The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... only cells infected by the virus are susceptible to the drug. Such drugs are effective only against viruses from the herpes ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
"Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Kit S, Dubbs DR (1963). "Acquisition of thymidine kinase activity by herpes simplex-infected mouse fibroblast cells". Biochem. ... virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. ... is cell cycle-independent. TK1 is synthesized by the cell during the S phase of cell division. After cell division is completed ...
Notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria include adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus. Poxviruses ... dsDNA viruses can be subdivided between those that replicate in the nucleus, and as such are relatively dependent on host cell ... Kukhanova MK, Korovina AN, Kochetkov SN (December 2014). "Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ...
... african swine fever MeSH C02.081.885.200 - colorado tick fever MeSH C02.081.885.400 - encephalitis, tick-borne MeSH C02.081. ... herpes simplex MeSH C02.256.466.279 - encephalitis, varicella zoster MeSH C02.256.466.313 - epstein-barr virus infections MeSH ... t-cell, acute, htlv-i-associated MeSH C02.782.815.200.470.710 - paraparesis, tropical spastic MeSH C02.782.815.200.480 - htlv- ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 - classical swine fever MeSH C02.782.350.675.400 - hemorrhagic ...
In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 virus strain commonly referred to as "swine flu" caused the 2009 flu pandemic, but there is no ... Viruses can replicate only in living cells.[71] Influenza infection and replication is a multi-step process: First, the virus ... Swine flu. In pigs swine influenza produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite.[ ... which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were ...
March 2000). "Anti-herpes virus activity of Solanum steroidal glycosides". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 23 (3): 363-4 ... 2007). "African leafy vegetables in South Africa". Water SA. 33 (3): 317-326. doi:10.4314/wsa.v33i3.180589. "umsobosobo, noun ... Water extracts of 'Solanum nigrum have shown a citotoxic activity in reducing ROS generation of the human MM cell line A-375. ... Infusions are used in dysentery, stomach complaints, and fever. The juice of the plant is used on ulcers and other skin ...
The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella zoster virus, and (less commonly) ... The virus has also adapted to grow in cells of cold-blooded vertebrates. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can ... More than 95% of human deaths from rabies occur in Africa and Asia. About 40% of deaths occur in children under the age of 15. ... Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. These symptoms are followed by one or more of the ...
... and epithelial cells by influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Sendai virus and its possible role in innate immunity". ... Another research study shows that SeV variants, adapted to grow in cell culture 4647 (African green monkey kidney cells) and in ... The virus was injected intradermally or intratumorally and it caused fever in less than half of the treated patients, which ... because antibodies to the virus were often found in their organisms during the swine epidemic in Japan in 1953-1956. High ...
"Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera". Journal of Virology. 67 (9): ... T-cell receptor peptide vaccines are under development for several diseases using models of Valley Fever, stomatitis, and ... South African Institute for Medical Research (1929). Annual report [Jaarverslag]. South African Institute for Medical Research ... However, vaccines remain elusive for many important diseases, including herpes simplex, malaria, gonorrhea, and HIV. First ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... Indian swine flu (2015). *South Korean MERS (2015). *Zika (2015-2016). *Angolan yellow fever (2016) ... H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. Health experts are ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... "Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): ... Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Karriker, Locke; Ramirez, Alejandro; Kent Schwartz; Gregory Stevenson (15 May 2012). Diseases of Swine ( ... In Africa and Asia these vaccines reduced severe disease among infants[44] and countries that have put in place national ...
"Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera". Journal of Virology. 67 (9): ... Soon scientist cultivated other viruses in eggs. Eggs were used for virus propagation in the development of a yellow fever ... South African Institute for Medical Research (1929). Annual report [Jaarverslag]. South African Institute for Medical Research ... However, vaccines remain elusive for many important diseases, including herpes simplex, malaria, gonorrhea, and HIV.[132][137] ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... "WHO , Regional Office for Africa. Retrieved 20 August 2019.. *^ Khudyakov, Yury E.; Purdy, Michael A. (17 December 2010). " ... deer and swine have frequently been implicated.[58] Domestic animals have been reported as a reservoir for the hepatitis E ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
"Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera". Journal of Virology. 67 (9): ... T-cell receptor peptide vaccines are under development for several diseases using models of Valley Fever, stomatitis, and ... South African Institute for Medical Research (1929). Annual report [Jaarverslag]. South African Institute for Medical Research ... However, vaccines remain elusive for many important diseases, including herpes simplex, malaria, gonorrhea, and HIV.[68][72] ...
Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases,... ... Norley SG, Wardley RC (1982) Complement-mediated lysis of African swine fever virus-infected cells. Immunology 46: 75PubMed ... Rager-Zisman B, Bloom BR (1974) Immunological destruction of herpes simplex I infected cells. Nature 251: 542PubMedCrossRef ... Cooper N.R., Nemerow G.R. (1985) Complement, Viruses, and Virus-Infected Cells. In: Müller-Eberhard H.J., Miescher P.A. (eds) ...
Link between Human herpes virus 6 and African Swine fever virus, AIDS, CFIDS and US Biowarfare labs. The immune cells that ... a homeopathic remedy tested in Africa on 228 HIV patients increases CD4 helper cells over a 7 month period; Swine flu update ... 1. The reprogramming of T cells to attacks cancerous B cells. 2. GcMAF - a Vitamin D bound protein used to produce Macrophage ... Scientific research finds that Vitamin D regulates T cell and NK cell function. Vitamin D for allergic Rhinitis, Sinusitis, ...
African swine fever virus in Vero cells), the addition of the drug 1 h before virus adsorption completely abolished virus ... herpes simplex and vaccinia) and RNA (influenza, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis and Sindbis) viruses, paying attention ... We analysed the effect of the antitumoural drug lauryl gallate on the infectivity of the African swine fever virus among other ... Antiviral activity of lauryl gallate against animal viruses.. [Carolina Hurtado, Maria Jose Bustos, Prado Sabina, Maria Luisa ...
African swine fever virus [49], Newcastle disease virus [50], papillomavirus [51] and herpes simplex virus [52]. ICP34.5 is a ... Cells and viruses. Green African monkey kidney (Vero) (ATCC) cells and human osteosarcoma-derived U2OS containing G3BP1-GFP (a ... The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate eIF2alpha ... Blue arrows: uninfected cells; red arrows: infected cells. B. At least 150 cells in each condition were analyzed. Cells with at ...
L.K. Dixon summarizes the multiple host pathways that are targeted at multiple levels by African swine fever virus. J.P. ... J.L. Whitton gives an overview of the adaptive CD8+ T-cell immune response in the context of virus infections. G. Screaton and ... provide an overview of the potential role of the immune system in the latency of the alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus 1. ... Molecular Pathogenesis of Virus Infections describes our current understanding of the pathogenesis of selected virus and prion ...
... including vaccinia virus, HIV-1, coxsackievirus B (CVB), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), african swine fever virus (ASFV ... E. G. Sánche, A. Quintas, D. Pérez-Núñez et al., "African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells," PLoS ... viruses must bind to cell surface, followed with signaling induction, in order to penetrate into their host cells. Cell ... It has also been uncovered that Env-mediated cell-cell fusion, virus-cell fusion, and HIV-1 infection are dependent on Tiam-1, ...
ASFV, African swine fever virus; BFV, bovine foamy virus; B. pertussis, Bordetella pertussis; CRL, cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase ... herpes simplex virus; HSVA, herpesvirus ateles; HSVS, herpesvirus saimiri; HTLV-1, human T cell leukaemia virus 1; IκBα, NF-κB ... Ac, acetyl group; A. salmonicida, Aeromonas salmonicida; ASFV, African swine fever virus; B. bronchiseptica, Bordetella ... hantaan virus; HCMV, human cytomegalovirus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IκBα, NF-κB inhibitor-α (also ...
Production and titration of African swine fever virus in porcine alveolar macrophages. J. Virol. Methods 3:303-310. ... Expression of apolipoprotein E by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by growth state. J. Cell Biol. 107:1207- ... Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis. I. Virus pathway to the nervous system of suckling mice demonstrated by ... Herpes simplex virus latency, p. 175-240. In B. Roizman (ed.), The herpesvirus, vol. 3. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y. ...
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... only cells infected by the virus are susceptible to the drug. Such drugs are effective only against viruses from the herpes ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
An Overview of the Immune Evasion Strategies Adopted by Different Viruses with Special Reference to Classical Swine Fever Virus ... The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in macrophages and encodes an IkB homolog that blocks cytokine expression mediated ... CSF virus (CSFV) has high affinity for vascular endothelial cells and lymphoreticular cells including T cells, B cells and ...
African swine fever virus infection of porcine aortic endothelial cells leads to inhibition of inflammatory responses, ... Herpes simplex virus 1 induces and blocks apoptosis at multiple steps during infection and protects cells from exogenous ... Degradation of p65 has also been reported for cells infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large icosahedra double- ... such as mumps virus; human parainfluenza virus types 2, 3, and 4; NDV; Sendai virus; measles virus; canine distemper virus; ...
These cells possessed the characteristics of primary PAMs, including strong expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class ... The number of peptides bound to cells measured by fluorescence was very low for PK15 cells (7.0% ± 1.5), which are not antigen- ... long-term use of these cells is limited by the cells short lifespan. We immortalized primary PAMs by transfecting them with ... The development of an immortal PAM cell panel harboring diverse SLA haplotypes and the use of an established method in this ...
... herpes virus; Poxviridae (variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (e.g. African swine fever virus); ... The T-cell leukemia viruses include HTLV-1, HTLV-II, simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV), and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The ... bovine papular stomatitis virus); the family Iridoviridae (African swine fever virus, Frog viruses 2 and 3, Lymphocystis virus ... Bluetongue virus, Eugenangee virus, Kemerovo virus, African horse sickness virus, and Colorado Tick Fever virus), the genus ...
... and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular ... The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or ... In the present study we expressed DP71L in different mammalian cells and demonstrated that DP71L causes dephosphorylation of ... The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or ...
... in pigs and one of the important viruses that severely jeopardize the swine... ... Zhang F, Moon A, Childs K, Goodbourn S, Dixon LK (2010) The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits the protein ... Perera N, Miller JL, Zitzmann N (2017) The role of the unfolded protein response in dengue virus pathogenesis. Cell Microbiol ... Cheng G, Feng Z, He B (2005) Herpes simplex virus 1 infection activates the endoplasmic reticulum resident kinase PERK and ...
The DP71L protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) shares sequence similarity with the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein ... HeLa MAGI cells). In addition, infection of HeLa MAGI cells with adeno-associated virus-NIPP1 prior to the infection with HIV-1 ... The MyD116 African swine fever virus homologue interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and activates its ... are important in cell proliferation and cell survival in murine fetal lung epithelial cells and human A549 lung cancer cells. ...
Herpes virus ateles Herpes virus saimiri Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virusIridoviridae African swine fever virus Frog ... Mason-Pfizer virus hamster leukemia virus rat leukemia virus bovine lymphoma virus human T cell leukemia viruses: types 1 and 2 ... Epstein-Barr virus Baboon herpes virus Chimpanzee herpes virus Mareks disease herpes virus Hinze virus Turkey herpes virus ... Uganda S virus US bat salivary gland virus wesselsbron virus west nile fever virus yellow fever virus zika virus European tick- ...
Vashee leads IDRC-funded efforts to develop genetic tools to manipulate African swine fever virus and DARPA-funded efforts to ... Genome-wide engineering of human herpesviruses (herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus) to ... Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2010-07-02; 329.5987: 52 ... Developing Genetic Tools to Manipulate African Swine Fever Virus and Generate Attenuated Strains Show Project ...
... untreated cells; (b) cells incubated in energy depletion medium for 3 hours (−ATP); (c) cells treated with leptomycin B (20 ng/ ... and ICP27 protein from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ICP27) (), as well as the three NESs identified in the ASFV p37 ... Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three ... Nuclear Export of African Swine Fever Virus p37 Protein Occurs through Two Distinct Pathways and Is Mediated by Three ...
... were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and African swine fever ... and chrysin may be effective against Herpes Simplex Virus in cell culture [12,13]. While genital herpes has been historically ... African swine fever virus (ASFV), strain Lisbon 60, was originally obtained in 1960 from an infected pig in Lisbon (Ribeiro and ... TAGS: nose herpes home remedies - pictures of simple herpes - what drugs are used to treat herpes. ...
"Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Kit S, Dubbs DR (1963). "Acquisition of thymidine kinase activity by herpes simplex-infected mouse fibroblast cells". Biochem. ... virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. ... is cell cycle-independent. TK1 is synthesized by the cell during the S phase of cell division. After cell division is completed ...
... is the cause of an economically important swine disease that has devastated the swine industry since the late 1980s. The aim of ... In PRRSV infected MARC-145 cells, there was a time-dependent increase in ROS and Maleic Dialdehyde (MDA). Accordingly, NF-κB ... These results should extend our better understanding the interaction between PRRSV and host MARC-145 cells. ... Therefore, some viruses, such as vaccinia virus, African swine fever virus, influenza A virus, and mengovirus, have evolved ...
African Swine Fever (ASF) virus, bovine herpes virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, while continuing work on new FMDV ... have now designed new vaccine strategies to broaden the immune response to FMDV by targeting T cell responses. In 2016, Bill " ... investigating immune responses of swine and cattle to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. The Golde lab has ... sheep and swine including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ...
African swine fever virus (ASF). As a signature pattern for this family of TK we selected a conserved region which is located ... Evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene ... reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase.. Source. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:11303-11317(1988).. ... Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases. ...
Background on African Swine Fever Virus as a human pathogen:. "African Swine fever is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa ... Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7) are immunomodulating viruses potentially affecting the nervous ... ASF virus, adapted to grow in VERO cells, produces a strong cytopathic effect in human macrophages leading to cell destruction. ... "The family Asfarviridae contains only a single virus species, African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV is a viral agent with ...
African swine fever virus; Canarypox virus; DNA; capital; consensus sequence; dephosphorylation; herpes simplex; ... In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in ... adenosine triphosphate; antibacterial properties; antibiotics; bacteria; cell death; cell respiration; drugs; electron transfer ... Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African ...
Reference) Given the high prevalence of HHV-8,--the so-called K.S. herpes virus--in Sardinia (Reference) is it at all possible ... Reference) HHV-8 has been detected in B-cells in Castlemans disease and primary effusion lymphoma. (Reference). If HHV-8 is a ... In addition to a direct comparison of ASFV and HHV-8, pigs with African Swine Fever Virus could be tested for sequences of HHV- ... "The 19R Protein of HHV-6 has significant amino acid sequence homology . . . to a protein encoded by African Swine Fever Virus." ...
Single cell cloning and selection in G-418 of the 3D4 parental cell line resulted in establishment of 3D4/2 (ATCC CRL-2845), ... The parental porcine monomyeloid cell line, 3D4, was established in December of 1998 following transfection of primary porcine ... Herpes simplex virus 1 African swine fever virus Pseudorabies virus Vaccinia virus Swine vesicular disease virus ... Virus Susceptibility Bovine adenovirus 3 Classical swine fever virus , Classical swine fever virus. Human parainfluenza virus 3 ...
... cells activate specific signalling pathways, designated as the unfolded proteins response (UPR), which essentially increase ... This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV ... This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV ... This cellular defence mechanism may, in turn, affect significantly the virus life-cycle. ...
  • Two different classes of thymidine kinases have been identified and are included in this super family: one family groups together thymidine kinase from herpesvirus as well as cellular thymidylate kinases, the second family groups TK from various sources that include, vertebrates, bacteria, the bacteriophage T4, poxviruses, African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). (
  • The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or a long form of about 184 amino acids, and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular protein GADD34. (
  • Both the N and C termini of the ASFV p37 protein are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of yeast cells. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV), strain Lisbon 60, was originally obtained in 1960 from an infected pig in Lisbon (Ribeiro and Azevedo, 1961), adapted to grow in monkey cells and was cloned by four successive plaque purification in Vero cells, as described by Enjuanes et al. (
  • of the Portuguese flora, were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and African swine fever virus (ASFV). (
  • In August, 1986, John Beldekas was invited to go to the NCI and present his findings on the link between ASFV [African Swine Fever virus] and AIDS, which he did. (
  • Like ASFV, HBLV infected B cells and also lived in macrophages. (
  • The family Asfarviridae contains only a single virus species, African swine fever virus (ASFV). (
  • HHV-6 University: News about the science and politics of HHV-6 & AIDS/CFS: Pigs, Kaposi's Sarcoma and African Swine Fever: Is HHV-8 the human infection of ASFV in Sardinia? (
  • ASFV has been at least visually mistaken for another herpes virus, CMV, in the past. (
  • In addition to a direct comparison of ASFV and HHV-8, pigs with African Swine Fever Virus could be tested for sequences of HHV-8. (
  • A comparison of the K.S. lesions in humans and ASFV lesions in pigs might be in order.Given that African Swine Fever is currently spreading in Russia and is now threatening Europe and China, (Reference) it would be useful to know whether people who are exposed to pigs with ASFV are at increased risk for HHV-8, Kaposi's sarcoma and the other pathologies associated with HHV-8. (
  • A study in sub-Saharan Africa where ASFV is endemic and HHV-8 is also endemic (Reference) might be useful. (
  • Twenty plants, belonging to fifteen plant families, used in folk medicine by Guinea-Bissau traditional healers to treat several infectious diseases, were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against a clinical strain of Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) and a strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV). (
  • Virucidal activity of plant extracts -- The direct effect of plant extracts on HSV-1 and ASFV was determined by incubating both viruses for 1 h at 37øC with the extracts at the MTC. (
  • Cell monolayers were infected with HSV-1 or ASFV at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) of 1 in the presence of the extracts. (
  • The integrity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is required for efficient African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a severe and highly lethal hemorrhagic disease buy AMG517 that affects domestic pigs. (
  • Like many other viruses, during the Prokr1 early stages of infection ASFV interacts with the microtubule cytoskeleton and requires retrograde dynein-based transport to constitute the perinuclear virus factory (3, 30), where DNA replication and assembly occur. (
  • Gene editing of large DNA viruses, such as African swine fever virus (ASFV), has traditionally relied on homologous recombination of a donor plasmid consisting of a reporter cassette with surrounding homologous viral DNA. (
  • To accomplish this goal we first infect primary swine macrophages with a field isolate, ASFV-G, and transfect with the CRISPR/Cas9 donor plasmid along with a plasmid that will express a specific gRNA that targets our gene to be deleted. (
  • African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly lethal contagious viral disease of swine caused by ASF virus (ASFV). (
  • African swine fever virus field isolates such as ASFV-G (isolated from infected swine serum and adding serum to swine macrophages to propagate the virus. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) virions consist of a nucleoprotein core structure, 70-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by an internal lipid layer and an icosahedral capsid, 170-190 nm in diameter, which in turn is eventually surrounded by an external lipid-containing envelope. (
  • To maximize the effectiveness of DNA replication, African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection recruits the mitochondria around the viral factories, associated with the morphology change and accumulation of the mitochondria. (
  • Das Virus der afrikanischen Schweinepest (African swine fever virus, ASFV) ist der einzige bekannte Vertreter der Familie der Asfarviridae. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a constituent of the lipoproteins, may be relevant in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS), since HSV-1 binds to human serum ApoE lipoproteins. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important cause of severe human encephalitis ( 22 ), and it may reach the CNS by either the hematogenous or neural route. (
  • Genome-wide engineering of an infectious clone of herpes simplex virus type 1 using synthetic genomics assembly methods. (
  • 1976). Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, clinical strain) stocks were prepared in Vero cells in DME supplemented with 2% NCS. (
  • To identify proteins that interact with the U(L)28-encoded DNA binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a previously undescribed rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the U(L)28 protein fused to glutathione S-transferase was used to immunopurify U(L)28 and the proteins with which it associated. (
  • We have determined the DNA sequence of the long unique region (U L ) in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain 17. (
  • Hybridization studies using cloned EHV-1 DNA showed that the genome of EHV-1 subtype 2 is colinear with the genomes of EHV-1 subtype 1 and herpes simplex virus type 1. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate‐early protein Vmw110 is a non‐specific activator of gene expression and is required for efficient initiation of the viral lytic cycle. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV‐1) is a common human pathogen which attains a life‐long latent state in sensory neurones after initial infection at the periphery. (
  • Viral production was strongly inhibited in different cell lines at non-toxic concentrations of the drug (1-10 microM), reducing the titres 3->5 log units depending on the multiplicity of infection. (
  • Furthermore, the presence of the drug abrogated the activation of this protease induced by the virus infection. (
  • During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). (
  • Interestingly, ZIKV infection markedly impaired the phosphorylation of eIF2α triggered in Ars-treated infected cells, and the abrogation of SG assembly in ZIKV-infected cells is, at least in part, dependent on eIF2α dephosphorylation. (
  • Several authors have demonstrated the susceptibility of the adrenal gland to infection with HSV-1 and the crucial role of this gland in infection of the CNS after viremia with this virus has been established ( 9 ). (
  • The polymorphism of the apoE gene may be relevant to the development and course of herpes simplex virus infection for several reasons. (
  • The cowpox virus (CPV) complement inhibitor, termed inflammation modulatory protein (IMP), blocks immunopathological tissue damage at the site of infection, presumably by inhibiting production of the macrophage chemo attractant factors C3a and C5a. (
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an important physiological process for host defense against viral infection ( 16 ). (
  • Apoptosis provides an opportunity for infected host organisms to clear viral infection by sacrificing virus-infected cells. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 can both induce and block apoptosis at multiple steps during infection and protects cells from exogenous apoptotic stimuli ( 20 ). (
  • Measles virus induces apoptosis in the cells it infects, and apoptosis caused by measles virus infection is thought to facilitate virus release from infected cells ( 15 , 19 ). (
  • TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that can be induced by a variety of stimuli, including viral infection ( 3 ), and plays important roles in the control of virus infection ( 26 ). (
  • The existence of overlapping nuclear export mechanisms, together with our observation that p37 protein is localized in the nucleus at early stages of infection and exclusively in the cytoplasm at later stages, suggests that the nuclear transport ability of this protein may be critical to the African swine fever virus replication cycle. (
  • Here, we utilized a genital infection with HSV-1 to interrogate the innate immune strategies in different cell types. (
  • Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the fragrant sumac extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the viral infection cycle. (
  • For the following 17 years, Dr. Golde led the immunology laboratory at the USDA's Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC), investigating immune responses of swine and cattle to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. (
  • During productive viral infection the host cell is confronted with synthesis of a vast amount of viral proteins which must be folded, quality controlled, assembled and secreted, perturbing the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • This is not surprising, since an infected cell must manage a vast quantity of viral proteins that are synthesized over a short period of time during productive infection, often leading to perturbation of the ER homeostasis, protein misfolding and aggregation. (
  • Discovered more than 40 years ago, with an efficient vaccine developed against it, the Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a frequent viral disease and a major cause of chronic liver pathogenesis. (
  • The host produces cells that have the ability to make proteins produced by invading pathogens leading to response against the infection. (
  • Further studies showed that thirteen of the tested extracts inhibited HSV-1 infection, some of which had a significant activity against this virus such as Senna podocarpa (Guill. (
  • After determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) against Vero cells, ethanol extracts were evaluated for overall virucidal activity and for the ability to inhibit specific steps of viral infection (viral replication and viral adsorption). (
  • The effect of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection on cellular protein expression is essential for viral pathogenesis. (
  • IBDV replicates within the cytoplasm of infected cells, leading to cytopathic effect or cytolytic infection. (
  • The early protein VP5 plays a crucial role in IBDV infection by inhibiting apoptosis in the early stage of viral infection ( 9 ) and accumulates within the host plasma membrane, thus contributing to cell lysis in the late stage of viral replication ( 10 ). (
  • Therefore, the proteomics analysis of host cellular responses to virus infection is more likely to probe potential cellular factors involved directly or indirectly in viral infection and to identify potential drug targets of antiviral treatment. (
  • Scores of conditions, including pregnancy itself, as well as infections such as TB that are especially prevalent in Africa, have been shown to affect the immune system in ways that cause positive reactions with test kits used to diagnose "HIV" infection, but have nothing to do with HIV. (
  • During infection, vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, targets all major processes of the central dogma of genetics, as well as pre-transcription and post-translation steps to hinder host cell protein production. (
  • 2010). Nevertheless, N1L is normally a nonessential gene and deletion of N1L from VACV genome will not have an effect on VACV an infection in cultured cells (Bartlett et al. (
  • To test, whether the attenuated virus mutants confer protective immunity, animals surviving primary infection are challenged with high doses of pathogenic ILT or KHV . (
  • this modulation results critical for virus buy AMG517 morphogenesis and in turn, triggers cytoskeleton remodeling, such as microtubule stabilization for viral transport during early infection. (
  • This F11L-mediated inhibition of RhoA signaling has been proposed to be required for an efficient virus release from infected cells (4) and also for stimulating virus-induced cell motility (4, 12, 66) and the spreading of infection. (
  • Vitamin D-Regulated MicroRNAs: Are They Protective Factors against Dengue Virus Infection? (
  • Pathogen free animals are used as donors, but that only helps avoid bacterial infection, but not the risk of infecting the recipient with porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) or porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) capable of infecting human cells. (
  • We report an outbreak of PRV infection that devastated the swine-producing regions of China in 2012. (
  • Latent infection in African species that can infect Asian primates and U.S. born African primates. (
  • Infection of domestic pigs and wild boar results in haemorrhagic fever and, for virulent isolates, death. (
  • The main focus of the present review is the changes in phosphorylation that can occur during productive infection of cells by viruses, a topic that has received less widespread attention. (
  • Japanese Patent Publication (Kohyo) 2 (1990) - 500880), it was found that hepatitis C is an infectious disease who causative agent is hepatitis C virus (HCV) that is transmitted through the blood and blood products as its main route of infection. (
  • However, as for other common viral infections such as by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is a period of time until the appearance of antibodies after infection, or the so-called window period in which a virus is unidentifiable by existing testing methods. (
  • The function of CD46 was validated in infection experiments using cells lacking and overexpressing CD46, and by competition infection experiments using soluble CD46. (
  • In this study, the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived macrophages (PBMCs-Mφ) were infected with IBV at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver infection in human. (
  • Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. (
  • Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV) can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs) that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro . (
  • An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is ably to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. (
  • Viral cross talk: intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus during an unrelated viral infection of the liver. (
  • cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). (
  • Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees", Pro. (
  • What is described is a pharmaceutical composition used as the adjuvant or for preventing or treating Bordetella infection containing the above host cell or above LPS preparation in an effective amount and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (
  • At early times of virus infection, the presence of Vmw110 increases the proportion of ND10 which contain the ubiquitin‐specific protease. (
  • the possibility of persistent parapoxvirus (ppv) infection was investigated by serologically and genetically using cattle infected with the virus experimentally and naturally. (
  • S.M. Lemon and K. Li review the data documenting hepatitis C virus disruption of innate intracellular antiviral defenses, including interferons and toll-like receptors. (
  • This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a deadly pathogen affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. (
  • Moreover, the expression of active Rac1 is increased after hepatitis B virus replication (59). (
  • Viruses that are currently spread only among animals are also dangerous - for example, porcine circoviruses of type 1 and 2, virus that causes reproductive and respiratory syndrome, porcine encephalomyocarditis virus, swine flu virus, African fever virus, hepatitis E virus, herpes virus, parvoviruses and hamburger polyomaviruses. (
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (
  • The claims of the present application are directed to a hepatitis C virus assay method employing treating a hepatitis C virus antigen containing sample with a nonionic surfactant having a hydrophilic/ lipophilic balance of 12-14, and measuring binding of said antigen with a hepatitis C virus antibody. (
  • The un-encapsidated TWiV Humans discuss finding hepatitis D virus-related sequences in birds and snakes, and fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by a coronavirus of bat origin. (
  • DHBV and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (WHBV) are classified into the family of hepadnaviridae. (
  • It was demonstrated using self-replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs that both types of interferons (IFNs) (in particular IFN- α and IFN- γ ) are potent inhibitors of HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. (
  • Replication of hepatitis C virus. (
  • Interferon- α inhibits hepatitis C virus subgenomic RNA replication by an MxA-independent pathway. (
  • Interferon- γ inhibits replication of subgenomic and genomic hepatitis C virus RNAs. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor- α negatively regulates hepatitis-B virus gene expression in transgenic mice. (
  • Effect of alpha interferon on the hepatitis C virus replicon. (
  • National Institutes of Health scientists and their collaborators found that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF)-a rare condition that can turn fatal within days without liver transplantation-results from an uncommon encounter between a highly mutated HBV variant and an unusual immune response in the patient's liver that is mainly sustained by antibody-producing B cells. (
  • Others integrate into the genome and may be passed from generation to generation, thus blurring the distinctions between foreign antigenic structures and host antigens on the surface of viruses or virus-infected cells. (
  • The genome of Rabies virus, Borna disease virus and Ebola virus code for the P phosphoprotein and VP35 that can block the antiviral response induced by IFN [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Dr. Vashee also helps lead ongoing NIH funded projects that leverage synthetic genomics approaches to engineer large DNA viruses, including human herpesviruses on a genome-wide and combinatorial scale. (
  • The latest development in negative strand virology, reverse genetics, the ability to rescue live virus from a DNA copy of the RNA genome, is being used to address questions concerning virus pathogenicity at the molecular level and to produce "marker" vaccines, i.e. vaccines that allow serological identification of all vaccinated animals. (
  • Since this requires antibodies against defined viral gene products, predicted protein encoding open reading frames identified in the genome sequences of ILTV and KHV are cloned in bacterial or eukaryotic expression vectors and expressed in transformed cells. (
  • The use of CRISPR/Cas9 to modify the African swine fever virus genome resulted in a fast and relatively easy way to introduce genetic changes. (
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (
  • The gene layout for U L was found to be very similar to that for the corresponding part of the genome of varicella-zoster virus, the only other completely sequenced alphaherpesvirus, and the amino acid sequences of equivalent proteins showed a range of similarities. (
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (
  • In this paper, the DL method is used to analyze the whole-proteome phylogeny of 124 large dsDNA viruses and 30 parvoviruses, two data sets with large difference in genome size. (
  • In comparison, some alignment-free methods such as the CV Tree method can be used for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses, but they are not suitable for resolving the phylogeny of parvoviruses with a much smaller genome size. (
  • The present study represents another effort of applying an alignment-free method in analysing complete genome data to elucidate the phylogeny of two virus groups of different genome size, the large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses. (
  • The genome sizes of dsDNA viruses are usually larger than 10 kb except those in the families Polyomaviridae (5 kb) and Papillomaviridae (7-8 kb). (
  • On the other hand, the genome sizes of ssDNA viruses are smaller than 10 kb. (
  • Oct 30, 2014 · Virus quantification methods based on antigen detection, such as the gag p24 antigen 3,4 or genome detection 5,6,7,8 are virus-specific and sometimes suffer from a limited dynamic range of detection. (
  • Mar 27, 2020 · Molecular testing technologies help detect the presence of a virus by identifying a small section of the virus' genome, then amplifying that portion until there's enough for detection. (
  • Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. (
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (
  • The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent degradation [ 12 ]. (
  • The techniques developed at USDA are now being applied to other critical diseases of cattle, sheep and swine including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), African Swine Fever (ASF) virus, bovine herpes virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, while continuing work on new FMDV vaccines. (
  • these sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, african horse sickness and african swine fever viruses and brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. (
  • There are a lot of human and animal diseases that we would like better vaccines for but until now we haven't been able to find a good reason why, for example, the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis isn't always effective but the bovine herpes virus vaccine is extremely efficient at establishing long-term immunity. (
  • As an emerging pathogen, little is known however about how ZIKV modulates the host cell stress response. (
  • Here, we describe the mechanisms by which viruses and bacteria micromanage the host NF-κB signalling circuitry to favour the continued survival of the pathogen. (
  • NF-κB belongs to a family of inducible transcription factors involved in pathogen- or cytokine-induced immune and inflammatory responses, as well as cell proliferation and survival [ 47 ]. (
  • In addition, during admittance into sponsor cells, herpes simplex pathogen 1 (HSV-1) activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which outcomes in the induction of filopodia and lamellipodia in epithelial cells and fibroblasts (33). (
  • A pathogen composed of nucleic acid within a protein shell, which can grow and reproduce only after infecting a host cell. (
  • The dynamic changes of their biofunctions, including cell viability, pathogen elimination function, phagocytic ability, and gene expressions of related proteins/mediators in innate and acquired immunity, inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis were analyzed. (
  • porcine parvovirus (ppv) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. (
  • the south african vaccine strain (lw), a virulent field-strain from a recent outbreak in south africa (ld), and the virulent kenyan 2490 strain (lk). (
  • more research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of lsd in south africa to formulate control measures. (
  • Sir Arnold Theiler , a Swiss-born veterinarian working in South Africa, had developed a crude vaccine against rinderpest by 1897 , without knowledge of the nature of the agent: this consisted of blood from an infected animal, injected with serum from one that had recovered. (
  • And finally, nine new outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) have been reported in South Africa in the last week. (
  • Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. (
  • ROS modulate the permissiveness of cells to viral replication and regulate host inflammatory and immune responses, ROS and MDA result in oxidative damage to both host tissue and the virus [ 15 ]. (
  • Formation of a new population of DNA replication intermediates in X-irradiated human melanoma cells. (
  • Effect of plant extracts on viral replication -- Vero cell monolayers were incubated for 30 min at 37øC with the extracts at MTC. (
  • Although viruses encode various numbers of genes to perform replication, they rely on cellular translation machinery for protein synthesis. (
  • The investigation of expression kinetics of viral proteins, their localization in infected cells and virus particles, as well as detection of post-translational modifications and protein interactions can contribute substantially to deeper insight in the viral replication cycle, and to elucidation of the mechanisms of pathogenesis. (
  • To permit efficient production of the putative vaccines, genes are chosen for deletion which are dispensable for replication cell culture, but have proven to be virulence factors in other herpersviruses, e.g. the viral homologues of ubiquitous genes encoding enzymes of nucleotide metabolism like thymidine kinase (TK) or dUTPase. (
  • RhoA signaling is required for respiratory syncytial buy AMG517 virus replication and morphogenesis (26). (
  • Cloning and expression of viral genes in mammalian cells was made possible by the construction of shuttle plasmid vectors which carry the origins of DNA replication from bacteria and/or mammalian viruses. (
  • Activir is an antiviral drug, a synthetic nucleoside analogue, that has inhibitory activity (interferes with viral replication) against the herpes viruses, including herpes simplex 1 and 2 (cold sores and genital herpes), varicella-zoster (shingles and chickenpox), and Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis). (
  • The Activir is converted to an active form by the virus itself, and the virus then uses the active form of Activir rather than the nucleoside it normally uses to manufacture DNA, a critical component of viral replication. (
  • Viruses exploit various cellular processes for their own benefit, including counteracting anti-viral responses and regulating viral replication and propagation. (
  • In the past 20 years, protein sumoylation has emerged as an important post-translational modification that is manipulated by viruses to modulate anti-viral responses, viral replication, and viral pathogenesis. (
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (
  • Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. (
  • Efficient initiation of HCV RNA replication in cell culture. (
  • Human γ interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus. (
  • Virus trigger the rearrangement and morphology remodeling of intracellular organelles, including the quality control of intracellular organelles, the hijacking of the modified organelle membranes, morphology remodeling for viral replication, and degradation of intracellular organelles by virus-triggered selective autophagy. (
  • Viruses have evolved several strategies to remodel the mitochondria for viral replication and assembly, including spatial distribution, morphology remodeling, and metabolism reprogramming. (
  • It was speculated that the translation and ATP synthesis are coupled and compartmentalized around viral factories to promote virus replication [ 16 ] (Figure 1C). (
  • Lytic viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by breaking open the host cell. (
  • We analysed the effect of the antitumoural drug lauryl gallate on the infectivity of the African swine fever virus among other DNA (herpes simplex and vaccinia) and RNA (influenza, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis and Sindbis) viruses, paying attention to its effect on the viability of the corresponding host cells. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that vaccinia virus F11L protein interacts directly with RhoA to inhibit its downstream signaling (61). (
  • Vaccination with vaccinia virus is protective in both man and nonhuman primates. (
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (
  • These cells possessed the characteristics of primary PAMs, including strong expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes and the inability to grow anchorage-independently. (
  • Dr. Bill Golde trained in basic immunology at Yale University and the University of Colorado studying the response of mice to sheep red blood cells and chicken ovalbumin, classic antigen systems of the day. (
  • Some adjuvants capable of maintaining the conformational integrity of the antigen, and these antigens can be effectively presented to relevant immune effector cells. (
  • FCA usually remains in the injection until his biodegradation, which will ensure the removal of antigen by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Because the virus does not infect animals, it is considered a safe vehicle for antigen display in humans and other species. (
  • Antigen presenting cells take up particulate antigens preferentially and traffic them to cellular compartments facilitating the production of antibody and cellular responses (see review by Rice-Ficht et al. (
  • In total, 280 clinical samples were investigated by real-time PCR, nested PCR and a combination of traditional virus detection methods (antigen detection on oral samples, cell culture on all samples). (
  • G. Screaton and J. Mongkolsapaya explain potential roles of T-cell responses in dengue hemorrhagic fever. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is a hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs that causes serious economic losses and high mortality rates. (
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (
  • Outbreak of Jaundice and Hemorrhagic Fever in the Southeast of Brazil in 2001: Detection and Molecular Characterization of Yellow Fever Virus", J. Medical Virol. (
  • Other viruses infect humans only as incidental hosts and cause epizootics of varying degrees. (
  • Later on, when Gallo found that HBLV could also infect other immune cells, he changed the name of HBLV to HHV-6. (
  • The results of early investigations demonstrated that viruses that infect and lyse marine primary producers are abundant, active components of marine ecosystems ( 2 , 4 , 16 , 24 , 30 ). (
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (
  • At Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, Vincent speaks with Susan, Colin, and Gary about the work of their laboratories on parvoviruses, influenza viruses, and coronaviruses that infect dogs, cats, horses and other mammals. (
  • Remarkably, unlike HAdV-B types that engage CD46 through interactions with the knob domain of the fiber protein, HAdV-D types infect host cells through a direct interaction between CD46 and the hexon protein. (
  • They say the most prevalent hantaviruses in North America (Sin Nombre virus) and South America (Andes virus) can recognize the protein, protocadherin-1 (PCDH1), and exploit it to infect the lungs. (
  • It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. (
  • In the present study we expressed DP71L in different mammalian cells and demonstrated that DP71L causes dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2? (
  • They differ biochemically from thymidine kinase from mammalian cells and are inhibited by specific inhibitors that do not influence the activity of mammalian thymidine kinases. (
  • We report that both the N- and C-terminal regions of p37 protein are actively exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of yeast and mammalian cells. (
  • The members of the NF-κB family in mammalian cells include p50/p105 (NFκB1), p65 (RelA), p52/p100 (NFκB2), c-Rel, and RelB. (
  • [ 14 ] ). Recent studies have reported that the recruitment of DRP-1 in mammalian cells requires several accessory proteins, such as the mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis-1) and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) [ 15 ] . (
  • Synthetic Neomycin-Kanamycin Phosphotransferase, Type II Coding Sequence for Gene Targeting in Mammalian Cells", Genetics (2005), 42: 207-209. (
  • enumerate the key influenza genes responsible for human pathogenicity, their roles in past pandemics, and the potential of avian influenza virus strains to evolve into highly pathogenic and transmissible viruses for human populations. (
  • The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ultimately results in the transcription of genes that encode pro-inflammatory factors and factors that influence cell proliferation. (
  • Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • in resting cells and during chemical-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and acts to enhance expression of cotransfected reporter genes. (
  • Virus Genes 49(1):1-10. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that the U(L)6, U(L)15, U(L)17, U(L)28, U(L)32, and U(L)33 genes are required for the cleavage and packaging of herpes simplex viral DNA. (
  • These findings inspired the development of the degenerate algal-virus-specific PCR primers AVS1 and AVS2, which amplify a 700-bp fragment of algal virus DNA polymerase ( pol ) genes ( 5 ). (
  • RNA virus genomes which can be transcribed to their cDNA form were also cloned in bacterial p1asmids, facilitating the study of RNA virus genes. (
  • The expression of viral genes in bacteria, yeast and eukaryotic cells gives reason to hope that it will be possible to produce viral antigens in large quantities for use as human or animal vaccines. (
  • The phylogeny based on single genes or gene families contains ambiguity because horizontal gene transfer (HGT), along with gene duplication and gene capture from hosts, appear to be frequent in large DNA viruses [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • Therapeutic adherence to retraining programs for women and men involved in abusive relationships in Mexico MicroRNAs (also referred to as miRNAs or miRs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and serve as negative gene regulators by controlling a variety of target genes and regulating diverse biological processes, such as cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis. (
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (
  • Through the course of their evolution, viruses with large genomes have acquired numerous host genes, most of which perform function in virus reproduction in a manner that is related to their original activities in the cells, but some are exapted for new roles. (
  • Some of these genes, such as diverse metabolic, repair and signaling enzymes, retain their original biochemical activities that are utilized for virus reproduction. (
  • Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVaxTM) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA 14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates", Vaccine (1999), 17:1869-1882. (
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (
  • The development of an immortal PAM cell panel harboring diverse SLA haplotypes and the use of an established method in this study can become a valuable tool for evaluating the interaction between antigenic peptides and SLA molecules and is important for many applications in veterinary medicine including vaccine development. (
  • Currently, Dr. Vashee is the Principal Investigator on a project funded by the NSF under the BREAD program to develop a more effective vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), an economically very important cattle disease that affects much of Africa, restricting trade and limiting the availability of protein sources for nutrition. (
  • Collaborators in these efforts include researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein Barr virus) as well as researchers at Tomegavax and Synthetic Genomics Vaccines, Inc. to develop a synthetic human cytomegalovirus vaccine. (
  • The Golde lab has developed new technologies to more closely track immune responses of swine and cattle, and using that information, have now designed new vaccine strategies to broaden the immune response to FMDV by targeting T cell responses. (
  • Thus, these plants become the veritable storehouses for vaccine antigens that include bacteria, viruses and parasites. (
  • These experiments are of importance because African swine fever is an endemic disease in Portugal and Spain and no vaccine nor effective therapy is available (Costa, 1990). (
  • Such a vaccine would greatly benefit the continuing campaign for the global eradication of rinderpest since it would then be possible, by serological means, to detect wild type virus circulating in local areas or regions where it is still necessary to vaccinate and where the vaccination levels are below those required to eliminate the virus. (
  • Thus, both the virus in the vaccine and the super-virulent wild-type strain can establish latency within the same animal (13-15). (
  • A plant virus used in vaccine development to deliver antigens from pathogens and tumors. (
  • Membrane proteins constitute attractive targets for biotechnological applications such as diagnostic, biosensors, stem cell culture and tissue repair and vaccine. (
  • A swarm of virologists discusses testing of a MERS coronavirus vaccine for camels, and how a neuronal stress pathway reactivates herpes simplex virus. (
  • It is possible that, as with seasonal influenza, these adaptive changes in antigenic regions of the virus would necessitate continual reformulation of a vaccine made against them. (
  • Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines. (
  • Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log10 by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. (
  • In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log10 TCID50 per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. (
  • comparative sequence analysis of the south african vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of lumpy skin disease virus. (
  • immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle. (
  • long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine. (
  • vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. (
  • in order to study the importance of an intact thymidine kinase (tk) gene for the vaccine strain of a southern african capripoxvirus, namely, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (type sa-neethling), a tk disruption recombinant was generated expressing the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) reporter gene. (
  • The study focussed on the BCG vaccine that has been used against tuberculosis in humans and animals and which is known to have variable efficacy, but this discovery is important for developing new vaccines against many different diseases caused by viruses as well as bacteria. (
  • Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus Mice", Virol. (
  • Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis", Virol. (
  • Coincidentally, or not, on the eve of the conference, a British TV channel screened the 1995 Hollywood thriller Outbreak , starring Dustin Hoffman as a maverick military virologist given hours to find a vaccine to halt the spread of a deadly African virus in California before the military obliterates the town where it has taken hold. (
  • Outbreak then goes astray: rather than portraying years of clinical trials and exhaustive lab work, the movie locates the key to getting the vaccine for the fictional virus in the ability of Hoffman and Cuba Gooding Jr to dodge heat-seeking missiles in a tree-top helicopter chase. (
  • On March 22, 2010, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials adhering to the precautionary principle advised American doctors to suspend use of Rotarix vaccine until the agency finds out why DNA from a swine virus (porcine circovirus 1 or PCV1) was found in the live rotavirus vaccine. (
  • More testing confirmed that many copies of DNA from the pig virus were present in all Rotarix vaccine lots released since the vaccine was licensed in 2008 because the pig virus DNA also contaminated the working cell bank and the original viral "seed" stock, from which Rotarix vaccine was first produced. (
  • In addition to pig viral DNA found in Rotarix vaccine, low levels of DNA fragments from avian (bird) leukosis virus (a retrovirus) was found in measles vaccine and DNA fragments of a virus similar to simian (monkey) retrovirus was found in RotaTeq vaccine. (
  • Rotarix is a genetically engineered vaccine that GSK created by isolating human rotavirus strain infecting a child in Cincinnati and using African Green monkey kidney cells to produce the original viral seed stock from which all Rotarix vaccine has been made. (
  • In the FDA licensing process, Rotarix had to meet certain FDA standards, that included demonstrating the vaccine was not contaminated with, for example TSE (Transmissable Spongiform Encephalopathy or "mad cow" disease, a brain wasting disease) or with cow viruses because bovine (cow) serum was used to prepare the original viral seed stock. (
  • PRRSV has a tropism for host cells of a phagocytic lineage, especially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). (
  • It is caused by the African Swine virus that primarily replicates in macrophages and monocytes leading to the impairment of the structure and function of the immune system of the infected organisms. (
  • Continuous porcine cell lines developed from alveolar macrophages: partial characterization and virus susceptibility. (
  • however, the early viral protein synthesis and the virus-mediated increase of p53 remained unaffected. (
  • The major capsid protein of insect iridescent viruses also belongs to this family. (
  • SV5 without the SH gene (rSV5ΔSH) is viable, and growth of rSV5ΔSH in tissue culture cells and viral protein and mRNA production in rSV5ΔSH-infected cells are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type SV5 virus. (
  • However, rSV5ΔSH causes increased cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in MDBK cells and is attenuated in vivo, suggesting the SH protein plays an important role in SV5 pathogenesis. (
  • For example, cowpox virus encodes a viral protein, CrmA, that blocks apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-1 and caspase-3 ( 49 , 53 ). (
  • Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three independent signals. (
  • Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of the African swine fever virus p37 protein, a major structural protein of this highly complex virus, has been recently reported. (
  • The unfolded protein response in virus infections. (
  • To counteract the ER stress, cells activate specific signaling pathways, designated as the unfolded proteins response (UPR), which essentially increase their folding capacity, arrest protein translation, and degrade the excess of misfolded proteins. (
  • We elaborate on how VACV induces host shutoff by targeting host cell DNA synthesis, RNA production and processing, mRNA translation, and protein degradation. (
  • By usurping host mRNA translation, viruses can gain a competitive advantage over available energy and translational machinery, thereby enhancing the expression of viral mRNA to protein. (
  • The School of Biology at the Moscow State University and the Vladimirsky Scientific Research Clinical Institute of the Moscow Region have developed and successfully tested on animals transplants for the intestines made of fibroin, the protein obtained from the silk produced by silkworm, populated by bone marrow stem cells. (
  • Black arrow shows capsid protein, white arrow shows virus membrane. (
  • They damage the host cell by blocking its normal protein synthesis and using its metabolic machinery for their own reproduction. (
  • The discovery that the protein encoded by the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) has protein kinase activity (Collett & Erikson, 1978) brought the subject of protein phosphorylation to the general attention of virologists. (
  • In this context, we shall survey the phosphorylation of both viral and cellular proteins, assess the evidence regarding the functional significance of these phosphorylations, and consider the extent to which protein kinases encoded by virus or host are responsible for them. (
  • As we imagine that many of our readers may know less about protein kinases than they do about viruses, we have prefaced our review with a brief account of cellular protein kinases and protein phosphorylation. (
  • Adenoviruses of different species are assumed to enter host cells mainly by interactions between the knob domain of the protruding fiber capsid protein and cellular receptors. (
  • We provide evidence that at least two of these viruses, OC43 and 229E, are undergoing adaptive evolution in regions of the viral spike protein that are exposed to human humoral immunity. (
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (
  • We report here that poxvirus protein F12 that has been implicated in intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) morphogenesis, and in particular IEV movement along microtubules [ 11 - 13 ], is a derived DNA polymerase in which both the polymerase and the exonuclease activities apparently were abrogated as a result of mutational replacement of catalytic amino acid residues. (
  • Mutagenesis of the Signal Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus prM Protein: Enhancement of Signalase Cleavage In Vitro Is Lethal for Virus Production", J. Virol. (
  • the capsid protein of a plant single-stranded rna virus is modified by o-linked n-acetylglucosamine. (
  • Viruses, which cause a number of acute and chronic infectious diseases, represent a major category of such pathogens. (
  • Simian virus 5 (SV5) is a member of the paramyxovirus family, which includes emerging viruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus as well as many important human and animal pathogens that have been known for years. (
  • However, interactions between swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) and the epitopes of viral pathogens have not been extensively studied. (
  • This also applies to economically relevant pathogens like infectious laryngotracheitis virus of chickens (ILTV), or koi herpesvirus ( KHV ), which causes mass mortality of kois and common carps. (
  • The unique combination of it's active ingredients ensures that the biocide activity (via cell wall intrusion) is not influenced by mutation in the pathogens. (
  • QIAsymphony Virus/Bacteria Kits enable highly sensitive detection of a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses, as well as bacterial pathogens. (
  • Many customers rely on our broad portfolio of easy-to-use ELISA- and PCR-based solutions for reliably detecting pathogens such as Bluetongue Virus, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which also includes yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) [ 1 ]. (
  • During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. (
  • In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. (
  • In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses. (
  • Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia in Europe and was endemic to Spain and Portugal from 1960 until the mid 1990s. (
  • African Swine fever is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the developing world. (
  • The world's highest incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in Sardinia (Reference) Is it possible that it is due to the fact that African Swine Fever Virus is endemic on the island? (
  • For instance, monkeypox, a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and European Africa, triggered an outbreak in human beings in america (US) in 2003 (Reed et al. (
  • The virus is endemic in Africa where warthogs and bush pigs act as reservoirs. (
  • The virus spread from West Africa to the Iberian peninsula, remaining endemic for 30 years, and was finally eradicated from Europe except for the island of Sardinia, Italy. (
  • Actually, between 1980 and 2010, the monkeypox occurrence in Central Africa offers increased 20 occasions following the discontinuation of smallpox immunization (Rimoin et al. (
  • Between 1970 and 1986, over 400 cases had been reported from tropical rain forested areas of West and Central Africa. (
  • In our model system (African swine fever virus in Vero cells), the addition of the drug 1 h before virus adsorption completely abolished virus productivity in a one-step growth virus cycle. (
  • Activation of the apoptotic effector caspase-3 was not detected after lauryl gallate treatment of Vero cells. (
  • Vero cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. (
  • HSV-1 was propagated and titrated by plaque assay in confluent monolayers of Vero cells ( 3 ). (
  • Subconfluent cultures of Vero cells were transiently transfected with the plasmids encoding GFP, GFPp37, GFP(1-160), GFP(158-234), or GFP(231-372). (
  • In the antiradical scavenging property test the extract showed at 64.1 μg/ml 50% DPPH radical scavenging activity and in the MTT assay the extract has relatively low cytotoxicity where the IC50 value of extract against Vero cells was 1078.69 µg/ml. (
  • Vero cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and were grown as monolayers in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DME) (Gibco, Scotland) supplemented with 10% of New-born Calf Serum (NCS) (Gibco, Scotland) and gentamicin (50 æg/ml). (
  • Cytotoxicity assays -- As a first step, the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in order to determine their maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) to Vero cells. (
  • Vero Cell monolayers in 96-well plates (Nunc, England) were incubated with decreasing concentrations of the extracts (dissolved in DMSO) for 48 h at 37øC. (
  • IBDV-induced apoptosis has been found in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes ( 2 ), thymus ( 3 ), bursal lymphoid cells of chicken embryos in vivo ( 4 ), and cultured CEFs and Vero cells in vitro ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African green monkey on March 27, 1962, by Y. Yasumura and Y. Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan. (
  • While genital herpes has been historically associated with HSV-2, HSV-1 accounts for at least half of new cases in developed countries (Gupta et al. (
  • Acihexal is also used to prevent recurrent genital herpes infections. (
  • In 2007, a new outbreak of ASF was confirmed in the Republic of Georgia, which is far from the usual geographic virus range in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Molecular Pathogenesis of Virus Infections describes our current understanding of the pathogenesis of selected virus and prion infections. (
  • R.P. van Rij and R. Andino review the role of RNAi as a therapeutic antiviral agent and its use by the host and virus during viral infections. (
  • J.L. Whitton gives an overview of the adaptive CD8+ T-cell immune response in the context of virus infections. (
  • To evaluate the role of ApoE in the hematogenous route of the virus, we induced infections of HSV-1 in apoE knockout and hemizygous mice, compared the results with those for wild-type mice, analyzed the relevance of ApoE in this process, and quantified the HSV-1 in several organs, using a highly powerful, sensitive technique, real-time quantitative PCR. (
  • However, many viruses have developed strategies to counteract apoptosis to prolong infections in their hosts ( 43 ). (
  • 90,000 animals died or were destroyed ( Experimental infections of pigs confirmed that isolates obtained after introduction of ASF into Armenia and the Russian Federation cause acute disease and result in high mortality rates ( (
  • Acihexal belongs to the family of medicines called antivirals, which are used to treat infections caused by viruses. (
  • Usually these medicines work for only one kind or group of virus infections. (
  • Acihexal is used to treat the symptoms of chickenpox, shingles, herpes virus infections of the genitals (sex organs), the skin, the brain, and mucous membranes (lips and mouth), and widespread herpes virus infections in newborns. (
  • Acihexal may also be used for other virus infections as determined by your doctor. (
  • However, it does not work in treating certain virus infections, such as the common cold. (
  • This paper describes major pathogenetic mechanisms of African and Classical Swine Fever virus infections. (
  • Apoptotic cell death is regarded as the predominant cause of lymphopenia in both virus infections. (
  • The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. (
  • 2009). Nevertheless, resistant infections to the substances had been isolated in cell tradition, including CMX001 and ST-246 (Yang et al. (
  • 2015). As opposed to the above-mentioned infections, resveratrol facilitates Kaposis-sarcoma linked herpesvirus (KSHV) reactivation from latency in a number of cell lines through improving mitochondrial function of contaminated cells (Yogev et al. (
  • Attenuated live virus vaccines have frequently proven to be the most efficacious and economic instruments for prophylaxis of herpesvirus infections in farm animals. (
  • Our results also ruled out other suspected agents, such as classical swine fever, African swine fever, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and some bacterial infections. (
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (
  • Medical systems in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America are turning away from pharmaceuticals as a first-line treatment for bacterial infections because of resistance problems and, most especially, because pharmaceutical corporations make a great deal too much money off the suffering of their populations. (
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (
  • Some viruses alter their genetic structure to generate an ever changing panorama of antigens with which the host must deal. (
  • Vaccines with individual antigens are purer than the existing vaccines (which are killed whole cell bacteria or cultured supernatants containing mixture of chemically inactivated toxins) as they generate an effective and more focused immune response. (
  • 2008). Since immunogenic envelope proteins are major herpesvirus antigens, our sera and antibodies are also suitable for virus diagnostics, and the generated expression constructs might be useful for development of recombinant vaccines. (
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (
  • Berry DM, Almeida JD (1968) The morphological and biological effects of various antisera on avian infectious bronchitis virus. (
  • Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential infectious agent causing porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVD) in pigs and one of the important viruses that severely jeopardize the swine husbandry industry. (
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 1 a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a pathogenic agent that damages the precursors of antibody-producing B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (central humoral immune organ) and causes severe immunodeficiency and mortality in young chickens ( 1 ). (
  • Such live vaccines have been also prepared against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and koi herpesvirus ( KHV ) by serial in vitro passages and/or irradiation of pathogenic viruses, and are used in practice. (
  • Therefore, we generate ILTV- and KHV -mutants possessing irreversible gene deletions by homologous recombination in cells cotransfected with infectious herpesvirus DNA and plasmids containing modified subgenomic fragments. (
  • Some infectious virus may survive treatment at pH4 or pH13. (
  • Currently, various methods of detecting viruses have been used to detect the presence of infectious viruses in blood or blood products, and to identify the presence of viruses in patients with diseases. (
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic coronavirus with high morbidity and mortality in chicken breeding. (
  • any member of a unique class of infectious agents, which were originally distinguished by their smallness (hence, they were described as "filtrable" because of their ability to pass through fine ceramic filters that blocked all cells, including bacteria) and their inability to replicate outside of and without assistance of a living host cell. (
  • Viruses have evolved di ff erent strategies to hijack subcellular organelles during their life cycle to produce robust infectious progeny. (
  • Viruses were discovered as an excluded entity rather than by being seen or cultured, due to the invention of efficient filters: the fact that cell-free extracts from diseased plants and animals could still cause disease led people to theorise that an unknown infectious agent - a "filterable virus" - was responsible. (
  • Again, their "sterile" filtered liquid proved infectious in calves, providing the first proof of viruses infecting animals. (
  • Almost 2000 of the licensed vaccines in the US are killed or live attenuated bacteria or viruses. (
  • Furthermore, the virus-bacterium population dynamics model analyzed by Thingstad predicts that viruses ensure the coexistence of competing bacteria by infecting only the most abundant hosts or "killing the winner" ( 31 ). (
  • This will bring down the pH more effectively as they have different pKa values and since each of the acids act upon a different spectrum of bacteria it will also provide a more powerful preservation effect.n this form they are effectively able to penetrate the cell membrane of a micro organism. (
  • The CitrusDefence® range has broad spectrum activity and is effective against bacteria, (both gram positive and gram negative) and viruses. (
  • Viruses as a concept are just a little younger than bacteria - they were first described only in the 1890s - yet have probably co-existed with cellular life through nearly the whole of evolutionary history on this planet. (
  • It consisted of unglazed porcelain "candles", with pore sizes of 0.1 - 1 micron (100 - 1000 nm), which could be used to completely remove all bacteria or other cells known at the time from a liquid suspension. (
  • Dr Charleston said: "We knew that sometimes even when we know a bacteria or virus well, it has been a struggle to make effective vaccines against certain diseases. (
  • For the plants themselves learned long ago, just as they did with bacteria, how to stop viruses from killing them. (
  • The resultant regulation of gene function is thought to govern cell fate, proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase. (
  • Therefore, gene condensation/protection and guided intracellular trafficking are necessary for exogenous nucleic acids to function inside cells. (
  • To induce host shutoff, a virus may target various steps of gene expression, as well as pre- and post-gene expression processes. (
  • Viruses encode proteins that lead to host shutoff by affecting many cellular gene expression processes. (
  • In all experiments the parental virus strains and rescuants of the investigated mutants are used as controls to verify that the observed attenuation has been indeed caused by the introduced gene deletions, and not by additional, accidental mutations. (
  • Algal-virus-specific PCR primers were used to amplify DNA polymerase ( pol ) gene fragments from geographically isolated natural virus communities. (
  • Furthermore, the 25 pol sequences were related to pol gene fragments from known algal viruses. (
  • INTRODUCTION The members of Rho family of small GTPases are essential key regulators of diverse critical cellular functions, including cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle progression, migration, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and gene expression (16, 29, 35, 53). (
  • These epigenetic marks are written and erased by specific enzymes, which place the tags on specific residues within the histone tail, thereby forming an epigenetic code, which is then interpreted by the cell to allow gene specific regulation of chromatin structure and thereby transcription. (
  • The TWiVsters describe a mouse model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome, produced by CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the murine gene encoding an ortholog of the virus receptor. (
  • However, several cases have been reported where the acquired host gene seems to have been exapted [ 8 ] for a function in virus reproduction that was not obviously related to the original one. (
  • The family Asfarviridae includes the single species African swine fever virus , isolates of which have linear dsDNA genomes of 170-194 kbp (Table 1. (
  • Beebe DP, Cooper NR (1981) Neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by human complement requires a natural IgM antibody present in human serum. (
  • Cooper NR, Jensen FC, Welsh RM, Oldstone MBA (1976) Lysis of RNA tumor viruses by human serum: Direct antibody independent triggering of the classical complement pathway. (
  • Detection of Novel Sequences Related to African Swine Fever Virus in Human Serum and Sewage. (
  • Briefly rinse the cell layer with 0.25% (w/v) Trypsin - 0.53 mM EDTA solution to remove all traces of serum that contains trypsin inhibitor. (
  • Excellent, no-hassle source of lipids for cell culture conditions that skips serum considerations. (
  • It can be used with serum, blood (indivdual or pooled), semen, and meconium swab samples alongside cell culture supernatent. (
  • This machinery initiates with cell type specific cellular signaling pathways, and the signaling compounds can be proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. (
  • Virus-encoded proteins are in green boxes, and bacterium- and parasite-encoded proteins are in orange boxes. (
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (
  • Examination of important proteins in the TNF-α signaling pathway showed that p65, a major NF-κB subunit whose activation can lead to transcription of TNF-α, was first translocated to the nucleus and was capable of binding to DNA and then was targeted for degradation in rSV5ΔSH-infected cells while expression levels of TNF-R1 remained relatively constant. (
  • The enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins no longer needed after cell division is completed. (
  • more often, many viruses encode an arsenal of proteins targeting mRNA processing and translation. (
  • This specialized site, close to the microtubule organizing center, contains mostly viral DNA, most of the viral proteins, immature and mature virions, and also abundant virus-induced membranes. (
  • There is a family of around 50 proteins known to contain bromodomains, and they have a range of functions within the cell. (
  • Vectors and cells capable of expressing the fusion proteins are also provided. (
  • The most successful of these approaches has been virus-like particles (VLP) relying on self-assembly of viral structural proteins (HBV, papillomavirus). (
  • Post-translational modification of proteins is important to numerous cellular events, allowing cells to respond to both external and internal stimuli. (
  • The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. (
  • there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (
  • When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion. (
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (
  • Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects. (
  • Genomic analysis of highly virulent isolate of African swine fever virus. (
  • Furthermore, reversion to an even more virulent phenotype cannot be excluded, since the viruses are genetically not characterized, and the molecular reasons for attenuation are unknown. (
  • Antiviral activity of lauryl gallate against animal viruses. (
  • describe the antiviral activity of type I interferons and the various virus-encoded countermeasures. (
  • Virally infected cells absorb more Activir than normal cells and convert more of it to the active form, which prolongs its antiviral activity. (
  • Since the characteristic feature of the African Swine virus is to impair the immune system and to cause immune deficiencies in its hosts the development of vaccines and other therapeutic approaches against the African Swine virus has implications for other immune deficiencies or diseases. (
  • The efficacy of such vector-based vaccines depends on functional interactions with receptors on host cells. (
  • Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. (
  • We discovered that dendritic cells - a type of immune cell - are activated better by some vaccines than others. (
  • Recombinant yellow fever viruses are affective therapeutic vaccines for treatment of murine experimental solid tumors and pulmonary metastases", Journal of Viroloqy (2000), 74(19):9197-9205. (
  • The surprising discovery reportedly was made after the independent lab used new technology to evaluate the purity of eight live virus vaccines for polio, rubella, measles, yellow fever, human herpes 3 (varicella or chicken pox), rotavirus (Rotarix and RotaTeq) and MMR. (
  • While many countries have used real time RT-PCR for diagnosing other diseases, such as Ebola virus and Zika virus, many need support in adapting this method for the COVID-19 virus, as well as in increasing their national testing capacities. (
  • The randomized, controlled trial is enrolling patients of any age with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) at a treatment unit in the city of Beni operated by The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) , a medical humanitarian organization. (
  • The film's opening is set in Africa and based on the emergence of the Ebola virus, which was first recorded in northern Zaire in 1976, where it infected 318 people, 280 of whom died. (
  • We still do not know the animal or insect which carries the Ebola virus, and one of the reasons could be that the virus has killed the few who have disturbed the animal's habitat. (
  • Segales J, Kekarainen T, Cortey M (2013) The natural history of porcine circovirus type 2: from an inoffensive virus to a devastating swine disease? (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of amplified pol fragments revealed that cultured algal viruses formed a monophyletic group compared to double-stranded DNA viruses (viruses belonging to several families) ( 6 ). (
  • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses assigned to Group I . The Herpesviridae Study Group has proposed that herpes viruses be assigned to a newly defined order, Herpesvirales. (
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (
  • Viruses can exist in two forms: extra cellular virion particles and intracellular genomes. (
  • [0002] The genomes of eukaryotic organisms are highly organised within the nucleus of the cell. (
  • The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. (
  • We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. (
  • The interactions between both viruses and the monocyte-macrophage-system result in the release of mediator molecules, which are important for the further progression of the diseases. (
  • While people were aware of diseases of both humans and animals now known to be caused by viruses many hundreds of years ago, the concept of a virus as a distinct entity dates back only to the very late 1800s. (
  • This book is the beginning, for me, of a similar exploration into the world of viruses, emerging and resistant viral diseases, and more ecologically responsible (and often more effective) forms of treatment. (
  • There is an urgent global scientific effort underway to better understand ZIKV biology and define interactions that occur between the virus and the host cell. (
  • Unraveling the mechanisms of PRRSV and cell interactions will be a critical step in developing predictable control and prevention strategies. (
  • Despite decades of intensive research and comprehensive investigations at large scale, such as by using proteomics and transcriptomics technologies, the HBV interactions with the host cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying the viral pathogenesis and progression are not clearly understood. (
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in swine, is a positive-stranded RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family in the order Nidovirales . (
  • 2009). Additionally, there's a concern that variola computer virus, the causative agent of smallpox, could be used like a natural weapon from unprotected stocks or hereditary engineering. (
  • In blood clots in large vessels of cattle and swine, the virus is infective for 2 months. (
  • rabies virus (rv) readily infects cattle and causes a fatal neurological disease. (
  • the detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques. (
  • lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a disease of cattle, primarily in africa and madagascar and rarely in the middle east. (
  • A finding that was later to have great importance in veterinary virology was the discovery by Maurice Nicolle and Adil Mustafa in Turkey in 1902 , that rinderpest or cattle plague was caused by a virus. (
  • three cattle were inoculated with the virus subcutaneously at several spots in the lips and abdominal regions. (
  • The virotype BTV pan/8 RT-PCR Kit from INDICAL enables rapid and reliable detection of RNA from all 27 known bluetongue virus serotypes, plus separate detection of the European BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) in ruminant whole blood and tissue samples from cattle, sheep, and goats. (
  • The virotype BTV pan/4 RT-PCR Kit from INDICAL allows for safe identification of RNA from all 27 known bluetongue virus serotypes, plus separate detection of the BTV serotype 4 (BTV-4), in ruminant whole blood and tissue samples from cattle, sheep, and goats. (
  • The virotype BVDV RT-PCR Kit enables rapid, reliable identification of RNA from Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and HoBi-like viruses (BVDV-3) in samples from cattle. (
  • Because of these many features, it is likely that viruses are largely responsible for driving the immune system to ever greater diversity through evolution. (
  • depict the special problems presented to the host by certain RNA viruses that are maintained and persist in human populations through avoidance or inhibition of apoptosis, innate immune response, and adaptive immune response. (
  • Many viruses modify host metabolism and innate/immune responses to their own ends. (
  • provide an overview of the potential role of the immune system in the latency of the alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus 1. (
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (
  • Silk is widely used in medicine as sutures and has a number of unique properties - it is mechanically strong, is biocompatible with the body tissue (does not cause immune rejection, non-toxic) and most importantly, is capable of bio-resorption, i.e. with time is destroyed by the body cells and the products of its decomposition can be naturally metabolized by the body. (
  • Much like the immune system itself, which operates at a cellular level, the hardworking vitamin C reaches every cell of the body. (
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (
  • It is not known to what extent reinfection by these viruses is due to waning immune memory or antigenic drift of the viruses. (
  • This suggests that reinfection may be due, in part, to positively selected genetic changes in these viruses that enable them to escape recognition by the immune system. (
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency Virus - are named for what they do - wipe out the immune system.RNA Retro Virus1. (
  • The establishment of latency and the subsequent episodes of reactivation are fundamental to the clinical importance of herpes simplex viruses and undoubtedly contribute substantially to their evolutionary success, as latency allows the virus to evade the immune system. (
  • a) Diagram of extracellular African swine fever virus virions showing nucleoid, inner core shell, internal membrane, capsid and outer envelope. (
  • Enveloped virions were seen in cytoplasmic vacuoles and outside the cell. (
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (
  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV), also called Aujeszky disease virus or suid herpesvirus type 1, is a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family Herpesviridae. (
  • We refer to this virus as herpesvirus of marmots (HVM). (
  • Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. (
  • Almeida JD, Waterson AP (1969) The morphology of virus antibody interaction. (
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to examine changes in ER morphology, and quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used to measure UPR-related cell signaling alterations. (
  • The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. (
  • In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. (
  • Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (
  • Viruses can activate a variety of cellular signaling pathways that lead to apoptosis. (
  • This cellular defense mechanism may, in turn, affect significantly the virus life-cycle. (
  • In plant viruses, 2-DE/MS has been used to study the cellular changes in rice yellow mottle virus-infected cells in susceptible and partially resistant rice cultivars ( 17 ) and in tobacco mosaic virus-infected tomato ( 18 ). (
  • In other words, competition exists between viruses and their hosts to utilize the limited amount of cellular translation machinery. (
  • Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. (
  • All of them can attach to cell membranes, enter the cytoplasm, take over cellular functions, reproduce their parts, and assemble themselves into mature forms capable of infecting other cells. (
  • Here we review how viruses manipulate the cellular machinery at each step of the sumoylation process to favor viral survival and pathogenesis. (
  • Important progress has been achieved at the molecular and cellular level in determining the guidance and locomotion mechanisms of individual migratory cells. (
  • The first stage of their host life is to pass the genetic materials into the cell. (
  • There are several viral entry ways that have been identified, like genetic injection including phages and membrane fusion such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 1 ]. (
  • Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. (
  • More recently, Dr. Vashee leads IDRC-funded efforts to develop genetic tools to manipulate African swine fever virus and DARPA-funded efforts to develop a Forensic Microbial System. (
  • Genetic fingerprints of algal virus communities were generated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (
  • Results from this study demonstrate that DGGE with degenerate primers can be used to qualitatively fingerprint and assess genetic diversity in specific subsets of natural virus communities and that closely related viruses occur in distant geographic locations. (
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase . (
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (
  • The difficulties to combine genetic analysis and direct observation of moving clusters or sheets has prevented to obtain detailed information on the regulatory networks coordinating the distinct actions of cells within the group in movement. (
  • Beebe DP, Schreiber RD, Cooper NR (1983) Neutralization of influenza virus by normal human sera: Mechanisms involving antibody and complement. (
  • For example, TNF-α exerts strong anti-influenza virus activity which is even more potent than that exerted by IFNs ( 45 ). (
  • May 01, 2013 · Although the viral culture method for the detection of influenza virus is adopted in many clinical settings, newly available rapid tests and PCR-based tests are gaining popularity for their fast detecting ability with comparatively more sensitivity and specificity. (
  • describe the impact of human papillomaviruses on cell cycle and apoptosis. (
  • For example, mumps virus can inhibit hexadecylphosphocholine-induced apoptosis of human promonocytic cells U937 ( 22 ). (
  • Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus inhibits TNF-α-induced apoptosis in human respiratory epithelial cells and mononuclear cells ( 13 , 30 ). (
  • Interestingly, RS virus also induces apoptosis in human respiratory epithelial cell A549 ( 4 , 39 ). (
  • neuronal, endothelial cells and human corneal fibroblasts) and mediates entry of HSV-1, but not HSV-2 (Shukla et al. (
  • Two months later, Gallo published an article in Science (Oct 31, 1986) that he discovered a new possible co-factor in AIDS, a virus he called Human B Cell Lymphotropic Virus which he named HBLV. (
  • (Reference) Given the high prevalence of HHV-8,--the so-called K.S. herpes virus--in Sardinia (Reference) is it at all possible that HHV-8 may have been misclassified and actually is a human-adapted form of African Swine Fever Virus? (
  • Viruses can acquire new characteristics during transplantation as a consequence of mutation and recombination with human viruses. (
  • We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. (
  • Human population growth, climate change, and globalization are accelerating the emergence of novel pathogenic viruses. (
  • In the present study, we have employed a new dataset of 1725 viral siRNAs with experimentally verified quantitative efficacies tested under heterogeneous experimental conditions and targeting as many as 37 important human viruses including HIV, Influenza, HCV, HBV, SARS etc. (
  • Lately, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential therapeutic tool for targeting human viruses. (
  • In addition, siRNAs have been shown to curb many other viruses like Human papillomavirus (HPV) [ 14 ], West Nile virus (WNV) [ 15 ] etc. (
  • Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. (
  • There is a long, old and dramatic human struggle against viruses. (
  • Through several different mechanisms viruses have the potential to become latent in cells and to emerge at a later time and directly or indirectly produce disease. (
  • Daniels C (1975) Mechanisms of virus neutralization. (
  • they replicate by using the biochemical mechanisms of a host cell to synthesize and assemble their separate components. (
  • Cell migration is a universal process involving distinct mechanisms and morphologies in different cell types and tissue environments. (
  • Imagine a virus with the effect and latency period of HIV which could be spread by a sneeze. (
  • Since Vmw110‐deficient viruses reactivate inefficiently in mouse latency models it has been suggested that Vmw110 plays a role in the balance between the latent and lytic states of the virus. (
  • 2018). This increase, in recombination using CRISPR/Cas9, allows for easier production and purification of recombinant viruses from the parental wild-type. (
  • However, HBV is one of the few viruses demonstrated to induce ER stress, with strong support by in vivo data. (
  • In this article, we review the strategies used by VACV to induce host shutoff in the context of strategies employed by other viruses. (
  • The methods and products are related to certain naturally occurring and synthetic zwitterionic polymers which are found to induce certain T regulatory (Treg) cells and to exert immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. (
  • PRRSV causes highly significant losses to the swine industry worldwide as a result of both reproductive failure (late term abortions and stillbirths) in pregnant sows and respiratory disease (pneumonia) in pigs of all ages [ 1 , 26 , 38 ]. (
  • However, pigs have been confirmed to be the primary hosts and reservoir of this virus (6-8). (
  • The affected pigs had high fever ([greater than or equal to40.5[degrees]C), anorexia, coughing, respiratory distress, conjunctival serous and mucinous secretion, and posterior paralysis. (
  • This same ratio is used for all farm animals: cows, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, rabbits and birds, increasing the oxygen level to the blood and cells. (
  • a longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus. (
  • Negatively stained virus particles purified from cell supernatants were enveloped with the characteristic appearance of herpesviruses. (
  • Ehrnst A (1977) Complement activation by measles virus cytotoxic antibodies: Alternative pathway C activation by hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies but classical activation by hemolysin antibodies. (
  • It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. (
  • small papules developed in the inoculated regions, and antibodies to the virus developed and continued persistently. (
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. (
  • Subsequently, it was shown that viruses infecting the marine eukaryotic phytoplankton Micromonas pusilla were widespread, genetically diverse, dynamic, and caused significant mortality in M. pusilla populations ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Bastian Thaa , Susanne Kaufer , Sara A. Neumann , Bernadett Peibst , Hans Nauwynck UGent , Eberhard Krause and Michael Veit ( 2017 ) virus research . (
  • The trees from our analyses are in good agreement to the latest classification of large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (
  • The present method provides a new way for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses, and also some insights on the affiliation of a number of unclassified viruses. (
  • The DNA of DNA viruses is usually double-stranded (dsDNA), but may also be single-stranded (ssDNA). (
  • According to the VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 20 ], the dsDNA viruses can be classified into certain families or unassigned genus. (
  • Only the extracellular viruses were used, after low speed centrifugation of cell debris. (
  • The "gold standard" of such surgeries implies the use of implants based on heterologous decellularized small intestine (all cells have been removed with preserved extracellular matrix). (
  • People with Kaposi's sarcoma could be tested for sequences of African Swine Fever, including new Asfaviridae sequences recently discovered. (
  • the genomic sequences of 3 strains of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz. (
  • RNA virus sequences) in a pooled sample employing an INVADER. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily through mosquito bites, but there have also been cases of sexual, perinatal, and suspected blood transfusion transmission. (
  • The African swine fever (ASF) virus, may in the future become dangerous for humans, according to the head of the Russian Epidemiology Service, Chief State Sanitary Doctor Gennady Onishchenko, at the press-conference in St. Petersburg. (
  • Several other viruses are also known to cause immunodeficiency-like syndromes in humans, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr Virus and others. (
  • It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks and causes disease similar to that caused by Powassan virus. (
  • Last September, the Royal Society organised a conference to discuss Edward Hooper's book The River , which promoted the theory that HIV was accidentally spread to humans from chimpanzees through a polio vaccination programme in Africa in the 1950s. (
  • Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus. (
  • Further, the isolation of moving cells in clusters to undergo genomic studies has proven to be extremely difficult. (