A subclass of CRUSTACEA comprising the tongue worms which are obligatory parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.
The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.

Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression. (1/2701)

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cell-size checkpoints help to coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression, so that proliferating eukaryotic cells maintain their size. There is strong evidence for such size checkpoints in yeasts, which maintain a constant cell-size distribution as they proliferate, even though large yeast cells grow faster than small yeast cells. Moreover, when yeast cells are shifted to better or worse nutrient conditions, they alter their size threshold within one cell cycle. Populations of mammalian cells can also maintain a constant size distribution as they proliferate, but it is not known whether this depends on cell-size checkpoints. RESULTS: We show that proliferating rat Schwann cells do not require a cell-size checkpoint to maintain a constant cell-size distribution, as, unlike yeasts, large and small Schwann cells grow at the same rate, which depends on the concentration of extracellular growth factors. In addition, when shifted from serum-free to serum-containing medium, Schwann cells take many divisions to increase their size to that appropriate to the new condition, suggesting that they do not have cell-size checkpoints similar to those in yeasts. CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating Schwann cells and yeast cells seem to use different mechanisms to coordinate their growth with cell-cycle progression. Whereas yeast cells use cell-size checkpoints, Schwann cells apparently do not. It seems likely that many mammalian cells resemble Schwann cells in this respect.  (+info)

At the crossroads: AMP-activated kinase and the LKB1 tumor suppressor link cell proliferation to metabolic regulation. (2/2701)

The tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 has been identified as a physiologic activator of the key metabolic regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, establishing a possible molecular link between the regulation of metabolism and cell proliferation.  (+info)

Phospholipase C delta-4 overexpression upregulates ErbB1/2 expression, Erk signaling pathway, and proliferation in MCF-7 cells. (3/2701)

BACKGROUND: The expression of the rodent phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta-4 (PLCdelta4) has been found to be elevated upon mitogenic stimulation and expression analysis have linked the upregulation of PLCdelta4 expression with rapid proliferation in certain rat transformed cell lines. The human homologue of PLCdelta4 has not been extensively characterized. Accordingly, we investigate the effects of overexpression of human PLCdelta4 on cell signaling and proliferation in this study. RESULTS: The cDNA for human PLCdelta4 has been isolated and expressed ectopically in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of PLCdelta4 selectively activates protein kinase C-phi and upregulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors EGFR/erbB1 and HER2/erbB2, leading to constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells stably expressing PLCdelta4 demonstrates several phenotypes of transformation, such as rapid proliferation in low serum, formation of colonies in soft agar, and capacity to form densely packed spheroids in low-attachment plates. The growth signaling responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible by siRNA. CONCLUSION: Overexpression or dysregulated expression of PLCdelta4 may initiate oncogenesis in certain tissues through upregulation of ErbB expression and activation of ERK pathway. Since the growth responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible, PLCdelta4 itself is not a suitable drug target, but enzymes in pathways activated by PLCdelta4 are potential therapeutic targets for oncogenic intervention.  (+info)

Impairment of B cell receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and growth inhibition in CD72-deficient BAL-17 cells. (4/2701)

CD72 is a 45 kDa B cell-specific type II transmembrane protein of the C-type lectin superfamily. It was originally defined as a receptor-like molecule that regulates B cell activation and differentiation; however, its precise function remains unclear since more recent functional analyses, including a gene targeting study, suggest that CD72 may serve as a negative or a positive regulator of B cell signaling. In the present study, we analyzed the cell-autonomous function of CD72 in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using CD72-deficient cells generated from mature BAL-17 cells. We found that BCR-mediated phosphorylation of CD19, Btk, Vav and phospholipase Cgamma2 and association of CD19 with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase were impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Inositol trisphosphate synthesis was normally induced initially but ablated at 1 min of stimulation in CD72-deficient cells. In the event, Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores remained intact, though influx of extracellular Ca(2+) was severely impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Furthermore, BCR-evoked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and growth inhibition in BAL-17 cells were blocked in the absence of CD72. Significantly, these effects were largely reversed by re-expression of CD72. Thus, CD72 appears to exert a positive effect on BCR signaling pathways leading to Ca(2+) influx and MAPK activation, which in turn may determine the fate of BAL-17 cells.  (+info)

Regulation of mammalian cell growth and death by bacterial redox proteins: relevance to ecology and cancer therapy. (5/2701)

Recent evidence indicates that bacterial redox proteins such as cupredoxins and cytochromes, that are normally involved in electron transfer during respiration, can enter mammalian cells and induce either apoptosis or inhibition of cell cycle progression. Such proteins have also been shown to demonstrate a good deal of specificity for entry and induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, allowing both in vitro cell death and in vivo inhibition of cancer progression. An alteration in the hydrophobicity of the bacterial redox proteins can lead to a switch from apoptosis to growth arrest and vice versa through modulation of the intracellular levels of tumor suppressors. The preferential entry and cytotoxicity of these redox proteins in cancer cells raises interesting questions about the presence of other bacterial proteins that may affect cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase, thereby potentially arresting cancer growth. The intracellular localization of the bacterial redox proteins in nonpathogenic soil bacteria similarly raises questions about their possible role in allowing various nonpathogenic soil bacteria to defend themselves from environmental predators by inducing cytotoxicity when engulfed in large numbers. A new role of the redox proteins in soil bacteria in maintaining an ecological balance among the predators and preys is proposed.  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid attenuates the cytotoxic effects and degree of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation induced by 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in neuroblastoma cells. (6/2701)

PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to 15dPGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostglandin J2). 15dPGJ2, in vitro, halts neuroblastoma cell growth, but reported mechanisms vary. Here we evaluated the modulatory effects of endogenous serum lipid mitogens upon the extent of 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition and on the precise cellular responses of neuroblastoma cells to PPARgamma activation. We show that 15dPGJ2 specifically inhibited cell growth in both complete and delipidated media. 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased cell viability, although the effect was far more marked in delipidated medium than in complete medium. Incubation with 15dPGJ2 in complete medium resulted in cytoplasmic changes characteristic of type II programmed cell death (autophagy), while prior serum lipid removal resulted in cell death via an apoptotic mechanism. These distinct, serum lipid-dependent cellular responses to 15dPGJ2 were accompanied by increases in the expression of a reporter gene construct containing a PPAR response element of 2.3-fold in complete medium, but of 4.8-fold in delipidated medium. Restoration of the serum lysolipid LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) to cells in delipidated medium reduced 15dPGJ2-mediated PPARgamma activation, growth inhibition and cell death; following addition of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate), decreases were apparent but more marginal. Further, while the effects of LPA in delipidated medium were mediated through a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, those of S1P did not involve the MAPK component. These data suggest that the serum lysolipid LPA modulates the degree of PPARgamma activation and the precise cellular response to 15dPGJ2 via activation of a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK pathway.  (+info)

Mutation in mitochondrial complex I ND6 subunit is associated with defective response to hypoxia in human glioma cells. (7/2701)

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-tolerant human glioma cells reduce oxygen consumption rate in response to oxygen deficit, a defense mechanism that contributes to survival under moderately hypoxic conditions. In contrast, hypoxia-sensitive cells lack this ability. As it has been previously shown that hypoxia-tolerant (M006x, M006xLo, M059K) and -sensitive (M010b) glioma cells express differences in mitochondrial function, we investigated whether mitochondrial DNA-encoded mutations are associated with differences in the initial response to oxygen deficit. RESULTS: The mitochondrial genome was sequenced and 23 mtDNA alterations were identified, one of which was an unreported mutation (T-C transition in base pair 14634) in the hypoxia-sensitive cell line, M010b, that resulted in a single amino acid change in the gene encoding the ND6 subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). The T14634C mutation did not abrogate ND6 protein expression, however, M010b cells were more resistant to rotenone, an agent used to screen for Complex I mutations, and adriamycin, an agent activated by redox cycling. The specific function of mtDNA-encoded, membrane-embedded Complex I ND subunits is not known at present. Current models suggest that the transmembrane arm of Complex I may serve as a conformationally driven proton channel. As cellular respiration is regulated, in part, by proton flux, we used homology-based modeling and computational molecular biology to predict the 3D structure of the wild type and mutated ND6 proteins. These models predict that the T14634C mutation alters the structure and orientation of the trans-membrane helices of the ND6 protein. CONCLUSION: Complex I ND subunits are mutational hot spots in tumor mtDNA. Genetic changes that alter Complex I structure and function may alter a cell's ability to respond to oxygen deficit and consolidate hypoxia rescue mechanisms, and may contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that require redox cycling for activation.  (+info)

Microarray analysis reveals genetic pathways modulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia. (8/2701)

BACKGROUND: Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (ZARNESTRA, R115777) has recently demonstrated clinical responses in adults with refractory and relapsed acute leukemias. This study was conducted to identify genetic markers and pathways that are regulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Tipifarnib-mediated gene expression changes in 3 AML cell lines and bone marrow samples from two patients with AML were analyzed on a cDNA microarray containing approximately 7000 human genes. Pathways associated with these expression changes were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. RESULTS: The expression analysis identified a common set of genes that were regulated by tipifarnib in three leukemic cell lines and in leukemic blast cells isolated from two patients who had been treated with tipifarnib. Association of modulated genes with biological functional groups identified several pathways affected by tipifarnib including cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, immunity, and apoptosis. Gene expression changes were verified in a subset of genes using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, regulation of apoptotic genes was found to correlate with increased Annexin V staining in the THP-1 cell line but not in the HL-60 cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic networks derived from these studies illuminate some of the biological pathways affected by FTI treatment while providing a proof of principle for identifying candidate genes that might be used as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity.  (+info)

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The presence of CTCs in the blood of individuals with cancer is an early indication of disease spread and correlates with survival rate. However, simply enumerating CTCs has not provided researchers and physicians with actionable information to improve care. Previously, there have been no technologies to determine how CTCs respond to drug treatments. Since the critical metastatic functions of CTCs occur in non-adherent (free floating) states like the bloodstream and lymphatic system, a technological device system is needed for analysis of CTCs that preserves this environment.. Cellths technology tethers cells in minutes, permitting immediate, detailed, quantitative, real-time examination. There is no need for cells to grow or express proteins, avoiding the traditional weeks- to months-long cell growth process, and yielding a drug-response study within an hour, said Stuart Martin, PhD, co-inventor of the technology, who is Professor in the Department of Physiology and Program in Oncology at ...
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Entrainability of cell cycle oscillator models with exponential growth of cell mass. Conference of Engineering in Medicine and ... Glass, L. (2001). "Synchronization and rhythmic processes in physiology". Nature. 410 (6825): 277-284. Bibcode:2001Natur.410.. ... Gérard, C.; Goldbeter, A. (2012). "The cell cycle is a limit cycle". Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena. 7 (6): 126- ... As a practical example, heart cells (the external oscillator) produce periodic electric signals to stimulate heart contractions ...
... ko04330 Cellular processes; cell growth and death; cell cycle PATH:ko04110 Human diseases; cancers; chronic myeloid leukemia ... cell migration and cell-cell interactions". Trends in Cell Biology. 18 (6): 291-297. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2008.04.003. PMID ... Molecular Cell Biology. 9 (3): 206-218. doi:10.1038/nrm2346. PMC 2667380. PMID 18292778. Barneda-Zahonero B, Parra M (December ... NF-κB is a key transcription factor and effector molecule involved in responses to cell stress, consisting of a p50/p65 ...
Cellular processes (cell growth, cell death, cell membrane functions, etc.) Organismal systems (immune system, endocrine system ... The pathway maps are classified into the following sections: Metabolism Genetic information processing (transcription, ... translation, replication and repair, etc.) Environmental information processing (membrane transport, signal transduction, etc ... of manually drawn KEGG pathway maps representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell ...
... as well as growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor. It is thus indicated to contribute to processes like acute and ... "Cell-cell contacts trigger programmed necrosis and induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression". Cell Death and Differentiation. 11 (2 ... Nemosis is a process of cell activation and death in human fibroblasts. Initially discovered as programmed necrosis, the name ... This name was adopted for fibroblast activation based on its initiation by direct cell-cell interactions as opposed to ...
TH9 cells appear to be linked to many pathophysiological processes. Their exact role is poorly understood, as they appear to ... They have been shown to inhibit melanoma cell growth, increase anti-tumor lymphocytes, and drastically lower tumor mass and ... In cell biology, TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ − ) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce ... while TGF-β alone can switch TH2 cells into TH9 cells. IL-2 is critical for interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. IL-1 may ...
Firstly, DNA topological strain from topoisomerase during normal cell growth can cause the majority a cell's DSB. Secondly, ... This includes the process of detecting DSB within the cell, and the subsequent triggering and regulation of DSB repair pathways ... These conditions include the type of DSB involved, the species of cells involved, and the stage of the cell cycle. Cells have ... HR and NHEJ pathways are favoured in various phases of cell cycles for a multitude of factors. As S and G2 phases of the cell ...
... for plasma cells. IL-7 - Growth factor for pre-B cells. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) Migration-stimulating ... Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. Growth factors typically act as signaling ... Activates T cells. IL-2 - T-cell growth factor. Stimulates IL-1 synthesis. Activates B-cells and NK cells. IL-3 - Stimulates ... Growth factor for activated B cells, resting T cells, and mast cells. IL-5 - Induces differentiation of activated B cells and ...
... the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility. The ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This leads to growth in ... Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that ...
Thus IEGs are well known as early regulators of cell growth and differentiation signals. However, other findings suggest roles ... for IEGs in many other cellular processes. Expression of IEGs occurs in response to internal and external cell signals, ... as transcription factors regulating expression of downstream genes or are proto-oncogenes associated with altered cell growth. ... Translation of IEG mRNA into proteins occurs regardless of protein synthesis inhibitors which disrupts the process of protein ...
occur as single cells or occasionally in pairs or chains, depending on growth conditions. Highly motile species have been ... As a result, A. ferrooxidans may be of interest for bioremediation processes. Acidithiobacillus is also commonly abundant upon ... Nitrogen fixation also is an important ecological function carried out by some species in this genus, as is growth using ... The genus comprises motile, rod-shaped cells that can be isolated from low pH environments including low pH microenvironments ...
Before it begins to develop, the morphological characteristics of a MSC are: A small cell body with a few cell processes that ... Osteogenic cells that originate from the periosteum increase appositional growth and a bone collar is formed. The bone collar ... Mesenchymal stem cells within mesenchyme or the medullary cavity of a bone fracture initiate the process of intramembranous ... At this point, morphological changes in the MSCs begin to occur: The cell body is now larger and rounder; the long, thin cell ...
"Growth in Sales of Products In Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering". ebers Medical. "Scaling Up Cell Therapy Manufacturing". ... "Cell Therapy Process Development". Next Generation Therapeutics. "SUPPLY CHAIN OPTIMIZATION IN CELL AND GENE THERAPIES". Single ... 2009). "Hepatocyte growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer maximizes mesenchymal stem cell-based ... Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy, cell transplantation, or cytotherapy) is a therapy in which viable cells are ...
... translation of mRNA and the growth of cells within the plant. However, the TORC1 complex activation stops catabolic processes ... mTOR functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell ... Inoki K, Zhu T, Guan KL (November 2003). "TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival". Cell. ... "mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the cell growth machinery". Cell. 110 (2): 163- ...
... growth and motility. This encoded protein is thought to be involved in growth-related cellular processes. This gene is ... Cell Growth Differ. 2 (10): 495-501. PMID 1661131. Jankowski SA, De Jong P, Meltzer PS (1995). "Genomic structure of SAS, a ... Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The ... proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, ...
UV radiation directed at GO sheets, for example, disrupts bacterial cell activity and colony growth via ROS production. Doping ... this process initializes ROS production similar to the metal nanoparticles. Carbon nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) ... Redox reactions take place in the cell between the metals and oxygen containing species in the cell to produce ROS. Other novel ... particles can behave as molecules when interacting with a cell which allows them to easily penetrate the cell membrane and ...
Atomically thin film platforms for bio-sensing and stem cell growth. Atomically thin film platforms for sol-gel, organic, and ... Solution-processed atomically thin substrates for bio applications and catalysis. Atomically thin films as optical components ... Atomically thin gas barriers and electrodes for energy/charge transfer and storage (water splitting, fuel cells, etc). ... crystal growth, and characterization: Raman, AFM, TEM, STM, magneto transport, angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), optics. ...
The process of hair growth occurs in distinct sequential stages. The first stage is called anagen and is the active growth ... Lin, K. K.; Andersen, B. (2008). "Have Hair Follicle Stem Cells Shed Their Tranquil Image?". Cell Stem Cell. 3 (6): 581-582. ... This process cuts the hair off from its blood supply and from the cells that produce new hair. When a club hair is completely ... The hair follicle regulates hair growth via a complex interaction between hormones, neuropeptides, and immune cells. This ...
His were neuronal stem cells, their asymmetrical cell division and processes of growth control. Building on his post-doctoral ... alongside other molecules that also play a role in the process of asymmetric cell division. Since stem cell mitosis is a highly ... it was unknown how stem cells can separate into a self-renewing daughter cell and a specialized differentiating cell at the ... His team was the first to demonstrate that organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) can be used to model ...
... this region is involved in many cell differentiation processes. Mast cell growth factor promotes pigment production by pigment ... Roan in Shorthorns and Belgian Blues is controlled by the mast cell growth factor (MGF) gene, also called the steel locus, on ... "Altered Metabolism of Mast-Cell Growth Factor (c-kit Ligand) in Cutaneous Mastocytosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 328 ( ... cells, and without it, skin and hair cells lack pigment. With two functional MGF genes (homozygous dominant), cattle are fully ...
In order for this to work, sufficient oxygen as well as water and nutrients (for cell growth) is to be supplied. Contaminated ... Depending on the process design the collected water is recirculated or subjected to further treatment. At present: 2 types of ... The biodegradation processes that occurs is provided by the bacteria themselves. ...
Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, ... All of the cells of an organism fit into this range, i.e., less than one gram, and so this MR will be referred to as BMR. But ... Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit of ... The building up process is termed anabolism. The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism, while the ...
"SEC11 is required for signal peptide processing and yeast cell growth". The Journal of Cell Biology. 106 (4): 1035-1042. doi: ... Sec11 is the only essential factor for signal peptide processing as can be deduced from a growth defect upon its deletion. The ... I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of ... which became processed by the ER membrane fraction. This finding was directly followed by the discovery of the translocation ...
tRNA splicing is a fundamental process for cell growth and division. SEN15 is a subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease, ... Cell. 117 (3): 311-21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00342-3. PMID 15109492. S2CID 16049289. Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin ... Cell. 117 (3): 311-21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00342-3. PMID 15109492. S2CID 16049289. v t e (Articles with short description ...
The entire process of embryonic development involves coordinated spatial and temporal changes in gene expression, cell growth ... Development of the human body is the process of growth to maturity. The process begins with fertilization, where an egg ... It is characterised by the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early ... Fertilisation occurs when the sperm cell successfully enters and fuses with an egg cell (ovum). The genetic material of the ...
The entire process of embryogenesis involves coordinated spatial and temporal changes in gene expression, cell growth and ... epithelial cells become mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into various cell types. The ... Cells differentiate into an outer layer of cells called the trophoblast, and an inner cell mass. With further compaction the ... This cell potency means that some cells can be removed from the preimplantation embryo and the remaining cells will compensate ...
NETosis is the process of cell-death generated by NETs. Paraptosis is another type of nonapoptotic cell death that is mediated ... Programmed cell death in the CNS is not dependent on external growth factors but instead relies on intrinsically derived cues. ... Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are ... In humans, PCD in progenitor cells starts at gestational week 7 and remains until the first trimester. This process of cell ...
Bile accelerates carcinogenic processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells through the overexpression of MUC4. Sci Rep. ... "Inhibition of MUC4 expression suppresses pancreatic tumor cell growth and metastasis". Cancer Res. 64 (2): 622-30. doi:10.1158/ ... allowing for cell-cell and cell-matrix detachment in normal as well as cancerous cells. The heavy glycosylation may also serve ... "Entrez Gene: MUC-4 mucin 4, cell surface associated". "MUC4 (mucin 4, cell surface associated)". Atlas of Genetics and ...
This further reduces the weed's cell division and inhibits its germination, growth, and physiological processes. Satureja ... Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 41 (4): e13337. doi:10.1111/jfpp.13337. Hazrati, Hossein; Saharkhiz, Mohammad ...
... has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, ... The process of skin metabolism is initiated by signals that trigger undifferentiated proliferative cells to undergo cell ... Chang CJ, Chao JC (April 2002). "Effect of human milk and epidermal growth factor on growth of human intestinal Caco-2 cells". ... c-Jun, which is one of the AP-1 sub units, regulates the growth of breast cancer cells. Activated c-Jun is predominantly ...
... in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ... Folate derivatives are necessary for important metabolic processes such as DNA, protein and lipid methylation. More importantly ... folate plays a major role in DNA replication and cell division, which are common characteristics of rapid growth. Even though ... Saikawa Y, Price K, Hance KW, Chen TY, Elwood PC (August 1995). "Structural and functional analysis of the human KB cell folate ...
"Oncogene Amplification in Growth Factor Signaling Pathways Renders Cancers Dependent on Membrane Lipid Remodeling". Cell ... resulted in new understandings of the fundamental metabolic processes by which oncogene amplification drives cancer progression ... "EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer". Cell Metabolism ... Zimmer, Carl (2019-11-20). "Scientists Are Just Beginning to Understand Mysterious DNA Circles Common in Cancer Cells". The New ...
During the global financial crisis of 2007-2010, the park saw a period of reduced growth in 2009-10, when exports were only 2.8 ... Technopark also hosts a Technology Business Incubation Cell under Kerala Startup Mission. Technopark houses domestic firms, ... process re-engineering, animation, and e-business. Then Chief minister of Kerala, E. K. Nayanar visited the Apple facility in ... The policy of economic liberalisation initiated by the government of India in 1991, and the rapid growth of the global software ...
Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... This does not explain the velocity increase when compared with the uncatalyzed process. A UMP synthase deficiency can result in ... The strain has a pleiotropic phenotype including reduced viability and fertility, slow growth, and radiation sensitivity. UMPS ... Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity expressed in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and ...
The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as ... Derda R, Tang SK, Whitesides GM (July 2010). "Uniform amplification of phage with different growth characteristics in ... "CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... In this way, large libraries of proteins can be screened and amplified in a process called in vitro selection, which is ...
... in the decidual cells and extravillous cytotrophoblasts. During the process of chorioamnionitis/deciduitis, the upregulation of ... Each subunit has three different structural domains: a short N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain; an α-helical ... Cell Dev. Biol. 17 (5): 544-54. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2006.09.001. PMID 17071117. Minghetti L, Pocchiari M (2007). " ... PTGS2 (COX-2) is unexpressed under normal conditions in most cells, but elevated levels are found during inflammation. PTGS1 ( ...
... how these processes are controlled and how they impact on plant growth. He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main ... The Plant Cell. 6 (5): 761-772. doi:10.1105/tpc.6.5.761. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 160474. PMID 12244257. Graham, Ian A. (2008). " ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... The prepuce in both sexes is formed by the growth of a solid plate of ectoderm into the superficial part of the phallus; on ... A failure in this process can cause indirect inguinal hernia or an infantile hydrocoele. After the separation of the rectum ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ...
In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... In adult development, the timing of neural differentiation is regulated by Nfix to promote ongoing growth of the hippocampus ... is generated by alternative RNA processing". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (16): 10739-10745. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.16.10739. PMID 9099724. ... Intermediate progenitor cells can divide to produce neuroblasts. Neurons produced by Nfix null IPC's do not mature, usually die ...
... "artificial cell" created by Moritz Traube in order to study the processes of living cells, including growth and osmosis. The ... The ability of the Traube cell membrane to allow water to flow in while retaining the cell solute is comparable to living cells ... Traube cell is not a true artificial cell, as it is not living and does not have true biological processes of its own. Mortiz ... The artificial cell would expand and bud like living cells. Surgeon and professor Wilhelm Pfeffer used this model to study and ...
HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ... In addition, overexpression of c-Src increases the response of EGFR-mediated processes. So both EGFR and c-Src enhance the ... "HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 affects stability of SRC kinases and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias". ... a novel nuclear tyrosine kinase expressed in epithelial cells". Cell Growth Differ. 5 (12): 1347-55. PMID 7696183. Lee J, Wang ...
Lei X, Li YM (December 2009). "The processing of human rhomboid intramembrane serine protease RHBDL2 is required for its ... Known substrates of RHBDL2 include thrombomodulin and epidermal growth factor; profiling of the substrate repertoire of RHBDL2 ... Molecular Cell. 11 (6): 1425-34. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00181-3. PMID 12820957. Urban S, Lee JR, Freeman M (October 2001). " ... "Quantitative proteomics screen identifies a substrate repertoire of rhomboid protease RHBDL2 in human cells and implicates it ...
... a group of insect wing veins in the Comstock-Needham system Growth medium, objects in which microorganisms or cells can ... communications that incorporate multiple forms of information content and processing New media, the combination of traditional ... experience growth Media filter, a filter consisting of several different filter materials Tunica media, the middle layer of the ...
Sometimes the inflammation shifts from a predominantly neutrophilic process to a lymphocytic process. A cicatricial alopecia ... If the stem cells and sebaceous gland are destroyed, there is then no possibility for regeneration of the hair follicle, and ... 2010 Jan 6. Ramos-e-Silva, M; Pirmez, R (2014). "Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit". ... The goal of treatment is to decrease or eliminate the lymphocytic inflammatory cells that are attacking and destroying the hair ...
... is the ratio of the volume of the elementary cell of a metal oxide to the volume of the elementary cell of the corresponding ... Many of the exceptions can be attributed to the mechanism of the oxide growth: the underlying assumption in the P-B ratio is ... oxide to the volume the oxide takes in comparison to the volume of the metal used to produce this oxide in a corrosion process ...
Oral interviews as part of the selection process were theoretically supposed to be an unbiased process, but in practice favored ... The growth of cameralist studies, which played an important role in Prussian civil service training, may be traced to Justi's ... When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva ... The process of studying for the examination tended to be time-consuming and costly, requiring time to spare and tutors. Most of ...
Sickle cell anemia may cause brain ischemia associated with the irregularly shaped blood cells. Sickle shaped blood cells clot ... Raichle, Marcus; Ann Neurol (1983). "The pathophysiology of brain ischemia" (PDF). Neurological Process. Archived from the ... B-type neurotrophic growth factor. Alteplase (t-PA) is an effective medication for acute ischemic stroke. When given within 3 ... Individuals with sickle cell anemia, compressed blood vessels, ventricular tachycardia, plaque buildup in the arteries, blood ...
Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e (Articles with short description, ... They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation ... and cellular growth and division. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the 17S U2 snRNP complex; it plays an ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. Bibcode: ...
On 18 June it was announced that Russian FSB officers were in the process of moving from hotels to apartments that had been ... In the post-war decades, which saw substantial industrial growth, the population more than doubled, reaching 261,000 by 1970. ... underground cells. The Kherson district leadership of the OUN was headed by Bogdan Bandera (brother of OUN leader Stepan ... Industry, beginning with breweries, tanneries and other food and agricultural processing, developed from the 1850s. In 1897 the ...
Apoptosis is a cell self-destruct process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development and other life ... also regulated by other mechanisms such as the growth and cell differentiation. This biological response is characterized by ... The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ... The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal ...
The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of ... Within the fruiting bodies, cells begin as rod-shaped vegetative cells, and develop into rounded myxospores with thick cell ... When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a ... They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular ...
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... DNA Replication is the process by which a prokaryote duplicates its DNA into another copy that is passed on to daughter cells. ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. In other words, ...
It is also essential for development of nerval system by programmed cell death. The real apoptotic process starts after ... TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and ... and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. This gene encodes a ... When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ...
The metabolic process of C. blankii is aerobic. Consequently, it oxidizes many forms of alcohol, amino acid, carbohydrates, and ... Its growth phase (hours 14 through 38) and lag phase (hours 0 through 14) were exceptional. However, maximum oxidative activity ... A diploid isolate of C. blankii had an observed "potential for use in single cell protein production from hemicellulose ... once the process is worked out. It has been tested as a water quality indicator in comparison to a pair of other Candida ...
J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... Starting in the 1950s, high purity (>99%) neodymium was primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite, a ... Nd3+ has been reported to promote plant growth. Rare-earth element compounds are frequently used in China as fertilizer. ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ...
Cai B, Xiao Y, Li Y, Zheng S (August 2017). "CMTM5 inhibits renal cancer cell growth through inducing cell-cycle arrest and ... Wu J, Li L, Wu S, Xu B (August 2020). "CMTM family proteins 1-8: roles in cancer biological processes and potential clinical ... The forced over expression of CMTM5-v1 in Huh7 human hepatic cells also inhibited the ability of these cells to grow in a mouse ... "CMTM5 is reduced in prostate cancer and inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo". Clinical & Translational Oncology. ...
This works by killing vegetative cells, allowing germination of surviving spores, and killing the resulting vegetative cells ... Moist heat sterilization processes sterilize using hot air that is heavily laden with water vapor, which plays the most ... which can germinate shortly thereafter and resume growth. Therefore, boiling is an insufficient method to achieve sterilization ... Destruction of cells by lysis may also play a role. While "sterility" implies the destruction of free-living organisms which ...
The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein that accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. These ... Regeneration occurs by a process involving DNA single-stranded binding protein and is likely a form of homologous ... "A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum". Molecular ... The primary role of bacterioruberin in the cell is to protect against DNA damage incurred by UV light. This protection is not, ...
Like other electrochemical cells, two half-cells are required, one to facilitate reduction and the other oxidation. The cell ... In order to facilitate this process, he constructed what is now known as a polarograph with M. Shikata, which enabled him to ... controlled growth mercury electrodes, and contractible mercury drop electrodes. There was also an advancement of the measuring ... A second electrode acts as the other half of the cell. This second electrode must have a known potential to gauge the potential ...
8 December A U.S. airstrike in Kirkuk, Iraq, kills Islamic State cell facilitator Abu Anas. The U.S. Department of Defense will ... Cuba has seen dramatic growth in commercial airline flights during 2015, with 18 percent more than in 2014 in aviation#2014. ... A technical problem with Southwest Airlines' online system forces the airline to issue tickets and process passengers manually ... cell phones, and archaeological and historic items without suffering any casualties, after which the aircraft successfully ...
The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ... in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...
Cell Growth Processes ✖ Remove constraint Subject: Cell Growth Processes Subject 3T3 Cells ✖ Remove constraint Subject: 3T3 ... Genomic Response to Growth Factors: Research Review (Period covered: February 1987 to February 1990) ...
... positive regulation of unidimensional cell growth regulation of bipolar cell growth regulation of monopolar cell growth ... positive regulation of unidimensional cell growth regulation of bipolar cell growth regulation of monopolar cell growth ... Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of unidimensional cell growth, the process in which a cell ... biological regulation regulation of cell growth regulation of cell morphogenesis regulation of developmental growth Show first ...
Discoveries about how Zika virus slows brain cell development could lead to treatments. ... Zika disrupts cellular processes to impair brain development. Virus also causes spike in protein that controls cell growth, ... Levels of a protein called p53, which helps control cell growth and death, shot up by 80 percent in human brain cells infected ... Zika also makes small RNA molecules that interfere with production of proteins needed for DNA replication, cell growth and ...
GANT61 and Lithium Chloride Inhibit the Growth of Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines Through the Regulation of GLI3 Processing by ... GANT61 and Lithium Chloride Inhibit the Growth of Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines Through the Regulation of GLI3 Processing by ... and colony forming ability of HNSCC cell lines. Five HNSCC cell lines were treated with HH-GLI pathway inhibitors a ecting di ... In this work we investigated the role of downstream inhibitors GANT61 and lithium chloride (LiCl) on cell viability, wound ...
If cells in standard inoculum have been refrigerated or frozen, growth will be slower. ... If no growth is detected after 24 hours, continue incubation for an additional 24 hours. Colony picks that grow on BCYE agar, ... On agar plates, growth should be present in the heavily inoculated area after one day. Isolated colonies should be ... Each batch of medium should be tested for pH and the ability to support the growth of L. pneumophila. Ideally, all media should ...
Irreversible Processes in Ecological Evolution/Cooperative growth and cell-cell aggregation in marine bacteria ... The following pages link to Irreversible Processes in Ecological Evolution/Cooperative growth and cell-cell aggregation in ... Pages that link to "Irreversible Processes in Ecological Evolution/Cooperative growth and cell-cell aggregation in marine ... growth_and_cell-cell_aggregation_in_marine_bacteria" ...
Mathematical Models for Mammalian Cell Growth and Virus Replication for an Influenza Vaccine Production Process ... Mathematical Models for Mammalian Cell Growth and Virus Replication for an Influenza Vaccine Production Process ... Mathematical Models for Mammalian Cell Growth and Virus Replication for an Influenza Vaccine Production Process. Talk presented ...
metabolic process resulting in cell growth; metabolism resulting in cell growth; multicellular organism metabolic process. ... Note that metabolic processes do not include single functions or processes such as protein-protein interactions, protein- ... Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and ... Genes QTLs Strains Markers Genome Information Ontologies Cell Lines References Download Submit Data ...
All the latest science news about liver cell from ... Researchers inhibit cancer cell growth using compounds that ... Nanoplastics can disrupt human liver and lung cell processes in lab experiments. Sep 15, 2022 ... Stem cell-derived liver cells give new clues to Ebola. Sep 08, 2022 ... New technique for studying liver cells within an organism could shed light on the genes required for regeneration. Nov 16, 2022 ...
Coli cell growth performance with in-line, real-time OD600 (abs/mm) monitoring during the fermentation process ... Optimizing E. Coli cell growth performance with in-line, real-time OD600 (abs/mm) monitoring during the fermentation process. ... at 600nm to measure cell density and to optimize growth performance of E. Coli cells. This will serve as a proof-of-concept for ... The increasing demand of cell and gene therapeutics (CGT) have created a need to optimize manufacturing process steps using ...
T1 - Endoplasmic reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells. T2 - Influence of mild hypothermia and specific growth ... Endoplasmic reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of mild hypothermia and specific growth rates in ... Endoplasmic reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of mild hypothermia and specific growth rates in ... Endoplasmic reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells : Influence of mild hypothermia and specific growth rates in ...
09140 Cellular Processes. 09143 Cell growth and death. 04217 Necroptosis. 3553 (IL1B). 09150 Organismal Systems. 09151 Immune ... 09183 Protein families: signaling and cellular processes. 04052 Cytokines and growth factors [BR:hsa04052]. 3553 (IL1B). 00536 ... 04640 Hematopoietic cell lineage. 3553 (IL1B). 04620 Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. 3553 (IL1B). 04621 NOD-like receptor ... Cytokines and growth factors [BR:hsa04052]. Cytokines. Interleukins. 3553 (IL1B). Glycosaminoglycan binding proteins [BR: ...
The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific ... To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which ... with a hemagglutinin epitope and a biotin acceptor peptide and performed a transposon-mediated transfection of myeloma cell ... The use of monoclonal antibodies is ubiquitous in science and biomedicine but the generation and validation process of ...
Figure 3. (A) Cell growth and product formation of an Anticalin as a function of fermentation time; (B) SDS-PAGE image of the ... Therefore, secretion reduces the number of necessary downstream processing steps, increases the overall process yield, and thus ... that accumulate in cells. Although expression yields and the separation of inclusion bodies from cell debris are efficient, ... and are therefore less cost intensive than protein production by mammalian cells. Furthermore, in contrast to mammalian cell ...
... cell growth, cancer, and programmed cell death; cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis; insulin processing, secretion, and ... Selected topics on human diseases in which basic cell biological processes are defective will be explored in-depth using ... Topics of investigation will include, but are not limited to, cellular defects in protein folding, targeting, and processing in ... This course will extend the basic knowledge of molecular cell biology into cellular disorders in human diseases. ...
Cell-function; Cell-growth; Cell-metabolism; Cellular-function; Oxidative-processes; Animal-studies; Cancer; Carcinogenesis; ... which is linked to the expression of genes regulating cell proliferation, growth and transformation. Previously, we reported ... In vitro studies found that exposure to Cum-OOH reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in mouse epidermal cells (JB6 P+) and ... The present study used JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells and AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice to identify whether exposure ...
Modeling techniques can improve process control and monitoring in biopharmaceutical production. ... improving cell growth, titer, and glycosylation; performing root cause analysis; predicting CQAs; studying interactions for ... For process monitoring, process development, and process control, some recent unconventional process control strategies, such ... These models can be applied to gain process understanding and for process optimization, process design, and process control. ...
This article describes the composition of the extracellular matrix and its essential roles in cell-cell adhesion, cell ... Regulating cell processes such as growth, migration and differentiation.. The extracellular matrix can be divided into two ... Cell-extracellular matrix adhesion is established through the interaction of cell adhesion molecules binding to the cell ... the extracellular matrix also regulates processes by controlling cell communication.. Cell-extracellular matrix interactions ...
We found the best hair growth serums to add to your routine. Whether youre looking to repair breakage, spot-treat a sparse ... Act + Acre Cold Processed Stem Cell Serum. $85 on Act + Acre$85 on Revolve ... Does hair growth serum actually work?. A growth serum encourages growth in two ways; it keeps existing strands healthy and ... Healthy hair growth starts with a healthy, thriving scalp. Look no further than this hydrating formula, with apple stem cells, ...
Process. Evidence Code. Pubs. involved_in cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development ISS Inferred from Sequence or ... MicroRNA-23a-3p influences the molecular mechanism of gastric cancer cells via CCL22/PI3K/Akt axis. Jiang Z, et al. ... involved_in cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IGI Inferred from Genetic Interaction. more info ... Long non-coding RNA growth arrest specific 5 regulates the T helper 17/regulatory T balance by targeting miR-23a in myasthenia ...
Neurogenesis is the growth, development and maintenance of new brain cells. Neuroplasticity is our brain's ability to grow ... The good news is: while we can't stop the aging process, we can make changes to promote a healthy lifestyle that may help ... new connections to make up for the deterioration of brain cells throughout our life. Oxygen is vital to both of these processes ... In essence, exercise caused patients to maintain or even gain cells in important brain areas, whereas lack of exercise caused ...
... including transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ). These growth factors control a diverse range of processes important for cell ... This protein likely helps regulate cell growth and division, the attachment of cells to one another (cell adhesion), and the ... and preventing the growth of cancerous tumors. Decorin also regulates the activity of several growth factors, ... which is the intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells. Decorin is found in the ...
Combat the growth of cancerous cells.. *The bodys fat and poisons are removed during this process. ... The fat cells in the body are released as a result of the use of this product, which helps to promote overall health. Ketone ... The formula has been enhanced with some incredible components that aid in the process of losing weight. Make it clear to us ... Calcium is essential for the heart, nervous system, and blood clotting process. This substance can help alleviate the symptoms ...
General principles of energy, enzymes and cell metabolism. Selected processes, e.g. glycolysis, respiration and/or ... Multiple statistical analysis: Bivariate data sets: Curve fitting (linear and non-linear), growth curves. Statistical inference ... Markov jump processes. Poisson process. Birth and death processes. Structures of processes. Structure of the time-homogeneous ... Physical processes that influence the earths surface and management. Specific processes and their interaction in themes such ...
For example, drugs that interfere with cell division or growth, such as cancer chemotherapy agents, can disrupt both taste and ... The olfactory bulb contains a complex network of nerve cells and is responsible for a considerable amount of sensory processing ... Individual taste cells live for only ten to twelve days, and new cells below them evolve to replace them as they die. ... The nerves are continuously sprouting new processes, forming new synapses with young cells and retracting synaptic connections ...
Respiratory system growth and development involves proliferation and differentiation of more than 40 cell types. An ... This process is not complete until adolescence [Dietert et al. 2000]. The developing respiratory system may be more vulnerable ... The growth rate during the first few months of life following birth is faster than during the rest of life. Tissues with ... Childrens growth velocity decreases smoothly at approximately 9 months of age - to about half the initial rate. Vulnerability ...
In this study, we demonstrated that erianin can hamper OSCC cells growth both in vitro and in vivo. Erianin induced obvious G2/ ... In this study, we demonstrated that erianin can hamper OSCC cells growth both in vitro and in vivo. Erianin induced obvious G2/ ... As overexpression of PPT1 significantly reversed erianin-induced growth inhibition in OSCC cells, we identified the importance ... As overexpression of PPT1 significantly reversed erianin-induced growth inhibition in OSCC cells, we identified the importance ...
Proper DNA inheritance is essential for healthy cell growth and division. The same goes for the genetic material found in ... The Pureosity teams process needs no such assembly. Instead, it uses light-sensitized common polymers and micro-LED light ... A description of the new process created by Dr. Detao Qin of iCeMS Pureosity team, led by Professor Easan Sivaniah, appears in ... "We see great potential in this new process," says Prof. Sivaniah. "We see it as a completely new platform for microfluidic ...
Your digestive system breaks nutrients into parts small enough for your body to absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell ... Large intestine. Waste products from the digestive process include undigested parts of food, fluid, and older cells from the ... Your body uses sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol to build substances you need for energy, growth, and cell repair. ... Nerves and hormones help control the digestive process.. The digestive process. Organ. Movement. Digestive Juices Added. Food ...
... the authors of Thermoplastic Foam Processing: Principles and Development strive to ... book provides clear information on the mechanisms and the practical conditions experienced during nucleation and cell growth.. ... Polymer Blending Technology in Foam Processing. Research on Alternative Blowing Agents. Investigating Foam Processing. ... The text also addresses factors that affect the critical interaction between polymer and gas in the foaming process, such as ...
  • GANT61 and LiCl reduce the proliferation and colony formation capabilities of HNSCC cell lines, and LiCl has an additional effect on wound closure. (
  • The present study evaluated the effect of cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) on the induction of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is linked to the expression of genes regulating cell proliferation, growth and transformation. (
  • Importantly, loss of AKAP8L decreased mTORC1-mediated processes such as translation, cell growth, and cell proliferation. (
  • One protein in particular, called ABCA1, was likely crucial for vertebrate evolution by helping regulate when signals involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration enter a cell. (
  • It inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration [5]. (
  • Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION . (
  • Complex subunit associated factors are involved in hybridoma growth, Eosinohils, eritroid proliferation and derived from promotor binding stimulating subunits on the DNA binding complex. (
  • mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is thought to play a central role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, cellular metabolism and angiogenesis [ 7 ]. (
  • The colonic mucosa is a self-renewing epithelium that is structured is a very tightly regulated balance between cell proliferation at the base of a crypt, maturation as colonocytes, migrate up the crypt, and extrusion of senescent and/or apoptotic cells from the upper crypt into the lumen. (
  • Zika infection interferes with DNA replication and repair machinery and also prevents production of some proteins needed for proper brain growth, geneticist Feiran Zhang of Emory University in Atlanta reported October 19 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics. (
  • Zika also makes small RNA molecules that interfere with production of proteins needed for DNA replication, cell growth and brain development, Zhang said. (
  • She has over 10 years of experience in the cultivation of mammalian cells and microorganism as well as the purification of recombinant proteins using filtration and chromatographic tools. (
  • Background Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. (
  • However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • As a result, the production of complex, recombinant proteins in E. coli may produce inactive, aggregated proteins (inclusion bodies) that accumulate in cells. (
  • Although expression yields and the separation of inclusion bodies from cell debris are efficient, converting inclusion bodies into native, biologically functional proteins requires their solubilization with chaotropic agents and a subsequent refolding step. (
  • Wacker has developed an E. coli expression system-ESETEC®-that overcomes the limitations of periplasmic and inclusion-body production processes by efficiently secreting recombinant therapeutic proteins into the culture broth. (
  • The structure of the extracellular matrix differs in composition between tissue types but is essentially made up of collagen fibers, proteoglycans and multiadhesive matrix proteins that are secreted by cells. (
  • The extracellular matrix proteins fibrin, fibronectin and collagen provide structural integrity during the repair, with the fibrin-fibronectin interactions acting as a foundation for cell adhesion and migration. (
  • This protein is a component of the extracellular matrix, which is the intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells. (
  • Researchers have pinpointed a set of proteins which, during the division process, connect the cell's genetic material to other proteins that physically divide it into identical pairs. (
  • They found that two proteins - named Dam1 and Duo1 in yeast - help cell structures correctly attach to parcels of genetic material. (
  • While the yeast proteins are not identical in humans, cell division is common to many species, and the results aid understanding of the process in people. (
  • Two other proteins - known as Ask1 and Spc34 - were found to help build these structures to enable the cell to divide correctly. (
  • When proteins in your body trigger these receptors, cancer cells make their own blood vessels so that they can keep growing. (
  • When coated with proteins, cells adhere to and grow on our soft surfaces. (
  • Almost four decades of research have led scientists at Japan's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) to propose that a family of transporter proteins has played an important role in species evolution. (
  • There are different types of ABC proteins with different transportation roles, importing nutrients into cells, exporting toxic compounds outside them, and regulating lipid concentrations within cell membranes. (
  • The ABC proteins also played important roles in generating an outer membrane that protected cells from external stresses and in removing harmful substances from inside. (
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency.Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. (
  • This processing does get rid of some of the anti-nutrients in soybeans, but unfortunately many of the proteins are denatured in the process, including lysine. (
  • Addressing the therapeutic demand for monoclonal antibodies has led to major improvements to the cell-based expression systems that are used to manufacture these proteins. (
  • This vitamin processes nearly every type of food that you ingest, including carbohydrates, proteins and fats. (
  • Biotin assists in energy production by helping convert the carbohydrates, proteins and fats that we consume from our diets into energy for our cells. (
  • Regulating cell processes such as growth, migration and differentiation. (
  • An increase in extracellular Ca 2+ induces growth arrest and differentiation of human keratinocytes in culture. (
  • The multifunctional polymer coating adhered strongly to our soft substrates and enabled cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. (
  • Tissues with rapidly dividing cells may be especially vulnerable to carcinogens. (
  • Today extensive ongoing research focuses on the potential of stem cells to create new tissues or organs. (
  • Rather than raise an entire complex organism only to harvest these tissues, why not start at the basic unit of life, the cell, to produce meat? (
  • We have designed novel biomimetic cell culture surfaces that imitate the softness of various tissues and organs, allowing the cells to «feel like home» even outside the body. (
  • Additionally, because abnormal cell growth easily infiltrates and destroys surrounding bony tissues, wide surgical excision is required to treat this disorder. (
  • As another important component in nerve tissues, the potential of modulating cell-cell interactions as a strategy to promote regeneration has been overlooked. (
  • It is a source of energy for your body, including your cells, tissues, and organs. (
  • Assembly but focuses on allogeneic transplantation of cells, tissues and organs. (
  • Although the number of transplantations performed each year has grown rapidly since the Guiding Principles were endorsed, there has also been a significant increase in the demand for transplantation using human cells, tissues and organs, resulting in a continuing shortage of human material, particularly organs. (
  • Likewise, commercial trade in cells, tissues and organs - and even trafficking involving humans who are kidnapped or lured into other countries where they are forced to be "donors" - continues to be a serious problem, particularly in countries with substantial transplant tourism. (
  • Guiding Principles provide a framework to support progress in transplantation of cells, tissues and organs that will maximize the benefits of transplantation by meeting the needs of recipients, protecting donors and ensuring the dignity of all involved. (
  • The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling controls cell metabolism, promotes cell survival, and contributes to tumorigenesis, yet its upstream regulation remains poorly defined. (
  • mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) senses amino acids to control cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy. (
  • For instance, the growth rate of yeast and feed rate of fermentable substrate are equillbrated and controlled under steady state conditions in the first stage, so that the extent or rate of metabolism unconnected with yeast cell growth and/or reproduction is not critical. (
  • Biotin is also essential for your metabolic processes including the metabolism of fats and amino acids, production of fatty acids, and cell growth. (
  • Therefore, the insights provided by this study into the regulation of energy metabolism may be important to gain a more complete understanding of the processes responsible for tumour growth. (
  • These findings could open up new avenues to identify novel cancer biomarkers or methods to target the energy metabolism of cancer cells. (
  • Levels of a protein called p53, which helps control cell growth and death, shot up by 80 percent in human brain cells infected with the Asian Zika virus strain responsible for the Zika epidemic in the Americas, Zhang said. (
  • Increased levels of the protein stop developing brain cells from growing and may cause the cells to commit suicide. (
  • In particular, a small viral RNA called vsRNA-21 reduced the amount of microcephalin 1 protein made in human brain cells in lab dishes. (
  • LiCl treatment increases the inhibitory Ser9 phosphorylation of the GSK3 protein, leading to increased processing of GLI3 from full-length to repressor form, thus inhibiting HH-GLI pathway activity. (
  • Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. (
  • Note that metabolic processes do not include single functions or processes such as protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acids, nor receptor-ligand interactions. (
  • Moreover, by isolating the effect of culture temperature from the effect of cell growth rate verifyed by using chemostat cultures, we have found that processing and/or ERAD processes are more sensitive to reduction in specific growth rate than low temperature, and that temperature reduction may have a positive effect on protein processing. (
  • Both the development of E. coli cell lines and the production of protein by the bacterium proceed quickly, often allowing high quantities of protein, and are therefore less cost intensive than protein production by mammalian cells. (
  • Moreover, protein purification is strenuous because the whole cell lysate containing the recombinant protein also contains many host cell contaminants. (
  • Refolding is not required either because the protein is expressed solubly and, since the protein has been secreted, cell disruption is unnecessary. (
  • This protein likely helps regulate cell growth and division, the attachment of cells to one another (cell adhesion), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • MLN4924 disrupts cullin-RING ligase-mediated protein turnover leading to apoptotic death in human tumour cells by a new mechanism of action, the deregulation of S-phase DNA synthesis. (
  • Each bone is a complex living organ that is made up of many cells, protein fibers, and minerals. (
  • Package protein and move it out of cell. (
  • The ABCA1 protein flips the cholesterol from the inner to the outer layer of the cell membrane. (
  • Porter and her team of students devote much of their time studying Spy1, a protein that was discovered in 2002 and plays a critical role in cell division and growth. (
  • She described that protein as a "repairman" that makes sure everything in a cell is operating properly before it splits up the DNA when it divides, putting a stop on the process if it's not occurring properly. (
  • Nearly all pathogens, including cancer cells, are protected by a protein-based coating, or "fibrin", that makes it difficult for the immune system to identify and destroy them. (
  • The researchers investigated the interactions between the transcription factor DAF-16 and the genes that regulate the production of an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-like) protein related to the development, reproduction, and aging in C. elegans. (
  • The cell consists of a permeable cell membrane, DNA, protein factories called ribosomes, and a protective outer cell wall. (
  • Most are made with soy protein isolate (SPI), which is a protein-rich powder extracted by an industrial process from the waste product of soy oil manufacturing. (
  • Protein G is a bacterial cell wall protein isolated from group G Streptococci. (
  • The foamy stromal cells between the capillaries stain positive for glial fibrillary acid protein and neuron-specific enolase. (
  • Several signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), including the Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), WNT, EGFR, and NOTCH pathways. (
  • Methods In order to evaluate the effect of the mild hypothermia on processing/endoplasmatic reticulum- associated degradation (ERAD) processes, batch cultures of CHO cells producing recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rht-PA) were carried out at two temperatures (37°C and 33°C) and treated with specific inhibitors of glycosylation and ERAD I (Ubiquitin/ Proteasome system) or ERAD II (Autophagosoma/Lisosomal system) pathways. (
  • Results and Conclusion Results suggest that rht-PA is susceptible to degradation by both ERAD pathways studied, revealing that processing and/or ERAD processes are sensitive to temperature cultivation in batch culture. (
  • Substrates of cullin-RING ligases have important roles in cellular processes associated with cancer cell growth and survival pathways. (
  • If the extent of DNA damage is beyond repair capacity, alternative signalling pathways lead to apoptosis of potentially dangerous mutated cells [ 11 ]. (
  • Our working model is that divergent, but interconnected pathways lead to the biophysical processes necessary for cell motility: cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane extension, formation of new adhesions to substratum, cell contraction, and release of adhesions at the rear. (
  • We postulate that for any given growth factor some of the pathways/processes will be actively signaled and rate-limiting, while others will be permissive due to background low-level activation. (
  • Though its main function is to provide an essential scaffold for cells, the extracellular matrix also regulates processes by controlling cell communication. (
  • Decorin also regulates the activity of several growth factors, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ). (
  • Protective outer covering of all cells that regulates the interaction between the cell and the environment. (
  • However, the antitumor effect of erianin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. (
  • Read the related article, ' Automating Upstream Processes Helps Sync Workflows ', in the BioPharm International January 2022 issue. (
  • MicroRNA-23a-3p influences the molecular mechanism of gastric cancer cells via CCL22/PI3K/Akt axis. (
  • During the last years, the antitumor activity of erianin has been studied in a variety of human cancer cells. (
  • This dividing machinery is associated with cancer, and the DNA's connection to it must be firm and accurate to ensure equal distribution of DNA to the new cells, without loss or damage. (
  • But certain types of cells, including cancer cells, have receptors that encourage blood vessel growth. (
  • So blocking angiogenesis may help to slow or stop cancer growth. (
  • It is designed to block blood vessel growth by targeting several types of growth factor receptors on the surface of cancer cells. (
  • The trial team concluded that BIBF 1120 could be a useful treatment to delay further growth of ovarian cancer. (
  • Researchers at the Huntsman Cancer Institute have discovered that cancerous cells need sugar and cutting it off can help fight the disease. (
  • It turns out that cancer cells need glucose to make cell membranes and other biomolecular structures to divide," said Don Ayer, a HCI investigator and U cancer professor. (
  • Scientists have known since 1923 that cancer cells use glucose to grow. (
  • However, this is the first time they have found that restricting the utilization of glucose had the ability to kill the cancer cells. (
  • Just having that knowledge of what drives metabolic processes gives us new drugs to target cancer cells. (
  • Treatment of cancer with stem cells has been known since the early 1960s. (
  • When scientists gave metformin to mice with this cancer, tumor growth slowed and some tumors even shrank, according to results published in Science Translational Medicine . (
  • When DNA is damaged, a cell can begin growing out of control and create a cancer tumor. (
  • Cell migration is one of the crucial steps in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development. (
  • If you think about it, 60 years ago we didn't even know what cancer was," said Dr. Porter, an associate professor in Biological Sciences who devotes much of her lab time to studying the mechanisms that cause cancer cells to divide and grow. (
  • Cancer is your own body cells growing out of control," she added, "and because everybody has different DNA the mechanisms that are driving cancer are different from person to person, and so there really isn't one single, silver bullet answer. (
  • It operates the same way in cancer cells however, encouraging them to grow and divide. (
  • A weakened immune system due to an unmet enzyme deficiency allows for the accumulation of pathogens (disease causing agents) and carcinogens ( cancer causing substances), and the body's inability to suppress or contain the growth of cancerous cells. (
  • In sufficient quantities, they digest the protective fibrin membrane and expose the cancer cells to the immune system. (
  • Historically, the case for pancreatic enzymes in cancer therapy was first established in the early 1900s by the Scottish Embryologist John Beard, who observed under the microscope that placenta cells resemble malignant cells as they grow in preparation for the creation of a baby. (
  • This article focuses on the use of targeted therapies in cervical cancer, specifically evaluating antiangiogenesis and endothelial growth factor receptor-related treatments. (
  • This essential process occurs universally in solid tumors secondary to expansion of the cancer mass and subsequent growth away from the existing blood supply. (
  • Although widely promoted as a health food, hundreds of studies link modern processed soy to malnutrition, digestive problems, thyroid dysfunction, cognitive decline, reproductive disorders, immune system breakdown, and even heart disease and cancer. (
  • Research has shown that isoflavones can prevent ovulation and stimulate the growth of cancer cells. (
  • The rate of growth and progression of adenomas to cancer is variable, but typically occurs in 10-15 years. (
  • 1-1 Complexity of carcinogenic processes n rasng concerns about cancer causaton and ways to control the dsease n Europe. (
  • A new study by scientists from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) examines the DNA of mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, and provides the first reported evidence of DNA methylation patterns of the mitochondrial genome at high resolution. (
  • Notable differences were seen between the methylation patterns in normal cells and in cancer cells. (
  • The study presents and addresses the technical considerations that have thus far impeded the study of mitochondrial epigenetics and discusses the potential functional consequences of methylation of mitochondrial DNA in normal cells and cancer cells. (
  • Cancer cells have a greater need for energy compared with normal cells, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cancer biology. (
  • Erianin induced obvious G2/M arrest as well as apoptosis and gasdermin E (GSDME)-dependent pyroptosis in OSCC cells. (
  • Also, production of viral vectors for vaccines and recombinant work using both insect and mammalian cells were common. (
  • Cell-extracellular matrix interactions are vital to the structure of tissue and are facilitated by heterodimer molecules. (
  • The structure provides an anchoring layer that keeps functional tissue cells together. (
  • Hemidesmosomes connect intermediate filaments to the basal laminae of epithelial cells, therefore supplying a rigid structure to epithelial tissue. (
  • The regulation of cell types within the extracellular matrix allows for mobilization in areas requiring rebuilt tissue. (
  • The interactions between the cell and the extracellular matrix also affect the level of acute inflammation, re-epithelialization, and contraction when tissue is damaged. (
  • They provide signals that trigger specific cell activities within the wound and are expressed in high frequencies during development but are absent in normal adult tissue. (
  • Because tissue is generally soft and plastic is stiff, cells become stressed by the hard surface and lose their tissue character. (
  • Tissue-soft culture allows to enhancing cell production by increasing both quantity and quality, two prerequisites necessary for novel therapeutic applications such as cell therapy. (
  • To date, we have successfully developed silicone-based substrates with tissue-like stiffness for cell culture applications. (
  • Angiogenesis is the development of new blood vessels in areas of novel tissue growth. (
  • Within the central nervous system, there are considerably more cell-cell communications as compared to cell-ECM interactions, since the ECM only contributes 10%-20% of the total tissue volume. (
  • Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between the initial process of resorption of the blood clot, and the involvement of MMPs 2 and 9 and its regulators/tissue inhibitors. (
  • The process of bone repair is an event finely regulated and characterized by different phases with predominance of specific cellular types, aiming at the formation of tissue in the affected area. (
  • 4) remodeling stage, characterized by the substitution process of replacement of primary by secondary bone tissue (21 days after tooth extraction, in alveolus of rats) 1 . (
  • Considering from the initial stage of blood clot formation to the last stage of newly-formed bone tissue remodeling, several cells and signaling molecules are involved which regulate (and are also regulated) during the development of this process. (
  • Thin-section electron microscopy of synovial tissue extracted from a wax histoblock showed poxvirus particles in inflammatory cells ( Figure 1 , panel A). A 906E transmission electron microscope (Carl Zeiss, Peabody, MA, USA) at an accelerating voltage of 80 kV was used for initial imaging. (
  • For example, healthy individuals' skin cells form in the tissue and arrive at the surface in about 30 days. (
  • We attempted to isolate virus from 26 specimens from 9 Nipah-confirmed case-patients and 1 NiV-negative patient by processing throat swab, lung tissue, urine, and serum specimens in the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory of ICMR-NIV, as described previously ( 14 ) ( Table 1 ). (
  • A total of 143 plasma samples were analyzed from 19 controls and 73 patients, including 44 bone or soft-tissue sarcomas and 12 renal, 10 germ cell, five hepatic, and two thyroid tumors. (
  • Like vitamins, hormones regulate certain organs and crucial processes. (
  • The Guiding Principles were the outcome of a process that began in 1987 when the Health Assembly first expressed concern over the commercial trade in human organs (resolution WHA40.13). (
  • The present study used JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells and AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice to identify whether exposure to Cum-OOH caused activation of AP-1, oxidative stress, depletion of antioxidants and tumor formation during two-stage carcinogenesis. (
  • In vitro studies found that exposure to Cum-OOH reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in mouse epidermal cells (JB6 P+) and caused the induction of AP-1. (
  • Studies suggest that decorin plays a role in the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), wound healing, bone development, inflammation, and preventing the growth of cancerous tumors. (
  • Many cancers with known genetic causes can be treated by targeting tumors and leaving healthy cells unscathed. (
  • We designed a liquid biopsy (LB) platform employing low-pass whole genome sequencing (LP-WGS) and targeted sequencing of cell-free (cf) DNA from plasma to detect genome-wide copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene fusions in pediatric solid tumors. (
  • Clinical hallmarks of VHL disease include the development of retinal and central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas (blood vessel tumors), pheochromocytomas , multiple cysts in the pancreas and kidneys, and an increased risk for malignant transformation of renal cysts into renal cell carcinoma. (
  • As overexpression of PPT1 significantly reversed erianin-induced growth inhibition in OSCC cells, we identified the importance of PPT1 reduction in erianin-induced growth suppression. (
  • Growth inhibition was expressed as a percentage of the untreated controls that were processed simultaneously. (
  • Different values of CI may be obtained for solving the equation for different values of fa (e.g., different degrees of inhibition of cell growth). (
  • Overweight people are more likely to acquire cancerous cells in their bodies. (
  • The supercharged process, called C4 photosynthesis, boosts plants' growth by capturing carbon dioxide and concentrating it in specialized cells in the leaves. (
  • The December results, achieved by the C4 consortium and led by Paul Quick at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRl) in the Philippines, introduced key C4 photosynthesis genes into a rice plant and showed that it carried out a rudimentary version of the supercharged photosynthesis process. (
  • To facilitate the isolation of specific antibody-producing hybridomas, a method has to be established which temporarily restricts the cells from releasing the antibody into the culture medium and thus retaining the genotype (the antibody-coding genes) and the phenotype (the produced antibodies) in one entity. (
  • Mutations/deletions in separate genes, each of which alone causes a minimal phenotype, but when combined in the same cell results in a more severe fitness defect or lethality under a given condition. (
  • However, scientists still don't know all the genes involved in producing these cells and suspect that they could number in the dozens. (
  • DDR genes are involved in the mechanisms of genomic stability, repairing DNA aberrations during the cell cycle, ensuring a correct mitotic cell division, and distribution of the genomic material to the daughter cells [ 9 ]. (
  • Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. (
  • Two major thrusts in the last decade have dramatically impacted our understanding of biofilms: the utilization of the confocal laser scanning microscope to characterize biofilm ultrastructure, and an investigation of the genes involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation. (
  • NFKB 105 subunit for example is a polypetide gene enhancer of genes in B cells. (
  • Heukelekian and genes involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation. (
  • Additional progressive mutations occur in cells of the adenoma, including activating mutations of the oncogenes (Ki-ras), and inactivating mutations of additional tumor suppressor genes (ie, TP53). (
  • This course will extend the basic knowledge of molecular cell biology into cellular disorders in human diseases. (
  • Selected topics on human diseases in which basic cell biological processes are defective will be explored in-depth using contemporary primary cell biology literature as the principal resource. (
  • Address correspondence to Nam-ho Huh, Dept. of Cell Biology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Shikata-chou, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. (
  • Under different ultrasound parameters, histological tests and molecular biology were performed to observe inflammatory lesions and changes in immune cell subsets in the spleen and heart. (
  • Mitotic and interphase asters differ markedly in size, and only interphase asters span the cell. (
  • Growth of interphase asters occurs by a mechanism that allows microtubule density at the aster periphery to remain approximately constant as radius increases. (
  • Upstream process development includes conceptualization of the process train-including media and feed development-and optimization of bioreactor parameters for a successful scale-up. (
  • METTLER TOLEDO bioreactor pH probes are highly reliable measurement tools designed to enable ideal growth conditions to maximize yield and ensure batch-to-batch consistency under microbial and animal cell culture bioprocessing conditions. (
  • Bioreactor pH probes help maintain optimal pH control for fermentation and cell culture, resulting in faster growth rates and higher yields. (
  • The booklet contains a collection of documents related to bioreactor process control. (
  • If a pH sensor fails during a fermentation process, dosing of chemicals must be interrupted and saving the batch is only possible with lab pH measurement and manual adjustment at the bioreactor. (
  • a cell line, a media to feed the cells, a bioreactor where cell growth can take place, and a structure upon which the cells can attach and grow. (
  • An incubator shaker which could be qualified like a bioreactor for such validated process was a real revolution this time around. (
  • This type of attachment anchors the cell and facilitates signaling across the plasma membrane. (
  • Cellular wall: Surrounds the cell membrane. (
  • Cholesterol's role was thought to focus mainly on physically strengthening the cell membrane and reducing its permeability to ions. (
  • This sticky coating can be up to 15 times thicker than the membrane of normal cells (1,5). (
  • Others are suggested by complementary investigations in integrin-mediated motility, including rac in membrane protrusion, rho in new adhesions, myosin II motors in contraction, and calpain in detachment, but have yet to be placed in growth factor- induced motility. (
  • and pathogen-cell interaction. (
  • Cell-extracellular matrix adhesion is established through the interaction of cell adhesion molecules binding to the cell surface of the extracellular matrix. (
  • This weak interaction strength is particularly advantageous for migrating cells. (
  • This book presents the latest research in foam extrusion and physical foaming agents with a strong focus on the interaction of material components in the foaming process. (
  • The text also addresses factors that affect the critical interaction between polymer and gas in the foaming process, such as polymer plasticization, gas dissolution, phase separation, foaming, and stabilization. (
  • Controlling dislocation behavior and confinement of dislocations to inactive layers within the solar cell is critical, and research involves studying dislocation nucleation and glide, interaction with material properties, and their impact on device performance. (
  • This study proposes utilizing an inline- variable pathlength spectrophotometer in a recirculation loop during fermentation to monitor and optimize the growth of E. Coli cells in real-time. (
  • FlowVPX System data review of in-line OD600 monitoring during the fermentation process. (
  • Today in 1961, US Patent 2967107 A was issued to Kenneth H. Geiger and John Compton, assigned to John Labott Ltd, for their "Continuous fermentation process. (
  • According to the application the "invention relates to a novel continuous fermentation process for the production of potable beer. (
  • Figure 1 is a schematic illustrating a type of fermentation vessel which may be used in carrying out the process of the invention indicating typical fittings and controls. (
  • Continuous fermentation processes have already been utilized in connection with the production of industrial grade alcohols, and the desirability of continuous fermentation in the production of potable beer has long been recognized in the art. (
  • The principal obstacle to the adaptation of existing continuous fermentation methods to the production of potable beer has been the inability of such processes to provide adequate control of flavour. (
  • The present invention provides a continuous fermentation process in which the control of flavour is readily achieved, and in which a number of additional advantages are to be found in addition to those important ones which might normally be expected to fiow from the conversion of what has previously been a batch operation into a continuous one. (
  • Preferably according to the invention, the yeast concentration in the second stage of the process is maintained substantially constant at a concentration which is in excess of the maximum level normally obtainable or commonly used under batch fermentation conditions. (
  • The inherent advantages of the continuous fermentation process described above are manifold, and of substantial practical importance. (
  • The cells embedded within the extracellular matrix interact through surface receptors and integrate signals from the matrix that are associated with their function. (
  • Furthermore, cells participate in the formation of the extracellular matrix through the secretion of matrix macromolecules. (
  • This means that differences in the structure of the extracellular matrix affect the biomechanical properties of the whole network in addition to the signals that transform cell response. (
  • Integrins are heterodimer molecules that produce attachments between the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. (
  • Cell-extracellular matrix adhesions are formed at two types of integrin-dependent junction: focal adhesions and hemidesmosomes. (
  • Focal adhesions occur at the attachment site of the cell cytoskeleton and the fibronectin glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix. (
  • The ability to control cell-extracellular matrix interactions locally is also an attractive therapeutic target. (
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is activated by intracellular nutritional sufficiency and extracellular growth signals. (
  • A biofilm is an assemblage of surface-associated microbial cells that is enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance matrix. (
  • Majority of these approaches only focus on growth factors and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. (
  • Two major thrusts in the last decade cells that is enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance have dramatically impacted our understanding of biofilms: the matrix. (
  • An excellent and reproducible cell growth has been proven by both internal and external lab data. (
  • The Sero Krystal™ PDL range of coated microplates from Porvair Sciences set a new benchmark for reproducible cell culture even with challenging cell types. (
  • Chicken Vascular Endothelial cell Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) ELISA Kit is manufactured by highest quality antibodies and plates to provide you with excellent and reproducible results in your work. (
  • It is inescapable to understand biological processes, test potential drugs, assess toxicity of chemical compounds, and multiply cells for cell therapy. (
  • Ueda and his team suggest that ABCA1 allowed vertebrates to evolve complicated biological processes and sophisticated bodies. (
  • The findings could lead to the development of new chemotherapy drugs that would stop the progress of the tumor growth by restricting the cell's ability to utilize glucose. (
  • DNA is the cell's "instruction manual" that controls a cell's normal growth and function. (
  • that said, because there are so many potential causes, there are also myriad ways to naturally encourage regrowth-and one popular method is to invest in a hair growth serum. (
  • If you're looking to "spot treat" with a hair growth serum-say, you have a sparser hairline you'd like to fill-this high-performing number is your best bet. (
  • [ 26 , 27 ] These cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 growth medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin at 37°C in 5% CO 2 . (
  • The migration of chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells was evaluated under different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration gradients, and the migration speeds and number of migrating cells were extracted and compared. (
  • ABSTRACT We evaluated the prognostic value of serum endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. (
  • We inoculated 100 μL of each sample into a 24-well culture plate of Vero (ATCC, CCL-81) cells in 1 ml of Eagle minimal essential growth medium containing 10% fetal calf serum in each well. (
  • All cells have receptors on the cell surface. (
  • The growth factor receptors are called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived endothelial growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). (
  • Cell motility is induced by many growth factors acting through cognate receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (RPTK). (
  • Written by experts, the book provides clear information on the mechanisms and the practical conditions experienced during nucleation and cell growth. (
  • We discuss models for aster growth, and favor a branching nucleation process. (
  • 3 ) used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to examine biofilms on trickling filters in a wastewater treatment plant and showed them to be composed of a variety of organisms (based on cell morphology). (
  • The method described here allows simultaneous detection of cell morphology and migration under chemical gradient conditions, and also allows for real-time monitoring of cell motility that resembles in vivo cell migration. (
  • Biofilms may form on a wide variety of surfaces, isms (based on cell morphology). (
  • Therefore, modulating cell-cell interactions through cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as cadherins, neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) and L1, may be a potential alternative to improve nerve regeneration. (
  • The conventional adenoma-carcinoma sequence is thought to be a genetically driven process characterized by the occurrence over time of successive cycles of somatic mutation and clonal expansion of cells that have acquired a survival advantage. (
  • The cell wall is a critically important entity for bacteria and essential for their survival. (
  • ATTACK MODE Researchers are learning about how the Zika virus (red) causes brain cells to stop growing, leading to microcephaly. (
  • Researchers at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) approached microfluidic fabrication from a new direction and came up with an innovative process to make devices with some distinctive properties and advantages. (
  • Researchers at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) in Japan have designed a small 'body-on-a-chip' device that can test the side effects of drugs s on human cells. (
  • As researchers seek replacements for banned, ozone-depleting foaming agents, the authors of Thermoplastic Foam Processing: Principles and Development strive to develop a better understanding of foaming processes and find solutions for day-to-day practice. (
  • To get them to switch over completely, researchers need to engineer the plants to produce specialized cells in a precise arrangement: one set of cells to capture the carbon dioxide, surrounding another set of cells that concentrate it. (
  • By using a specific polysaccharide-stain called Ruthenium red and coupling this with osmium tetroxide fixative, these researchers were also able to show that the matrix material surrounding and enclosing cells in these biofilms was polysaccharide. (
  • The increasing number of collaborations between NGS market players and academic & research institutions, availability of financial support for genomics R&D across regions, and the development of cost-effective NGS products and services for researchers are the major factors supporting the growth of this end-user segment. (
  • osmium tetroxide fixative, these researchers were also able to The variable nature of biofilms can be illustrated from scan- show that the matrix material surrounding and enclosing cells ning electron micrographs of biofilms from an industrial water system and a medical device, respectively (Figures 1 and 2). (
  • A new paper by a team of researchers led by Shahriar Mobashery, Navari Family Professor of Life Sciences at the University of Notre Dame, provides important new insights into the process by which bacteria recycle their cell wall. (
  • The researchers found that a member of the lytic transglycosylases family of enzymes known as M1tB performed the requisite cell wall fragmentation on the synthetic sample of the cell wall from their laboratory. (
  • An established biofilm structure comprises microbial cells and EPS, has a defined architecture, and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. (
  • The microbial cells are then harvested using centrifugation. (
  • A biofilm is an assemblage of microbial cells that is irre- organisms could attach. (
  • The use of monoclonal antibodies is ubiquitous in science and biomedicine but the generation and validation process of antibodies is nevertheless complicated and time-consuming. (
  • To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell when they possess the desired antigen-specificity. (
  • Unfortunately, this process could not be combined with a simultaneous, proper validation of the desired antibodies because the concentration in the supernatants are often very low at the early beginning of culture. (
  • The development of humanized monoclonal antibodies has continued to fuel the growth of the biotherapeutic market. (
  • New blood cells are produced by the red bone marrow inside of our bones. (
  • Thus, now this implant will start to form new bone growth at the defect area. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effect of fluoride (F) on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) involved in process of alveolar bone repair. (
  • Microscopically the process of bone repair was similar in all groups, being noted only a delay of the blood clot resorption and bone formation in the group of 50 ppm F. The expression for MMP-9 showed differences betweengroups only during the initial repair (7 days). (
  • Ours results suggest an effect of fluoride on the activity of MMPs 2 and 9 at the initial period of alveolar repair which could be associated to the process of blood clot remission and delay in bone repair. (
  • Among the different study models of bone repair, the model of bone repair in tooth socket has been very adequate because it enables a chronological evaluation of the repair process, detailing the main cellular events at each stage 31 . (
  • Developmental stage-specific effects of Pim-1 dysregulation on murine bone marrow B cell development. (
  • Is the Use of Growth Factors and Stem Cells a Key to Long-term Success? (
  • The lecture, on the basis of the existing literature, clarifies whether the use of growth factors or stem cells has a potential effect on the final outcome of implant therapy. (
  • Dr. Marco Tatullo is the Scientific Director of the Research Institute Tecnologica, a private center focused on regenerative medicine, stem cell research and biomaterials. (
  • He has authored over 70 scientific articles on mesenchymal stem cells and innovative biomaterials for medical and dental applications. (
  • Editor of the book Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry published with Springer-Nature. (
  • This lawsuit was filed in hopes of gaining injunctive relief against a moratorium on the federal funding of stem cell research. (
  • The plaintiffs in the case were seven prominent scientists who performed embryonic stem cell research and three patients: James Thomson, Roger Pedersen, John Gearhart, Douglas Melton, Dan Kaufman, Alan Trounson, Martin Pera, Christopher Reeve, James Cordy, and James Tyree. (
  • organoid growth across donor samples, including those that are otherwise difficult to grow, is enabled by an enriched stem cell population. (
  • Therefore, secretion reduces the number of necessary downstream processing steps, increases the overall process yield, and thus, lowers process costs ( Figure 1 ). (
  • After implanting the microfiber subcutaneously into the abdominals of transplanted rats, it was found that the infiltration of T cells and macrophages and the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-1ß were significantly reduced compared with those of the free FK506 groups. (
  • Interestingly, PCA indicated that the integrated performance displayed by CHO cells is modulated predominantly by specific growth rate, indicating that the culture temperature has a lower weighted effect within the range of conditions evaluated in this work. (
  • Furthermore, in contrast to mammalian cell culture, the risk of transmitting viral infections or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is precluded. (
  • Support cell culture growth and biomanufacturing processes. (
  • We noted that after amino acid starvation of cells in culture, addition of an amino acid solution increased mTORC2 signaling. (
  • Intelligent Sensor Management (ISM) predictive diagnostics help reduce the risk of sensor failure during long cell culture batches. (
  • These sensors withstand sterilization and sanitization processes that are common in pharmaceutical sanitary environments, making them ideal for cell culture pH and fermenter pH monitoring and control. (
  • For most of the history of microbiology, microorganisms have primarily been characterized as planktonic, freely suspended cells and described on the basis of their growth characteristics in nutritionally rich culture media. (
  • Cell culture is the process of taking cells out of the body and growing them in an artificial environment. (
  • To date, standard cell culture comprises that cells live in a soup of nutrients on the surface of relatively simple plastic dishes. (
  • A second aspect of the project consists in quantifying the benefits of culturing cells on our innovative cell culture system. (
  • This project supported by the Gebert Rüf Stiftung is of high significance since design of our novel cell-adhesive and soft surfaces will greatly advance current cell culture methods. (
  • Furthermore, we have developed specific techniques to produce our substrates with yet unmet optical properties that match the quality of glass and cell culture plastic. (
  • With support from the Gebert Rüf Stiftung, we could identify and design innovative and potent multifunctional polymers that are cost-effective and can be used as stable coating agent for our in vivo-like cell culture substrates. (
  • Further experiments have been carried out to characterize the behavior of cells grown on our innovative culture substrates. (
  • In a nutshell, the cell original/natural characteristics were maintained even throughout long-term cell culture process. (
  • However, applications were changing with the rise of cell culture for mammalian or insect cell lines. (
  • By the early 2000's, the need for growth of mammalian and insect cells in suspension culture was clear. (
  • Next to the "classical" technical shaker features, influencing culture growth and productivity, usability topics have become more popular from the mid 2010's onwards . (
  • As early as 1973, F have primarily been characterized as planktonic, freely Characklis (4) studied microbial slimes in industrial water sys- suspended cells and described on the basis of their growth tems and showed that they were not only very tenacious but characteristics in nutritionally rich culture media. (
  • B) Negative staining of poxvirus particles in cell culture supernatant. (
  • Viral diagnostic and research laboratory testing should be conducted in a biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratory for the following: those rapid tests involving steps that could generate aerosols (e.g. vortexing), direct or indirect fluorescent antibody tests (DFA, IFA) to detect viral antigens in clinical specimens, growth of virus in cell culture or embryonated eggs, molecular-based assays, and general laboratory research. (
  • Zeatin is a natural plant hormone that promotes cell regeneration and growth and has potent antioxidant properties. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in physiological vasculogenesis and vascular permeability and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. (
  • In this paper, a static microfluidic gradient device was applied to study the migration of human pleural mesothelial cells which had been through a long-term exposure (4 months) to subcytotoxic concentration (0.02 µg cm -2 ) of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). (
  • The results showed that chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells are more sensitive to the gradient compared to non-SWCNT-exposed cells. (
  • check the tag ADOLESCENCE HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition in Adolescence FX - Adolescent Nutrition Physiology MH - Peritoneal Stomata UI - D054048 MN - A01.047.025.600.700 MN - A10.810 MS - Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. (
  • Niacinamide-infused cream promotes cell growth while protecting skin cells from environmental stressors like sunlight, pollutants, and toxins. (
  • It slows down the aging process, helps combat environmental stressors and improves skin's elasticity. (
  • RESULTS: The echocardiography and flow cytometry of splenic or heart infiltrating immune cells revealed that splenic ultrasound could alleviate the immune response, regulate the proportion and function of CD4+ Treg and macrophages by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and finally reduce heart inflammatory injury and improve cardiac remodeling, which is as effective as an acetylcholine receptor agonists GTS-21. (
  • Special immune cells called T cells become overactive and attack the skin cells. (
  • The immune responses generated by recombinant vaccine outperformed those of both the cell-based and the standard dose flu vaccines made using traditional egg-based technology. (
  • HyClone™ RPMI 1640 Media, Powder is manufactured using ISO 9001 certified processes. (
  • Tanja has worked in several cooperation's with large biopharmaceutical companies to support them with process development, process optimization or analytical method development for their processes. (
  • Modeling techniques can improve process control and monitoring in biopharmaceutical production. (
  • This review will focus only on the modeling techniques used across upstream process development for biopharmaceutical therapeutics. (
  • Over more than 30 years, Flexboy ® bags from 5 mL to 50 L have provided robust solution for storage, sampling, transfer of all biopharmaceutical fluids in all process steps. (
  • MLN4924 suppressed the growth of human tumour xenografts in mice at compound exposures that were well tolerated. (
  • Upstream process development in biologics has seen several improvements in robustness, productivity, and stability. (
  • This review revisits the data analytics modeling methodologies for upstream processes, provides a perspective on their potential applications across the upstream process development to validation workflow in the biopharma industry, and presents a value chain peak to use it toward better process robustness, process control, and process monitoring with quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) applications. (
  • A typical end-to-end upstream process workflow consists of cell-line development, selection of appropriate clones, process development, scale-up, risk assessment scale down model (SDM) development, process characterization, and technology transfer to manufacturing. (
  • An overview of applications of statistical, mechanistic, machine-learning, and hybrid models in upstream process development, optimization, and characterization is summarized in Figure 1 , while the available commercial technologies for upstream process development is presented in Table I . (
  • Consequently, these improvements have moved the processing bottleneck from upstream cell expression to downstream purification. (
  • VANCOUVER - Zika virus's tricks for interfering with human brain cell development may also be the virus's undoing. (
  • Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is a precursor to the development of CGTs and is met with many challenges throughout the production process due its size, viscosity, and similarities to other impurities which can impact their yields. (
  • For the last 5 years, he has been partnering with customers to implement the CTech™ FlowVPE® and FlowVPX™ Systems for in-line concentration measurements both in the process development and GMP manufacturing areas for bioprocessing. (
  • The critical issue in the development of antigen-specific hybridomas is the lack of any direct connection between the hybridoma cell and the released antibody. (
  • In addition to predictive power and improved process understanding, the application of mathematical modeling based methods in biopharma process development has the benefits of increased visibility and agility, which can potentially improve productivity. (
  • During process development, scale-down models are important because they can replicate results at larger scales, where it is impractical to perform factorial experiments. (
  • The Pureosity team's latest development builds upon their Organized Microfibrillation (OM) technology, a printing process which was previously published in Nature (2019). (
  • In the midst of new research for alternative, environmentally friendly foaming agents, Thermoplastic Foam Processing: Principles and Development gives the reader a clear understanding of the current trends in R & D and an up-to-date review of the state of the art in thermoplastic foam processing. (
  • Human milk provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development while significantly decreasing the child's risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases. (
  • We have a distinguished record of accomplishment in the field, including the invention of the original gallium indium phosphide/gallium arsenide (GaInP/GaAs) multijunction cell, its transfer to the high-efficiency cell industry, and the invention and development of inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) cell technology. (
  • This platform would be much needed for supporting the development of more physiologically relevant cell models for better assessment and characterization of the mesothelioma hazard posed by nanomaterials. (
  • By choosing a One-Stop-Shop GMP plasmid DNA production service you get the benefit of having only one supplier - Biovian - through the entire process development and manufacturing assignment, from GMP Cell Banking to aseptic Fill and Finish. (
  • The CT Supply Chain leader is responsible for establishing clear supply & demand performance KPI's and orchestrating end-to-end functions to achieve plans endorsed in the Sales, Development & Operations Planning (SD&OP) process. (
  • Integral to this process is telomerase, which is an enzyme that repairs telomeres and is present in various cells in the human body, especially during human growth and development. (
  • For instance, QIAGEN and Natera (US) entered into a partnership for the development of cell-free DNA assays for its GeneReader NGS System. (
  • They're needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. (
  • Early childhood children need macro and micro nutrient for their growth and development process. (
  • The energy used for activities, brain development, and cells growth was considered in giving children's food. (
  • This manual describes the procedures currently employed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to process environmental samples obtained during investigations of legionellosis outbreaks. (
  • Nerves and hormones help control the digestive process. (
  • These growth factors control a diverse range of processes important for cell growth. (
  • A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management. (
  • The performance and assurance of quality supply are based on the complete control of our manufacturing process from the resins, the film, the bags, the filters and the assembly. (
  • The assurance of integrity is the result of the control of the manufacturing process along the entire product lifecycle. (
  • At iCeMS, our mission is to explore the secrets of life by creating compounds to control cells, and further down the road to create life-inspired materials. (
  • The company has a broad product portfolio including the library preparation, target enrichment, and quality control, which is an important factor for its future growth. (
  • Adenomatous cells are characterized by a loss of normal growth control. (
  • Without the glucose to "feed" the cells, they will die and the tumor growth would be halted. (
  • As a fat-soluble vitamin, it is produced internally when ultraviolet rays from the sunlight hit the skin and initiate the process of vitamin D synthesis. (
  • Niacinamide is a vitamin B3 derivative necessary for skin cell growth and process. (
  • Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin whose absorption goes through the digestion process. (
  • Subsequently, this vitamin can be used for body functions or sent for storage in the liver and fat cells. (
  • The introduction of POROS MabCapture G Select chromatography resin was aimed at cracking open the downstream bottleneck and providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility needed to make improvements to the downstream purification platform, resulting in major increases to process productivity and antibody manufacturing. (
  • Your digestive system breaks nutrients into parts small enough for your body to absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. (
  • Consuming raw food, reducing the amount of cooked and processed foods as much as possible, chewing food thoroughly to activate enzymes in saliva, plus regular supplementation of digestive enzymes with meals will help offset the ill effects of an enzyme deficiency. (
  • Complimenting the work of digestive enzymes are metabolic enzymes which facilitate virtually every chemical reaction and cellular function of the body , including cleansing the blood and reducing inflammation throughout the body, among many other vital bodily processes. (
  • Your digestive system breaks down sugar into glucose, and your cells use the glucose for energy. (
  • Exactly how mTORC1 promotes cell growth remains unclear. (
  • Microfluidic gradient device for studying mesothelial cell migration and the effect of chronic carbon nanotube exposure. (
  • Multiple migration signatures of these cells were investigated using the microfluidic gradient device for the first time. (
  • During the migration study, we observed that cell morphologies changed from flattened shapes to spindle shapes prior to their migration after their sensing of the chemical gradient. (
  • August 16, 2021- A new CDC study showed that flu shots made using recombinant technology produced a better antibody response among health care personnel compared with both cell-based and traditional flu shots. (
  • The increasing demand of cell and gene therapeutics (CGT) have created a need to optimize manufacturing process steps using Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) to lower costs and increase yields. (
  • Intelligent Sensor Management (ISM®) is an innovative technology for analytical process parameters that combines many features into a unique solution: one that is adaptable to specific pharmaceutical plant needs. (