws.com)
  • Vehicle data and model results show good correlation at all levels and show that ADVISOR has the capability to model fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles. (sae.org)
  • Even as Ford takes an excursion into the super-size SUV, it has invested millions into research and development of hybrid electric vehicles since 1993, based on Ford's Ecostar electric vehicle, and just announced plans to market a hybrid family sedan by 2003. (nypost.com)
  • COVID adjusted regional sales, penetration, battery demand and market value forecasts for electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell light commercial vehicles 2021-2041. (idtechex.com)
  • Another problem in the conceptualization of hybrid fuel cell vehicles is hydrogen storage. (innovations-report.com)
  • Fuel cell buses are zero-emission vehicles, with no greenhouse gases, particulates, or harmful emissions released during operation. (altenergymag.com)
  • It is easy to rehearse why fuel cells in vehicles are in the trough of disillusionment in 2015 but look closer and things are stirring as we progress to more sober forecasts and market positioning to get there. (prnewswire.com)
  • Indeed now is the time to invest, when so many companies have left the business but the first sales in thousands of fuel cell vehicles - in the form of forklifts - are happening without subsidies and you can newly buy fuel cell cars from top names. (prnewswire.com)
  • Most western automotive manufacturers are preparing fuel cell vehicles for sale but nothing is guaranteed, because, as this report analyses, the other option for zero pollution at point of use, the pure electric battery or supercapacitor vehicle, is also improving rapidly and they will often go head to head in the marketplace. (prnewswire.com)
  • There is a chapter on the background including legal, psychological, standards and other aspects, a chapter on the first commercial success - material handling vehicles, a very detailed chapter on fuel cell cars, a detailed one on buses, one on other fuel cell vehicles land, water and air and one on the fuel cell system manufacturers. (prnewswire.com)
  • Our reader Victor A. Ettel, an electrochemical engineer and retired R&D executive, has had a life-long interest in advanced transportation technologies, including hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. (greencarreports.com)
  • Fuel-cell vehicles are, without a doubt, a brilliant technical accomplishment. (greencarreports.com)
  • The two most energy-efficient vehicles among the three fuel-cell cars now offered in California are the Honda Clarity Fuel Cell and the Toyota Mirai, rated at 68 and 67 MPGe respectively. (greencarreports.com)
  • Hydrogenics, a global provider of hydrogen and fuel cell products, has joined the Plug-in Hybrid Development Consortium to participate in the development of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). (greencarcongress.com)
  • The Consortium is made up of a growing number of automotive suppliers, manufacturers and other organizations working together to accelerate the commercial production of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, (PHEVs). (greencarcongress.com)
  • The hybrid cells are generated by electrofusing autologous tumor cells with allogeneic MHC class II expressing cells such as B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • It really focuses your thinking - if traveling tumor cells essentially think they are blood cells, that means we might be able to focus approaches to attack them," Spritz says. (innovations-report.com)
  • By forming cell-like hybrids of chemically programmable (glyco)dendrimersomes with bacterial membrane vesicles, evidence is obtained for the feasibility of combining chemical and biological surface design in one entity. (pnas.org)
  • Fuel cells convert the chemical potential of hydrogen and oxygen to electrical potential with heat and water without burning the hydrogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, coating the sponge with an adhesive chemical agent is necessary to attach bone marrow cells (BMCs) to the sponge structure. (scirp.org)
  • Hybrid cell lines can pose a problem for authentication testing to confirm cell line identity, since the results obtained may not conform to the results expected for the two parental cell types. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, depending on the identity testing methodology, a hybrid cell may display characteristics of one of the parental cell type or of both. (intechopen.com)
  • No binucleate cells were observed in hybrid colonies and hybrids possessed additive parental chromosome numbers. (illinois.edu)
  • Both T hybridomas showed the same Ag specificity and Ia restriction as the parental cloned T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have developed a series of mouse-mouse neural hybrid cell lines by fusing the aminopterin-sensitive neuroblastoma N18TG2 with motor neuron-enriched embryonic day 12-14 spinal cord cells. (nih.gov)
  • In obtaining hPSC though undifferentiating human skin cells, we create embryonic- like stems cells without harvesting actual embryonic stem cells-which necessitate the killing of human embryos. (culture-of-life.org)
  • If there is no apparent biological difference between hPSC and actual embryonic stem cells-the hPSC even pass through a totipotent stage, a key attribute of early stages of embryo development-could what is called an embryoid body, a stage in the production of hPSC, actually be a human embryo? (culture-of-life.org)
  • Derivation, characterization, and in vitro differentiation of canine embryonic stem cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further, hybrids enumerated in peripheral blood of human cancer patients correlate with disease stage and predict overall survival. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although these proteins appear to be recruited to the division site in a hierarchical order, the molecular interactions underlying the assembly of the cell division machinery remain mostly unspecified. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we used a bacterial two-hybrid system based on interaction-mediated reconstitution of a cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cascade to unravel the molecular basis of septum assembly by analyzing the protein interaction network among E. coli cell division proteins. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we showed that the association between two Fts hybrid proteins could be modulated by the coexpression of a third Fts partner. (asm.org)
  • Altogether, these data suggest that the cell division machinery assembly is driven by the cooperative association among the different Fts proteins to form a dynamic multiprotein structure at the septum site. (asm.org)
  • In addition, our study shows that the cAMP-based two-hybrid system is particularly appropriate for analyzing molecular interactions between membrane proteins. (asm.org)
  • At present, at least fourteen proteins are known to be specifically required for the E. coli cell septation (for reviews, see references 1 , 5 , 33 , 42 , and 45 ). (asm.org)
  • The majority of the Fts proteins are anchored to the cell membrane, and most of them appear to localize to the bacterial septum in a sequential order (for reviews, see references 5 , 33 , 35 , and 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Fluorescence microscopy studies using immunofluorescence or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the Fts proteins have revealed that assembly of the septum starts with the positioning of an FtsZ ring in the cell center. (asm.org)
  • Direct associations between E. coli cell division proteins have been demonstrated for FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA. (asm.org)
  • This is the first time anyone has observed terahertz emission from hybrid perovskites. (phys.org)
  • This interaction, which occurs on a femtosecond timescale, could help explain how electric currents navigate through the patchwork of crystal grains in hybrid perovskites. (phys.org)
  • Unlike their singular silicon or germanium counterparts, hybrid perovskites are made of both organic and inorganic molecules. (ornl.gov)
  • Hybrid perovskites are already a good material," said Xiao. (ornl.gov)
  • Hybrid perovskites are crystalline materials made of a mixture of both inorganic and organic ions. (phys.org)
  • However, hybrid perovskites are not very stable, which can make them difficult to study. (phys.org)
  • Like other hybrid perovskites, its crystalline structure contains many vacancies, or missing atoms, which have been suspected to allow ions to move readily within the material when a voltage is applied. (phys.org)
  • Fenning and his team are now exploring ways to limit bromine migration in methylammonium lead bromide and other hybrid perovskites . (phys.org)
  • This hybrid concept's part of easyJet's goal to reduce its fuel emissions by 7% by 2020, but it's not the only measure the airline's taking. (gantdaily.com)
  • Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. (pnas.org)
  • HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. (pnas.org)
  • However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. (pnas.org)
  • It was concluded from the results that Leu might prevent the emigration of rBMCs to the outside of the scaffold and promote the differentiation of cells to osteoblasts in the scaffold. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, the injection of hybrid nanoplatforms that combine an MRI contrast agent and a drug would enable to non-invasively monitor the biodistribution of the treatment by analyzing the tumor response in real time. (rsc.org)
  • A fuel cell produces electricity silently and without combustion, using hydrogen or methanol as fuel, and the only thing that comes out of the tailpipe is pure water-steam vapor. (nypost.com)
  • This is made possible because the hybrid cell can generate electricity from the sun's heat as well as light. (inhabitat.com)
  • As a result, the Honda Clarity Fuel Cell consumes more than three times more electricity per mile than an electric vehicle (e.g. the 2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV). (greencarreports.com)
  • In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), an electrochemical reaction, directly and very efficiently, converts fuel energy into electricity and heat. (typepad.com)
  • To generate electricity efficiently, the cell must be maintained at an operating temperature of about 1000°C, air must be supplied to the cell interior using an air delivery tube and fuel is delivered to the cell exterior. (typepad.com)
  • Finally, because the POM is chemically stable, the hybrid fuel cell can use unpurified polymeric biomass without concern for poisoning noble metal anodes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The cell is built up in layers on the air electrode (cathode) with an axial interconnection that makes the cathode accessible and allows cells to be connected together in series. (typepad.com)
  • Furthermore, in vitro NF properties, such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs, were also analyzed. (mdpi.com)
  • The Consortium sees this as a valuable opportunity to demonstrate the flexibility of the plug-in hybrid architecture and the potential viability of the hydrogen fuel cell as a source of cleanly generated mobile electric power for a PHEV. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. (epfl.ch)
  • Immediately after completion of the microencapsulation, the cell viability was 60% and similar in Ca-alg-PEG and Ca-alg. (epfl.ch)
  • Conceptual illustration of a dendritic cell, a type of immune cell. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • This is actually the first cell we know of that has this type of appearance in nature," Dr. Andrew Mellor, molecular geneticist and immunologist who co-directs MCG's Immunotherapy Discovery Institute, said of the cell that looks like a dendritic cell and a B cell but isn't really either. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When MCG scientists first reported the human equivalent of this cell in Science in 2002, they called it a subset of the dendritic cell that clusters in high exposure areas such as the gut but also roams the body, looking for invaders like a virus or cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It looks like a dendritic cell and it is and it isn't," Johnson said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They also may be showing up in new dendritic cell therapies designed to strengthen the immune response to cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • All you need is a few of these cells in your dendritic cell vaccine and you don't get stimulation any more, you get suppression," Mellor said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Interactions of maitotoxin with voltage-sensitive calcium channels in cultured neuronal cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, NSC-34 cells induce acetylcholine receptor clusters on cocultured myotubes, and undergo a vimentin-neurofilament switch with maturation in culture, similar to that occurring in neuronal development. (nih.gov)
  • Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-VS). In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. (epfl.ch)
  • Inorganic materials in hybrid cells are used as the acceptor and electron transporter in the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • To produce this type of cell with practical efficiencies, larger organic surfactants that absorb more of the visible spectrum must be deposited between the layers of electron-accepting inorganic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This illustration depicts what happens inside a hybrid perovskite material in the first few trillionths of a second after it's hit with simulated sunlight (upper left). (phys.org)
  • April 23, 2018 - Neutron scattering has revealed, in real time, the fundamental mechanisms behind the conversion of sunlight into energy in hybrid perovskite materials. (ornl.gov)
  • As the two polymers are transparent, they do not prevent the cell continuing to generate energy from sunlight in addition to falling rain. (theiet.org)
  • The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the governmental body that regulates fertility treatments in the U.K., looks set to approve the use of hybrid embryos for stem cell research at a meeting later on today. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Adult stem cell research and therapies are the ethically-superior path to follow as they respect ethical principles and are yielding results. (culture-of-life.org)
  • Breakthrough in Stem Cell Research? (springer.com)
  • Stem Cell Research, 12, 376-386. (scirp.org)
  • Maitotoxin (MTX) was an extraordinarily potent stimulant of phosphoinositide breakdown in the neuroblastoma hybrid NCB-20 cells. (springer.com)
  • Neuroblastoma x spinal cord (NSC) hybrid cell lines resemble developing motor neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers can create hybrid embryos by the transferring nuclei from human cells into animal egg cells from which the nucleus has been removed. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Creating hybrid embryos would bypass the shortage in human eggs, and will enable researchers to use stem cells from the embryos to develop treatments for conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (scienceblogs.com)
  • If the HFEA approves the use of hybrid embryos, researchers' proposals will then be considered individually. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In their paper, the researchers reported a maximum power density of 0.72 milliwatts per square centimeter, which is nearly 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells, and near that of the best microbial fuel cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • AUGUSTA, Ga. - A cell small in number but powerful in its ability to switch the immune system on or off is a unique hybrid of two well-known immune cell types, Medical College of Georgia researchers report. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers studied a type of hybrid perovskite called methylammonium lead bromide, which contains negatively charged bromine ions. (phys.org)
  • Researchers say that one potential option would be growing hybrid perovskite crystals in different conditions to minimize the number of vacancies and limit ion migration in the crystalline structure. (phys.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly) and the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD) have developed a carrier in their lab that is five times more efficient in delivering DNA into cells than today s commercial delivery methods reagent vectors. (nanowerk.com)
  • Researchers cut it to size and seeded the scaffold with her stem cells, which grew into the right tissues and gave her a new windpipe. (ihavenet.com)
  • The vehicle uses a relatively small fuel cell stack to provide average power demands, and a battery pack to provide peak power demands for varied driving conditions. (sae.org)
  • The fuel cell stack is separate from the rest of the system and well vented. (innovations-report.com)
  • The two crucial pieces of the system are the Fuel Cell Stack and the Hydrogen Recirculation Device. (altenergymag.com)
  • The durability and performance of the Fuel Cell Stack depends on the durability and performance of the Hydrogen Recirculation Device. (altenergymag.com)
  • The University of Colorado Cancer Center along with Yale University and the Denver Crime Lab report in the journal PLoS ONE the first proof of cancer's ability to fuse with blood cells in a way that gives cancer the ability to travel, allowing previously stationary cancer cells to enter the bloodstream and seed sites of metastasis around the body. (innovations-report.com)
  • They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The potential gastroprotective mechanisms of action of the compounds were assessed in dose-response experiments using human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) and human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). (mdpi.com)
  • however, mechanisms driving heterogeneity of neoplastic cells in solid tumors remain obscure. (nih.gov)
  • Increased mutational rates of neoplastic cells in stressed environments are implicated but cannot explain all aspects of tumor heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • Now, a UC San Diego-led team has shown that by using a technique called nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence, they can probe deep into hybrid perovskite materials without destroying them. (phys.org)
  • NKT cells are hybrids: they kill invading microbes, like natural killer immune cells, but they also bind to antigens - foreign substances that trigger an immune response - like T-cells do. (sott.net)
  • To overcome that challenge, scientists have developed microbial fuel cells in which microbes or enzymes break down the biomass. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But that process has many drawbacks: power output from such cells is limited, microbes or enzymes can only selectively break down certain types of biomass, and the microbial system can be deactivated by many factors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Hybrid photovoltaics have organic materials that consist of conjugated polymers that absorb light as the donor and transport holes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTX-induced phosphoinositide breakdown in NCB-20 cells was not antagonized by organic (nifedipine, methoxyverapamil) or inorganic (Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ ) calcium channel blockers. (springer.com)
  • It is spring planting time for farms, and, if hybrid seeds are being planted, chances are some might be genetically engineered (GE) and technically genetically modified organisms (GMOs), according to a growing movement in organic agriculture. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • They exist either as purely inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic frameworks. (esrf.eu)
  • This is particularly possible with hybrid solids, which are constructed from inorganic building units and organic moieties. (esrf.eu)
  • The hybrid cells have an added organic semiconductor called pentacene, which helps harness blue light energy to strengthen the electrical current coming from the cell, making the product up to 44% efficient. (techcrunch.com)
  • We present a piecewise linear switch which faithfully represents the e#ect of certain protein concentrations on others, in a biological control mechanism for cell di#erentiation known as Delta-Notch signaling. (psu.edu)
  • In this paper, we giveanoverview of the biological system under study, we present the hybrid system model of the cell network, perform a convergence analysis, and validate with simulation results. (psu.edu)
  • They thoroughly analyse the biological and moral status of different cell entities, such as human stem cells, embryos and human-animal hybrid embryos, and make a decisive step towards establishing final criteria for what constitutes a human being. (springer.com)
  • This technique, called nuclear transfer, is very similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep, the main difference being that Dolly was cloned using a cell and a nucleus from the same species. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Cells are set up to keep things out of the nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Even if the transported plasmid manages to permeate the cellular membrane, the cytoplasm within the cell has safeguards to stop anything from getting into the nucleus. (nanowerk.com)
  • Maitotoxin stimulates hormonal release and calcium flux in rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The study confirms the suitability of Ca-alg-PEG and the one-step technology for cell microencapsulation. (epfl.ch)
  • Wharton's jelly-derived cells are a primitive stromal cell population. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The implications of this concept are, first, only MHC class I and II expressing cells can induce cytolytic T-cell responses ( 5 -7 ), second, cognate antigens must be presented for both T-cell and MHC types ( 4 ,8 ) and, third, there must be T cells with the corresponding specificities in the T-cell receptor repertoire of the response-competent individual. (springer.com)
  • Dendritic cells show their find to T cells, telling them to ignore or attack by bringing trash-eating macrophages, natural killer cells and the like into the fight. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For a start, they seem to bind to glycolipids - molecules made from fats and sugars - rather than the protein antigens recognised by most immune cells. (sott.net)
  • It could be that protein allergens trigger the release of naturally occurring glycolipids by some as yet unidentified mechanism, which then stimulate NKT cells, suggests Akbari. (sott.net)
  • b) said second part comprising a portion of the translocation domain of a protein, provided that said hybrid molecule does not include an enzymatically active portion of said protein, and wherein said first part and said second part are not segments of the same naturally occurring protein. (google.com.au)
  • 3. The hybrid molecule of claim 1, wherein said protein of (b) is a naturally-occurring toxin. (google.com.au)
  • Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenes that do not contain the proximal enhancer (PE) region are widely used to visualize reprogramming of the somatic to the pluripotent cell state. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The use of such hybrid regions allows for an efficient protein expression when used in conjunction with circular or linear expression DNA molecules. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention provides a recombinant DNA that is composed of a promoter, a protein coding region, and the hybrid 3′UTR in a continuous and directional orientation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. An isolated host cell comprising the expression vector of claim 5 wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. An isolated host cell which is obtained by in vivo injection of the expression vector of claim 5 into a cell, wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell comprises the expression vector of claim 5 and transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The idea is fairly simple: Take an organ from a human donor or animal, and use a mild detergent to strip away flesh, cells and DNA so that all is left is the inner "scaffold" of collagen, an "immunologically inert" protein. (ihavenet.com)
  • The global market for materials used in automotive batteries and fuel cells should grow from $8.2 billion in 2018 to reach $22.4 billion by 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22.4% for the period of 2018-2023. (bccresearch.com)
  • In a hybrid, the electric system helps out the internal combustion, or gas, engine when extra power is needed, such as during acceleration. (nypost.com)
  • In addition, the switch allows us to use a mathematically tractable piecewise linear hybrid system model as an analysis tool for the dynamics of Delta-Notch signaling in a network of cells. (psu.edu)
  • NSC cell lines appear to model selected aspects of motor neuron development in an immortalized clonal system. (nih.gov)
  • Although low temperature fuel cells powered by methanol or hydrogen have been well studied, existing low temperature fuel cell technologies cannot directly use biomass as a fuel because of the lack of an effective catalyst system for polymeric materials. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We came up with a simple system that removes the odorant with adsorbers and then tests to ensure that all the odorant is removed before sending the hydrogen to solid storage and fuel cell," says Weston. (innovations-report.com)
  • A vehicle has an internal-combustion engine drive and a fuel cell drive system. (google.com)
  • Liquid fuel is used to supply energy to the internal-combustion engine drive and the fuel cell system. (google.com)
  • The internal-combustion engine drive is used for starting the vehicle and for permitting its immediate movement after starting of the internal-combustion engine, as well as for heating the fuel cell system to a working temperature. (google.com)
  • Subsequently, an electric driving motor, which is fed by the fuel cell system, alone or together with the internal-combustion engine drive, drives the movement of the vehicle. (google.com)
  • a control system for automatically switching said assemblies to a mode for the working temperature, after the heating of the gas generating device and the fuel cell. (google.com)
  • 2. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , wherein the fuel cell system further comprises at least one electric driving motor which can be coupled selectively to the transmission line. (google.com)
  • 3. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , wherein liquid fuel is provided for the energy supply of the internal-combustion engine drive and of the fuel cell system. (google.com)
  • 4. The vehicle drive system according to claim 2 , wherein after the fuel cell has started to operate, the electric driving motor can automatically be coupled to the transmission line, or coupling of the electric driving motor with the transmission line either manually or by means of a foot pedal, can be enabled. (google.com)
  • 6. The vehicle drive system according to claim 2 , wherein the internal-combustion engine and the fuel cell system drive are jointly connected to a radiator by a cooling circulating system. (google.com)
  • 10. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , wherein the internal-combustion engine drive and the fuel cell system drive are connected to a joint exhaust gas purification system. (google.com)
  • The only waste the hydrogen fuel cell would produce would be clean water, which easyJet could theoretically use to refill the aircraft's water system. (gantdaily.com)
  • An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Unlike other fuel cell products, the ElectraStor System does not require a renewable source of hydrogen or the storage of gaseous or liquid hydrogen that necessitates a potentially dangerous large on board supply of hydrogen. (trb.org)
  • Modeling and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Hydrogen Photovoltaic Fuel Cell Hybrid System. (igi-global.com)
  • In this Chapter, a hybrid Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell (PV-FC) generation system employing an electrolyser for hydrogen generation is designed and simulated. (igi-global.com)
  • Specific attention is paid to the investigation of the dynamic analysis of the photovoltaic, fuel cell, and electrolyser system at the connection. (igi-global.com)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of an autonomous stationary power generation and thermal coupling a PV array and a storage system for hydrogen, consisting of an electrolyser, a storage unit of gas, and a fuel cell of high temperature. (igi-global.com)
  • The Santa Barbara Electric Transportation Institute (SBETI) will conduct the design and engineering of a transit ready, hybrid-electric propulsion system. (trb.org)
  • Detailed design and engineering will be conducted including the development of engineering drawings to the point that will enable actual fabrication of the hybrid system upon available funding. (trb.org)
  • An optimized battery-dominant plug-in hybrid vehicle would allow the size of the fuel-cell system to be kept to a minimum, keeping overall system and vehicle cost down-an approach that could provide a logical path toward the accelerated commercialization of fuel-cell technology. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Well as I said before a few months back a SMALL fuell cell is vastly lighter then a small engine and transmission and exaust system and with mass production its also ALREADY cheaper. (greencarcongress.com)
  • What's more, because the stem cells that "clothe" the naked scaffold are taken from the patient, the organ stands a higher chance of being accepted by their immune system. (ihavenet.com)
  • We report on a group of three potent second generation hybrid polar compounds, diethyl bis-(pentamethylene-N,N-dimethylcarboxamide) malonate (EMBA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) with optimal concentrations for inducing MEL cells of 0.4 mM, 2 microM, and 4 microM, respectively, compared to 5 mM for HMBA. (pnas.org)
  • Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages, such as high proliferation and a highly purified population. (mdpi.com)
  • The following studies were carried out: stimulation of cell proliferation, cytoprotection against sodium taurocholate (NaT)-induced damage, synthesis of PGE 2 and total reduced sulfhydryl (GSH) content. (mdpi.com)
  • Clone 14.5, but not hybridoma A3.4C6, appeared to stimulate splenic cells to secrete cytokines inhibiting HT-2A cell proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • He had received a pathology specimen of a melanoma tumor that had metastasized to the brain of a patient who had previously received a bone marrow transplant from his brother, and he asked me whether, as a collaboration, we could distinguish between the donor and patient genomes in a cancer cell? (innovations-report.com)
  • Cell surface determinants such as glycans, receptors, and adhesion molecules govern cell sociology in a complex manner. (pnas.org)
  • Starting from the labdane diterpene junicedric acid and two isomers, as well as from three quinones, including lapachol, 18 hybrid molecules were synthesized. (mdpi.com)
  • Hybrid compounds presented activities different from those shown by the starting compounds, supporting the potential of this approach in the search for new bioactive molecules. (mdpi.com)
  • It is based on the observation that epitope linkage is a prerequisite for productive T-T cell collaboration, i.e., cytolytic precursor and helper T cells have to be activated by the same antigen presenting cell that displays epitopes for both T-cell types on the corresponding MHC class I and class II molecules ( 3 ,4 ). (springer.com)