Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Pentastomida: A subclass of CRUSTACEA comprising the tongue worms which are obligatory parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.Equisetum: The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.ThymidineUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Thymidine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)PolyaminesLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Mice, Inbred BALB CCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.PhosphoproteinsRepressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesLymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.

Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression. (1/2701)

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cell-size checkpoints help to coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression, so that proliferating eukaryotic cells maintain their size. There is strong evidence for such size checkpoints in yeasts, which maintain a constant cell-size distribution as they proliferate, even though large yeast cells grow faster than small yeast cells. Moreover, when yeast cells are shifted to better or worse nutrient conditions, they alter their size threshold within one cell cycle. Populations of mammalian cells can also maintain a constant size distribution as they proliferate, but it is not known whether this depends on cell-size checkpoints. RESULTS: We show that proliferating rat Schwann cells do not require a cell-size checkpoint to maintain a constant cell-size distribution, as, unlike yeasts, large and small Schwann cells grow at the same rate, which depends on the concentration of extracellular growth factors. In addition, when shifted from serum-free to serum-containing medium, Schwann cells take many divisions to increase their size to that appropriate to the new condition, suggesting that they do not have cell-size checkpoints similar to those in yeasts. CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating Schwann cells and yeast cells seem to use different mechanisms to coordinate their growth with cell-cycle progression. Whereas yeast cells use cell-size checkpoints, Schwann cells apparently do not. It seems likely that many mammalian cells resemble Schwann cells in this respect.  (+info)

At the crossroads: AMP-activated kinase and the LKB1 tumor suppressor link cell proliferation to metabolic regulation. (2/2701)

The tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 has been identified as a physiologic activator of the key metabolic regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, establishing a possible molecular link between the regulation of metabolism and cell proliferation.  (+info)

Phospholipase C delta-4 overexpression upregulates ErbB1/2 expression, Erk signaling pathway, and proliferation in MCF-7 cells. (3/2701)

BACKGROUND: The expression of the rodent phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta-4 (PLCdelta4) has been found to be elevated upon mitogenic stimulation and expression analysis have linked the upregulation of PLCdelta4 expression with rapid proliferation in certain rat transformed cell lines. The human homologue of PLCdelta4 has not been extensively characterized. Accordingly, we investigate the effects of overexpression of human PLCdelta4 on cell signaling and proliferation in this study. RESULTS: The cDNA for human PLCdelta4 has been isolated and expressed ectopically in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of PLCdelta4 selectively activates protein kinase C-phi and upregulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors EGFR/erbB1 and HER2/erbB2, leading to constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells stably expressing PLCdelta4 demonstrates several phenotypes of transformation, such as rapid proliferation in low serum, formation of colonies in soft agar, and capacity to form densely packed spheroids in low-attachment plates. The growth signaling responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible by siRNA. CONCLUSION: Overexpression or dysregulated expression of PLCdelta4 may initiate oncogenesis in certain tissues through upregulation of ErbB expression and activation of ERK pathway. Since the growth responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible, PLCdelta4 itself is not a suitable drug target, but enzymes in pathways activated by PLCdelta4 are potential therapeutic targets for oncogenic intervention.  (+info)

Impairment of B cell receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and growth inhibition in CD72-deficient BAL-17 cells. (4/2701)

CD72 is a 45 kDa B cell-specific type II transmembrane protein of the C-type lectin superfamily. It was originally defined as a receptor-like molecule that regulates B cell activation and differentiation; however, its precise function remains unclear since more recent functional analyses, including a gene targeting study, suggest that CD72 may serve as a negative or a positive regulator of B cell signaling. In the present study, we analyzed the cell-autonomous function of CD72 in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using CD72-deficient cells generated from mature BAL-17 cells. We found that BCR-mediated phosphorylation of CD19, Btk, Vav and phospholipase Cgamma2 and association of CD19 with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase were impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Inositol trisphosphate synthesis was normally induced initially but ablated at 1 min of stimulation in CD72-deficient cells. In the event, Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores remained intact, though influx of extracellular Ca(2+) was severely impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Furthermore, BCR-evoked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and growth inhibition in BAL-17 cells were blocked in the absence of CD72. Significantly, these effects were largely reversed by re-expression of CD72. Thus, CD72 appears to exert a positive effect on BCR signaling pathways leading to Ca(2+) influx and MAPK activation, which in turn may determine the fate of BAL-17 cells.  (+info)

Regulation of mammalian cell growth and death by bacterial redox proteins: relevance to ecology and cancer therapy. (5/2701)

Recent evidence indicates that bacterial redox proteins such as cupredoxins and cytochromes, that are normally involved in electron transfer during respiration, can enter mammalian cells and induce either apoptosis or inhibition of cell cycle progression. Such proteins have also been shown to demonstrate a good deal of specificity for entry and induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, allowing both in vitro cell death and in vivo inhibition of cancer progression. An alteration in the hydrophobicity of the bacterial redox proteins can lead to a switch from apoptosis to growth arrest and vice versa through modulation of the intracellular levels of tumor suppressors. The preferential entry and cytotoxicity of these redox proteins in cancer cells raises interesting questions about the presence of other bacterial proteins that may affect cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase, thereby potentially arresting cancer growth. The intracellular localization of the bacterial redox proteins in nonpathogenic soil bacteria similarly raises questions about their possible role in allowing various nonpathogenic soil bacteria to defend themselves from environmental predators by inducing cytotoxicity when engulfed in large numbers. A new role of the redox proteins in soil bacteria in maintaining an ecological balance among the predators and preys is proposed.  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid attenuates the cytotoxic effects and degree of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation induced by 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in neuroblastoma cells. (6/2701)

PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to 15dPGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostglandin J2). 15dPGJ2, in vitro, halts neuroblastoma cell growth, but reported mechanisms vary. Here we evaluated the modulatory effects of endogenous serum lipid mitogens upon the extent of 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition and on the precise cellular responses of neuroblastoma cells to PPARgamma activation. We show that 15dPGJ2 specifically inhibited cell growth in both complete and delipidated media. 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased cell viability, although the effect was far more marked in delipidated medium than in complete medium. Incubation with 15dPGJ2 in complete medium resulted in cytoplasmic changes characteristic of type II programmed cell death (autophagy), while prior serum lipid removal resulted in cell death via an apoptotic mechanism. These distinct, serum lipid-dependent cellular responses to 15dPGJ2 were accompanied by increases in the expression of a reporter gene construct containing a PPAR response element of 2.3-fold in complete medium, but of 4.8-fold in delipidated medium. Restoration of the serum lysolipid LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) to cells in delipidated medium reduced 15dPGJ2-mediated PPARgamma activation, growth inhibition and cell death; following addition of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate), decreases were apparent but more marginal. Further, while the effects of LPA in delipidated medium were mediated through a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, those of S1P did not involve the MAPK component. These data suggest that the serum lysolipid LPA modulates the degree of PPARgamma activation and the precise cellular response to 15dPGJ2 via activation of a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK pathway.  (+info)

Mutation in mitochondrial complex I ND6 subunit is associated with defective response to hypoxia in human glioma cells. (7/2701)

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-tolerant human glioma cells reduce oxygen consumption rate in response to oxygen deficit, a defense mechanism that contributes to survival under moderately hypoxic conditions. In contrast, hypoxia-sensitive cells lack this ability. As it has been previously shown that hypoxia-tolerant (M006x, M006xLo, M059K) and -sensitive (M010b) glioma cells express differences in mitochondrial function, we investigated whether mitochondrial DNA-encoded mutations are associated with differences in the initial response to oxygen deficit. RESULTS: The mitochondrial genome was sequenced and 23 mtDNA alterations were identified, one of which was an unreported mutation (T-C transition in base pair 14634) in the hypoxia-sensitive cell line, M010b, that resulted in a single amino acid change in the gene encoding the ND6 subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). The T14634C mutation did not abrogate ND6 protein expression, however, M010b cells were more resistant to rotenone, an agent used to screen for Complex I mutations, and adriamycin, an agent activated by redox cycling. The specific function of mtDNA-encoded, membrane-embedded Complex I ND subunits is not known at present. Current models suggest that the transmembrane arm of Complex I may serve as a conformationally driven proton channel. As cellular respiration is regulated, in part, by proton flux, we used homology-based modeling and computational molecular biology to predict the 3D structure of the wild type and mutated ND6 proteins. These models predict that the T14634C mutation alters the structure and orientation of the trans-membrane helices of the ND6 protein. CONCLUSION: Complex I ND subunits are mutational hot spots in tumor mtDNA. Genetic changes that alter Complex I structure and function may alter a cell's ability to respond to oxygen deficit and consolidate hypoxia rescue mechanisms, and may contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that require redox cycling for activation.  (+info)

Microarray analysis reveals genetic pathways modulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia. (8/2701)

BACKGROUND: Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (ZARNESTRA, R115777) has recently demonstrated clinical responses in adults with refractory and relapsed acute leukemias. This study was conducted to identify genetic markers and pathways that are regulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Tipifarnib-mediated gene expression changes in 3 AML cell lines and bone marrow samples from two patients with AML were analyzed on a cDNA microarray containing approximately 7000 human genes. Pathways associated with these expression changes were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. RESULTS: The expression analysis identified a common set of genes that were regulated by tipifarnib in three leukemic cell lines and in leukemic blast cells isolated from two patients who had been treated with tipifarnib. Association of modulated genes with biological functional groups identified several pathways affected by tipifarnib including cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, immunity, and apoptosis. Gene expression changes were verified in a subset of genes using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, regulation of apoptotic genes was found to correlate with increased Annexin V staining in the THP-1 cell line but not in the HL-60 cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic networks derived from these studies illuminate some of the biological pathways affected by FTI treatment while providing a proof of principle for identifying candidate genes that might be used as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity.  (+info)

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Dichloroacetate Induces Apoptosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells Through a Mechanism Involving Modulation of Oxidative Stress
Additional file 8: of Macrophages derived exosomes deliver miR-223 to epithelial ovarian cancer cells to elicit a chemoresistant phenotype
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The presence of CTCs in the blood of individuals with cancer is an early indication of disease spread and correlates with survival rate. However, simply enumerating CTCs has not provided researchers and physicians with actionable information to improve care. Previously, there have been no technologies to determine how CTCs respond to drug treatments. Since the critical metastatic functions of CTCs occur in non-adherent (free floating) states like the bloodstream and lymphatic system, a technological device system is needed for analysis of CTCs that preserves this environment.. "Cellths technology tethers cells in minutes, permitting immediate, detailed, quantitative, real-time examination. There is no need for cells to grow or express proteins, avoiding the traditional weeks- to months-long cell growth process, and yielding a drug-response study within an hour," said Stuart Martin, PhD, co-inventor of the technology, who is Professor in the Department of Physiology and Program in Oncology at ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
... ko04330 Cellular processes; cell growth and death; cell cycle PATH:ko04110 Human diseases; cancers; chronic myeloid leukemia ... cell migration and cell-cell interactions". Trends in Cell Biology. 18 (6): 291-7. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2008.04.003. PMID 18472263 ... NF-κB is a key transcription factor and effector molecule involved in responses to cell stress, consisting of a p50/p65 ... Depletion of Latent HIV in CD4 Cells - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Batty N, Malouf GG, Issa JP (Aug 2009). "Histone ...
Cellular processes (cell growth, cell death, cell membrane functions, etc.) Organismal systems (immune system, endocrine system ... The pathway maps are classified into the following sections: Metabolism Genetic information processing (transcription, ... translation, replication and repair, etc.) Environmental information processing (membrane transport, signal transduction, etc ... of manually drawn KEGG pathway maps representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell ...
Before it begins to develop, the morphological characteristics of a MSC are: a small cell body with a few cell processes that ... Osteogenic cells that originate from the periosteum increase appositional growth and a bone collar is formed. The bone collar ... Mesenchymal stem cells within mesenchyme or the medullary cavity of a bone fracture initiate the process of intramembranous ... At this point, morphological changes in the MSCs begin to occur: the cell body is now larger and rounder; the long, thin cell ...
Thus IEGs are well known as early regulators of cell growth and differentiation signals. However, other findings suggest roles ... for IEGs in many other cellular processes. In their role as "gateways to genomic response", many IEG products are naturally ... The term can describe viral regulatory proteins that are synthesized following viral infection of a host cell, or cellular ... proteins that are made immediately following stimulation of a resting cell by extracellular signals. About 40 cellular IEGs ...
occur as single cells or occasionally in pairs or chains, depending on growth conditions. Highly motile species have been ... As a result, A. ferrooxidans may be of interest for bioremediation processes. Acidithiobacillus spp. ... Nitrogen fixation also is an important ecological function carried out by some species in this genus, as is growth using ... The genus comprises motile, rod-shaped cells that can be isolated from low pH environments including low pH microenvironments ...
In order for this to work, sufficient oxygen as well as water and nutrients (for cell growth) is to be supplied. Contaminated ... Depending on the process design the collected water is recirculated or subjected to further treatment. At present: 2 types of ... The biodegradation processes that occurs is provided by the bacteria themselves. ...
Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, ... All of the cells of an organism fit into this range, i.e., less than one gram, and so this MR will be referred to as BMR. But ... Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit time ... The building up process is termed anabolism. The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism, while the ...
... growth and motility. This encoded protein is thought to be involved in growth-related cellular processes. This gene is ... Cell Growth Differ. 2 (10): 495-501. PMID 1661131. Jankowski SA, De Jong P, Meltzer PS (1995). "Genomic structure of SAS, a ... Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The ... proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, ...
UV radiation directed at GO sheets, for example, disrupts bacterial cell activity and colony growth via ROS production. Doping ... this process initializes ROS production similar to the metal nanoparticles. Carbon nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) ... Redox reactions take place in the cell between the metals and oxygen containing species in the cell to produce ROS. Other novel ... particles can behave as molecules when interacting with a cell which allows them to easily penetrate the cell membrane and ...
The process of hair growth occurs in distinct sequential stages. The first stage is called anagen and is the active growth ... Lin, K. K.; Andersen, B. (2008). "Have Hair Follicle Stem Cells Shed Their Tranquil Image?". Cell Stem Cell. 3 (6): 581-582. ... This process cuts the hair off from its blood supply and from the cells that produce new hair. When a club hair is completely ... The hair follicle regulates hair growth via a complex interaction between hormones, neuropeptides and immune cells. This ...
... growth and shape. Hameroff proposed that microtubules were suitable candidates for quantum processing. Microtubules are made up ... Cell. 127 (7): 1302-1304. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.009. PMID 17190594. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) M ... According to Searle, no mathematical function can be used to connect a known VIN with its LPN, but the process of assignment is ... This provided Penrose with a candidate for the physical basis of the non-computable process that he hypothesized to exist in ...
The cell ceases its growth at 4N, 8N or 16N, becomes granular, and begins to produce platelets. Thrombopoietin plays a role in ... Once the cell has completed differentiation and become a mature megakaryocyte, it begins the process of producing platelets. ... In one scenario, these proto-platelet processes break up explosively to become platelets. Alternatively, the cell may form ... These multipotent stem cells live in the marrow sinusoids and are capable of producing all types of blood cells depending on ...
... make such unexpected linkages as ornament to weed growth and cell networks to zip-ties; examine the work of innovative thinkers ... Optically, it involves seeing many elements at once yet registering only one; it works through the processes of disguise, ... This dirty perspective sheds light on social connections, working processes, imaginative ideas, physical substrates, and urban ... a process, a design tool, a narrative, a system. Rooted in the landscape architect's perspective, Dirt views dirt not as ...
... this region is involved in many cell differentiation processes. Mast cell growth factor promotes pigment production by pigment ... Roan in Shorthorns and Belgian Blues is controlled by the mast cell growth factor (MGF) gene, also called the steel locus, on ... "Altered Metabolism of Mast-Cell Growth Factor (c-kit Ligand) in Cutaneous Mastocytosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 328 ( ... cells, and without it, skin and hair cells lack pigment. With two functional MGF genes (homozygous dominant), cattle are fully ...
"Lipid hydroperoxides from processed dietary oils enhance growth of hepatocarcinoma cells". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research ... In the processing of edible oils, the oil is heated under vacuum to near the smoke point, and water is introduced at the bottom ... The hydrogenation process involves "sparging" the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a ... "Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers". Retrieved 2006-07-31. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Illipe ...
"SEC11 is required for signal peptide processing and yeast cell growth". J. Cell Biol. 106 (4): 1035-42. doi:10.1083/jcb.106.4. ... Sec11 is the only essential factor for signal peptide processing as can be deduced from a growth defect upon its deletion. The ... I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of ... which became processed by the ER membrane fraction. This finding was directly followed by the discovery of the translocation ...
tRNA splicing is a fundamental process for cell growth and division. SEN15 is a subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease, ... Cell. 117 (3): 311-21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00342-3. PMID 15109492. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete ... Cell. United States. 117 (3): 311-21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00342-3. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 15109492. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, ...
The entire process of embryogenesis involves coordinated spatial and temporal changes in gene expression, cell growth and ... epithelial cells become mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into various cell types. The ... This cell potency means that some cells can be removed from the preimplantation embryo and the remaining cells will compensate ... Cells differentiate into an outer layer of cells (collectively called the trophoblast) and an inner cell mass. With further ...
Temperatures exceeding 92 °C inhibits growth, as does sulfur and hydrogen. Thermosphaera cells are heterotrophic, processing ... Cells of Thermosphaera are cocci (spherical) and form grape-like aggregates during the exponential growth phase. In the late ... Aggregates were shown to have several flagella; single cells could have as many as eight. The cell envelope is an amorphous ... exponential and stationary growth phases, smaller groups, including some single cells, were visible. ...
... development and differentiation of cells and tissues. Hormones are vital to plant growth; affecting processes in plants from ... Tropisms in plants are the result of differential cell growth, in which the cells on one side of the plant elongates more than ... Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have ... For example, plant cells have a cell wall which restricts the shape of plant cells and thereby limits the flexibility and ...
This further reduces the weed's cell division and inhibits its germination, growth, and physiological processes. Satureja ...
... has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, ... The process of skin metabolism is initiated by signals that trigger undifferentiated proliferative cells to undergo cell ... Chang CJ, Chao JC (April 2002). "Effect of human milk and epidermal growth factor on growth of human intestinal Caco-2 cells". ... c-Jun, which is one of the AP-1 sub units, regulates the growth of breast cancer cells. Activated c-Jun is predominantly ...
Nutrients are converted to energy for life processes including reproduction and growth of living cells. Some of these living ... In many countries and regions ponds are the most widely used treatment process. For this reason, they are one of the processes ... reactors or even more sophisticated processes, such as the activated sludge process. Maturation ponds must be shallow (around ... The process relies mostly on maturation ponds for removal of pathogens. However, some removal takes place in the other ponds of ...
Attention is also given to the rudiments of engineered biomolecules in cell signaling, cell growth kinetics, biochemical ... Bioprocess engineering - Design and maintenance of cell-based and enzyme-based processes for the production of fine chemicals ... Thermodynamics and Kinetics (chemistry) - Analysis of reactions involving cell growth and biochemicals. Bioreactor design and ... Biochemical processes govern all living organisms and living processes and the field of biochemistry seeks to understand and ...
It is implicated in a number of cell processes, including exocytosis, cell migration, and growth. The exocyst is composed of ... The exocyst also interacts with Rho GTPases responsible for controlling cell polarity and the activity of the cytoskeleton. ... eight subunits, whose nomenclature differs between mammalian cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The exocyst complex serves to ...
This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Through this unique technology process, newborn cells are encouraged to naturally produce the vital proteins and growth factors ... In addition, the human multipotent cell conditioned media produced through Histogens technology process can be found in the ... The multipotent cells secrete a variety of soluble and insoluble molecules associated with stem cell niches in the body, as ... stem cells by delivering a proprietary complex of multipotent human proteins that have been shown to support stem cell growth ...
... growth and production can lead to better vaccines and possibly more effective cancer immunotherapy. ... identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells ... which signals cell cycle arrest in na ve CD8 T cells," Lacorazza said. "This inhibitory process is important to T cells because ... Researchers say, identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells growth and production can lead ...
Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. Marcela ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ...
Non-overlapping Promoter and Super-enhancer Driven Processes Support Myeloma Cell Growth and Survival via Distinct Regulatory ... Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cell Therapy in Multiple Myeloma: Beyond B Cell Maturation Antigen ... Whole Genome Mate-pair Sequencing of Plasma Cell Neoplasm as a Novel Diagnostic Strategy: A Case of Unrecognized t(2;11) ... A Mixed-Methods Study of Stem Cell Transplantation Utilization for Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma ...
In addition, the electronic structure is explored and discussed for solar cells applications. ... The Bi2S3 was fabricated by a thiol-amine solution process and the BiSI conversion was achieved by chemical reaction between ... Pb-based hybrid perovskite solar cells, despite their advantages, face challenges in commercialization. In recent years, Bi- ... Controlled Growth of BiSI Nanorod-Based Films Through a Two-Step Solution Process for Solar Cell Applications by Yong Chan Choi ...
... ... "Hybrid computational modeling of cell population and mass transfer dynamics in tissue growth processes." (2005) Diss., Rice ... The model has three major components: (a) a discrete algorithm simulating individual cell activities and cell-cell interactions ... Our simulations produce tumor growth curves similar to those observed clinically. The predicted range of tumor cell acid ...
10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically - Page 300 15 including work step by step written ... Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think ... Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think ... Next Answer Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/ ...
Home Cancers Addiction to Life-Saving, Self-Digestion Process Can Aid Cancer Cells in Tumor Growth ... White and colleagues have found that cancer cells induce autophagy and this self-cannibalization process enables the growth of ... Addiction to Life-Saving, Self-Digestion Process Can Aid Cancer Cells in Tumor Growth. ... Autophagy is a cellular self-cannibalization process where cells eat themselves to survive starvation. Eileen White, PhD, ...
... Orlova, Anna ... The use of nonphenolic linker did not improve retention of the radioactivity in A431 carcinoma cell line. The use of the ... Low molecular weight of epidermal growth factor (EGF) enables better intratumoral penetration in comparison with larger ... radiometal label provided an appreciable prolongation of radioactivity residence inside the cell. ...
ΔN-APP expression and processing was determined by immunoblot assay using α-APP C-terminus. (F) Total cell fractions (T), ... Cell Symposia - Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies: CRISPR, Stem Cells, and Beyond. San Francisco, 2-4 March ... B) Single cells of WT and mutant strains of Dictyostelium were grown in the presence of bacteria for identical times. Growth ... D) Single cells of ps2-null cells expressing either PS2WT or PS2DD/AA were grown in the presence of bacteria for identical ...
Effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on growth and apoptotic process in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines. Simona Lucchi2, ... Effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on growth and apoptotic process in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (. ... In conclusion, 8-Cl-cAMP has a potent inhibitory effect on WRO, NPA and ARO cell growth which is accompanied by a pro-apoptotic ... Therefore, we tested the effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on the growth and apoptotic process in anaplastic (ARO), papillary (NPA) and ...
Research is still ongoing on the optimization of bioreactor yields focusing on the increase of the maximum achievable cell ... A new process-based model is proposed to describe the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured on glucose as carbon ... Model simulations reproduced data from classic and new experiments of yeast growth in batch and fed-batch cultures. Model and ... The presented results clarify the dynamics of microbial growth under different feeding conditions and highlight the relevance ...
Dissociation of vitamin D3 and anti-estrogen mediated growth regulation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells ... Sodium butyrate induces retinoblastoma protein dephosphorylation, p16 expression and growth arrest of colon cancer cells ... An A/G-rich motif in the rat fibroblast growth factor-2 gene confers enhancer activity on a heterologous promoter in neonatal ... LDL oxidation by arterial wall macrophages depends on the oxidative status in the lipoprotein and in the cells: Role of ...
... scientists managed to uncover a six-step process by which hair grows and stimulated hair growth. ... The six-step process of hair growth. Lei and team used skin organoids derived from both newborn and adult skin cells. ... Specifically, they used progenitor cells, which are a type of cell that is more differentiated than stem cells. They ... in an attempt to jump-start the hair growth process.. Significantly, Lei and team could successfully stimulate hair growth in ...
It is also often mutated in other common B cell tumors, such as mantle cell lymphoma. ... Manage Your Risk: Monitoring the Environment of Aseptic Processes. Lisa G. Lawson ... Tags: Cancer, Cell, Cell Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cell Signaling, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Clinical Trial, Drugs, ... The mechanism used by Notch to regulate Myc in B cells is distinct from the mechanism used in other cell types, such as T cells ...
HbS Polymerization Is Associated with Impaired Hemoglobin Processing.. Hemoglobin processing was impaired, as demonstrated by ... 2005) Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum growth in sickle cells in low oxygen environment and candle-jar. Acta Trop 94:25-34. ... Parasite Growth in AS RBCs Is Stalled at Low O2 Concentration.. To examine the effect of HbS on P. falciparum 3D7 IG06 growth, ... Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in sickle cell trait erythrocytes is driven by oxygen-dependent growth inhibition. Natasha ...
FDA will oversee cell growth; USDA will manage "harvest," including…. *04 Cheese Flavors Evolve in Both Taste and Usage. Cheese ... Chemical Processing , Control , Control Design , Food Processing , Pharmaceutical Manufacturing , Plant Services , Smart ... Indulgence is driving growth in this steady category; new filtration…. *05 Sugar Now Considered More Villainous Than Fat. ... Food Processing Digital Edition Access the entire print issue on-line and be notified each month via e-mail when your new issue ...
... and Metabolism of Cells In Culture V1 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780125983013, 9780323148511 ... Postbiosynthetic Processes. V. Cellular Physiology and Complex Carbohydrates. References. Author Index. Subject Index. ... Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells in Culture, Volume 1, summarizes the state of knowledge of the growth, nutrition, ... Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells In Culture V1 1st Edition. Write a review ...
Hair Growth Composition Has Neural Stem Cell Extract US Patent No. 9,820,933 B2 awarded to research university foundation. ...
Cell Growth Differ. 3 495-505 1992. GO terms. Biological Process. No terms assigned in this category. ... It may be involved in germ cell differentiation during meiotic prophase. Sequence analysis predicts this protein to be 10.8kDa ... Identification and characterization of the regulated pattern of expression of a novel mouse gene, meg1, during the meiotic cell ...
Thus the healthy tissue trapped the cancer cells. ... Reversing Negative Effects of Maternal Obesity on Process. ... Cancer Cells Disguise as Immune Cells to Spread Secondary Tumors in New Sites. The main reason why people die of cancer is that ... Tumors cause cells, called fibroblasts, to stiffen the surrounding tissue so that cancer cells can grip it. This allows them to ... New Method That Traps Cancer Cells and Prevents the Growth of Secondary Tumors. ...
Western blot analysis and image processing. Protein concentrations of cell lysates were determined using the Bradford assay ( ... Cell number, cell growth kinetic, and viability. Cells were seeded in 6-well plates 24 h before transfection. Transfection was ... Knockdown of HDAC5 and HDAC9 reduces cell population growth and increases doubling time. A, cell counts of Daoy cells were ... siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 or HDAC9 in medulloblastoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and cell viability. ...
Genetic heterogeneity of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines revealed by a rapid and ... Rapid detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer by the SMart-Amplification Process. Clin Cancer ... Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in non-small cell lung cancer using highly sensitive and fast TaqMan PCR assay. ... Analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and acquired resistance ...
... that a single mutation in a leukemia-associated gene reduces the ability of blood stem cells to make more blood stem cells, but ... Oncogene Mutation Hijacks Splicing Process to Promote Growth: Research. An international team of researchers has found that a ... Stem Cells - Cord Blood Stem Cells - Fundamentals Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Tumor Markers ... In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. ...
Journal news - New fast-track decision process. Do you have a paper with reviews from another journal that youd like to submit ... Journal of Cell Science, Journal of Cell Biology and Molecular Biology of the Cell have announced a new manuscript transfer ... Here, Domenico Russo and team review the existing literature on the role of glycosphingolipids in cell fate determination. ... Lipid droplets (LDs) are fat storage organelles that are central to lipid metabolism in cells. LDs interact with numerous other ...
  • The multipotent cells secrete a variety of soluble and insoluble molecules associated with stem cell niches in the body, as well as rapid tissue regeneration and scarless healing. (prweb.com)
  • This tissue arises from the spherical trophectoderm layer of the blastocyst surrounding the inner cell mass (ICM) and the blastocoel. (pnas.org)
  • This work presents a comprehensive hybrid computer model simulating the cell population and mass transfer dynamics during tissue growth processes. (rice.edu)
  • In addition to a three-dimensional capillary network generated from literature data, tree-like capillary networks with adjustable overall vascularity are generated using a bifurcating distributive algorithm in order to study the effect of host vascularity on tissue growth. (rice.edu)
  • Our investigation elucidates a relay of molecular events and biophysical processes at the core of the self-organization process during tissue morphogenesis," write the authors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tumors cause cells, called fibroblasts, to stiffen the surrounding tissue so that cancer cells can grip it. (medindia.net)
  • Thus the healthy tissue trapped the cancer cells, blocking their movement away from the tumor. (medindia.net)
  • Erik Sahai from the Francis Crick Institute and co-lead author of the study said, "This could be an exciting new way to harness the potential of the healthy tissue surrounding cancers to contain and restrain aggressive tumors, stopping cancer cells from breaking away and moving to new places in the body. (medindia.net)
  • For this reason, we evaluated both the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (Mab) in human lung carcinomas and its biological activity in NCI-H125 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Whole tissue/cell techniques (immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, subcellualr fractionation, FACS analysis etc. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • By cell source, the global cell therapy market has been segmented into bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood-derived cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Intramembranous ossification is one of the two essential processes during fetal development of the gnathostome (excluding chondrichthyans such as sharks) skeletal system by which rudimentary bone tissue is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike endochondral ossification, which is the other process by which bone tissue is created during fetal development, cartilage is not present during intramembranous ossification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryologic mesenchymal cells (MSC) condense into layers of vascularized primitive connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the lips, palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it's not verified whether the episodes cause brain tissue loss or vice versa Schizophrenia Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which interfere with the basic functions of neurons Posterior cortical atrophy: In the most posterior area of the brain lies the visual cortex, the area of the brain where visual information is received and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrophy is reduction in size of cell, organ or tissue, after attaining its normal maturured growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A parent cell divides to form two daughter cells, and these daughter cells are used to build new tissue, or to replace cells that have died as a result of ageing or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrient sensing is a key regulator of tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormal increase in these processes result in abnormal and excessive cell division and growth, damaging vascular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute inflammation usually follows injury to the central nervous system immediately, and is characterized by inflammatory molecules, endothelial cell activation, platelet deposition, and tissue edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the pro-inflammatory cytokines may cause cell death and secondary tissue damage, they are necessary to repair the damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, TNF-α causes neurotoxicity at early stages of neuroinflammation, but contributes to tissue growth at later stages of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Fat is known to bind to another atypical cadherin, Dachsous (Ds), during tissue patterning, it is unclear what role Ds has in regulating tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single tissue, formed from a single type of progenitor cell or stem cell, often consists of several differentiated cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood supplies nutrients and important metabolites to the cells of a tissue and collects back the waste products they produce, which requires exchange of respective constituents between the blood and tissue cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular agriculture capitalizes on breakthroughs in tissue-engineering, material sciences, bioengineering, and synthetic biology to design new ways of producing existing agricultural products like milk, meat, fragrances, and rhino horn from cells and microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideal criteria for cell lines for the purpose of cultured meat production include: immortality, high proliferative ability, surface independence, serum independence, and tissue-forming ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decellularization (also spelt decellularisation in British English) is the process used in biomedical engineering to isolate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a tissue from its inhabiting cells, leaving an ECM scaffold of the original tissue, which can be used in artificial organ and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists can use the acquired ECM scaffold to reproduce a functional organ by introducing progenitor cells, or adult stem cells (ASCs), and allowing them to differentiate within the scaffold to develop into the desired tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers are able to take the tissue from a donor or cadaver, lyse and kill the cells within the tissue without damaging the extracellular components, and finish with a product that is the natural ECM scaffold that has the same physical and biochemical functions of the natural tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • After acquiring the ECM scaffold, scientists can recellularize the tissue with potent stem or progenitor cells that will differentiate into the original type of tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the cells from a donor tissue, the immunogenic antibodies from the donor will be removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progenitor cells can be taken from the host, therefore they will not have an adverse response to the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal cells typically leave the epithelial tissue as a consequence of changes in cell adhesive and contractile properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the utilization of 3D printing and 3D printing-like techniques to combine cells, growth factors, and biomaterials to fabricate biomedical parts that maximally imitate natural tissue characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, emerging innovations span from bioprinting of cells or extracellular matrix deposited into a 3D gel layer by layer to produce the desired tissue or organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aggregation of cells does not require a scaffold, and are required for placing in the tubular-like tissue fusion for processes such as extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a bioprinted pre-tissue is transferred to an incubator, this cell-based pre-tissue matures into a tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D bioprinting for fabricating biological constructs typically involves dispensing cells onto a biocompatible scaffold using a successive layer-by-layer approach to generate tissue-like three-dimensional structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that every tissue in the body is naturally composed of different cell types, many technologies for printing these cells vary in their ability to ensure stability and viability of the cells during the manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • hCG secreted by cytotrophoblastic cells of the blastocyst controls endometrial tissue remodeling by both activation of matrix matalloproteinases (MMP) that control the maternal extracellular matrix and inhibition of tissue-inhibitors of matrix-metalloproteinases (TIMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins have found that individually harmless genetic variations affecting related biochemical processes may team up to increase the risk of schizophrenia. (medindia.net)
  • In this report we present structural and biochemical experiments demonstrating that formation of an asymmetric dimer between activated FGFR1 kinase domains is required for transphosphorylation of FGFR1 in FGF-stimulated cells. (pnas.org)
  • In the current study we used structural and biochemical tools to show that R577 is involved in creating, in vivo, an asymmetric FGFR1 dimer that allows transphosphorylation of Y583 and other tyrosine autophosphorylation sites in FGF-stimulated cells. (pnas.org)
  • Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. (novapublishers.com)
  • It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. (novapublishers.com)
  • He's also Deputy Director at the Institute of Healthy Ageing.A major focus of his current work is understanding the genes and biochemical processes by which reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling and dietary restriction increase lifespan. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Stem cell assays are the techniques for analyzing the living cells on the parameters of shape, size, besides others with the aim to measure biochemical and cellular functioning of the cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell signaling can be classified to be mechanical and biochemical based on the type of the signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to cell surface antibodies, the biochemical components of the ECM are conserved between hosts, so the risk of a hostile immune response is minimized. (wikipedia.org)
  • By growing cells under proprietary conditions that simulate the embryonic environment, particularly hypoxia, it has been shown that normal human fibroblast cells become multipotent, and express key stem cell markers including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. (prweb.com)
  • Because the ExE itself produces the proteases Furin and PACE4 to activate Nodal, it represents the first example, to our knowledge, of a stem cell compartment that actively maintains its own microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • The study's first author is Mingxing Lei, a postdoctoral researcher in the University of Southern California's (USC) Stem Cell laboratory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Combining mathematical modeling with a large number of single stem cell assays allowed us to predict which cells lose their ability to expand. (medindia.net)
  • We were able to reinforce this prediction by testing the daughter cells of single stem cell divisions separately and showing that mutant stem cells more often undergo symmetric division to give rise to two non-stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • Characterizing the mechanisms that link JAK2 mutations with this pattern of stem cell division a pattern that eventually leads to the development of MPNs will inform our understanding of the earliest stages of tumor establishment and of the competition between tumor stem cells, say the authors. (medindia.net)
  • Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (medindia.net)
  • In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (medindia.net)
  • Stem Cell Banking Market Growth, Industry Analysis & forecast Worth USD 3.96 Billion by 2021 per Industry Experts. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The Global Stem Cell Banking Market CAGR is anticipated to progress at 20.2% during the forecast period of 2016-2021. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • For a detailed understanding of the market structure, this report segments the global stem cell banking market into various sub-segments. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The entire stem cell banking market share is expected to be at 2021 $3.96 billion expanding from its previous evaluation in 2016 which was at $1.58 Billion. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Processing services to contribute largest share in the stem cell bio-banking market. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Storage services segment is expected to contribute to a large share of Stem cell banking market. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • North America is the largest contributor to the global stem cell banking market, while Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing market segment. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The stem cell banking market report also includes a detailed profiling of various companies in the market. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The stem cell banking market research report facilitates buyers in strategizing by offering five crucial market strategies. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • These include ( i ) monocyte-derived DCs ( 21 ), ( ii ) stem cell-derived DCs ( 22 ), and ( iii ) isolation of DCs from peripheral blood ( 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine , found a 63 percent reduction in the risk of progressive myeloma or death for the stem cell transplant patients that were treated with lenalidomide maintenance therapy. (medindia.net)
  • These data were supported by similar Phase III studies reported from France and Italy in the same issue of the New England Jounal of Medicine demonstrating that maintenance therapy after stem cell transplantation was associated with improved disease control. (medindia.net)
  • Owing to increasing in adoption of these cell lines in stem cell therapy drives the growth of the market. (medgadget.com)
  • On the basis of applications, the market is segmented into stem cell therapy, cell transplantation, drug transport and other applications. (medgadget.com)
  • Market for Global Stem Cell Assay is Estimated to grow at an Approximate cagr of 19.80% from 2018 to 2023. (medgadget.com)
  • The Global Stem Cell Assay Market is segmented on the basis of product, technology, assay, application, and end-user. (medgadget.com)
  • The kits segment is sub-segmented into mesenchymal stem cell kits, induced pluripotent stem cell kits, umbilical cord stem cells, and others. (medgadget.com)
  • The Global Stem Cell Assay Market in Europe is the second largest owing to the growing biotechnology sector and huge patient population. (medgadget.com)
  • Asia Pacific region is the fastest growing market for stem cell assay owing to increasing awareness and rising healthcare expenditures within the region. (medgadget.com)
  • The Middle East & Africa has the least share in the Global Stem Cell Assay Market due to low per capita healthcare expenditure, lack of awareness, stringent government policies, and presence of poor economies, especially within the in the African region. (medgadget.com)
  • The Middle East holds a majority of the Stem Cell Assay Market in the Middle East & Africa region. (medgadget.com)
  • By technique, the global cell therapy market has been segmented into stem cell therapy, cell vaccine, Adoptive Cell Transfer (ACT), fibroblast cell therapy, and chondrocyte cell therapy. (medgadget.com)
  • A mesenchymal stem cell, or MSC, is an unspecialized cell which can develop into an osteoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Megakaryocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cell precursor cells in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast) → megakaryoblast → promegakaryocyte → megakaryocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is an active member of the RNA Society and the International Society of Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This activates a feedback loop or system that reduces Notch expression in the cell that will differentiate and that increases Notch on the surface of the cell that continues as a stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is evidenced by the fact that established protocols for creating human and mouse embryonic stem cells have not succeeded in establishing ungulate embryonic stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Published this week in PLOS Biology , the study by Professor Tony Green and his team at the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research is the first to isolate highly purified single stem cells and study their individual responses to a mutation that can predispose individuals to a human malignancy. (medindia.net)
  • Cell biology (also called cytology , from the Greek κυτος, kytos , "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell , which is the basic unit of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern day cell biology research looks at different ways to culture and manipulate cells outside of a living body to further research in human anatomy and physiology, to derive treatments and other medications, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleasantine Mill is the recipient of the 2019 Women in Cell Biology Early Career Award Medal from the British Society for Cell Biology (BSCB). (biologists.org)
  • The creation of the science on stem cells and development of its theoretical bases is a prevalent topic today, taking into account comparative evolutionary cell biology and the cardinal problem of the developmental biology. (novapublishers.com)
  • Immortal cell line plays a vital role in of cell biology while studying multicellular organisms and their biochemistry. (medgadget.com)
  • This three-day laboratory-based short course provides up-to-date cell biology techniques . (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The study of cells is called cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the mesenchymal stem cells are widely dispersed within an extracellular matrix that is devoid of every type of collagen, except for a few reticular fibrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblasts - a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen and is involved in wound healing - that have been transformed by the polyomavirus possess higher tyrosine activity in the cellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular domain just externally from the cell or organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • After its secretion, it remains in the extracellular matrix as an inactivated complex containing both the LTBP and the LAP which need to be further processed in order to release active TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also showed that the inhibition of that process could prove to be a valuable treatment approach for aggressive cancers. (healthcanal.com)
  • In collaboration with the Joshua Rabinowitz and Hilary Coller laboratories at Princeton University, investigators were able to show that autophagy in these aggressive cancers provides fuel to the powerhouses of the cell, the mitochondria. (healthcanal.com)
  • Now, a collaborative effort between investigators at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Harvard Medical School provides new insights into how Notch drives the growth of B-cell cancers. (news-medical.net)
  • An important translational implication of this research is that we hope that by combining Notch inhibitors with drugs that target B-cell signaling we can better treat these B-cell cancers,' said senior author Warren Pear, MD, PhD , a professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Penn Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • The majority (90%-95%) of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, identification of novel agents that are relatively safe but can suppress growth of both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancers is highly desirable. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been associated with an extensive number of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, cell senescence and aging, and Graft-versus-host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural transformations can include viral cancers, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. Hepatitis B and C are also the result of natural viral transformation of the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe HDAC5 and HDAC9 as independent prognostic markers for overall survival in primary medulloblastoma, and we show a functional role of HDAC5 and HDAC9 in tumor cell growth in medulloblastoma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMPR2 preserves mitochondrial function and DNA during reoxygenation to promote endothelial cell survival and reverse pulmonary hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • While the exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, it may be induced by a combination of a gradual failure in the "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIGD1A primarily functions in mitochondrial homeostasis and, thus, cell survival when under conditions of stress, such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, HIGD1A promotes survival of pancreatic α and β cells under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of Hsp27 is to provide thermotolerance in vivo, cytoprotection, and support of cell survival under stress conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Yu and her team were the first to identify [as a critical regulator in processes influencing tumor cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, an effective communication between neighboring as well as between more distanced cells is essential for day-to-day survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show that HCF‐1 is a broadly acting regulator of two stages of the cell cycle: exit from mitosis, where it ensures proper cytokinesis, and passage through the G 1 phase, where it promotes cell cycle progression. (embopress.org)
  • Proteolytic processing is necessary to separate and ensure these two HCF‐1 activities, which are performed by separate HCF‐1 subunits: the HCF‐1 N subunit promotes passage through the G 1 phase whereas the HCF‐1 C subunit is involved in proper exit from mitosis. (embopress.org)
  • These results suggest that HCF‐1 links the regulation of exit from mitosis and the G 1 phase of cell growth, possibly to coordinate the reactivation of gene expression after mitosis. (embopress.org)
  • Mitosis is the key process here. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The rate of mitosis is controlled within the cell cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The beginning of the cleavage process is marked when the zygote divides through mitosis into two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mitosis continues and the first two cells divide into four cells, then into eight cells and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is the process a cell must go through before mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The M phase, can be either mitosis or meiosis depending on the type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cells undergo meiosis, while somatic cells will undergo mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M phase, where mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the M (mitosis) phase, during which the duplicated chromosomes (known as the sister chromatids) separate into two daughter nuclei, and the cell divides into two daughter cells, each with a full copy of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial population dynamics in bioreactors depend on both nutrients availability and changes in the growth environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such dynamics, different from Malthus' law prediction, have been essentially ascribed to either exhaustion of nutrients according to the Monod model [ 2 ], or accumulation of toxic compounds in the culture medium [ 3 ], both affecting the maximum achievable cell density under the given conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, a general model of microbial population growth has to include both the effects of nutrients and the dynamics of changing environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How do they reproduce, and how do they transform nutrients into growth? (booktopia.com.au)
  • Nutrients are converted to energy for life processes including reproduction and growth of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for this to work, sufficient oxygen as well as water and nutrients (for cell growth) is to be supplied. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can also occur when the bacterium in a closed batch culture consumes most of its nutrients and is entering the stationary phase when new nutrients are suddenly added to the growth media. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these nutrients are equally important for the growth of the plant and lack of one nutrient can result in poor growth of the plant as well as becoming more vulnerable to diseases or can lead to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the most vital nutrients for the development and growth of all plants, nitrogen sensing and the signalling response are vital for plants to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells also contain chlorophyll, a chemical compound that interacts with light in a way that enables plants to manufacture their own nutrients rather than consuming other living things as animals do. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorus is used by plants in numerous processes such as photophosphorylation, genetic transfer, the transportation of nutrients, and phospholipid cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product supplies cells with nutrients and stimulating growth factors, but is unsustainable and resource-heavy to produce, with large batch-to-batch variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are then mixed with a special liquefied material that provides oxygen and other nutrients to keep them alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second step, the liquid mixture of cells, matrix, and nutrients known as Bioinks are placed in a printer cartridge and deposited using the patients' medical scans. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) is more specialized than an ESC, and an EC is more specialized than an EPC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling mechanisms that govern the 8-Cl-cAMP-induced growth inhibition are still uncertain and data in thyroid neoplasia are lacking. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Modeling of growth inhibition and sequestration revealed that HbS polymerization-induced growth inhibition following cytoadherence is the critical driver of the reduced parasite densities observed in malaria infections of individuals with AS. (pnas.org)
  • Pro-OSM although an order of magnitude less efficacious in growth inhibition assays, displays similar binding affinity toward cells in radio ligand binding assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly 80% of individuals born with sickle cell anemia live in sub-Saharan Africa, where most Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases and deaths occur ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • occur as single cells or occasionally in pairs or chains, depending on growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of plant physiology includes the study of all the internal activities of plants-those chemical and physical processes associated with life as they occur in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell signaling may also occur between the cells of two different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are specialized airway epithelial cells that occur as solitary cells or as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle checkpoints play an important role in the control system by sensing defects that occur during essential processes such as DNA replication or chromosome segregation, and inducing a cell cycle arrest in response until the defects are repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close proximity and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • b Optic microscopy image (100×) showing lipid bodies within Y. lipolytica cells, after 24 h of culturing in YPDOA. (springeropen.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of organic carbon sources, cultivation methods, and environmental factors on growth and lipid content of Pavlova lutheri for biodiesel production. (springer.com)
  • Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death and characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from accumulated iron and lipid peroxidation. (genome.jp)
  • A long-term developmental trend begins after the definition of the growing point in early embryogenesis and continues thereafter through juvenility and the period of vegetative growth into the reproductive phase. (britannica.com)
  • The researchers systematically searched the more than 2.7 million genetic sequences for interactions with consumption of red and processed meat. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A change in the arrangement or amount of genetic material in a cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The genetic material of the sperm and egg then combine to form a single cell called a zygote and the germinal stage of prenatal development commences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertilization takes place when the spermatozoon has successfully entered the ovum and the two sets of genetic material carried by the gametes fuse together, resulting in the zygote (a single diploid cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When phosphorus is present in inadequate levels, genetic processes such as cell division and plant growth are impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses lack common characteristics of a living cell, such as membranes, cell organelles , and the ability to reproduce by themselves. (wikipedia.org)