Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fuselloviridae: A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Abnormalities, MultipleDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Production of RcGTA appears to be controlled by the host cell, because several host systems, including a quorum sensing system ... Genetic material brought to the host chromosome by bacteriophages and other mobile elements can be subject to exaptation. The ... Moreover, groups of genes with homology to the RcGTA are present in the chromosomes of various types of alphaproteobacteria. ... GTAs originated from different viruses have been found in several bacterial and archaeal lineages, such as Alphaproteobacteria ...
... a large DNA virus could take control of a bacterial or archaeal cell. Instead of replicating and destroying the host cell, it ... Like viruses,[which?] a eukaryotic nucleus contains linear chromosomes with specialized end sequences (in contrast to bacterial ... a DNA chromosome encapsulated within a lipid membrane). In theory, ... that donated the cytoplasm and cell membrane of modern cells; and another prokaryotic (bacterial) cell that, by endocytosis, ...
... and the subsequent transfer of a part of the host chromosome to another cell do not appear to be bacterial adaptations.[12][30] ... Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ... Diploid cells divide into haploid cells in a process called meiosis. Two haploid cells combine into one diploid cell in a ...
Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome. ... One of such applications is the use of archaeal enzymes, which would be better able to survive harsh conditions in vitro.[12] ... The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of ... their chromosomes, plasmids, transposons, and phages.[6] ... self-assemble after replication in a host cell using the host's ...
... enabling cell-to-cell fusion between the virus host and an uninfected cell. The theory proposes meiosis originated from the ... cell cycle the cells used to replicate independently would then pull each set of chromosomes to one side of the cell, still ... The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... If, in a sexual population, two different advantageous alleles arise at different loci on a chromosome in different members of ...
... are estimated to make up between a quarter and a half of all bacterial or archaeal cells in the ocean. However, this species ... and polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of the circular chromosome to the DNA-free cells followed by selection. The ... which is an obligate symbiont that cannot survive outside its host, has only 137 genes with a genome size of 112 kb, but the ... and even bacterial artificial chromosomes can be maintained. In 2007, Venter's team reported that they had managed to transfer ...
Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... and appears to offer no benefit to its host. Connections between archaeal cells can also be found between the Archaeal Richmond ... Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life, Bacteria and Eukaryota. The Archaea ... Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes, including ...
Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... "A humanized gnotobiotic mouse model of host-archaeal-bacterial mutualism". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) occasionally connect with other archaeal cells in acid mine drainage ...
Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... and appears to offer no benefit to its host.[190] Connections between archaeal cells can also be found between the Archaeal ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Archaea. Internal cell structure. No membrane-bound ...
Host-dependent bacteria are able to secure many compounds required for metabolism from the host's cytoplasm or tissue. They can ... Cell. 158 (6): 1270-80. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.07.047. PMID 25175626. Han, K; Li, ZF; Peng, R; Zhu, LP; Zhou, T; Wang, LG; Li ... This creates quite dynamic genomes, in which DNA can be introduced into and removed from the chromosome. Bacteria have more ... 24% of Thermotoga's 1,877 ORFs and 16% of Aquifex's 1,512 ORFs show high matches to an Archaeal protein, while mesophiles such ...
2004). "Evidence in the Legionella pneumophila genome for exploitation of host cell functions and high genome plasticity". Nat ... For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ... 2001). "Analysis of the chromosome sequence of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... 2000). "DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae". Nature. 406 (6795): 477-83. doi:10.1038/ ...
... had a role in correctly segregating replicated DNA into daughter cells during cell division because plasmids and chromosomes ... At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ... Phages can continue to infect their hosts given point mutations in the spacer.[122] Similar stringency is required in PAM or ... It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the ...
10-20 copies per cell) and Bacterial artificial chromosomes (1 copy per cell). In eukaryotes, the budding yeast Saccharomyces ... For instance, Polyoma viruses utilize host cell DNA polymerases, which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen ... Most archaea have a single circular molecule of DNA, and several origins of replication along this circular chromosome. ... an online software for prediction of bacterial and archaeal oriCs Replication Origin at the US National Library of Medicine ...
Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell ... Pereira SL; Grayling RA; Lurz R; Reeve JN (1997). "Archaeal nucleosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (23): 12633-7. ... copy number of intracellular bacterial symbionts of aphids varies in response to developmental stage and morph of their host". ... Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division. ...
... the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells.[23] However, in other retroviruses, the host cell ... is an ortholog of archaeal TBP), TFIIE (an ortholog of archaeal TFE), TFIIF, and TFIIH. In archaea and eukaryotes, the RNA ... This repeated sequence of DNA is called a telomere and can be thought of as a "cap" for a chromosome. It is important because ... every time a linear chromosome is duplicated, it is shortened. With this "junk" DNA or "cap" at the ends of chromosomes, the ...
... the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells. However, in other retroviruses, the host cell remains ... that is farther away from the chromosome end. Telomerase is often activated in cancer cells to enable cancer cells to duplicate ... an ortholog of archaeal TFB), TFIID (a multisubunit factor in which the key subunit, TBP, is an ortholog of archaeal TBP), ... With this "junk" DNA or "cap" at the ends of chromosomes, the shortening eliminates some of the non-essential, repeated ...
10-20 copies per cell) and Bacterial artificial chromosomes (1 copy per cell).[14] ... For instance, Polyoma viruses utilize host cell DNA polymerases, which attach to a viral origin of replication if the T antigen ... In humans an origin of replication has been originally identified near the Lamin B2 gene on chromosome 19 and the ORC binding ... Ori-Finder, an online software for prediction of bacterial and archaeal oriCs ...
ವಿಕಿಮೀಡಿಯ ಕಣಜದಲ್ಲಿ Chromosomes ವಿಷಯಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಮಾಧ್ಯಮಗಳಿವೆ .. *ಎಚ್‌ಒಪಿಇ‌ಎಸ್ ನಿಂದ :ಡಿಎನ್‌ಎ ಮತ್ತು ವರ್ಣತಂತುಗಳ ಒಂದು ಪರಿಚಯ ... Thanbichler M, Shapiro L (2006). "Chromosome organization and segregation in bacteria". J. Struct. Biol. 156 (2): 292-303. doi: ... Thanbichler M, Wang SC, Shapiro L (2005). "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic structure". J. Cell. Biochem ... Sandman K, Reeve JN (2000). "Structure and functional relationships of archaeal and eukaryal histones and nucleosomes". Arch. ...
Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain organelles such as chloroplasts in addition to the organelles in other ... while others can be damaging to the host organism (parasitism). If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as ... Their genome is usually a circular bacterial chromosome - a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of ... Karner MB, DeLong EF, Karl DM (2001). "Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean". Nature. 409 (6819): ...
... is limited by availability of a suitable screen and the requirement that the desired trait be expressed in the host cell. ... of the bacterial and archaeal species in a sample. Much of the interest in metagenomics comes from these discoveries that ... "Construction and analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from a marine microbial assemblage". Environmental ... recent advances in molecular biological techniques allowed the construction of libraries in bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ...
... a plasmid may integrate into the host bacterial chromosome, and subsequently transfer part of the host bacterial DNA to another ... highly organized chromosomes found in eukaryotic cells. In addition, many important genes of prokaryotes are stored in separate ... Bacterial cell structure Evolution of sexual reproduction List of sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced bacterial ... Prokaryotic cells are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Therefore, prokaryotes have a larger surface-area-to-volume ...
... a plasmid and transfected into cells the Cas9 protein with the help of the crRNA finds the correct sequence in the host cell's ... had a role in correctly segregating replicated DNA into daughter cells during cell division because plasmids and chromosomes ... It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the ... At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ...
... the host had earlier in evolution formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacteria-like ("micrococcal") cell that ... These act as sex cells (gametes). Each gamete has just one set of chromosomes, each a unique mix of the corresponding pair of ... From a consortium of bacterial and archaeal DNA originated the nuclear genome of eukaryotic cells. Spirochetes gave rise to the ... wherein only one copy of each chromosome is present, and diploid generations, wherein two copies of each chromosome are present ...
By promoting actin polymerisation at one pole of their cells, they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host ... Partition systems are also encoded by most bacterial chromosomes. Plasmids that are maintained at a high copy number per cell ... It is seldom that a conjugative plasmid integrates into the host bacterial chromosome and subsequently transfers part of the ... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor ...
"Specific staining of human chromosomes in Chinese hamster x man hybrid cell lines demonstrates interphase chromosome ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... "Tertiary endosymbiosis in two dinotoms has generated little change in the mitochondrial genomes of their dinoflagellate hosts ... The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The ...
... enabling cell-to-cell fusion between the virus host and an uninfected cell. The theory proposes meiosis originated from the ... cell cycle the cells used to replicate independently would then pull each set of chromosomes to one side of the cell, still ... The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... If, in a sexual population, two different advantageous alleles arise at different loci on a chromosome in different members of ...
Production of RcGTA appears to be controlled by the host cell, because several host systems, including a quorum sensing system ... Genetic material brought to the host chromosome by bacteriophages and other mobile elements can be subject to exaptation. The ... Moreover, groups of genes with homology to the RcGTA are present in the chromosomes of various types of alphaproteobacteria. ... GTAs originated from different viruses have been found in several bacterial and archaeal lineages, such as Alphaproteobacteria ...
... are formed at the ends of chromosomes in species ranging from humans to worms, plants, and with genetic manipulation, some ... are formed at the ends of chromosomes in species ranging from humans to worms, plants, and with genetic manipulation, some ... Second, telomerase could have been present in the pre-eukaryotic host cell (e.g., Nakamura and Cech, 1998) before acquisition ... However, there is no report of linear bacterial or archaeal chromosomes containing telomerase-derived arrays at the ends, so ...
The obligate host-associated bacteria (with the exception of Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola) have short and low GC content ... The variations in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences are not only explained by neutral mutations. The restriction- ... Most of the differences in GC content between plasmids and their host chromosomes are of less than 10%, suggesting that host ... The plasmid DNA has lower GC content than its host chromosome DNA does. ...
... and the subsequent transfer of a part of the host chromosome to another cell do not appear to be bacterial adaptations.[12][30] ... Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ... Diploid cells divide into haploid cells in a process called meiosis. Two haploid cells combine into one diploid cell in a ...
... hosts DNA and incomplete repair of these breaks could have caused the transition from a single Archaeal ring-like chromosome ... cell fusion and existing HR DNA repair tools, to repair chromosomes. Further steps of meiosis mostly just represent ... transition to linear host chromosomes, chromatin, transfer of genes from mitochondrial genome to host genome and RNA splicing ... Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already ...
Previously, no archaeal intron was detected in the D-loop or at two different positions of the same tRNA (75). Aminoacyl-tRNA ... DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle. Sulfolobus, like Halobacterium (41) but unlike Pyrococcus (42), encodes multiple CDC6 ... The genome was cloned and mapped by using cosmid, λ, and bacterial artificial chromosome libraries and sequenced (5-8). Some ... No DNA-binding proteins of the bacterial HU or integration host factor type are encoded, but several small, basic, putative DNA ...
DNA is in permanently condensed chromosomes not packaged in nucleosomes and DNA content ranging from 3 to 250 pg per cell (up ... Some of eubacterial genes recombined into host chromosomes including group II introns [18]. Group II introns can be found among ... Findings suggest a hypothetical scenario of eukaryogenesis under which the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes had no cell wall ( ... and short inverted repeats containing rRNA cistrons at its chromosome ends [132, 133, 135]. There is almost a total absence of ...
Comparative and functional analysis of the archaeal cell cycle2010In: Cell Cycle, ISSN 1538-4101, E-ISSN 1551-4005, Vol. 9, no ... We also demonstrate that massive degradation of the host chromosomes occurs because of virus infection, and that virion ... The temporal and spatial organization of the chromosome replication, genome segregation and cell division processes is less ... The results show that SIRV2 is a lytic virus, and that the host cell dies as a consequence of elaborated mechanisms ...
Most scientists share the view that a symbiosis in which an archaeal host cell took up a bacterium ultimately gave rise to ... have abnormal chromosome numbers. (Most human cells normally have 46 chromosomes: two sets of 23, one set inherited from each ... In 1902, he reasoned that having the wrong number of chromosomes could cause cells to grow uncontrollably and become the seeds ... Whereas the cells of bacteria and archaea are generally small and simple, eukaryotes are made up of large and complex cell ...
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. Chromosome organization and ... Choanoflagellates, animal origins, and the evolution of host-microbe interactions. Doug Koshland. Richard and Rhoda Goldman ... Mechanisms and principles that mediate desiccation tolerance and the structure, integrity, and evolution of chromosomes. ... Physiology and evolution of archaea; biochemistry of methanogenesis; genome editing tools for archaeal genetics. ...
Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cells genome. ... One of such applications is the use of archaeal enzymes, which would be better able to survive harsh conditions in vitro.[12] ... The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of ... their chromosomes, plasmids, transposons, and phages.[6] ... self-assemble after replication in a host cell using the hosts ...
... upon arrival in the archaeal host have, apparently, gone berserk within the host cell (see also Martin & Koonin op. cit.). ... introns located in distant regions of the chromosome could be disintegration of the circular chromosome of the archaeal host ... Replication of linear chromosomes presents a problem as it leads to gradual loss of the terminal (telomeric) regions [89-91]. ... have gone berserk within the host cell [59]. The reasons for their sudden onslaught on the host genome are not entirely clear. ...
... enabling cell-to-cell fusion between the virus host and an uninfected cell. The theory proposes meiosis originated from the ... cell cycle the cells used to replicate independently would then pull each set of chromosomes to one side of the cell, still ... The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... If, in a sexual population, two different advantageous alleles arise at different loci on a chromosome in different members of ...
In contrast, we propose the hypothesis that cell-to-cell fusions might be a more common feature even in modern-day archaeal ... homologous chromosomes that follow karyogamy are orchestrated from the NE by a process that involves migration of chromosome ... Its retention inside the host cell however might be explained by the strong selective advantage that clearance of oxygen in the ... noting that cell-cell fusions exist in the prokaryote world. Once again we reinforce the idea that cell-to-cell fusions were ...
In E.coli, experimental evidence indicates that TA loci are stress-response elements that help cells survive unfavorable growth ... Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. ... Chromosome Mapping * Enterobacteriaceae / genetics * Genes, Archaeal* * Genes, Bacterial* * Integrons * Interspersed Repetitive ... Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. In E.coli, experimental evidence ...
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called ... and the subsequent transfer of a part of the host chromosome to another cell do not appear to be bacterial adaptations. ... Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ...
In the swarmer cell, CtrA (cell cycle regulator) prevents chromosome replication; however, when the swarmer cell changes to a ... pac sites on host chromosomes, it is more common among the lysogenic phages, as during lytic phage infection, the host DNA can ... of currently available bacterial and archaeal genome sequences (1). These systems can be encoded by genes on plasmids or ... Following cell division, which produces two morphologically distinct cell types, the stalk cell (DNA replication allowed) and ...
The lysogenic cycle involves integration of the viral genome into the host chromosome, probably facilitated by the virus- ... Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive ... Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Its protein subunit TERT is ... the host cell. Virions are extruded from host cells as lemon-shaped tail-less particles, after which they develop long tails at ...
How did the evolution of the highly complex architecture of the eukaryotic cell arise? I discuss the differences between ... Sialic Acid Multicellular Organism Genome Complexity Prokaryotic Cell Linear Chromosome These keywords were added by machine ... Xie Y, Reeve JN (2004) Transcription by an Archaeal RNA polymerase is slowed but not blocked by an Archaeal nucleosome. J ... Lodé T (2012) For quite a few chromosomes more: the origin of eukaryotes…. J Mol Biol 423(2):135-142. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb. ...
Instead, they infect and take control of a host cell, forcing the host to make many copies of the virus. Viruses that infect ... The lambda genome inserts into the host chromosome at specific locations known as attachment or att sites.. The phage att sites ... Transduction is the transfer of bacterial or archaeal genes by virus particles. It is important to understand that host genes ... During the assembly stage, when the viral chromosomes are packaged into capsids, random fragments of the partially degraded ...
Bacteria typically possess one chromosome with one origin of replication. Eukaryotes have multiple, paired chromosomes with ... BD: Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System. BD: Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System. See how simple single-cell analysis can ... Some may rely on a symbiont or host organism to survive.. Asgard. The first discovered were Lokiarchaeota, which were initially ... The discovery of copious new archaeal species is shedding light on the tree of life and revealing some unique cellular biology. ...
Example: +cell +stem * Tip 3. You can use + and - symbols to force inclusion or exclusion of specific words.. Example: +cell - ... Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome. Read more ... Single-stranded DNA viruses employ a variety of mechanisms for integration into host genomes. Read more ... Evidence for a Xer/dif system for chromosome resolution in archaea. Read more ...
... when the host cell becomes compromised. Eucaryote apoptosis, or controlled cell death, is mediated by the release of cytochrome ... Humans have five such chromosomes and mice have just one. The researchers also showed that ancestral chromosome 20 is ... The first theory, which places the emphasis on archaea phagocytosis, consists of an archaeal cell e.g. from the TACK group ( ... DNA is exported from the donor cell after cell-to-cell contact is initiated. DNA is then actively imported by the Ced system. ...
Second, some phages can enter a chronic cycle, in which they replicate in the cell outside of the host chromosome, and ... VirSorter is designed to predict bacterial and archaeal virus sequences in isolate or single-cell draft genomes, as well as ... to avoid considering genomes split into different chromosomes or including one or several plasmids as draft). ... Virus-host network between virus clusters and host classes (matrix visualization).. A cell in the matrix is colored when at ...
We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and ... The rate at which amelioration of horizontally acquired DNA occurs within the chromosome is likely to account for the small ... Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes > GI > phage > plasmid. There was an ... We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids ...
  • Perhaps, most importantly, I argue that the intron invasion triggered other pivotal events of eukaryogenesis, including the emergence of the spliceosome, the nucleus, the linear chromosomes, the telomerase, and the ubiquitin signaling system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase 1 that adds short DNA repeats, called telomeres, to the 3' end of linear chromosomes 2 that serve to protect them from end-to-end fusion and degradation. (jove.com)
  • Members of all major lineages have cell walls, and it might be reasonable to conclude that the last common ancestor could make cell walls during some stage of its life cycle. (libretexts.org)
  • Conversely, as phages may also be beneficial in certain areas such as phage therapy, phages with additional resistance to host defenses may prolong the effectiveness of the therapy. (asm.org)
  • Temperate phages can remain inactive in their hosts for many generations. (istudy.pk)
  • Fungal genetics uses yeast , and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure and gene regulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of a G3P Chinese bat rotavirus suggests multiple bat rotavirus inter-host species transmission events" [ link ], doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.09.005, Infection, Genetics and Evolution , online 9 Sep 2014. (panspermia.org)
  • The course will also include some aspects of bacterial genetics and physiology, immune response to infection, and the cell biology of host-parasite interactions. (berkeley.edu)
  • After the progeny phage particles reach a certain number, they cause the host to lyse, so they can be released and infect new host cells. (istudy.pk)
  • The host bacterium is unharmed by this, and the phage genome is passively replicated as the host cell's genome is replicated. (istudy.pk)
  • This phage particle is known as a generalized transducing particle and is simply a carrier of genetic information from the original bacterium to another cell. (istudy.pk)
  • The study was published in the January 12, 2017 issue of Cell and is titled "Nuclear Localization of Mitochondrial TCA Cycle Enzymes As a Critical Step in Mammalian Zygotic Genome Activation. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Prokaryotes , whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer , display processes such as bacterial conjugation , transformation and transduction , which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic material brought to the host chromosome by bacteriophages and other mobile elements can be subject to exaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the ability of cells to receive genetic material transduced by RcGTA requires a capsular polysaccharide receptor, which is regulated by the quorum sensing system. (wikipedia.org)
  • s findings suggest that although it is common for several different viruses to infect the same cell, it is relatively rare for these viruses to exchange genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • For many years, proteins were considered the master regulators of gene expression, and RNA was seen only as the "intermediate" between the genetic code DNA, and proteins, the functional moieties of the cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Why Haven't Cancer Cells Undergone Genetic Meltdowns? (smbe.org)
  • A common feature in this wide range of interactions is modulation of host-cell proliferation, which sometimes leads to the formation of tumour-like structures in which the bacteria can grow. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ecological importance of viruses is now widely recognized, yet our limited knowledge of viral sequence space and virus-host interactions precludes accurate prediction of their roles and impacts. (elifesciences.org)
  • The genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 contains 2,992,245 bp on a single chromosome and encodes 2,977 proteins and many RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The metabolic proteins, normally found in the energy-generating mitochondria of cells, move to the DNA-containing nuclei about two days after a mouse embryo is fertilized, according to the new study, led by senior author Dr. Utpal Banerjee. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Type II R-M systems are the most prevalent type and generally function as two individual proteins ( 8 ), where the REase cleaves the target DNA at defined positions within or close to their recognition site, while the MTase protects host DNA by methylation. (asm.org)
  • Others use homologs of eukaryote proteins, such as ESCRTs, to help separate daughter cells (right). (the-scientist.com)
  • Models that propose a prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition are gridlocked between the opposing "phagocytosis first" and "mitochondria as seed" paradigms, neither of which fully explain the origins of eukaryote cell complexity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The emergence of eukaryote features such as the endomembrane system and acquisition of the mitochondrion are posited as strategies to cope with a metabolic crisis in the cell plasma membrane and the accumulation of ROS, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chemistry and cell structure are less diagnostic of eukaryote than they appear at first. (springer.com)
  • Prerequisite courses will have introduced students to the concepts of cells, the central dogma of molecular biology, and gene regulation. (berkeley.edu)
  • During "fertilization", haploid gametes come together to form a diploid zygote and the original number of chromosomes is restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division mitosis then initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms , including animals and plants , for the vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis, a process of nuclear division wherein replicated chromosomes are divided and separated using elements of the cytoskeleton. (libretexts.org)
  • Applications will be mainly demonstrated for the construction of lithium ion batteries (anode and cathode), supercapacitors (symmetric and asymmetric) and fuel cells. (europa.eu)
  • Differences between clones arose mainly because insertion sequence (IS) elements moved during cell culture. (pnas.org)
  • In E.coli, experimental evidence indicates that TA loci are stress-response elements that help cells survive unfavorable growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Charting HTa-based chromatin architecture in vitro, in vivo and in an HTa-expressing E. coli strain, we present evidence that HTa is an archaeal histone analog. (elifesciences.org)
  • These observations strongly suggest that TA loci are mobile cassettes that move frequently within and between chromosomes and also lend support to the hypothesis that TA loci function as stress-response elements beneficial to free-living prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Primate-specific endogenous retrovirus-driven transcription defines naive-like stem cells" [ html ], doi:10.1038/nature13804, p 405-409 v 516, Nature , 18/25 Dec (online 15 Oct) 2014. (panspermia.org)
  • Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm. (alchetron.com)
  • The evolutionary patterns caused by the facilitated horizontal transfer caused by the Bartonella specialist GTA have been suggested to have caused the Bartonella radiation, in which these bacteria adapted to commensal or pathogenic lifestyles in various groups of mammalian hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • She completed her PhD at AgroParisTech, under the supervision of Prof. Claire Neema and studied the molecular basis of host-pathogen coevolution in natural populations of common bean. (smbe.org)
  • Sexual reproduction is a kind of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes ( haploid ) and cells with a double set of chromosomes ( diploid ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucially, single ROS initiation events can generate multiple reactions and radical molecules by complex chain reactions (mostly catalysed by metal cations in Fenton reactions) that affect all cell components [ 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The final sequence corresponds to a single chromosome of 2,992,245 bp, within the original estimate of 3 (±0.1) Mb ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • See how simple single-cell analysis can be. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Darwinian-abiogenesis consensus is that an accident of chance on this planet resulted in the creation of a single life form and this is how life on Earth began and evolved: "all life on Earth, from bacteria to sequoia trees to humans, evolved from a single ancestral cell" (Eighth Conference on the Origins of Life, Berkeley, California, 1984). (cosmology.net)
  • Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, with mutations that trigger aggressive growth at all costs to the health of the organism. (smbe.org)