A subclass of CRUSTACEA comprising the tongue worms which are obligatory parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.
The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.

Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression. (1/2701)

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cell-size checkpoints help to coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression, so that proliferating eukaryotic cells maintain their size. There is strong evidence for such size checkpoints in yeasts, which maintain a constant cell-size distribution as they proliferate, even though large yeast cells grow faster than small yeast cells. Moreover, when yeast cells are shifted to better or worse nutrient conditions, they alter their size threshold within one cell cycle. Populations of mammalian cells can also maintain a constant size distribution as they proliferate, but it is not known whether this depends on cell-size checkpoints. RESULTS: We show that proliferating rat Schwann cells do not require a cell-size checkpoint to maintain a constant cell-size distribution, as, unlike yeasts, large and small Schwann cells grow at the same rate, which depends on the concentration of extracellular growth factors. In addition, when shifted from serum-free to serum-containing medium, Schwann cells take many divisions to increase their size to that appropriate to the new condition, suggesting that they do not have cell-size checkpoints similar to those in yeasts. CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating Schwann cells and yeast cells seem to use different mechanisms to coordinate their growth with cell-cycle progression. Whereas yeast cells use cell-size checkpoints, Schwann cells apparently do not. It seems likely that many mammalian cells resemble Schwann cells in this respect.  (+info)

At the crossroads: AMP-activated kinase and the LKB1 tumor suppressor link cell proliferation to metabolic regulation. (2/2701)

The tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 has been identified as a physiologic activator of the key metabolic regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, establishing a possible molecular link between the regulation of metabolism and cell proliferation.  (+info)

Phospholipase C delta-4 overexpression upregulates ErbB1/2 expression, Erk signaling pathway, and proliferation in MCF-7 cells. (3/2701)

BACKGROUND: The expression of the rodent phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta-4 (PLCdelta4) has been found to be elevated upon mitogenic stimulation and expression analysis have linked the upregulation of PLCdelta4 expression with rapid proliferation in certain rat transformed cell lines. The human homologue of PLCdelta4 has not been extensively characterized. Accordingly, we investigate the effects of overexpression of human PLCdelta4 on cell signaling and proliferation in this study. RESULTS: The cDNA for human PLCdelta4 has been isolated and expressed ectopically in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of PLCdelta4 selectively activates protein kinase C-phi and upregulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors EGFR/erbB1 and HER2/erbB2, leading to constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells stably expressing PLCdelta4 demonstrates several phenotypes of transformation, such as rapid proliferation in low serum, formation of colonies in soft agar, and capacity to form densely packed spheroids in low-attachment plates. The growth signaling responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible by siRNA. CONCLUSION: Overexpression or dysregulated expression of PLCdelta4 may initiate oncogenesis in certain tissues through upregulation of ErbB expression and activation of ERK pathway. Since the growth responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible, PLCdelta4 itself is not a suitable drug target, but enzymes in pathways activated by PLCdelta4 are potential therapeutic targets for oncogenic intervention.  (+info)

Impairment of B cell receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and growth inhibition in CD72-deficient BAL-17 cells. (4/2701)

CD72 is a 45 kDa B cell-specific type II transmembrane protein of the C-type lectin superfamily. It was originally defined as a receptor-like molecule that regulates B cell activation and differentiation; however, its precise function remains unclear since more recent functional analyses, including a gene targeting study, suggest that CD72 may serve as a negative or a positive regulator of B cell signaling. In the present study, we analyzed the cell-autonomous function of CD72 in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using CD72-deficient cells generated from mature BAL-17 cells. We found that BCR-mediated phosphorylation of CD19, Btk, Vav and phospholipase Cgamma2 and association of CD19 with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase were impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Inositol trisphosphate synthesis was normally induced initially but ablated at 1 min of stimulation in CD72-deficient cells. In the event, Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores remained intact, though influx of extracellular Ca(2+) was severely impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Furthermore, BCR-evoked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and growth inhibition in BAL-17 cells were blocked in the absence of CD72. Significantly, these effects were largely reversed by re-expression of CD72. Thus, CD72 appears to exert a positive effect on BCR signaling pathways leading to Ca(2+) influx and MAPK activation, which in turn may determine the fate of BAL-17 cells.  (+info)

Regulation of mammalian cell growth and death by bacterial redox proteins: relevance to ecology and cancer therapy. (5/2701)

Recent evidence indicates that bacterial redox proteins such as cupredoxins and cytochromes, that are normally involved in electron transfer during respiration, can enter mammalian cells and induce either apoptosis or inhibition of cell cycle progression. Such proteins have also been shown to demonstrate a good deal of specificity for entry and induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, allowing both in vitro cell death and in vivo inhibition of cancer progression. An alteration in the hydrophobicity of the bacterial redox proteins can lead to a switch from apoptosis to growth arrest and vice versa through modulation of the intracellular levels of tumor suppressors. The preferential entry and cytotoxicity of these redox proteins in cancer cells raises interesting questions about the presence of other bacterial proteins that may affect cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase, thereby potentially arresting cancer growth. The intracellular localization of the bacterial redox proteins in nonpathogenic soil bacteria similarly raises questions about their possible role in allowing various nonpathogenic soil bacteria to defend themselves from environmental predators by inducing cytotoxicity when engulfed in large numbers. A new role of the redox proteins in soil bacteria in maintaining an ecological balance among the predators and preys is proposed.  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid attenuates the cytotoxic effects and degree of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation induced by 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in neuroblastoma cells. (6/2701)

PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to 15dPGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostglandin J2). 15dPGJ2, in vitro, halts neuroblastoma cell growth, but reported mechanisms vary. Here we evaluated the modulatory effects of endogenous serum lipid mitogens upon the extent of 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition and on the precise cellular responses of neuroblastoma cells to PPARgamma activation. We show that 15dPGJ2 specifically inhibited cell growth in both complete and delipidated media. 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased cell viability, although the effect was far more marked in delipidated medium than in complete medium. Incubation with 15dPGJ2 in complete medium resulted in cytoplasmic changes characteristic of type II programmed cell death (autophagy), while prior serum lipid removal resulted in cell death via an apoptotic mechanism. These distinct, serum lipid-dependent cellular responses to 15dPGJ2 were accompanied by increases in the expression of a reporter gene construct containing a PPAR response element of 2.3-fold in complete medium, but of 4.8-fold in delipidated medium. Restoration of the serum lysolipid LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) to cells in delipidated medium reduced 15dPGJ2-mediated PPARgamma activation, growth inhibition and cell death; following addition of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate), decreases were apparent but more marginal. Further, while the effects of LPA in delipidated medium were mediated through a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, those of S1P did not involve the MAPK component. These data suggest that the serum lysolipid LPA modulates the degree of PPARgamma activation and the precise cellular response to 15dPGJ2 via activation of a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK pathway.  (+info)

Mutation in mitochondrial complex I ND6 subunit is associated with defective response to hypoxia in human glioma cells. (7/2701)

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-tolerant human glioma cells reduce oxygen consumption rate in response to oxygen deficit, a defense mechanism that contributes to survival under moderately hypoxic conditions. In contrast, hypoxia-sensitive cells lack this ability. As it has been previously shown that hypoxia-tolerant (M006x, M006xLo, M059K) and -sensitive (M010b) glioma cells express differences in mitochondrial function, we investigated whether mitochondrial DNA-encoded mutations are associated with differences in the initial response to oxygen deficit. RESULTS: The mitochondrial genome was sequenced and 23 mtDNA alterations were identified, one of which was an unreported mutation (T-C transition in base pair 14634) in the hypoxia-sensitive cell line, M010b, that resulted in a single amino acid change in the gene encoding the ND6 subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). The T14634C mutation did not abrogate ND6 protein expression, however, M010b cells were more resistant to rotenone, an agent used to screen for Complex I mutations, and adriamycin, an agent activated by redox cycling. The specific function of mtDNA-encoded, membrane-embedded Complex I ND subunits is not known at present. Current models suggest that the transmembrane arm of Complex I may serve as a conformationally driven proton channel. As cellular respiration is regulated, in part, by proton flux, we used homology-based modeling and computational molecular biology to predict the 3D structure of the wild type and mutated ND6 proteins. These models predict that the T14634C mutation alters the structure and orientation of the trans-membrane helices of the ND6 protein. CONCLUSION: Complex I ND subunits are mutational hot spots in tumor mtDNA. Genetic changes that alter Complex I structure and function may alter a cell's ability to respond to oxygen deficit and consolidate hypoxia rescue mechanisms, and may contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that require redox cycling for activation.  (+info)

Microarray analysis reveals genetic pathways modulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia. (8/2701)

BACKGROUND: Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (ZARNESTRA, R115777) has recently demonstrated clinical responses in adults with refractory and relapsed acute leukemias. This study was conducted to identify genetic markers and pathways that are regulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Tipifarnib-mediated gene expression changes in 3 AML cell lines and bone marrow samples from two patients with AML were analyzed on a cDNA microarray containing approximately 7000 human genes. Pathways associated with these expression changes were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. RESULTS: The expression analysis identified a common set of genes that were regulated by tipifarnib in three leukemic cell lines and in leukemic blast cells isolated from two patients who had been treated with tipifarnib. Association of modulated genes with biological functional groups identified several pathways affected by tipifarnib including cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, immunity, and apoptosis. Gene expression changes were verified in a subset of genes using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, regulation of apoptotic genes was found to correlate with increased Annexin V staining in the THP-1 cell line but not in the HL-60 cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic networks derived from these studies illuminate some of the biological pathways affected by FTI treatment while providing a proof of principle for identifying candidate genes that might be used as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity.  (+info)

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Additional file 8: of Macrophages derived exosomes deliver miR-223 to epithelial ovarian cancer cells to elicit a chemoresistant phenotype
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The presence of CTCs in the blood of individuals with cancer is an early indication of disease spread and correlates with survival rate. However, simply enumerating CTCs has not provided researchers and physicians with actionable information to improve care. Previously, there have been no technologies to determine how CTCs respond to drug treatments. Since the critical metastatic functions of CTCs occur in non-adherent (free floating) states like the bloodstream and lymphatic system, a technological device system is needed for analysis of CTCs that preserves this environment.. Cellths technology tethers cells in minutes, permitting immediate, detailed, quantitative, real-time examination. There is no need for cells to grow or express proteins, avoiding the traditional weeks- to months-long cell growth process, and yielding a drug-response study within an hour, said Stuart Martin, PhD, co-inventor of the technology, who is Professor in the Department of Physiology and Program in Oncology at ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cellular processes (cell growth, cell death, cell membrane functions, etc.) Organismal systems (immune system, endocrine system ... The pathway maps are classified into the following sections: Metabolism Genetic information processing (transcription, ... translation, replication and repair, etc.) Environmental information processing (membrane transport, signal transduction, etc ... of manually drawn KEGG pathway maps representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell ...
Thus IEGs are well known as early regulators of cell growth and differentiation signals. However, other findings suggest roles ... Demethylation appears to occur by a DNA repair process involving the GADD45G protein. Activation of Immediate Early Genes by ... The term can describe viral regulatory proteins that are synthesized following viral infection of a host cell, or cellular ... for IEGs in many other cellular processes. In their role as "gateways to genomic response", many IEG products are naturally ...
His were neuronal stem cells, their asymmetrical cell division and processes of growth control. Building on his post-doctoral ... alongside other molecules that also play a role in the process of asymmetric cell division. Since stem cell mitosis is a highly ... it was unknown how stem cells can separate into a self-renewing daughter cell and a specialized differentiating cell at the ... His team was the first to demonstrate that organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) can be used to model ...
Attention is also given to the rudiments of engineered biomolecules in cell signaling, cell growth kinetics, biochemical ... Bioprocess engineering - Design and maintenance of cell-based and enzyme-based processes for the production of fine chemicals ... Thermodynamics and Kinetics (chemistry) - Analysis of reactions involving cell growth and biochemicals. Bioreactor design and ... Biochemical processes govern all living organisms and living processes and the field of biochemistry seeks to understand and ...
... processes such as the cell cycle, meiosis, filamentous growth and mating. Regulation of the cell cycle is done by acting on the ... This then forces the cell to continue with budding, since it is now conditioned against cell-cycle arrest. The daughter cells ... It influences cell size and the cell cycle by binding CLN3 mRNA and inhibiting its translation. This, in turn, inhibits the G1/ ... the WHI3 aggregates have been shown to localize within the mother cell. This results in a mother cell retaining the memory of ...
"Hypothesis testing for neural cell growth experiments using a hybrid branching process model". Biostatistics. 11 (4): 631-643. ... verbal or written statements to be associated with varying degrees of truth values in the course of natural-language processing ...
They have been shown to be vital in cell processes such as growth, cell differentiation, and defense. The small RNAs have also ... Gottesman focused her research on E. coli cells and the process of gene regulation. She began studying the mechanism for energy ... Small RNA are short RNA sequences that have a wide variety of functions within cells. ... play a central role inside the cell. She discovered and elucidated the central features of a new family of proteases that ...
"Human cell growth regulator Ly-1 antibody reactive homologue accelerates processing of preribosomal RNA". Genes to Cells. 19 (4 ... "LYAR - Cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein - Homo sapiens (Human) - LYAR gene & protein". Retrieved 2020- ... there is a higher abundance of C7orf50 mRNA than the average gene within a cell. There does not appear to be a definitive cell ... "SIRT7-Dependent Deacetylation of Fibrillarin Controls Histone H2A Methylation and rRNA Synthesis during the Cell Cycle". Cell ...
occur as single cells or occasionally in pairs or chains, depending on growth conditions. Highly motile species have been ... As a result, A. ferrooxidans may be of interest for bioremediation processes. Acidithiobacillus spp. ... Nitrogen fixation also is an important ecological function carried out by some species in this genus, as is growth using ... The genus comprises motile, rod-shaped cells that can be isolated from low pH environments including low pH microenvironments ...
Molecular Basis for Primary MicroRNA Processing by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex. Cell 125:887-901. Heo I., Joo C, Cho J., Ha M., ... Conserved microRNA miR-8/miR-200 and its target USH/FOG2 control growth by regulating PI3K. Cell 139:1096-1108. Park J.E., Heo ... Kim's lab has made major contributions to the understanding of miRNAs are created and processed in animal cells. These studies ... When this was applied to cancer cells, the proliferation rate of cancer cells dropped to one third of what it was. This ...
This protein may be involved in senescence, cell growth, and immortalization. There is a human ortholog to mouse Set protein ( ... Set binds to DNA in order to negatively regulate neuron apoptotic processes and transcription, functioning as an oncogene. ... There is markedly higher expression seen in T cells, and there is a slightly higher expression pattern shown in other immune ... While expressed relatively highly in all tissues except nervous tissue, it is expressed particularly highly in T cells and ...
UV radiation directed at GO sheets, for example, disrupts bacterial cell activity and colony growth via ROS production. Doping ... this process initializes ROS production similar to the metal nanoparticles. Carbon nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) ... Redox reactions take place in the cell between the metals and oxygen containing species in the cell to produce ROS. Other novel ... particles can behave as molecules when interacting with a cell which allows them to easily penetrate the cell membrane and ...
Nutrients are converted to cell material and energy for life processes including reproduction and growth of living cells. Some ... This process is very laborious, expensive and requires careful planning. In the selection of a wastewater treatment process, ... In many countries and regions ponds are the most widely used treatment process. For this reason, they are one of the processes ... The process relies mostly on maturation ponds for removal of pathogens, although some removal also takes place in the other ...
Cellular signalling is essential for a number of fundamental biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, ... March 2019). "Single-Cell Heterogeneity Analysis and CRISPR Screen Identify Key β-Cell-Specific Disease Genes". Cell Reports. ... Cells are transduced with a CRISPR sgRNA library, and studied for growth over time. By comparing sgRNA abundance in selected ... March 2015). "Genome-wide CRISPR screen in a mouse model of tumor growth and metastasis". Cell. 160 (6): 1246-60. doi:10.1016/j ...
When phosphorus is present in inadequate levels, genetic processes such as cell division and plant growth are impaired. Hence, ... and phospholipid cell membranes. Within a plant cell these functions are imperative for function, in photophosphorylation for ... The stunted growth induced by phosphorus deficiency has been correlated with smaller leaf sizes and a lessened number of leaves ... In some plants the leaf pigment change as a result of this process can turn leaves a dark purplish color. Detecting phosphorus ...
During rapid cell growth, higher quantities of R5P and NADPH are needed for nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. ... This process is further enabled by triosephosphate isomerase inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate, the PKM substrate. R5P and its ... The formation of R5P is highly dependent on the cell growth and the need for NADPH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ... The reaction is catalyzed by ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase Diseases have been linked to R5P imbalances in cells. ...
The loss of methylation within these areas triggers an irregular cell growth, resulting in embryonic neoplasms. Numata, Shusuke ... Neuronatin expression functions not only in development, but other processes throughout the body. It also plays a direct and ... Neuronatin begins the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into cells with a neural fate by increasing their calcium ... This causes the cells to undergo apoptosis, thus leading to diabetes mellitus. Its effects on glycogen metabolism through the ...
Temperatures exceeding 92 °C inhibits growth, as does sulfur and hydrogen. Thermosphaera cells are heterotrophic, processing ... Cells of Thermosphaera are cocci (spherical) and form grape-like aggregates during the exponential growth phase. In the late ... Aggregates were shown to have several flagella; single cells could have as many as eight. The cell envelope is an amorphous ... exponential and stationary growth phases, smaller groups, including some single cells, were visible. ...
Before it begins to develop, the morphological characteristics of a MSC are: A small cell body with a few cell processes that ... Osteogenic cells that originate from the periosteum increase appositional growth and a bone collar is formed. The bone collar ... Mesenchymal stem cells within mesenchyme or the medullary cavity of a bone fracture initiate the process of intramembranous ... At this point, morphological changes in the MSCs begin to occur: The cell body is now larger and rounder; the long, thin cell ...
The process of hair growth occurs in distinct sequential stages. The first stage is called anagen and is the active growth ... Lin, K. K.; Andersen, B. (2008). "Have Hair Follicle Stem Cells Shed Their Tranquil Image?". Cell Stem Cell. 3 (6): 581-582. ... This process cuts the hair off from its blood supply and from the cells that produce new hair. When a club hair is completely ... The hair follicle regulates hair growth via a complex interaction between hormones, neuropeptides, and immune cells. This ...
Cytokines are a class of proteins that regulates inflammation, cell signaling, and various cell processes such as growth and ... Cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, such as macrophages, T Cells, and B Cells, may then enter into the ... Astrocytes are glial cells that are the most abundant cells in the brain. They are involved in maintenance and support of ... Additionally, T cells may enter through the blood-brain barrier, be activated by local antigen presenting cells, and attack the ...
The process of staining and mounting sample cells using indirect immunofluorescence is time consuming. Even though DAPI ... Cancer, characterized by uncontrollable cell growth mechanisms and high tendencies for proliferation and metastasis, is highly ... This premise is based on the fact that as the mitotic cell divides and the daughter cells move further apart, stress on the DNA ... While the frequency of chromatin bridges may be greater in tumor cells relative to normal cells, it may not be practical to ...
The influence of the genotype on the process of ageing of chick lens cells in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 1988 Feb;174(2):330-43. ... cellular growth rate, and soluble factors. All of this indicated that the epigenetic programme was intrinsic to the cells, but ... Relationship between crystallin mRNA expression in retina cells and their capacity to re-differentiate into lens cells. Nature ... Surprisingly, embryonic chick retinal cells can also differentiate into lens cells under certain conditions when grown isolated ...
They are involved in a host of physiological processes including, growth, cell differentiation, homeostasis, osteogenesis, ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate, they all operate through essentially the same pathway: A ...
... growth and shape. Orch OR combines the Penrose-Lucas argument with Hameroff's hypothesis on quantum processing in microtubules ... Kikkawa, M., Metlagel, Z. (2006). "A molecular "zipper" for microtubules". Cell. 127 (7): 1302-1304. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12 ... This provided Penrose with a candidate for the physical basis of the non-computable process that he hypothesized to exist in ... Orch OR also required gap junctions between neurons and glial cells, yet Binmöller et. al. proved in 1992 that these don't ...
The common term for the elongation is acid growth although the process does not involve cell division. Mimosa pudica is a plant ... This results in an osmotic gradient that draws water out of the affected cells, so that they temporarily shrink. This pulls the ... because many examples of thigmonasty depend on pre-accumulated turgor or on bistable mechanisms rather than growth or cell ... In its extended position, the cells of the entire collar of collenchyma are distended with water. On receiving the action ...
In order for this to work, sufficient oxygen as well as water and nutrients (for cell growth) is to be supplied. Contaminated ... Depending on the process design the collected water is recirculated or subjected to further treatment. At present: 2 types of ... The biodegradation processes that occurs is provided by the bacteria themselves. ...
Yu and her team were the first to identify [as a critical regulator in processes influencing tumor cell growth and survival. ... Stat3 siRNA is used to disable STAT3 production, while CpG binds to the tumor cells and stimulates immune cells. In this way, ... Andreas Herrmann at City of Hope are being used by a newly formed company, LA Cell, Inc., which hopes to develop cell- ... and determined that it helps to create an environment supportive of the tumor cell, protecting it from nearby immune cells. By ...
In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph ... which occupies the spaces between cells. As the blood and the surrounding cells continually add and remove substances from the ... Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. The word lymph is derived from the name of the ancient Roman deity ... Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. Lymph also transports fats from the digestive system (beginning in ...
These receptors are involved in a host of physiological processes including, growth, cell differentiation, homeostasis, ... These cells are responsive to both autocrine and paracrine activin B signaling, which controls their proliferation. Cells of ... Myostatin, a TGF-beta superfamily member, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. Myostatin binds to ACVR2B and to a lesser ... The activin type 2 receptors belong to a larger TGF-beta receptor family and modulate signals for transforming growth factor ...
Fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors regulate fetal bone growth and are expressed in cranial sutures ... Neurobehavioural impairment includes problems with attention and planning, processing speed, visual spatial skills, language, ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... Compensatory growth occurs in a parallel plane, as well as in a perpendicular plane.[10][11] An increase in growth at the ...
This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Sometimes the inflammation shifts from a predominantly neutrophilic process to a lymphocytic process. A cicatricial alopecia ... If the stem cells and sebaceous gland are destroyed, there is then no possibility for regeneration of the hair follicle, and ... 2010 Jan 6. Ramos-e-Silva, M; Pirmez, R (2014). "Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit". ... The goal of treatment is to decrease or eliminate the lymphocytic inflammatory cells that are attacking and destroying the hair ...
"A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ...
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515-20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the ... It has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ...
The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in ... They can therefore tolerate either a slower collection process (carnivores that feed on larger vertebrates) or a slower ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... organised processes found in other Marxist-Leninist states.[414] Within Democratic Kampuchea, there was much regional and local ... The party's main area of growth was in the rural provinces and by 1965 membership was at 2000.[128] In April 1965, Sâr ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ...
Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • peptide hormone processing. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cell- ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ... Biological process. • progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... Afro-Cuban Comes Home: The Birth and Growth of Congo Music. Original Music cassette tape (1986). ... This process eventually resulted in the establishment of several different distinct regional genres, such as soukous.[78] ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ...
... to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell ... The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) are critical to this process, in addition to lysine ... They would have fewer side-effects, while still promoting muscle and bone tissue growth and regeneration. These claims are, ... accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. In humans, prolonged periods of ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • intramembranous ossification. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ... "MN1-TEL myeloid oncoprotein expressed in multipotent progenitors perturbs both myeloid and lymphoid growth and causes T- ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. ... Some of the smallest veins (veinlets) may have their endings in the areoles, a process known as areolation.[26] These minor ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... In children, the two main symptoms are obesity and decreased linear growth.[7] ... Diagnosing Cushing's disease is a multidisciplinary process involving doctors, endocrinologists, radiologists, surgeons, and ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... These blockages occur as a result of the following four abnormal processes: increased oily sebum production (influenced by ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... The exact process by which Candida species switch from acting as normal oral commensals (saprophytic) state in the carrier to ... These conditions all favor the growth of C. albicans. Sometimes dentures become very worn, or they have been constructed to ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ...
The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and repair. Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in ... growth of new blood vessels .,[39] and "leg-like pods" on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ...
After several weeks of growth in the bone marrow, expansion of HSC and their progeny is sufficient to normalize the blood cell ... are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood through a process known as apheresis. ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth (1986). Electricity in Economic Growth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ... The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of ...
The Caulobacter cell cycle regulatory system controls many modular subsystems that organize the progression of cell growth and ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ...
... cell fate specification; photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ... The process of phototransduction occurs in the retina.[13] The retina has many layers of various cell types.[13] The best-known ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
TGF-β is important for cell proliferation and differentiation during skeletogenesis. During this process, TGF-β can stimulate ... Deletion of the Trsp gene in osteochondroprogenitor cells results in abnormal bone growth, delayed ossification, ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ...
"The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187-1193. doi:10.2307/3869226. JSTOR 3869226. PMC 160085 . PMID 1821764.. ... Abiotic stresses like frost, drought and increased salinity are a limiting factor to the growth of tomatoes.[15] While no ... To understand the mechanisms involved in the process of ripening, scientists have genetically engineered potatoes.[6] ... "Plant Cell Reports. 12: 644-647. doi:10.1007/bf00232816.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric ... Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
... with the most obvious sign being a noticeable slowing of growth. The deficiency may be genetic. Among children without growth ... Anthropometric measurements provide are very beneficial tools to the diagnostic process of genetic skeletal dysplasias. The ... 2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... It can also be due to one or more of many abnormal conditions, such as chronic (prolonged) growth hormone or thyroid hormone ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Lateral branches began to show reduced growth and some were no longer in evidence on the 36-year-old tree. Apical growth ... Wind bore seed dispersal involves two processes, namely; local neighborhood dispersal (LND) and long- distance dispersal (LDD ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ...
More generally, the growth of complexity may be driven by the co-evolution between an organism and the ecosystem of predators, ... The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... This process has been sometimes described as a complexifying ratchet.[23] These supplemental genes can then be co-opted by ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, in a process linked to androgen receptor levels.[9] ... In adulthood, DHT contributes to balding, prostate growth, and sebaceous gland activity. ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ...
The emergence of at least one strand of silk from a given ear of corn is defined as growth stage R1, and the emergence of silk ... The pollen tube is produced by the single vegetative cell in the pollen grain, which passes its cytoplasm, nucleus and two ... sperm cells into the tube. The tube extends itself at the apex only, in an actin polymerization dependent process, and the ... The silk lengthens from the basal ovules during the 10 to 14 days previous to growth stage R1; this is due to a change of shape ...
uncontrolled mitosis (growth by division beyond the normal limits). *anaplasia: the cells in the neoplasm have an obviously ... This process is repeated for a total of 10 to 30 treatments, depending on the type of tumor. This additional treatment provides ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...
They act as growth factors in the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and tissue growth.[13] In accordance, therapeutic ... Androgen synthesis inhibitors are enzyme inhibitors that prevent the biosynthesis of androgens.[62] This process occurs mainly ... steroidal AR antagonists are able to increase prostate weight and accelerate prostate cancer cell growth in the absence of more ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ...
Through this unique technology process, newborn cells are encouraged to naturally produce the vital proteins and growth factors ... In addition, the human multipotent cell conditioned media produced through Histogens technology process can be found in the ... The multipotent cells secrete a variety of soluble and insoluble molecules associated with stem cell niches in the body, as ... stem cells by delivering a proprietary complex of multipotent human proteins that have been shown to support stem cell growth ...
... growth and production can lead to better vaccines and possibly more effective cancer immunotherapy. ... identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells ... which signals cell cycle arrest in na ve CD8 T cells," Lacorazza said. "This inhibitory process is important to T cells because ... Researchers say, identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells growth and production can lead ...
Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. Marcela ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ...
In addition, the electronic structure is explored and discussed for solar cells applications. ... The Bi2S3 was fabricated by a thiol-amine solution process and the BiSI conversion was achieved by chemical reaction between ... Pb-based hybrid perovskite solar cells, despite their advantages, face challenges in commercialization. In recent years, Bi- ... Controlled Growth of BiSI Nanorod-Based Films Through a Two-Step Solution Process for Solar Cell Applications by Yong Chan Choi ...
... ... "Hybrid computational modeling of cell population and mass transfer dynamics in tissue growth processes." (2005) Diss., Rice ... The model has three major components: (a) a discrete algorithm simulating individual cell activities and cell-cell interactions ... Our simulations produce tumor growth curves similar to those observed clinically. The predicted range of tumor cell acid ...
10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically - Page 300 15 including work step by step written ... Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think ... Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/Think ... Next Answer Chapter 10, Cell Growth and Division - Assessment - 10.2 The Process of Cell Division - Understand Key Concepts/ ...
Home Cancers Addiction to Life-Saving, Self-Digestion Process Can Aid Cancer Cells in Tumor Growth ... White and colleagues have found that cancer cells induce autophagy and this self-cannibalization process enables the growth of ... Addiction to Life-Saving, Self-Digestion Process Can Aid Cancer Cells in Tumor Growth. ... Autophagy is a cellular self-cannibalization process where cells eat themselves to survive starvation. Eileen White, PhD, ...
Cell Growth Processes Remove constraint Subject: Cell Growth Processes ... Genomic Response to Growth Factors: Research Review (Period covered: February 1987 to February 1990) Date:. April 1990. ... Genomic Response to Growth Factors: Progress Report: September, 1991 to July, 1996 Date:. 24 July 1996. ...
... Orlova, Anna ... The use of nonphenolic linker did not improve retention of the radioactivity in A431 carcinoma cell line. The use of the ... Low molecular weight of epidermal growth factor (EGF) enables better intratumoral penetration in comparison with larger ... radiometal label provided an appreciable prolongation of radioactivity residence inside the cell. ...
ΔN-APP expression and processing was determined by immunoblot assay using α-APP C-terminus. (F) Total cell fractions (T), ... Cell Symposia - Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies: CRISPR, Stem Cells, and Beyond. San Francisco, 2-4 March ... B) Single cells of WT and mutant strains of Dictyostelium were grown in the presence of bacteria for identical times. Growth ... D) Single cells of ps2-null cells expressing either PS2WT or PS2DD/AA were grown in the presence of bacteria for identical ...
Effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on growth and apoptotic process in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines. Simona Lucchi2, ... Effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on growth and apoptotic process in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (. ... In conclusion, 8-Cl-cAMP has a potent inhibitory effect on WRO, NPA and ARO cell growth which is accompanied by a pro-apoptotic ... Therefore, we tested the effects of 8-Cl-cAMP on the growth and apoptotic process in anaplastic (ARO), papillary (NPA) and ...
Research is still ongoing on the optimization of bioreactor yields focusing on the increase of the maximum achievable cell ... A new process-based model is proposed to describe the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured on glucose as carbon ... Model simulations reproduced data from classic and new experiments of yeast growth in batch and fed-batch cultures. Model and ... The presented results clarify the dynamics of microbial growth under different feeding conditions and highlight the relevance ...
Nanoparticle-induced grain growth of Carbon-free solution processed CuIn(S,Se)2 solar cell with 6% efficiency.pdf. 911.39 kB. ... Nanoparticle-induced grain growth of carbon-free solution-processed CuIn(S,Se)2 solar cell with 6% efficiency. ... Nanoparticle-Induced Grain Growth of Carbon-Free Solution-Processed CuIn(S,Se) 2 Solar Cell with 6% Efficiency . ACS Applied ... Chalcopyrite-based solar cell deposited by solution processes is of great research interest due to ease of fabrication and cost ...
Dissociation of vitamin D3 and anti-estrogen mediated growth regulation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells ... Sodium butyrate induces retinoblastoma protein dephosphorylation, p16 expression and growth arrest of colon cancer cells ... An A/G-rich motif in the rat fibroblast growth factor-2 gene confers enhancer activity on a heterologous promoter in neonatal ... LDL oxidation by arterial wall macrophages depends on the oxidative status in the lipoprotein and in the cells: Role of ...
... for treating EGFR-TK mutation-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.. ... Afatinib for treating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung ... Guidance development process. How we develop NICE technology appraisal guidance. Is this guidance up to date?. We reviewed the ... Evidence-based recommendations on afatinib (Giotrif) for treating EGFR-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell ...
... scientists managed to uncover a six-step process by which hair grows and stimulated hair growth. ... The six-step process of hair growth. Lei and team used skin organoids derived from both newborn and adult skin cells. ... Specifically, they used progenitor cells, which are a type of cell that is more differentiated than stem cells. They ... in an attempt to jump-start the hair growth process.. Significantly, Lei and team could successfully stimulate hair growth in ...
HbS Polymerization Is Associated with Impaired Hemoglobin Processing.. Hemoglobin processing was impaired, as demonstrated by ... 2005) Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum growth in sickle cells in low oxygen environment and candle-jar. Acta Trop 94:25-34. ... Parasite Growth in AS RBCs Is Stalled at Low O2 Concentration.. To examine the effect of HbS on P. falciparum 3D7 IG06 growth, ... Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in sickle cell trait erythrocytes is driven by oxygen-dependent growth inhibition. Natasha ...
FDA will oversee cell growth; USDA will manage "harvest," including…. *04 Cheese Flavors Evolve in Both Taste and Usage. Cheese ... Chemical Processing , Control , Control Design , Food Processing , Pharmaceutical Manufacturing , Plant Services , Smart ... Indulgence is driving growth in this steady category; new filtration…. *05 Sugar Now Considered More Villainous Than Fat. ... Food Processing Digital Edition Access the entire print issue on-line and be notified each month via e-mail when your new issue ...
... tropicalis cells appeared to be depolarization of cell growth, and the resulting swollen cells grew as polar pseudohyphal cells ... During the second growth phase (doubling time 7.4 h), pseudohyphal cells appeared, projecting from the swollen yeast cells. ... During the first growth phase (doubling time 2.4 h), there was an accumulation of swollen spherical yeast cells, instead of the ... In this study, the process of ethanol-induced mycelial growth in this organism was examined in combination with cytological ...
Changes in Calcitonin Gene RNA Processing during Growth of a Human Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Line. Cancer Research. 1989 ... Changes in Calcitonin Gene RNA Processing during Growth of a Human Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Line. / Nelkin, Barry D.; ... Our data rather suggest that TT cells reversibly alter alternative RNA-processing patterns dependent upon growth conditions in ... Our data rather suggest that TT cells reversibly alter alternative RNA-processing patterns dependent upon growth conditions in ...
... and Metabolism of Cells In Culture V1 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780125983013, 9780323148511 ... Postbiosynthetic Processes. V. Cellular Physiology and Complex Carbohydrates. References. Author Index. Subject Index. ... Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells in Culture, Volume 1, summarizes the state of knowledge of the growth, nutrition, ... Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells In Culture V1 1st Edition. Write a review ...
Hair Growth Composition Has Neural Stem Cell Extract US Patent No. 9,820,933 B2 awarded to research university foundation. ...
Cell Growth Differ. 3 495-505 1992. GO terms. Biological Process. No terms assigned in this category. ... It may be involved in germ cell differentiation during meiotic prophase. Sequence analysis predicts this protein to be 10.8kDa ... Identification and characterization of the regulated pattern of expression of a novel mouse gene, meg1, during the meiotic cell ...
Thus the healthy tissue trapped the cancer cells. ... Reversing Negative Effects of Maternal Obesity on Process. ... Cancer Cells Disguise as Immune Cells to Spread Secondary Tumors in New Sites. The main reason why people die of cancer is that ... Tumors cause cells, called fibroblasts, to stiffen the surrounding tissue so that cancer cells can grip it. This allows them to ... New Method That Traps Cancer Cells and Prevents the Growth of Secondary Tumors. ...
Western blot analysis and image processing. Protein concentrations of cell lysates were determined using the Bradford assay ( ... Cell number, cell growth kinetic, and viability. Cells were seeded in 6-well plates 24 h before transfection. Transfection was ... Knockdown of HDAC5 and HDAC9 reduces cell population growth and increases doubling time. A, cell counts of Daoy cells were ... siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 or HDAC9 in medulloblastoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and cell viability. ...
Genetic heterogeneity of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines revealed by a rapid and ... Rapid detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer by the SMart-Amplification Process. Clin Cancer ... Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in non-small cell lung cancer using highly sensitive and fast TaqMan PCR assay. ... Analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and acquired resistance ...
When this regulation falters, it wreaks havoc in the cell, he added. "Cell-cycle control is a process that is most often ... The way cells divide to form new cells - to support growth, to repair damaged tissues, or simply to maintain our healthy adult ... The steps leading a quiet cell to make and divvy up new parts to form daughter cells rely on some of the cells most complex ... Cell Growth Discovery by UCSF Team Has Implications for Targeting Cancer. By Jeffrey Norris , , October 11, 2013 ...
Journal news - New fast-track decision process. Do you have a paper with reviews from another journal that youd like to submit ... Journal of Cell Science, Journal of Cell Biology and Molecular Biology of the Cell have announced a new manuscript transfer ... Here, Domenico Russo and team review the existing literature on the role of glycosphingolipids in cell fate determination. ... Lipid droplets (LDs) are fat storage organelles that are central to lipid metabolism in cells. LDs interact with numerous other ...
... the apical cell preserving its tetrahedral shape. In cell lineages derived from the daughter cells, the division planes may ... This apical cell is usually four-sided (tetrahedral), with three faces directed downward, and the fourth capping the apex. ... Daughter cells are continually cut off sequentially from the three inner faces, ... with a single cell at its tip, or apex, from which all the tissues of the stem arise. ...
From Cell Growth to the 3.0 Å Resolution Crystal Structure of Cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Athina Zouni ... Primary Processes of Photosynthesis, Part 2: Principles and Apparatus Editor: Gernot Renger ...
  • What we discovered was that ELF4 activates an inhibitor that leads to cell arrest, stopping naive T cells from proliferation. (
  • Lacorazza and his research team focused on how ELF4 affected the process of inhibiting proliferation of CD8 T cells. (
  • These mice had a larger memory T cell response, indicating that the absence of ELF4 eliminated control over the proliferation of CD8 T cells. (
  • Lacorazza said these are still hypotheses, but understanding the process that controls T cell proliferation will help in future research. (
  • Their proliferation depends on diffusible signals from neighboring cells in the epiblast, including fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4). (
  • Our proliferation data show that growth of ARO, NPA and WRO was inhibited by more than 50% after the treatment with 8-Cl-cAMP in a time- and dose-dependent manners. (
  • Since MAPKs are involved in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, we investigated modification of ERKs, that are preferentially activated in response to mitogens, and p-38 MAPKs, that are activated in response to cell stresses. (
  • We also evaluated the Akt phosphorylation, as a marker of the PI3K proliferative pathway that as been implicated in thyroid cell proliferation, and we found poor modifications of Akt phosphorylation state after 8-Cl-cAMP treatment. (
  • Myc is a critical gene in governing cell proliferation and survival, activities that it carries out by regulating the expression of other genes involved in cell metabolism. (
  • Cancer, a disease characterized by unregulated cell proliferation, is caused by the stepwise accumulation of mutations in certain key genes. (
  • Differential processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein directs human embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation into neuronal precursor cells. (
  • Cell proliferation involves a highly regulated series of events in which the cellular genome is replicated faithfully during a synthesis (S) phase and each of the two resulting copies are segregated properly during mitosis (M). These two critical events are normally separated by two growth phases, G 1 following mitosis and G 2 following S phase. (
  • Here, we elucidate cell cycle functions of the highly conserved and abundant chromatin‐associated cell proliferation factor HCF‐1, a host‐cell factor involved in herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate‐early (IE) gene transcription. (
  • The cell proliferation arrest is accompanied by a conspicuous multinucleated (primarily binucleated) phenotype in ∼15% of the arrested cells, indicating an associated cytokinesis defect ( Reilly and Herr, 2002 ). (
  • The ability of ior egf/r3 Mab to bind the extracellular domain of EGFR inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in NCI-H125 cells was also demonstrated. (
  • For these reasons, in this work we evaluated the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 Mab, the murine counterpart of nimotuzumab [ 8 ], in lung carcinomas as well as, the ability of this Mab to bind the extracellular domain of EGFR inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line. (
  • A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cell proliferation, wound healing, and occasionally cellular differentiation. (
  • While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell proliferation, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. (
  • While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on cell growth or cell proliferation. (
  • LASP1 knockdown dramatically suppressed U87 and U251 cell proliferation. (
  • LASP1 may function as an oncogene in GBM and regulate cell proliferation and chemosensitivity in a PI3K/AKT-dependent mechanism. (
  • There are two major areas of interest in his laboratory: a) regulation of cell growth, metabolism and proliferation via the mTOR/S6K pathway and b) the role of Coenzyme A and its derivatives in cellular metabolism and gene expression. (
  • [1] This is not to be confused with growth in the context of cell division, referred to as proliferation, where a cell, known as the "mother cell", grows and divides to produce two " daughter cells " (M phase). (
  • Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. (
  • While many factors contribute to the development of cancer, one hallmark is the loss of balance between cell proliferation and cell death, resulting in increased cell replication and the failure of damaged cells to be removed through apoptosis [ 8 ]. (
  • Indeed, many studies strongly suggested that the loss of apoptotic control in favor of cell proliferation is responsible for breast cancer initiation and progression [ 10 ]. (
  • On the basis of the assay, the market is segmented into cell viability & toxicity assays, cell identification assays, cell proliferation assays, cell apoptosis assays, and others. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antiproliferative effects of resveratrol were determined by the 3-Bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) cell proliferation assay. (
  • Glitches in these processes can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and disease. (
  • The premature entry of a cell into the S phase is a potential cause of genetic instability, which in turn can propel a cell into uncontrolled proliferation, resulting in cancer. (
  • Mouse bone marrow (BM) stromal cell conditioned medium (CM) from our long-term lymphoid culture system selectively induces the in vitro proliferation and presumptive differentiation of pre-pro-B cells (B220 + , HSA − , TdT − or TdT + , cμ − ) from adult rat, mouse, and human BM. (
  • The results also show that anti-IL-7 mAb fails to neutralize the pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating activity in IL-7 (+/+) CM. Yet rIL-7 enables IL-7 (−/−) CM to induce proliferation of pre-pro-B cells, and to "prime" them to respond directly to monomeric IL-7. (
  • Interleukin 7 (IL-7) was first identified as a bone marrow (BM) 5 stromal cell-derived cytokine capable of stimulating the proliferation of murine B cell precursors in vitro ( 1 ). (
  • To test whether apoptosis occurs in 8-Cl-cAMP treated cells, we analyzed cell cycle, DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. (
  • We found induction of apoptosis in all the cell lines with different sensitivities. (
  • Subsequent to this activation, gelatin degradation was stimulated and tumor-cell apoptosis was decreased, with reduced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11 and BIK. (
  • Furthermore, orthotopic implantation of ADAM12-expressing MCF7 cells in nude mice produced tumors with increased levels of activated MMP-14 and confirmed that ADAM12 protects tumor cells against apoptosis, leading to increased tumor progression. (
  • they cause target cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis. (
  • cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence or apoptosis. (
  • Cell cycle checkpoint signaling: cell cycle arrest versus apoptosis. (
  • Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. (
  • Apoptosis is an active form of cell suicide controlled by a network of genes and is an essential process during development as well as playing a key role in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancer [ 9 ]. (
  • Tumor cells do not undergo apoptosis easily because they have defects in their ability to activate the death signaling pathway. (
  • Apoptotic effects of resveratrol on sensitive K562 and resistant K562/IMA-3 cells were determined through changes in caspase-3 activity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptosis by annexin V-(FITC). (
  • Apoptosis was induced in 58.7%- and 43.3% of K562 and K562/IMA-3 cells, respectively, in response to 100 μM resveratrol. (
  • We previously reported that SBDS-deficient cells overexpress Fas, undergo accelerated spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis and grow slowly. (
  • Apoptosis and cell growth were evaluated with and without antioxidants by annexin V/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. (
  • Importantly, balancing ROS levels by antioxidants rescued SBDS-deficient cells from spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis and reduced cell growth. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: ROS levels are increased in SBDS-deficient cells, which leads to increased apoptosis and decreased cell growth. (
  • 2009).. One way of self-repair is by apoptosis or programmed cell death which is normal for cells that are replaceable. (
  • Nerve cells, brain cells and cardiovascular cells are irreplaceable and therefore do not undergo apoptosis (Cranton, E. MD. Bypassing Bypass. (
  • Although TGFβ is considered to be a potent tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, principally through its ability to cause growth arrest and apoptosis, numerous reports show that TGFβ can switch to tumor promoter during neoplastic progression (reviewed in ref. 8 ). (
  • Histogen's technology focuses on stimulating a patient's own stem cells by delivering a proprietary complex of multipotent human proteins that have been shown to support stem cell growth and differentiation. (
  • Together with Fgf4, Nodal also acts directly on neighboring ExE to sustain a microenvironment that inhibits precocious differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. (
  • Pharmacological inhibition of Errβ blocks the proliferative effect of Fgf4 on TSCs and triggers their differentiation toward the polyploid giant cell fate, substantiating the conclusion that it is an essential stem cell marker ( 7 ). (
  • It may be involved in germ cell differentiation during meiotic prophase. (
  • The cells have a restricted metabolism concerned primarily in maintaining a low rate of increase in cell number, and they themselves, as well as their immediate derivatives, take no part in organogenesis or associated differentiation. (
  • They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. (
  • For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis). (
  • IL-5 - Induces differentiation of activated B cells and eosinophils. (
  • it cost-effectively supports the survival, growth, and differentiation of many cell lines by providing nutrients, growth signals, and protection from stress. (
  • It is the soluble and insoluble compositions of multipotent proteins and growth factors which make up Histogen's products. (
  • Through this unique technology process, newborn cells are encouraged to naturally produce the vital proteins and growth factors from which the Company has developed its rich product portfolio. (
  • The fight against infections prompts creation of memory T cells that then "remember" antigens or proteins found on cells infected with viruses or bacteria. (
  • Low molecular weight of epidermal growth factor (EGF) enables better intratumoral penetration in comparison with larger targeting proteins, but the cellular retention of EGF-associated radioactivity is poor for directly iodinated EGF. (
  • UCSF researchers have discovered that production of proteins (balls) that work together as molecular machines to perform key functions for the cell at particular phases of cell division - G1 (gray), S (blue) and mitosis (green) - is ramped up and down in a coordinated way, regulated by translation of a gene's messenger RNA into the amino acid building blocks of protein. (
  • We have found that these proteins are regulated specifically and exquisitely during the cell cycle," Ruggero said. (
  • More specifically, the researchers found that this coordinated timing of protein production during the cell cycle is largely governed at the tail end of gene expression, within the ribosome, where cellular machinery acts on messenger RNA to churn out the chains of amino acids that eventually fold into functional form as proteins. (
  • The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free flowing or membrane bound, along with different internal compartments known as organelles . (
  • Orderly progression from one phase of the cell cycle to the other is mediated mainly by the regulation of gene expression, and key factors of this process are often transcriptional regulatory proteins. (
  • However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. (
  • Individual growth factor proteins tend to occur as members of larger families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. (
  • 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation. (
  • Proteins are functional units of cells that assemble in a precise manner to control cellular processes. (
  • At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. (
  • Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF- κ B, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4). (
  • To better understand the mechanism of branching microtubule nucleation, we set out to reconstitute the process outside of the cell using purified proteins," said Sabine Petry, PhD, assistant professor of molecular biology at Princeton. (
  • Although this seeming alphabet soup of protein acronyms can be confusing to lay people, these proteins are of utmost interest to cancer researchers because they play an essential role in the cell cycle. (
  • Disruptions in the breakdown of proteins associated with the cell cycle can lead to cancer, the uncontrolled growth of cells. (
  • One principle in halting the growth of cancer cells is to disable their ability to form proteins with which to form duplicate cells. (
  • IR also affects the activity or abundance of proteases, growth factors, cytokines, and adhesion proteins that are involved in tissue remodeling (reviewed in ref. 5 ). (
  • These tumor cells are "addicted" to autophagy to support the metabolism of cancer cells. (
  • Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells in Culture, Volume 1, summarizes the state of knowledge of the growth, nutrition, and metabolism of various types of cell cultures. (
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) are fat storage organelles that are central to lipid metabolism in cells. (
  • It is a collection of manually drawn KEGG pathway maps representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell and the organism. (
  • The pathway maps are classified into the following sections: Metabolism Genetic information processing (transcription, translation, replication and repair, etc. (
  • We found that the high oxygen consumption phase of the YMC can coincide exactly with the S phase of the cell division cycle, suggesting that oxidative metabolism and DNA replication are not incompatible. (
  • The main focus of Ian's research is the study of basic mechanisms by which cell growth and metabolism are regulated in normal and cancer cells. (
  • TORONTO,Canada, Feb 18, 2014] - A protein that has been known until recently as part of a complex communication network within the cell also plays a direct role in regulating sugar metabolism, according to a new study published in the journal Science Signaling (February 18, 2014). (
  • Cell growth and metabolism are tightly controlled processes in our cells. (
  • Mohamed Soliman, a PhD candidate at the Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, found a unique role for the p66Shc adaptor protein in regulating glucose metabolism and cell growth. (
  • Soliman comments "we found that silencing the adaptor p66Shc in cells, enhances not only glucose metabolism, but also the metabolism of molecules involved in the making the cells building blocks, resulting in overall increased cell growth. (
  • CYR61 is a novel gene associated with temperature-dependent changes in fish metabolism as revealed by cDNA microarray analysis on a medaka Oryzias latipes cell line. (
  • Finally, the hybrid model is used to study the acid-mediated growth of solid tumors. (
  • Eileen White, PhD , associate director for basic science at CINJ, and collaborators previously discovered that cancer cells can take advantage of the autophagy survival pathway to aid their growth into tumors. (
  • In this new study, Dr. White and colleagues have found that cancer cells induce autophagy and this self-cannibalization process enables the growth of the most aggressive tumors. (
  • It is also often mutated in other common B cell tumors, such as mantle cell lymphoma. (
  • The researchers found that in B cell tumors, mutated overactive versions of the Notch protein directly drive the expression of the Myc gene and many other genes that participate in B cell signaling pathways. (
  • Tumors cause cells, called fibroblasts, to stiffen the surrounding tissue so that cancer cells can grip it. (
  • The researchers said, "Since most deaths from cancer are caused when cancer cells travel to new sites in the body and grow as secondary tumors, the new method may lead to better ways to control the disease and save more lives. (
  • Erik Sahai from the Francis Crick Institute and co-lead author of the study said, "This could be an exciting new way to harness the potential of the healthy tissue surrounding cancers to contain and restrain aggressive tumors, stopping cancer cells from breaking away and moving to new places in the body. (
  • Ruggero reported key evidence in 2010 suggesting that this stage of protein production, called "translation," might be an often-neglected process in many tumors, ranging from lymphomas, multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. (
  • Since the identification of some alterations in the expression of both epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) in lung cancer pathogenesis, several therapeutic targeting agents have been employed for the treatment of lung tumors overexpressing these molecules [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Furthermore, despite the fact that many tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, breast cancer cells can subsequently survive and gain resistance to the treatment [ 7 ]. (
  • Tumors are the result of abnormal cell growth. (
  • Tumors form when this process breaks down. (
  • As cancerous tumors grow, cancer cells can break off and travel throughout the body, forming new tumors. (
  • mAbs capable of down-modulating the receptor expression are known to reverse the transformed phenotype and inhibit the growth of experimental tumors ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Thus, certain genes such as RAS and p53 are often mutated in different cancers, suggesting that some deregulated cellular processes are common to many, if not all, tumours. (
  • Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. (
  • Ideally, further examination of the autophagy cycle will lead to the identification of a certain point along that pathway that will compromise cancer cell survival. (
  • Effects of (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol on the oxidative pathway of cancer cells. (
  • Another surprising finding was the direct link between Notch and genes involved in other B cell signaling pathways. (
  • For example, Notch activates genes involved in B cell receptor signaling, which is an established drug target in these B cell cancers. (
  • For example, studies of inherited mutations in tumour-suppressor genes (which usually keep the brakes on cell growth) show that some cell types are highly susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas others with the same mutations seem to be resistant. (
  • HCF‐1 is a highly conserved and abundant chromatin‐associated host cell factor required for transcriptional activation of herpes simplex virus immediate‐early genes by the virion protein VP16. (
  • Global Immortalized cell line market has been segmented on the basis of methods, which includes virus induction, hTERT expression, inactivation of tumor suppression genes, and other methods. (
  • He's also Deputy Director at the Institute of Healthy Ageing.A major focus of his current work is understanding the genes and biochemical processes by which reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling and dietary restriction increase lifespan. (
  • When these genes aren't fully activated or are mutated, cells lose their ability to limit their own growth. (
  • Canadian and Finnish researchers have identified a protein called Wnt4, which can stimulate the production of T-cells, the white blood cells that recognise and kill infectious agents. (
  • Here, we show that Fgf4 expression is induced by the transforming growth factor β-related protein Nodal. (
  • D) Protein samples were collected from native and APP-expressing CHO cells untreated or incubated with DAPT, and from growing native WT Dictyostelium or WT, aph1 -null, ps1;ps2 -null and ps1 -null Dictyostelium that express ΔN-APP. (
  • C) Protein samples were collected from growing WT controls (-) or ps2 -null cells expressing either PS2 WT or PS2 DD/AA carrying His-epitope tags. (
  • In the new study, the researchers examined translation of messenger RNA into protein at the classic phases of the cell cycle, before the cell actually divides. (
  • The scientists used a technique known as ribosome profiling, originally developed for yeast cells in the lab of Jonathan Weismann, PhD, Howard Hughes Investigator at UCSF and professor of cellular and molecular pharmacology, to figure out which messenger RNA was being translated into protein by the ribosome during human cell division. (
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that a ternary protein complex composed of ADAM12, αVβ3 integrin, and MMP-14 at the tumor cell surface regulates MMP-14 functions. (
  • The encoded protein is a type II receptor that binds extracellular BMPs and forms a complex of two type II and two type I receptors at the cell membrane. (
  • Activins bind and signal via bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) in immortalized gonadotrope-like cells. (
  • HCF‐1 exists as a heterodimeric complex of associated N‐ (HCF‐1 N ) and C‐ (HCF‐1 C ) terminal subunits that result from proteolytic processing of a precursor protein. (
  • For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. (
  • and regulation of cellular protein metabolic process. (
  • LASP1 mRNA and protein in clinical specimens and tumor cell lines are frequently overexpressed. (
  • Other p53-regulated gene functions communicate with adjacent cells, repair the damaged DNA or set up positive and negative feedback loops that enhance or attenuate the functions of the p53 protein and integrate these stress responses with other signal transduction pathways. (
  • Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in humans), a cyclin-dependent kinase, on a tyrosine residue. (
  • This suggests that cell division may be regulated in part by dilution of Wee1 protein in cells as they grow larger. (
  • The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and inhibits Wee1 in vitro ) [5] are localized to a band of cortical nodes in the middle of interphase cells. (
  • This protein helps promote genetic stability, repair DNA and regulate cell growth. (
  • Therefore, we propose to use insulin, a protein currently used and approved in several processes and production platforms, as an additive to boost cell growth and viral production. (
  • Scientists at Princeton University report that they have recreated a key process involved in cell division in a test tube, uncovering the role played by a protein that is elevated in over 25% of all cancers. (
  • Researchers have found that a protein called APC plays a role in controlling a web of molecular interactions that can transform normal cells into cancerous ones. (
  • This is a very important and exciting study," says Avram Hershko, M.D., Ph.D., Distinguished Professor at Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, who has made seminal contributions to understanding protein degradation and the cell cycle, the sequence of events a cell undergoes to make a copy of itself by dividing into two. (
  • The manufacturing technology enables a patient's T cells to be genetically modified using a gammaretroviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) designed to target the antigen CD19, a protein expressed on the cell surface of B cell lymphomas and leukemias. (
  • Four novel HER-2 B cell epitopes were synthesized as chimeras with a promiscuous T cell epitope (aa 288-302) from the measles virus fusion protein (MVF). (
  • Gene expression profiling revealed that double-treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to other cellular systems, PLAC8 protein localizes to the inner face of the plasma membrane in pancreatic cancer cells, where it interacts with specific membranous structures in a temporally and spatially stable manner. (
  • Inhibition of PLAC8 expression strongly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth by attenuating cell-cycle progression, which was associated with transcriptional and/or posttranslational modification of the central cell-cycle regulators CDKN1A, retinoblastoma protein, and cyclin D1 (CCND1), but did not impact autophagy. (
  • The multipotent cells secrete a variety of soluble and insoluble molecules associated with stem cell niches in the body, as well as rapid tissue regeneration and scarless healing. (
  • This tissue arises from the spherical trophectoderm layer of the blastocyst surrounding the inner cell mass (ICM) and the blastocoel. (
  • This work presents a comprehensive hybrid computer model simulating the cell population and mass transfer dynamics during tissue growth processes. (
  • Simulation results indicate that large tissue size, low nutrient diffusivity, high cell uptake rate and low nutrient concentration in the culture media lead to severe transport limitations and have serious adverse effects on the growth rates and the structure of bioartificial tissues. (
  • In addition to a three-dimensional capillary network generated from literature data, tree-like capillary networks with adjustable overall vascularity are generated using a bifurcating distributive algorithm in order to study the effect of host vascularity on tissue growth. (
  • Our investigation elucidates a relay of molecular events and biophysical processes at the core of the self-organization process during tissue morphogenesis," write the authors. (
  • Thus the healthy tissue trapped the cancer cells, blocking their movement away from the tumor. (
  • For this reason, we evaluated both the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (Mab) in human lung carcinomas and its biological activity in NCI-H125 cells. (
  • Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). (
  • It is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, such as cancer cell death, neurodegenerative disease, tissue damage and acute renal failure. (
  • The regulation of AMPK beta1, TSC2, and PTEN expression by p53: stress, cell and tissue specificity, and the role of these gene products in modulating the IGF-1-AKT-mTOR pathways. (
  • Whole tissue/cell techniques (immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, subcellualr fractionation, FACS analysis etc. (
  • They'll look at the tissue from the cyst or tumor under a microscope to check for cancer cells. (
  • helps tissue growth and cell function. (
  • We have shown that transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) is activated following IR, and that it, in turn, mediates cellular and tissue radiation responses ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • B cell signaling pathways are the current targets of several therapies used to treat B cell malignancies such as CLL. (
  • [1] Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways , life cycle , chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. (
  • Cell biology focuses more on the study of eukaryotic cells, and their signalling pathways, rather than on prokaryotes which is covered under microbiology . (
  • In contrast, MCF-10A cells desaturated and elongated the exogenous EFAs via all the known pathways. (
  • In turn, one essential strategy for cancer therapy is to activate apoptotic pathways in the tumor cells. (
  • This increase in production was accompanied by an activation of signaling pathways associated with cell survival. (
  • IR activates multiple signaling pathways depending on the cell type, radiation dose, and cell status (reviewed in ref. 4 ). (
  • The MCF-7 breast cancer and the MCF-10A non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines are compared in terms of growth response to EFAs and ability to incorporate and process the EFAs. (
  • An inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific NHE3 knockout mouse model mimicking congenital sodium diarrhea. (
  • Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). (
  • Characterization of goldfish fin cells in culture: some evidence of an epithelial cell profile. (
  • EMT is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity, loss of cell-cell contacts, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers and phenotypic traits that include increased cell motility (reviewed in ref. 11 ). (
  • The membrane pinches inward to form two identical daughter cells. (
  • F) Total cell fractions (T), membrane fractions (M) and cytosolic fractions (C) were prepared from growing WT, aph1 -null and nct -null Dictyostelium that express ΔN-APP. (
  • Taken together, this study highlights the coupling of LD catabolism and TORC1 signalling from vacuoles during growth resumption to steer efficient utilisation of DAG for membrane lipid biosynthesis. (
  • [9] Eukaryotic cells include animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes. (
  • Environmental information processing (membrane transport, signal transduction, etc. (
  • The basic unit from which all living organisms are built up, consisting of a cell membrane surrounding cytoplasm and a nucleus. (
  • 6 Unlike more traditional pre-B cell-type cultures ( 20 ), pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells are selectively generated from adult BM in our culture system, even when the lymphoid progenitors are separated from the adherent cell layer by a microporous membrane insert or cultured in stromal cell conditioned medium (CM) ( 21 ). (
  • We have shown that the progeny of irradiated nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured with TGFβ exhibit compromised morphogenesis, polarity, and growth control when cultured in reconstituted basement membrane ( 9 ). (
  • They also showed that the inhibition of that process could prove to be a valuable treatment approach for aggressive cancers. (
  • These cancers, which are acutely sensitive to autophagy inhibition, have high levels of autophagy that provide cancer cells with sufficient nutrition to survive by recycling parts of themselves. (
  • The signaling mechanisms that govern the 8-Cl-cAMP-induced growth inhibition are still uncertain and data in thyroid neoplasia are lacking. (
  • Modeling of growth inhibition and sequestration revealed that HbS polymerization-induced growth inhibition following cytoadherence is the critical driver of the reduced parasite densities observed in malaria infections of individuals with AS. (
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mifepristone (MF), a steroid compound with demonstrated growth inhibition activity in ovarian cancer, should be efficacious in inducing cytostasis and preventing repopulation of ovarian cancer cells if given among rounds of cisplatin (CDDP) treatment. (
  • The effect on gelatin degradation was abrogated by inhibition of the MMP-14 activity and appeared to be dependent on cell-surface αVβ3 integrin localization, but neither the catalytic activity of ADAM12 nor the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM12 were required. (
  • LNA, DHA and AA presented to MCF-7 cells in phospholipid liposomes inhibited growth as extensively as albumin-bound free acids, but were less extensively incorporated, suggesting different mechanisms of inhibition for the two methods. (
  • In this study, the process of ethanol-induced mycelial growth in this organism was examined in combination with cytological characterization of actin localization. (
  • The rate of mitosis varies greatly, depending on many factors including the life stage of an organism and the type of cells involved. (
  • Immortalized cell line is a group of cells, which is acquired from multicellular organism growing rapidly due to mutation and avoids the normal cellular senescence. (
  • Work on the topic generally requires an organism whose cell cycle is well-characterized. (
  • Model simulations reproduced data from classic and new experiments of yeast growth in batch and fed-batch cultures. (
  • During the first growth phase (doubling time 2.4 h), there was an accumulation of swollen spherical yeast cells, instead of the oblong ones observed in the control culture, followed by the appearance of spherical daughter cells in chains. (
  • Randomly distributed actin patches were observed on these swollen yeast cells and the bud initiation sites of these cells appeared random. (
  • During the second growth phase (doubling time 7.4 h), pseudohyphal cells appeared, projecting from the swollen yeast cells. (
  • When pseudohyphal cells were transferred to fresh ethanol medium, yeast cells appeared from pseudohyphal filaments and changed their shape to spherical, and filamentation appeared to be inhibited during the first phase. (
  • In the culture supplemented with both ethanol and inositol, or with both ethanol and sorbitol, the accumulation of swollen cells was not observed and single yeast cells with normal oblong shape were seen throughout the growth phases. (
  • Daniel Markgraf and colleagues employ a genome-wide screen in budding yeast coupled with flow cytometry to identify mutants in which LD consumption and dynamics are affected during growth resumption. (
  • We studied the steady-state responses to changes in growth rate of yeast when ethanol is the sole source of carbon and energy. (
  • The relationship between cell size and cell division has been extensively studied in yeast . (
  • [3] Yeast cell-size mutants were isolated that begin cell division before reaching a normal/regular size ( wee mutants). (
  • The extended range of BactiGrowth specially packaged plates is designed to enable high-yield growth of bacteria, yeast, mammalian or insect cell lines. (
  • Here, we describe HDAC5 and HDAC9 as independent prognostic markers for overall survival in primary medulloblastoma, and we show a functional role of HDAC5 and HDAC9 in tumor cell growth in medulloblastoma cell lines. (
  • In previous clinical trials, reversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase have been shown to effectively retard disease progression in a subgroup of patients with advanced NSCLC and to improve survival ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • BMPR2 preserves mitochondrial function and DNA during reoxygenation to promote endothelial cell survival and reverse pulmonary hypertension. (
  • By balancing ROS levels, antioxidants can improve cell growth and survival in SBDS-deficient cells. (
  • Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most widely used growth supplement for cell culture because it cost-effectively supports the survival and growth of many cell lines. (
  • We aim to develop a digital PCR-based method for the quantitative detection of the two common epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutations (in-frame deletion at exon 19 and L858R at exon 21) in the plasma and tumor tissues of patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancers. (
  • The presence of activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene is associated with the clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with non-small cell lung cancers. (
  • Adequate methods to identify which lung cancer patients are most likely to benefit from the targeted drugs against both epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor (EGFR/EGF) are needed. (
  • To develop a multiepitope vaccine, 12 high ranking B cell epitopes were identified from the extracellular domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) oncoprotein by computer-aided analysis. (
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), 3 a member of epidermal growth factor receptor family, is overexpressed at high levels in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, colon, gastric, prostate, and lung malignancies ( 1 ). (
  • Alterations in oncogenes often lead to uncontrolled cell growth, and to cancer. (
  • Journal of Cell Science, Journal of Cell Biology and Molecular Biology of the Cell have announced a new manuscript transfer option, which will be available in the first quarter of 2019. (
  • Cell biology (also called cytology , from the Greek κυτος, kytos , "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell , which is the basic unit of life . (
  • Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics , biochemistry , molecular biology , immunology , and developmental biology . (
  • [7] Modern day cell biology research looks at different ways to culture and manipulate cells outside of a living body to further research in human anatomy and physiology, to derive treatments and other medications, etc. (
  • 1 Laboratory of Cell Biology and Advanced Cancer Therapies, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. (
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell 22 (2011): 1997-2009. (
  • Immortal cell line plays a vital role in of cell biology while studying multicellular organisms and their biochemistry. (
  • This three-day laboratory-based short course provides up-to-date cell biology techniques . (
  • If you just measure elastic properties, then you'll get an incomplete picture of the ability of that cell wall to grow and the pattern by which it grows," said Cosgrove, who worked with Tian Zhang, postdoctoral scholar in biology and Daniel M. Durachko, research assistant in biology, both of Penn State and Dimitrios Vavylonis, professor of physics, Lehigh University. (
  • Biological experimentation and modeling have advanced our understanding of various cell behaviors. (
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is the largest organelle of the cell and it fulfils a plethora of biological functions. (
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction). (
  • Many technologies are used to characterize biological products, manufacturing processes, and raw materials. (
  • siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 or HDAC9 in medulloblastoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and cell viability. (
  • Every 4 or 8 days cell number, cell viability, cell cycle traverse, and colony-forming capacity of viable cells was analyzed. (
  • The results show that, although rIL-7 and IL-7 (−/−) CM each can maintain the viability of freshly harvested pre-pro-B cells in vitro, neither induces them to proliferate and/or differentiate, even in the presence of recombinant stem cell factor (rSCF) and/or recombinant insulin-like growth factor (rIGF). (
  • b Optic microscopy image (100×) showing lipid bodies within Y. lipolytica cells, after 24 h of culturing in YPDOA. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of organic carbon sources, cultivation methods, and environmental factors on growth and lipid content of Pavlova lutheri for biodiesel production. (
  • Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death and characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from accumulated iron and lipid peroxidation. (
  • In collaboration with the Joshua Rabinowitz and Hilary Coller laboratories at Princeton University, investigators were able to show that autophagy in these aggressive cancers provides fuel to the powerhouses of the cell, the mitochondria. (
  • By identifying that this autophagy "addiction" is prevalent in cancers with Ras mutations, such as lung, pancreatic and colon, a metabolic vulnerability of cancer cells is revealed - a vulnerability the authors say can be utilized for cancer therapy. (
  • Now, a collaborative effort between investigators at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Harvard Medical School provides new insights into how Notch drives the growth of B-cell cancers. (
  • An important translational implication of this research is that we hope that by combining Notch inhibitors with drugs that target B-cell signaling we can better treat these B-cell cancers,' said senior author Warren Pear, MD, PhD , a professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Penn Medicine. (
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 80% of all lung cancers, is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. (
  • The majority (90%-95%) of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). (
  • Thus, identification of novel agents that are relatively safe but can suppress growth of both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancers is highly desirable. (
  • This knowledge may be used in the future to down-regulate (decrease the activity of) Skp2 in cancers, and thus to arrest the growth of these cancers. (
  • Memory T cells are created when naive CD8 T cells are activated to fight intracellular pathogens such as viruses or bacteria. (
  • We find that parasites in AS RBCs maintained at low oxygen concentrations stall at a specific stage in the middle of intracellular growth before DNA replication. (
  • Researchers say, identifying one of the processes that plays a role in naive and memory T-cells' growth and production can lead to better vaccines and possibly more effective cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Using mice generated to lack ELF4, researchers found that CD8 T-cells grew over time and acquired a "memory phenotype" without being exposed to any type of infections. (
  • Once illuminated, that step in the process can be exploited so that researchers can find ways to maximize the benefits of autophagy inhibitors and improve clinical outcomes," she stated. (
  • A team of researchers from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles have managed to grow hair starting from stem cells, uncovering key molecular events involved in hair growth and stimulating it in adult mice. (
  • A team of researchers set out to examine how follicles grow out of the skin and how they produce hair by using so-called organoids , which are clusters of stem cells grown in vitro that can self-organize into an organ-like structure. (
  • The researchers then took detailed time-lapse images of the 3-D cultures to see how the cells behave and how hair development occurs. (
  • By contrast, the researchers found, dissociated progenitor skin cells from an adult mouse neither moved past the aggregation stage nor produced any hair. (
  • Lei and colleagues went on to study the molecular and biophysical events that underpinned this six-step hair growth process, explaining that the researchers "used a combination of bioinformatics and molecular screenings" to unravel these mechanisms. (
  • An international team of researchers has discovered a new way to potentially 'fence in' a tumor and help stop cancer cells spreading. (
  • In Melbourne, researchers have revealed the critical importance of highly specialised immune cells, called natural killer cells, in killing melanoma cells that have spread to the lungs. (
  • The way cells divide to form new cells - to support growth, to repair damaged tissues, or simply to maintain our healthy adult functioning - is controlled in previously unsuspected ways UC San Francisco researchers have discovered. (
  • The researchers say their findings, described in a pair of papers published in the journals eLife (" Biochemical reconstitution of branching microtubule nucleation ") and Nature Communications (" Phase separation of TPX2 enhances and spatially coordinates microtubule nucleation "), are a key step toward recreating the entire cell division machinery and could lead to new therapies aimed at preventing the growth of cancer cells. (
  • Plant cell wall growth is typically described as a simple process, but researchers using a microscope that can resolve images on the nanoscale level have observed something more complex. (
  • A close-up look at the growth of plant cell walls, which largely determines the way a plant grows and takes shape, offers a better understanding of how the tough-but-flexible walls expand, researchers have found in a recent study. (
  • This enabled them to watch microfibrils - hair-like fibers made of cellulose that help form the cell walls - and how they responded when researchers stretched the walls in ways that mimic the strains of growth in natural conditions. (
  • In the past, researchers only used bulk measurements to test the elasticity of cell walls. (
  • The researchers also said that microfibrils were once seen as passive reinforcing elements in the material that makes up the cell wall and that they simply underwent passive realignment as the wall grew, said Cosgrove. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will support STTR projects to develop novel, reliable, and cost-effective tools that will make it easier for researchers to standardize or replace serum in cell culture. (
  • Several lines of evidence have led researchers to link this morphologic shift during carcinogenesis to the physiologic process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • Market for Global Stem Cell Assay is Estimated to grow at an Approximate cagr of 19.80% from 2018 to 2023. (
  • Top 100 Food and Beverage Companies for 2018: A Return to Topline Growth? (
  • The hybrid model is first used to study the growth of bioartificial tissues under conditions leading to nutrient depletion. (
  • The gametophytes of mosses and liverworts and the sporophytes of many higher plants have a shoot, or early stem, with a single cell at its tip, or apex, from which all the tissues of the stem arise. (
  • For mechanistic insight, we investigated global transcriptional alterations in the target organ (lung) as well as several extrapulmonary tissues ( heart , aorta, whole blood cells) following inhalation (40 mg/m3 for 3 h/d for 5 d a week for 10 d) to stainless steel welding fume. (
  • needed for growth and repair of tissues, collagen production, wound healing and repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones and teeth. (
  • We discovered that ELF4 directly activates the tumor suppressor KLF4, which signals cell cycle arrest in na ve CD8 T cells," Lacorazza said. (
  • Cell cycle arrest means the cells do not go through the normal events of their life cycles: growth, replication and division. (
  • We demonstrate that polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is responsible for this growth arrest of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites, with normal hemoglobin digestion and growth restored in the presence of carbon monoxide, a gaseous antisickling agent. (
  • This is a sequence of events including the replication of the DNA and the cell organelles prior to cell division, the division of the nucleus and the subsequent division of the cytoplasm with all its contents. (
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume ( G1 phase ), as well as increase in genetic material ( G2 phase ) following the replication during S phase . (
  • We have used small‐interfering RNA (siRNA) to inactivate HCF‐1 in an array of normal and transformed mammalian cells to identify its cellular functions. (
  • Significantly, Lei and team could successfully stimulate hair growth in these organoids. (
  • The woven fibers stimulate blood flow and promote cell growth. (
  • abstract = "The ratios of calcitonin (CT) to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA, both generated by alternative RNA processing from the same primary RNA transcript, are shown by Northern blotting of cytoplasmic RNA to vary as a function of growth in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TT). (
  • abstract = "We examined the origin of individuality of two daughter cells born from an isolated single Escherichia coli mother cell during its cell division process by monitoring the change in its swimming behavior and tumbling frequency using an on-chip single-cell cultivation system. (
  • Although serum is an effective growth promotor, it is highly variable in its composition, activity, and physiological effects on cells. (
  • Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells. (
  • Utilizing the upstream regulator (i.e. transcription factors, cytokines, growth factors) analysis, the lung had 285, blood cells 30, aorta 39, and heart 32 significantly altered mediators 4 h post-exposure. (
  • Inasmuch as IL-7 is one of the cytokines most closely associated with early B-lineage development, we utilized BM adherent cells and stromal cell lines from IL-7 gene-deleted (−/−) mice in combination with rIL-7 and anti-IL-7 mAb to investigate its possible regulatory role in our culture system. (
  • This study investigated the expression levels of individual human HDAC family members in primary medulloblastoma samples, their potential as risk stratification markers, and their roles in tumor cell growth. (
  • Two chimeric peptide vaccines, MVF HER-2 316-339 and MVF HER-2 485-503 induced high levels of Abs in outbred rabbits, which inhibited tumor cell growth. (
  • By growing cells under proprietary conditions that simulate the embryonic environment, particularly hypoxia, it has been shown that normal human fibroblast cells become multipotent, and express key stem cell markers including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. (
  • Because the ExE itself produces the proteases Furin and PACE4 to activate Nodal, it represents the first example, to our knowledge, of a stem cell compartment that actively maintains its own microenvironment. (
  • The study's first author is Mingxing Lei, a postdoctoral researcher in the University of Southern California's (USC) Stem Cell laboratory. (
  • Stem Cell Banking Market Growth, Industry Analysis & forecast Worth USD 3.96 Billion by 2021 per Industry Experts. (
  • The Global Stem Cell Banking Market CAGR is anticipated to progress at 20.2% during the forecast period of 2016-2021. (
  • For a detailed understanding of the market structure, this report segments the global stem cell banking market into various sub-segments. (
  • The entire stem cell banking market share is expected to be at 2021 $3.96 billion expanding from its previous evaluation in 2016 which was at $1.58 Billion. (
  • Processing services to contribute largest share in the stem cell bio-banking market. (
  • Storage services segment is expected to contribute to a large share of Stem cell banking market. (
  • North America is the largest contributor to the global stem cell banking market, while Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing market segment. (
  • The stem cell banking market report also includes a detailed profiling of various companies in the market. (
  • The stem cell banking market research report facilitates buyers in strategizing by offering five crucial market strategies. (
  • Owing to increasing in adoption of these cell lines in stem cell therapy drives the growth of the market. (
  • On the basis of applications, the market is segmented into stem cell therapy, cell transplantation, drug transport and other applications. (
  • Stem cell assays are the techniques for analyzing the living cells on the parameters of shape, size, besides others with the aim to measure biochemical and cellular functioning of the cells. (
  • The Global Stem Cell Assay Market is segmented on the basis of product, technology, assay, application, and end-user. (
  • The kits segment is sub-segmented into mesenchymal stem cell kits, induced pluripotent stem cell kits, umbilical cord stem cells, and others. (
  • The Americas dominate the Global Stem Cell Assay Market owing to increasing adoption of new technologies and a huge patient population for diseases like diabetes, cancer, and others. (
  • The Global Stem Cell Assay Market in Europe is the second largest owing to the growing biotechnology sector and huge patient population. (
  • Asia Pacific region is the fastest growing market for stem cell assay owing to increasing awareness and rising healthcare expenditures within the region. (
  • The Middle East & Africa has the least share in the Global Stem Cell Assay Market due to low per capita healthcare expenditure, lack of awareness, stringent government policies, and presence of poor economies, especially within the in the African region. (
  • The Middle East holds a majority of the Stem Cell Assay Market in the Middle East & Africa region. (
  • Leukemia can be cured by means of stem cell therapy. (
  • We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGFβ-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • Throughout the ExE exists a reservoir of self-renewing trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) ( 1 , 2 ) that provide the EPC with progenitor cells for differentiated spongiotrophoblasts and nondividing polyploid giant cells ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Specifically, they used progenitor cells , which are a type of cell that is more differentiated than stem cells. (
  • Lei and colleagues were able to see that the newborn cells formed skin-like organoids in a six-step process that started with the dissociated progenitor cells (step one), which soon aggregated (step two). (
  • These data demonstrate that IGF-I regulates progenitor cell division in the ventricular zone by reducing G 1 phase length and decreasing T C but increases cell cycle reentry. (
  • The description of cell intrinsic regulation of quiescence in normal T cells will provide insights on the pathobiology of lymphoid malignancies. (
  • When this regulation falters, it wreaks havoc in the cell, he added. (
  • These results suggest that HCF‐1 links the regulation of exit from mitosis and the G 1 phase of cell growth, possibly to coordinate the reactivation of gene expression after mitosis. (
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that SBDS-deficiency disrupts ROS regulation and subsequently increases sensitivity to Fas stimulation and reduced cell growth. (
  • This inhibitory process is important to T cells because it stops them from proliferating out of control. (
  • In conclusion, 8-Cl-cAMP has a potent inhibitory effect on WRO, NPA and ARO cell growth which is accompanied by a pro-apoptotic effect via p38-MAPK. (
  • Model and experimental results showed that the growth decline observed in prolonged fed-batch cultures had to be ascribed to self-produced inhibitory compounds other than ethanol. (
  • The presented results clarify the dynamics of microbial growth under different feeding conditions and highlight the relevance of the negative feedback by self-produced inhibitory compounds on the maximum cell densities achieved in a bioreactor. (
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (
  • BACKGROUND: Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is characterized by reduced hematopoietic and exocrine pancreatic cell numbers and a marked propensity for leukemia. (
  • Acceptance of this core patent gives tremendous strength to Histogen's technology and products, and establishes them as unique from any other cell-derived therapies in development today," said Dr. Gail Naughton, CEO and Chairman of the Board for Histogen. (
  • Summary: Gammaretroviral vectors can be produced in large quantities and with high titers for ex vivo gene delivery in adoptive cell therapies. (
  • Diversely sourced and defined, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be the cells of sarcoma origin, evolve a CSC phenotype and/or contribute to tumor growth through inherent qualities for homing, neovascularization, paracrine cross-feeding, microvesicle secretion, cell fusion, entosis and immune modulation. (
  • Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation was transiently induced by irradiation and persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGFβ, and treatment with U0126, a MAP/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. (
  • Indeed, reversion of the malignant phenotype by modulating extracellular signals suggests that cancer cells are susceptible to signals from the microenvironment ( 2 ). (
  • Identification and characterization of the regulated pattern of expression of a novel mouse gene, meg1, during the meiotic cell cycle. (
  • Different machines play key roles at different stages of this cell cycle. (
  • Cell-cycle control is a process that is most often misregulated in human disease," he said. (
  • Our results show that HCF‐1 is a broadly acting regulator of two stages of the cell cycle: exit from mitosis, where it ensures proper cytokinesis, and passage through the G 1 phase, where it promotes cell cycle progression. (
  • The rate of mitosis is controlled within the cell cycle. (
  • If control of the cell cycle is lost, tumours and cancer may result. (
  • The number of cells produced by this process is governed by several factors, including cell cycle kinetics and the proportion of daughter cells exiting the cell cycle after a given round of cell division. (
  • The in vivo effects of IGF-I on cell cycle kinetics were investigated in nestin/IGF-I transgenic (Tg) embryos, in which IGF-I is overexpressed in the cerebral cortex and dorsal telencephalon. (
  • Cumulative S phase labeling with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine revealed a decrease in total cell cycle length (T C ) in Tg embryos on E14. (
  • This decrease in T C was found to result entirely from a reduction in the length of the G 1 phase of the cell cycle from 10.66 to 8.81 hr, with no significant changes in the lengths of the S, G 2 , and M phases. (
  • Additionally, the proportion of daughter cells reentering the cell cycle was significantly increased by 15% in Tg embryos on E14-E15 compared with littermate controls. (
  • but the influence of IGF-I on cell cycle kinetics in the embryonic brain has not been studied. (
  • In addition, single-injection BrdU labeling protocols, combined with double-labeling immunohistochemistry, were performed to measure both the proliferative fraction (proportion of daughter cells remaining in the cell cycle) and the exiting fraction (proportion of daughter cells leaving the cell cycle). (
  • these mice provide a unique opportunity to study the in vivo role of IGF-I in controlling cell cycle kinetics in the embryonic brain. (
  • As a result, these cells entered the S phase of the cell cycle faster than control cells with unmutated Skp2. (
  • Cell cycle : the key to plant growth control? (
  • Molecules key to the multistage morphological transition are identified and can be added or inhibited to restore the stalled process in adult cells. (
  • however, most of the processes within the cell are made up of a mixture of small organic molecules, inorganic ions, hormones, and water. (
  • [12] These molecules within the cell, which operate as substrates, provide a suitable environment for the cell to carry out metabolic reactions and signalling. (
  • Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. (
  • Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells or in the extracellular matrix and translate them into a directed axonal extension ( Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996 ). (
  • The synthetic analog 8-Cl-cAMP has been known to have an antiproliferative effect in a variety of cancer cells and is tested as antineoplastic agent in clinical trials. (
  • Evidence-based recommendations on afatinib (Giotrif) for treating EGFR-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer in adults. (
  • The scientists tested the new approach on mice, and the results showed that targeting fibroblasts reduced the movement of cancer cells from the tumor to the lungs and liver through the blood stream. (
  • A study combining tumor cells from breast cancer patients with a laboratory model of blood vessel lining provides the most compelling evidence so far. (
  • A wide body of literature provides evidence for effective treatment of different tumor cells using HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) in vitro and in vivo , such as leukemia ( 8 ), lymphoma ( 9 ), lung cancer ( 10 , 11 ), retinoblastoma ( 12 ), and neuroblastoma ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • HDACis have only recently been introduced in the clinical setting of cancer treatment, with Vorinostat being the first HDACi approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by the Food and Drug Administration ( 20 ). (
  • Therefore, the detection of EGFR mutation is useful for predicting the treatment response for EGFR TKI in non-small cell lung cancer patients. (
  • Repopulation of cancer cells escaping lethal chemotherapy is a critical factor hindering treatment success. (
  • We established an in vitro approach wherein ovarian cancer cells with high (OV2008) or low (SK-OV-3) sensitivity to CDDP were exposed to 3 (OV2008) or 2 (SK-OV-3) rounds of lethal doses of CDDP for 1 h, 12 (OV2008) or 24 (SK-OV-3) days apart. (
  • In summary, this is the first study reporting that presence of cytostatic concentrations of MF after courses of lethal doses of CDDP prevents repopulation of remnant ovarian cancer cells surviving CDDP treatment. (
  • We demonstrated that in 293-VnR and human breast cancer cells expressing ADAM12 at the cell surface, endogenous MMP-14 was recruited to the cell surface, resulting in its activation. (
  • Yet one can identify some common mutational targets and molecular themes that lie at the heart of the transformation of a normal cell into a potentially deadly cancer cell. (
  • In addition, different cancer-predisposing mutations in the same cell type can have very different effects on malignancy. (
  • Its alternative meaning, "self-reflexive embedding" fits the central role attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • The differential effects of AA, EPA and DHA on MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells support a protective role of highly unsaturated essential fatty acids against breast cancer. (
  • Humanised monoclonal antibodies raised against growth factor receptors have proved to be valuable for targeted cancer treatment and in patient management. (
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of the disease, accounting for approximately 85% of all cases [ 2 ]. (
  • America is the largest market owing to increasing awareness regarding the use of cell lines in healthcare, rising vaccines production, increasing application of cell lines in cancer therapy and use of innovative technology for cell lines. (
  • It can be induced by experimental compounds (e.g.,erastin, RSL3) or clinical drugs(e.g., sulfasalazine, sorafenib) in cancer cell and certain normal cells. (
  • The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on growth of breast cancer cells. (
  • Growing biotechnology sector and increasing Global burden of the diseases like cancer, diabetes, and others is the major driver for market growth during the forecast period. (
  • PROCEDURE: SBDS was knocked down in HeLa cervical cancer cells and TF-1 myeloid cells using short hairpin RNA. (
  • Elevated TPX2 levels lead to both aberrant microtubule assembly in cells and poor outcomes in cancer patients. (
  • Cancer cells grow much faster than healthy cells. (
  • Or the malignant cells proliferate in place, called cancer in situ. (
  • This occurs when a cancer cell, already a result of mutation, is further mutated. (
  • Concentrations of 2.5% to 5% were tried and both concentrations killed colon cancer cells. (
  • Cancer cells caught in their early stages by agents that cause aberrations in their chromosomes stop growing. (
  • This explains some anecdotes of cancer cells being cured by medicinal plants. (
  • SANTA MONICA, Calif. , Jan. 19, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kite Pharma, Inc. , (Nasdaq:KITE), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing engineered autologous T cell therapy (eACT™) products for the treatment of cancer, today announced presentations on the Company's rapid, six-day manufacturing process for the production of Kite's lead product candidate, KTE-C19. (
  • Summary: To prepare for Kite-sponsored multicenter trials, Kite, in conjunction with the National Cancer Institute Surgery Branch, has developed a rapid and efficient proprietary process for the generation of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. (
  • Using a process implemented at the National Cancer Institute as a basis, Kite is scaling up production of a retroviral vector to support multicenter clinical trials of an engineered T cell product. (
  • In partnership with the NCI Surgery Branch through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Kite is advancing a pipeline of proprietary eACT™ peripheral blood product candidates, both CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) and TCR (T cell receptor) products, directed to a wide range of cancer indications. (
  • Cancer vaccines should preferably be composed of multiple defined tumor Ag-specific B and T cell epitopes. (
  • Overexpression of HER-2 on tumor cells results in weak, but detectable, levels of HER-2-specific Abs and T cells in early stage breast cancer patients without any signs of autoimmune disease ( 7 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • A critical component of this microenvironment is fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4), but additional, unknown signals are also required ( 6 ). (
  • Several studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate cell growth and spontaneous and Fas-mediated cell death. (
  • As diffusional limitations become more severe, larger perfusion channels are needed and the value of the achievable cell density decreases. (
  • Research is still ongoing on the optimization of bioreactor yields focusing on the increase of the maximum achievable cell density. (
  • Such dynamics, different from Malthus' law prediction, have been essentially ascribed to either exhaustion of nutrients according to the Monod model [ 2 ], or accumulation of toxic compounds in the culture medium [ 3 ], both affecting the maximum achievable cell density under the given conditions. (
  • Other factors such as size, the way in which they reproduce, and the number of cells distinguish them from one another. (
  • The Fuel Cell Power System Market report provides a holistic view of the industry along with the factors that are driving and restraining the growth of the global Fuel Cell Power System Market. (
  • The report provides the detailed analysis of the segment and the factors driving the growth of the segment. (
  • Recent years have seen a considerable emphasis on growth factors and the elucidation of their mode of function, which has led to the recognition that growth factors, their receptors as well as downstream elements of signalling associated with their function might be potential targets in therapeutic management of human diseases. (
  • The effects of different growth conditions (phototrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic) and environmental factors such as photoperiod, light intensity, and salinity were evaluated. (
  • Cell polarity factors positioned at the cell tips provide spatial cues to limit Cdr2 distribution to the cell middle. (
  • Hence, stage-specific growth factors different from those observed in pre-B cell-type cultures appear to be responsible for the long-term generation of primitive B-lineage cells in our culture system. (
  • We could enhance in vitro T cell activation of T cells extracted from patients to heighten immune response", said Lacorazza. (
  • The lack of an autoimmune response toward normal cells expressing basal levels of HER-2 may imply that a threshold (higher) level of HER-2 expression, such as that present on a tumor cell, is required for initiating an immune attack. (
  • malignant tumours derived from such polyps consist mainly of transformed epithelial cells. (
  • But the molecular basis for the limited malignant potential of PJS polyps has remained a conundrum, as the early death of the homozygous embryos prevents cell lines from being isolated and studied. (
  • When tumor cells become malignant they escape from the matrix that confine them and spread, through the blood and lymph fluid, to other cells. (
  • In fact, Lei and colleagues applied this newly acquired molecular and genetic knowledge to organoids created from adult skin cells, in an attempt to jump-start the hair growth process. (
  • The steps leading a quiet cell to make and divvy up new parts to form daughter cells rely on some of the cell's most complex molecular machines. (
  • This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells . (
  • On the other hand, as our understanding of the molecular basis of tumour development increases, the richness of the mechanisms that have evolved to control cell growth is becoming more apparent. (
  • This covalent modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and prevents cell division. (
  • Lastly, both pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulatory activity and IL-7 are quantitatively recovered by ultrafiltration in the 50 to 100 kDa, rather than the 10 to 50 kDa, apparent molecular mass fraction. (
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (
  • Histological and gene expression analysis of mutant embryos reveals that Furin and PACE4, and a transforming growth factor β-related substrate in the epiblast encoded by Nodal are required to sustain TSCs in the ExE during gastrulation. (
  • In prokaryotic organisms, reproduction occurs via binary fission, which is somewhat similar to the process of cell division in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life. (
  • [11] Cytologists typically focus on eukaryotic cells whereas prokaryotic cells are the focus of microbiologists , but this is not always the case. (
  • In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally round and spherical or oval [10] while for prokaryotic cells - which are composed of bacteria and archaea - the shapes are: spherical ( cocci ), rods ( bacillus ), curved ( vibrio ), and spirals ( spirochetes ) . (
  • In eukaryotic organisms, mitosis results in two daughter cells with identical copies of the parent cell DNA. (
  • The cell division of eukaryotes goes through two stages, from mitosis, which is nuclear division or division of the genetic material, to cytokinesis where the cytoplasm is divided between the two cells and the cells become completely separated from one another. (
  • and the G2 phase, when cells make internal components known as organelles, which they divvy up along with the chromosomes when the cell actually divides during mitosis. (
  • Proteolytic processing is necessary to separate and ensure these two HCF‐1 activities, which are performed by separate HCF‐1 subunits: the HCF‐1 N subunit promotes passage through the G 1 phase whereas the HCF‐1 C subunit is involved in proper exit from mitosis. (
  • Mitosis is the key process here. (
  • The global market of immortalized cell line is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 8.5% during the forecast period 2017-2023. (
  • The blockage by MF of post-CDDP repopulation was accompanied by a remarkable increase in the percentage of cells expressing the cell death marker cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3, suggesting that MF also potentiated CDDP lethality and that the cells likely die due to mitotic failure. (
  • A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. (
  • Blt1 knockout cells had increased length at division, which is consistent with a delay in mitotic entry. (
  • A mitotic cell duplicates itself and the added one cell means a growth. (
  • A mitotic cell that had sustained mutation in its DNA accumulates more mutations to the extent that it cannot repair itself (Cummings, M. Human Heredity. (
  • RNA was isolated from WT Dictyostelium during growth or at 5-hour increments during development. (
  • Transformation of the epithelial cells in a polyp leads to development of adenocarcinomas, the relative frequency of which is indicated by the thickness of the arrow. (
  • These Tg mice have been shown to exhibit increased cell number in the cortical plate by E16 and increased numbers of neurons and glia in the cerebral cortex during postnatal development. (
  • IGF-I and its cell surface receptor, IGF1R (the type 1 IGF receptor), are expressed throughout the brain during embryonic development (Bondy et al. (
  • Europe is the second largest market due to the higher demand for immortalized cell lines for the drug development, availability of funds for research and development activities, and the demand for technological advancement in the field of Microbiology and healthcare. (
  • Additionally, increasing support by the government for research and development boosts the market growth. (
  • Antibody development in pediatric sickle cell patients undergoing erythrocytapheresis. (
  • After five years, the study concluded that mulching resulted in significant increases in diameter growth, crown development, and root development. (
  • The motility of nerve growth cones plays a major role in axonal elongation during nervous system development. (
  • It is generally thought that CAMs link extracellular immobile ligands with retrogradely moving actin filaments to transmit force that pulls the growth cone forward. (
  • Intercellular and extracellular signals are critical to the suppression of neoplastic growth, whereas disruption of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions is implicated, if not required, for neoplastic progression. (
  • It involves long term in vitro cell growth of cells. (
  • However, IL-7 does not appear to be able to support the long-term maintenance of B-lineage cells unless the lymphoid precursors also receive contact-mediated signals from BM stromal cells ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • This book reviews the latest developments providing insights into the signalling processes involved in morphogenesis and pathogenesis with emphasis on using the elements of the signalling cascades as targets for therapeutic deployment. (
  • Furthermore, double treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion, and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel. (
  • not a meiotic cell or egg or "seed" of a man. (
  • Caspase-3 activity increased 1.04-, 2.77- and 4.8-fold in K562 and 1.02-, 1.41- and 3.46-fold in K562/IMA-3 cells in response to the same concentrations of resveratrol, respectively. (