Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

(CTG)n repeats markedly inhibit differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell line: implications for congenital myotonic dystrophy. (1/2641)

Although the mutation for myotonic dystrophy has been identified as a (CTG)n repeat expansion located in the 3'-untranslated region of a gene located on chromosome 19, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis is not understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of (CTG)n repeats on the differentiation of myoblasts in cell culture. We report here that C2C12 myoblast cell lines permanently transfected with plasmid expressing 500 bases long CTG repeat sequences, exhibited a drastic reduction in their ability to fuse and differentiate into myotubes. The percentage of cells fused into myotubes in C2 C12 cells (53.4+/-4.4%) was strikingly different from those in the two CTG repeat carrying clones (1.8+/-0.4% and 3.3+/-0. 7%). Control C2C12 cells permanently transfected with vector alone did not show such an effect. This finding may have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail tip. (2/2641)

Using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of adherens junctions, we have reconstructed the changes in cell architecture and intercellular associations that occur during morphogenesis of the nematode male tail tip. During late postembryonic development, the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is reshaped to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome. Developmental profiles using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining suggest that cell fusions are initiated at or adjacent to adherens junctions. Anterior portions of the tail tip cells show the first evidence of retractions and fusions, consistent with our hypothesis that an anterior event triggers these morphogenetic events. Available mutations that interfere with morphogenesis implicate particular regulatory pathways and suggest loci at which evolutionary changes could have produced morphological diversity.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (3/2641)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967) inhibits several Ca2+ and K+ currents in human fusion-competent myoblasts. (4/2641)

1. The effect of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), an inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(T)), on myoblast fusion and on several voltage-gated currents expressed by fusion-competent myoblasts was examined. 2. At a concentration of 5 microM, mibefradil decreases myoblast fusion by 57%. At this concentration, the peak amplitudes of I(Ca)(T) and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(L)) measured in fusion-competent myoblasts are reduced by 95 and 80%, respectively. The IC50 of mibefradil for I(Ca)(T) and I(Ca)(L) are 0.7 and 2 microM, respectively. 3. At low concentrations, mibefradil increased the amplitude of I(Ca)(L) with respect to control. 4. Mibefradil blocked three voltage-gated K+ currents expressed by human fusion-competent myoblasts: a delayed rectifier K+ current, an ether-a-go-go K+ current, and an inward rectifier K+ current, with a respective IC50 of 0.3, 0.7 and 5.6 microM. 5. It is concluded that mibefradil can interfere with myoblast fusion, a mechanism fundamental to muscle growth and repair, and that the interpretation of the effect of mibefradil in a given system should take into account the action of this drug on ionic currents other than Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (5/2641)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP.  (+info)

Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/2641)

We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle checkpoints present in vegetative mitosis.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (7/2641)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

Rapid visualization of metaphase chromosomes in single human blastomeres after fusion with in-vitro matured bovine eggs. (8/2641)

The present study was aimed to facilitate karyotyping of human blastomeres using the metaphase-inducing factors present in unfertilized eggs. A rapid technique for karyotyping would have wide application in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. When cryopreserved in-vitro matured bovine oocytes were fused with human blastomeres, the transferred human nuclei were forced into metaphase within a few hours. Eighty-seven human blastomeres from abnormal or arrested embryos were fused with bovine oocytes in a preclinical study. Fusion efficiency was 100%. In 21 of the hybrid cells, no trace of human chromatin was found. Of the remaining 66, 64 (97%) yielded chromosomes suitable for analysis. The method was used to karyotype embryos from two patients with maternal translocations. One embryo which was judged to be karyotypically normal was replaced in the first patient, resulting in one pregnancy with a normal fetus. None of the second patient's embryos was diagnosed as normal, and hence none was transferred. The results of the present study demonstrated that the ooplasmic factors which induce and maintain metaphase in bovine oocytes can force transferred human blastomere nuclei into premature metaphase, providing the basis for a rapid method of karyotyping blastomeres from preimplantation embryos and, by implication, cells from other sources.  (+info)

The membrane fusion and cell swelling stages of Sendai virus-mediated cell-cell fusion have been studied by thin-section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Sites of membrane fusion have been detected in human erythrocytes arrested at the membrane fusion stage of cell fusion and in virtually all cases a fused viral envelope or envelope components has been identified thus providing further direct evidence that cell-viral envelope-cell bridge formation is the membrane fusion event in Sendai virus-induced cell fusion. Radial expansion of a single virus bridge connecting 2 cells is sufficient to produce a fused cell. Membrane redistribution which occurs during this cell swelling stage of the fusion process is often accompanied by the formation of a system of membrane tubules in the plane of expansion of the virus bridge. The tubules originate from points of fusion between the bridging virus envelope and the erythrocyte membrane and also expand radially as cells swell. Ultimately membrane ...
Moreover, within the body fusion of myoblasts and formation of multinucleate fibers may be exemplified. They can also be allowed to fuse in vitro and form heterokaryons. Macrophages fuse around the foreign body or bacterial cells in the tissues. Bone cells are also known to undergo somatic cell fusion. Cells growing in culture are induced by some of the viruses such as Sendai virus to fuse and form hybrids. This virus induces two different cells first to form heterokaryon (Fig. 6.7). During mitosis chromosome of heterokaryons are brought towards two poles which later on fuse to form hybrids. Removal of surface carbohydrates is necessary before establishment of cell fusion. Some chemicals such as polyethylene glycol also induce somatic cell fusion. It is interesting to note that the cells of taxonomically different animals can fuse and form hybrids. This suggests that there is no compatibility between membranes, nuclei, organelles of two different groups of animal cells (Sidebottom and ...
You are shown the results of a cell fusion experiment in which the plasma membrane of the fused cell looks like it is evenly divided between the two donor cell membranes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation ...
Cell fusion is a natural process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages generates metastatic hybrids with genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. However, there are no clinical markers for detecting cell fusion in clinical context. Macrophage-specific antigen CD163 expression in tumor cells is reported in breast and colorectal cancers and proposed being caused by macrophages-cancer cell fusion in tumor stroma. The purpose of this study is to examine the cell fusion process as a biological explanation for macrophage phenotype in breast. Monocytes, harvested from male blood donor, were activated to M2 macrophages and co-cultured in ThinCert transwell system with GFP-labeled MCF-7 cancer cells. MCF7/macrophage hybrids were generated by spontaneous cell fusion, isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, short tandem repeats analysis and flow cytometry. CD163 expression was evaluated in
Tissue regeneration after injury poses a major challenge that requires the fine balance between stimulation and dysregulation of cell proliferation in order to facilitate homeostatic repair. We have shown that fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells occurs in response to intestinal epithelial injury as a potential regenerative mechanism. We suggest that fusion also occurs in tumorigenesis based upon the observation of shared microenvironments between injury and tumor models. However, the cellular and environmental requirements for intestinal cell fusion remain unknown. Importantly, the physiologic impact of cell fusion on epithelial homeostasis and tumorigenesis has not been defined. Therefore, to investigate the physiologic relevance of this process in repair and disease, the work in this thesis will test the hypothesis that cell fusion hybrids represent a unique cellular population, retaining characteristics of both parental fusogenic populations. To
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modified hybridoma methodology. T2 - Antigen-directed chemically mediated cell fusion. AU - Kranz, David M. AU - Herron, James N.. AU - Billing, Patricia A.. AU - Voss, Edward W.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions to increase the yield of hybridomas was investigated. To facilitate cell-cell contact, antigen conjugated cells were used in cell fusion studies. Specifically, fluorescyl conjugated murine myeloma cells (Sp 2/0-Ag14) incubated with murine immune (anti-fluorescyl) splenocytes formed aggregates containing fluorescent and non-fluorescent cells. Fusion of these populations with polyethylene glycol resulted in a greater number of anti-fluorescyl hybridomas relative to normal fusions under non-antigen directed condition. Ligand binding data indicated that despite the multicellular aggregates the hybridomas resulting from chemically mediated fusions produced only one monoclonal Ig.. AB - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions ...
Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium. Cell fusion occurs during differentiation of muscle, bone and trophoblast cells, during embryogenesis, and during morphogenesis. Cell fusion is a necessary event in the maturation of cells so that they maintain their specific functions throughout growth. In 1847 Theodore Schwann expanded upon the theory that all living organisms are composed of cells when he added to it that discrete cells are the basis of life. Schwann observed that in certain cells the walls and cavities of the cells coalesce together. It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. It was not until 1960 that cell biologists deliberately fused cells for the first time. To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory ...
Looking for cell fusion? Find out information about cell fusion. see battery, electric battery, electric, device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, consisting of a group of electric cells that are... Explanation of cell fusion
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EFF-1 and AFF-1 can fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in C. elegans, in heterologous Sf9 insect cells and in BHK hamster cells. This is a proof of principle that will allow us to test potential fusogens involved in mammalian myoblast fusion [5,10,11]. While candidates for muscle fusogens exist in Drosophila and vertebrates [1,12,13] none of these candidates has been shown to be both essential and sufficient for the cell membrane fusion process. Instead, the many genes involved in muscle cell fusion may be acting in earlier stages in the process that include: cell cycle arrest, recognition, alignment and adhesion (Fig. 1). We use a molecular genetic approach to identify the mammalian myoblast fusogen using expression of candidate genes in BHK cells and complementation of a C. elegans eff-1 deletion mutant with cross species expression of mouse cDNAs expressed during muscle formation. The approach and rationale is novel, risky and with extremely high potential of making a very important ...
Carcinogenesis is a sophisticated biological process consisting of a series of progressive changes in somatic cells from premalignant to malignant phenotype. Despite the vast information available about cancer cells, the origin of cancer and cause of metastasis still remain enigmatic. The hypothesis of cell fusion is one of several models explaining the evolution of neoplasia into clinically significant cancer. This theory states that cancer cells through heterotypic fusion with host cells generate hybrids expressing traits from both parental cells, and acquire metastatic potentials and growth-promoting properties. The cell fusion theory is still unproven and speculative, but cell fusion is a common biological process in normal tissue. Accumulated evidence shows that macrophage-cancer cell fusion occurs in vitro and in vivo and produces hybrids with metastatic potential, but the clinical significant of cell fusion is unclear. The aim of this thesis is to test this hypothesis in clinical patient ...
Introduction] Recent reports demonstrating the ability of bone marrow (BM) cells to regenerate cardiomyocytes (CMs) have prompted clinical as well as basic studies for the treatment of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo, to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs.. [Method and Result] BM cells of mice constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was intravenously injected into irradiated syngeneic newborn C57BL/6 mouse within 48hours after the birth. At 4-5weeks after transplantation, the cardiac tissue of recipients was analyzed for the number of GFP+ CMs per 40 sections. We first separated Linaege antigen− BM cells to CD45+ cells (Lin−CD45+) and CD45− cells ...
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Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown, despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of obvious viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. EFF-1 and AFF-1 comprise the FF family and together they are necessary for virtually all somatic cell fusions in C. elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. ^ Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Yet, FF proteins are sufficient to fuse heterologous invertebrate cell types, suggesting that they function autonomously in foreign molecular and proteomic environments. The work presented here examines whether a predicted 14-3-3
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Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We used the in vivo ER fusion assay to determine whether the rate of fusion decreases in ufe1-1 cells. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at permissive temperature (23°C), ER fusion occurred ∼5 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), similar to what was found for wild-type cells (Fig. 2 e). It was not possible to perform this assay with cells shifted to a nonpermissive temperature (37°C) immediately before mating because yeast will not mate at this temperature (Grote, 2010). Instead, we shifted cells to 32°C just before mating. At this temperature, ufe1-1 strains were viable but grew much more slowly than wild-type cells (unpublished data), suggesting that Ufe1p function is substantially reduced at this temperature. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at 32°C, ER fusion occurred a mean of ∼10 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), indicating that these cells have a modest fusion defect. At this temperature, cells missing only Sey1p fused their ER ∼16 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), somewhat faster than at ...
The role of prostanoids in the regulation of chick myoblast differentiation has been investigated. At 3 X 10(-6) M, indomethacin and chloroquine specifically inhibit cell fusion. They do not affect cell proliferation, alignment, or the expression of two muscle-specific proteins, namely, the acetylcholine receptor and the muscle-specific form of creatine phosphokinase. The results demonstrate that it is indomethacins activity as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis at the cyclooxygenase step that causes the block of cell fusion, whereas chloroquine probably acts at the earlier step of phospholipase A. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), but not prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), rapidly reverses the inhibition of fusion imposed by indomethacin or chloroquine. The dose response of the myoblasts to PGE1 is a bell-shaped curve with a 100% reversal of fusion at approximately 10(-9) M. Eicosatrienoate and linoleate reverse the inhibition of fusion with similar kinetics, whereas arachidonate is completely ineffective. ...
A viral fusogen drives cell-cell fusion by hijacking the actin machinery to directly couple actin assembly with a short fusogenic ectodomain.
Macrophage traits in cancer cells are induced by macrophage-cancer cell fusion and cannot be explained by cellular interaction. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Looney TJ, Zhang L, Chen CH, Lee JH, Chari S, Mao FF, Pelizzola M, Zhang L, Lister R, Baker SW, Fernandes CJ, Gaetz J, Foshay KM, Clift KL, Zhang Z, Li WQ, Vallender EJ, Wagner U, Qin JY, Michelini KJ, Bugarija B, Park D, Aryee E, Stricker T, Zhou J, White KP, Ren B, Schroth GP, Ecker JR, Xiang AP, Lahn BT. Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells. Genome Res. 2014 Feb; 24(2):267-80 ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight, said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.. Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight, said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.. Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Phenotypic analysis of DCs/allo-HCC fusion cells created in the presence of HCCsp. A, Four types of DC were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of the ind
Its not easy to make one plus one equal one. But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells -- a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional analysis of glycoprotein L (gL) from rhesus lymphocryptovirus in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated cell fusion indicates a direct role of gL in gB-induced membrane fusion. AU - Plate, Aileen E.. AU - Smajlović, Jasmina. AU - Jardetzky, Theodore S.. AU - Longnecker, Richard. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Glycoprotein L (gL), which complexes with gH, is a conserved herpesvirus protein that is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) entry into host cells. The gH/gL complex has a conserved role in entry among herpesviruses, yet the mechanism is not clear. To gain a better understanding of the role of gL in EBVmediated fusion, chimeric proteins were made using rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV) gL (Rh gL), which shares a high sequence homology with EBV gL but does not complement EBV gL in mediating fusion with B cells. A reduction in fusion activity was observed with chimeric gL proteins that contained the amino terminus of Rh gL, although they retained their ability to process ...
During human placentation, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form a multinucleated syncytia ensuring hormonal production and nutrient exchanges between the maternal and fetal circulation. Syncytia formation is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and for fetal growth. The trophoblast cell fusion process first requires the acquisition of cell fusion properties, then cells set up plasma membrane protein macrocomplexes and fusogen machinery that trigger cellecell fusion. Numerous proteins have been shown to be directly involved in the initiation of trophoblast cell fusion. These proteins must expressed at the right time and in the right place to trigger cellecell fusion. In this review, we describe the role of certain fusogenic protein macrocomplexes that form the scaffold for the fusogen machinery underlying human trophoblastic-lipid mixing and merging of cell contents that lead to cell fusion in physiological conditions.
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and in combination they were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which in turn promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelledinvasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drosophila Myoblast Fusion. T2 - Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union. AU - Lee, Donghoon M.. AU - Chen, Elizabeth H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants R01 AR053173 and R01 GM098816, an American Heart Association Established Investigator Award, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Faculty Scholar Award to E.H.C. D.M.L. is supported by a Canadian Institute of Health Research postdoctoral fellowship. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Annual Reviews Inc.. All rights reserved.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying cell-cell ...
Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. With this chapter we describe standard chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during myoblast fusion. Furthermore we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative Omecamtiv mecarbil to the fusion apparatus. is definitely functionally equivalent to vertebrate skeletal muscle mass yet the take flight musculature is much simpler and requires only a short time to develop (1). These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate ...
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Skeletal muscle formation depends on the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Myoblast fusion is also the basis of muscle growth and repair during postnatal life. The ability of myoblasts to fuse and thereby inject their nucleus into existing muscle fibers led to several preclinical and clinical trials aimed at treating both muscle and non-muscle-related disorders. Identifying the pattern of events that induce myoblast differentiation and their commitment to fuse would benefit the search for improving myoblast-based therapies.. Using primary myoblast cultures derived from single human satellite cells (Baroffio et al., 1993), we have previously shown that membrane potential and the biophysical properties of specific ionic channels are important actors in the fusion process. We found that human myoblasts hyperpolarize before fusion through the sequential expression of two different K+ channels, ether-à-go-go (EAG) K+ channels (Bijlenga et al., 1998; Occhiodoro et al., ...
We are pursuing three projects that extend from our interests in the development of tissues and the innovative application of light microscopy to biology: Developmental cell fusion, Second-harmonic generation microscopy, and Genome-wide imaging of C. elegans development. Developmental Cell Fusion Formation of multinucleate syncytia (giant cells) is essential to the development and regeneration of human skeletal muscle, and is key to fertilization and the formation of various specialized cell types in many species. Yet the mechanism by which fusing cells recognize each other and merge their membranes is poorly understood. We use genetics and microscopy in the nematode worm C. elegans to study the mechanisms by which cells fuse during this animals development. Our recent studies of the unique cell-fusion protein EFF-1 indicate that the molecular machinery of cell fusion has been re-invented during evolution of different cell types and divergent organisms. We are also investigating the mechanism ...
The Chen lab studies mechanisms underlying cell-cell fusion, a fundamental cellular process in the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. We approach this question using a multifaceted approach including genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, live imaging, super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy. Starting with a forward genetic screen in Drosophila, we have identified multiple evolutionarily conserved core components of the myoblast fusion signaling cascade, and, more importantly, discovered a novel cellular mechanism underlying myoblast fusion. We show that myoblast fusion is an asymmetric process in which one cell invades its fusion partner using actin-propelled membrane protrusions to promote fusion pore formation. Building on insights we learned from myoblast fusion in vivo, we have reconstituted high-efficiency cell-cell fusion in an otherwise non-fusogenic, non-muscle cell line and uncovered a previously unrecognized function for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two genes required for cell fusion during yeast conjugation. T2 - evidence for a pheromone-induced surface protein.. AU - Trueheart, J.. AU - Boeke, J. D.. AU - Fink, G. R.. PY - 1987/7. Y1 - 1987/7. N2 - We characterized two genes, FUS1 and FUS2, which are required for fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells during conjugation. Mutations in these genes lead to an interruption of the mating process at a point just before cytoplasmic fusion; the partition dividing the mating pair remains undissolved several hours after the cells have initially formed a stable prezygote. Fusion is only moderately impaired when the two parents together harbor one or two mutant fus genes, and it is severely compromised only when three or all four fus genes are inactivated. Cloning of FUS1 and FUS2 revealed that they share some functional homology; FUS1 on a high-copy number plasmid can partially suppress a fus2 mutant, and vice versa. FUS1 remains essentially unexpressed in vegetative cells, but ...
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Using gene KO experiments, we uncovered the crucial function of MymX, MymK, and MRF regulators during human myoblast differentiation and fusion. With these unique gene KO reagents, we also carefully compared the fusogenic activities of human and mouse MymX/MymK orthologs. Contrary to a protein homology-assisted prediction, human MymK, instead of MymX, showed higher activities compared with their mouse orthologs. Even in the absence of MymX, MymK protein can induce low-level myoblast fusion in a dosage-dependent manner. Future endeavors are needed to study the biochemical basis underlying the functional gain of human MymK protein.. MymX and MymK expression ought to be tightly controlled for proper multinucleations of myoblasts in coordination with differentiation program. Our functional studies of MyoD, MyoG, and other MRFs highlight the distinct contributions of these factors in governing human myoblast fusion. Specifically, MyoD is essential and sufficient to transactivate the fusion program. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Transplanted hematopoietic stem cells are a promising vehicle for treatment of disease. Recently, cell fusion between bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) and extra-hematopoietic cells has been demonstrated in both tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis, although the physiologic fate of these cells has not been determined. Our long-range research goal is to understand the role of BMDC fusion in tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. This application is designed to characterize donor and host contributions to fusion between BMDCs and intestinal tumor epithelium, and to determine if cell fusion plays a direct role in tumor progression. Based upon the observation that myeloid progenitor cells fuse with differentiated hepatocytes, we will identify the discrete subset of BMDCs that is competent to fuse with intestinal epithelium. Next, we will define components of the host environment that synergistically act to optimize fusion between the two cell types. Finally, we ...
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. Could anybody provide this, or give a source for it ? Please reply to the eMail address indicated below (I will post it afterwards to the discussion group) -- ********************************************* * Silvio Hemmi, PhD * Molecular Biology I * University of Zuerich * ETH-Hoenggerberg, HPM D5 * CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland * Tel +41/1/633 24 93 * eMail hemmi at molbiol.unizh.ch ...
The possibility that isomerization controls the fusion activity was tested by analysing Mo‐MLV fusion and infectivity under conditions that either inhibited or induced isomerization. The fusion was studied as virus‐induced polykaryon formation in XC cells (fusion‐from‐without). Fusion of cell‐bound virus is induced by incubation at 37°C and terminated by pH 3.0 treatment. In confluent cultures (Figure 6A), the fusion will merge cells, and with time these will rearrange into polykaryons (Figure 6B). Preliminary testing demonstrated that TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ supported fusion as effectively as DMEM (data not shown). Therefore, TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ was used as the control condition. The time course of the fusion process is shown in Figure 6C.. We first studied the effect that alkylation‐mediated inhibition of isomerization had on fusion. To avoid adverse effects due to alkylation of internal viral proteins, we used the membrane‐impermeant reagents M135 and MTSET. We observed a ...
Examination under anesthesia to determine the degree of fixed contractures, physical therapy and continuous use of a passive motion machine, protected weight bearing, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications have been reported methods of nonoperative management. (Segaren, 2014) Aggressive surgical release (Roy 1988) and hinged hip distraction (Thacker 2005) may be needed in recalcitrant cases. The clinical course is variable. Some hips will progress to end stage arthritis or even spontaneous fusion, whereas others may completely heal. (Bleck 1983 ...
PRR determinants controlling cell-to-cell and virus-to-cell fusion thresholds.As inferred from the results of syncytium assays, MLV-4070A glycoproteins harboring mutations in the PRR, such as PROMO, PROFR, A2, and A3, appeared more readily fusogenic in cell-to-cell fusion assays and thus seemed more reactive than wild-type amphotropic envelopes. They may thus require fewer PiT-2 amphotropic receptors to trigger their cell-to-cell fusogenicity. To test the relationship between increased fusogenicity and requirements for PiT-2 receptor molecules, we compared cell-to-cell fusion to either XC or XC-A-ST cells. In the latter, constitutive expression of an interfering amphotropic BD reduced the number of available functional PiT-2 receptors as demonstrated by the reduced capacities of either PROMO or MLV-4070A envelope glycoproteins to bind XC-A-ST cells compared to that of parental XC cells (see Fig. 5A). As expected, this resulted in an inhibition of fusion of XC-A-ST cells through cell-to-cell ...
Virus-cell and cell-cell fusion.: Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins; both those that function a
The classical method of producing diagnostic and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is to fuse Ab-producing B-cells with cancerous mouse cells (hybridoma technology). The product of this cellular fusion serves as a source for the production of mAbs in vitro or in vivo. In either case large numbers of animals (i.e. syngeneic mice for in vivo production) or large amounts of animal products (fetal calf serum for in vitro production) are required. In addition, the syngeneic mice are, depending on the treatment and the type of adjuvants applied, often exposed to high physical stress. In addition, if these mAb would be used in humans they would have to be engineered to contain only human DNA-sequences in their framework (humanization). We would like to replace these cumbersome and - in terms of animals sacrificed or fetal calf serum consumed - very intense procedures by a technology which starts directly with the immunological profile of human antigen-specific B-cells to produce pure human ...
Larionova N., Samosudova N., N.Reutov, The possible of L-glutamate and nitric oxide in frog cerebellum cellular fusion and neuronal net functional control // 2-nd International Conference on Glia 1, Interfaces in the Nervous Systems: Development and Repair, Uppsala, Sweden. 2001. p.25 ...
An analysis of the R18 fusion assay was made during the fusion of the Sendai virus with erythrocyte ghosts. The increase in R18 fluorescence, reflecting the interaction process, was evaluated in terms of the different processes that in principle may contribute to this increase, that is, monomeric probe transfer, hemifusion, and complete fusion. To this end, the kinetics of the R18-labeled lipid mixing were compared to those obtained with an assay in which the fusion-monitoring probe, eosin-maleimide, was attached to the viral surface proteins. The experiments relied on the use of native and fusion-inactive viruses and studies involving viral and target membranes that were modified by the incorporation of the lysophospholipid. The total dequenching signal detected in the R18 assay consists of components from probe transferred without fusion and from fusion itself. At 37 degrees C, the initial rate of dequenching (within two minutes) was predominately from the probe diluted by fusion with little
In this paper, a myoblast fusion defect was attributed to mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin gene. We now show that the fusion defect instead apparently arises from the TM3 balancer chromosome. Experiments subsequent to publication using a TM3-containing line that lacked a paramyosin mutation suggested that we had mis-identified balancer chromosome-containing individuals before the late embryonic stage as paramyosin mutant homozygotes (prm1/prm1). By using a lacZ-expressing version of TM3, staining experiments unambiguously identified young prm1 homozygotes and showed them all to lack the fusion defect, implying that the fusion defect is due to the presence of the TM3 chromosome. We have not tested whether this is a homozygous or heterozygous effect of TM3. The apparent rescue of the fusion defect by the wild-type paramyosin transgene is presumably due to the absence of the TM3 chromosome, instead of the presence of the paramyosin transgene. We conclude that embryos identified as ...
Podosomes and Invasive Protrusions. Our genetic and cell biological studies led to the discovery of an actin-enriched podosome-like structure (PLS) at the site of Drosophila myoblast fusion. The PLS is only generated in one of the two fusing cells (attacking cell). It projects finger-like invasive protrusions into the receiving cell, increasing membrane contact area and facilitating membrane juxtaposition and fusion. The one-sided PLS invasion makes the site of fusion an asymmetric structure, which we termed the asymmetric fusogenic synapse. Similar invasive protrusions mediate the induced fusion of cultured Drosophila non-muscle cells, and the fusion of mammalian myoblasts, osteoclasts and macrophages. Thus, invasive protrusions are used as a conserved and general mechanism to promote cell-cell fusion.. ...
Cell fusion is known to underlie key developmental processes in humans and is postulated to contribute to tissue maintenance and even carcinogenesis. The mechanistic details of cell fusion, especially between different cell types, have been difficult
In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed‐color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days
The large regions of DNA that can be cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are ideal for expression studies of the complex genes and gene clusters found in the mammalian genome. Such studies...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
hardware after fusion - MedHelps hardware after fusion Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hardware after fusion. Find hardware after fusion information, treatments for hardware after fusion and hardware after fusion symptoms.
Two haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell which has all genetic info for forming new organism, must have same set of genetic info if organism is to resemble parents, mitosis ensures cell divides to give identical group of cells ...
Jamb and Jamc are an essential cell surface receptor pair that interact to drive fusion between muscle precursor cells during zebrafish development.
The Fleischmann-Pons press conference was 30 years ago this month! I didnt pay much attention to it at the time---I was, after all, in preschool---and then I heard hardly a word about cold fusion in college, or in physics grad school, or as a professional physicist. Finally, a few years ago, I was surprised to…
The Fleischmann-Pons press conference was 30 years ago this month! I didnt pay much attention to it at the time---I was, after all, in preschool---and then I heard hardly a word about cold fusion in college, or in physics grad school, or as a professional physicist. Finally, a few years ago, I was surprised to…
Spinal self fusion usually is a prolonged process, and the outcome cannot be predicted as the fusion can be irregular. Consult a doctor now.
Aguilar, P.S., Baylies, M.K., Fleissner, A., Helming, L., Inoue, N., Podbilewicz, B., Wang, H., and Wong, M. (2013). Genetic basis of cell-cell fusion mechanisms. Trends in genetics : TIG 29, 427-437 ...
All of the presentations for Inclusion Fusion are available on-demand. Anyone who registers for the Web Summit will be able to access any presentation during Inclusion Fusion at any time during the conference. Each of the presentations has been pre-recorded. While most of our faculty will be available at designated times during the conference for…
Plays a role in myoblast fusion; probable mediator of endocytic recycling for membrane trafficking events during myotube formation.
Provides in-depth assessment of 500+ genes associated with fusions in cancer, including solid tumors, soft tissue cancers and hematological malignancies. Delivers detected fusions in a simple report.
The MTP Fusion Plate from TriMed is an anatomically contoured plate designed to give surgeons precise control over in-situ compression at the fusion site.
Are you looking for a unique way of getting fit? Try fusion. A fusion workout blends different disciplines or different styles within a discipline to offer variety and a more complete workout. Here, we look at four variations:
The first thing to try if you have an electrical problem is to reseat the appropriate fuse. If youre not sure which fuse it is, just reseat them all. It is not uncommon for a fuse to work its way loose while off-roading. Just push down on the fuse with your finger. For the ones that are a tight fit, the eraser end of a pencil works well.. If a fuse has blown you can use that yellow thingie to pull it out and then insert a new one. You do have a spare right? Image 6 shows what a good fuse and a blown fuse look like. A fuse can look good though and still be blown. The only definitive test is using a multimeter.. I hate to have to mention this, but I see it happen so often. Do not replace a 10 amp fuse with a 20 amp fuse. That 10 amp rating on the fuse is not a suggestion, its a requirement. Putting in overrated fuses risks starting a bonfire, and instead of marshmallows, youll be roasting your Jeep.. If you have a new Jeep and have not done so, you should reseat all of the fuses and relays. It ...
p120 colocalizes with Arm in other tissues. (A-D) Stage 15. p120 (red); Arm (green). Arm is enriched in fusion cells (red arrows). (E) p120-GFP. (F and G) Sta
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Zimmer, Carl (2019-11-20). "Scientists Are Just Beginning to Understand Mysterious DNA Circles Common in Cancer Cells". The New ... "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". cgap.nci.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-27. Nathanson, ... Williams, Ruth (2008-06-30). "Paul Mischel: All about brains". The Journal of Cell Biology. 181 (7): 1044-1045. doi:10.1083/jcb ... Molecular Cell. 67 (1): 128-138.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.05.030. ISSN 1097-4164. PMC 5521991. PMID 28648777. Guo, Deliang ...
Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... However important the fusion order is, the evolutionary origin of each catalytic domain in UMPS is also a matter of study. Both ... Merging both the fusion order and evolutionary origin, organisms end up having fused UMPS where one of its catalytic domains ... Fusion events between OPRTase and ODCase, which have led to the formation of the bifunctional enzyme UMPS, have occurred ...
"CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ... In five out of six occasions, pVII and pIX fusions without pelB was more efficient than pIII fusions in affinity selection ... The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as ... These are made into synthetic receptors for T-Cells collected from the patient that are used to combat the disease. Competing ...
... life processes of cell membranes, the importance of pH control, the role of iodine in human health, and specifically its ... and from this point a fine platinized platinum wire extends through the lumen of the tube and is held in place by fusion to a ...
The discovery of a novel Cytochrome P450 - oxidoreductase gene fusion described the last unknown step in synthesis of morphine ... The Plant Cell. 6 (5): 761-772. doi:10.1105/tpc.6.5.761. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 160474. PMID 12244257. Graham, Ian A. (2008). " ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... This fusion of the paramesonephric ducts begins in the third month, and the septum formed by their fused medial walls ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ... For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the ...
... judging by the lack of fusion in the skull. The skull of second species measures 7 cm (2.8 in) in length, but it isn't stated ... or alternatively a ganglion of nerve cells. It is also possible that this organ functioned as a replacement for the parietal ...
J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... Nd:glass lasers are usually frequency tripled to the third harmonic at 351 nm in laser fusion devices. Uranyl acetate has been ... These lasers have been used in extremely high-power applications, such as experiments in inertial confinement fusion. Neodymium ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ...
Unlike the embryo, the endosperm is often formed from the fusion of two maternal cells with a male gamete. This results in a ... Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ... In germline cells the imprint is erased and then re-established according to the sex of the individual, i.e. in the developing ...
Muncher eats through the bars of the cell housing the Ghostbusters equipment and flees. "Interview: Jean-Marc Lofficier". ... Ghostbusters' Holtzmann is a Queer, Autistic Hero , Fusion". Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved March 8, ...
"Iva Tolic-Norrelykke: Cell Press". www.cell.com. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata ... Coelho, Miguel; Lade, Steven J.; Alberti, Simon; Gross, Thilo; Tolić, Iva M. (2014). "Fusion of Protein Aggregates Facilitates ... Cell. 153 (7): 1526-1536. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.020. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 23791180. Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; ... Featured on Cell "40 under 40", 2014. Tolić is a member of European Molecular Biology Organization, the Croatian Biophysical ...
RET-fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), RET-fusion positive thyroid cancer and RET-mutant medullary-thyroid ... "FDA approves selpercatinib for locally advanced or metastatic RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer" (Press release). ... "Understanding Metastatic RET Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)" (PDF). "Understanding Metastatic RET-Driven ... multi-cohort trial that evaluated 41 participants with RET fusion-positive tumors (other than non-small cell lung cancer and ...
Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... For this reason, as well as to avoid phagolysosomal fusion and death, rickettsiae must escape from the phagosome. To escape ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... This causes the host cell membrane to protrude outward and invaginate the membrane of an adjacent cell. The bacteria are then ...
Kobold Gene Fusion (2007) Go West: A Lucky Luke Adventure (2008) Tripping the Rift: The Movie (2008) - Whip Walter's Christmas ... Jumphrey/Ogle Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory (2005) Funpak (2005) Spookley the Square Pumpkin (2005) - Edgar Monster Allergy (2005 ... Kaput Splinter Cell (2002) Daft Planet (2002) Pig City (2002-2004) - Additional Voices Martin Morning (2003-2004) Creepschool ( ...
While in his cell, Bruce was told the story of an exiled mercenary and his wife and child that were once imprisoned there. The ... The newly resurrected League of Shadows plots to hold Gotham under siege by converting a fusion reactor that was developed by ... Nyssa is satisfied and upholds her promise, recalling all her forces from Gotham while Batman takes Ra's to a special cell and ... Lady Shiva leads some of her ninjas into obtaining the Calibosix (a cell mutation virus) from the Gotham Contagion Research ...
This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate ... This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the ... Saglio G, Cilloni D (2004). "Abl: the prototype of oncogenic fusion proteins". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (23): 2897-911. doi: ... The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in ...
It's also exact: it controls all accesses to the memory cell, rather than just assuring a bit pattern. However, unlike cas, it ... Avoiding ISA Bloat with Macro-Op Fusion for RISC-V (Technical report). University of California, Berkeley. arXiv:1607.02318. ...
Cell Biol. 73 (11-12): 933-47. doi:10.1139/o95-101. PMID 8722009. Kas K, Michiels L, Merregaert J (1992). "Genomic structure ... 1993). "fau cDNA encodes a ubiquitin-like-S30 fusion protein and is expressed as an antisense sequence in the Finkel-Biskis- ... It has been proposed that the fusion protein is post-translationally processed to generate free fubi and free ribosomal protein ... Similar to ribosomal protein S30, ribosomal proteins S27a and L40 are synthesized as fusion proteins with ubiquitin. GRCh38: ...
After Volta's discovery of the electrochemical cell in 1800, the term was then applied to a group of electrochemical cells " ... fusion research, and particle accelerators. Large capacitor banks (reservoir) are used as energy sources for the exploding- ... In dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), each memory cell typically consists of a MOSFET and MOS capacitor. A capacitor consists ... subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. Leyden jars were later made by coating the inside and outside of ...
However, bacteria produce D-amino acid residues that polymerize into short polypeptides which can be found in bacterial cell ... heat of fusion, refractive index, and its various spectra. Crystallization of a racemate can result in separate (+) and (−) ...
... cell fusion, mutation breeding) or genetic engineering. Canadian law requires that manufacturers and importers submit detailed ...
The new cells typically will have too many or too few chromosomes. The odd number of chromosomes causes the defective cells to ... Autosomal Recessive Splenogonadal Fusion with Limb Defects and Micrognathia DK Phocomelia Syndrome Holt-Oram Syndrome ... The mutation causes cell division to occur slowly or unevenly, and the cells with abnormal genetic content die. Roberts ... The ESCO2 gene has a specific effect on cell division in Roberts syndrome patients. In normal cell division, each chromosome is ...
CVnCoV is an mRNA vaccine that encodes the full-length, pre-fusion stabilized coronavirus spike protein, and activates the ... Unmodified mRNA inhibits immunogenicity by triggering the production of interferons that block the generation of T helper cells ... which direct B cells to produce antibodies. CureVac attempted to evade immune detection by altering the RNA sequence in a way ... is more stable inside cells and produces higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in animals. The manufacturer currently ...
"FUSION CDT". Retrieved 26 August 2021. "Energy Storage Materials". Retrieved 26 August 2021. "James Marrow - Linkedin". ... Critical stripping current leads to dendrite formation on plating in lithium anode solid electrolyte cells. Nature Materials ...
... squamous cell Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck Carcinophobia Cardiac amyloidosis Cardiac and laterality defects ... syndrome Guadalajara type 1 Camptodactyly syndrome Guadalajara type 2 Camptodactyly taurinuria Camptodactyly vertebral fusion ... anthrax Cutaneous larva migrans Cutaneous lupus erythematosus Cutaneous photosensitivity colitis lethal Cutaneous T-cell ... peripheral neuropathy Cervical ribs sprengel anomaly polydactyly Cervical spinal stenosis Cervical vertebral fusion ...
Two years later, however, he was admitted as one of the leaders of the newly created National Peasants' Party, a fusion of the ... cell of six inside their school. The group was affiliated with Narodnaya Volya, and Stere was responsible for multiplying and ...
S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the virus to its potential cell host via the H1 and HR2, which are heptad repeat regions. ... The SARS-CoV-2 virus can infect a wide range of cells and systems of the body. COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper ... The cells of the central nervous system, the microglia, neurons, and astrocytes, are also involved in the release of pro- ... Among healthy adults not exposed to SARS-CoV-2, about 35% have CD4+ T cells that recognise the SARS-CoV-2 S protein ( ...
This technique, known as "inertial confinement fusion", so far has not been able to achieve "breakeven", that is, so far the ... Laser capture microdissection use lasers to procure specific cell populations from a tissue section under microscopic ... hoping that the squeezing effect of the impacts will induce atomic fusion in the pellets. ... fusion reaction generates less power than is used to power the lasers, but research continues. Powerful lasers producing ultra- ...
Lipid rafts on phagosomes prevent lysosomal fusion, and normal cell trafficking is unaffected. Because B. suis is facultative ... and fusion of the phagosome and lysosome. B. suis, in return, has developed ways to counteract the host cell defense to survive ... capable of growing and reproducing inside of host cells, specifically phagocytic cells. They are also not spore-forming, ... In addition, this furtive entry into macrophages does not affect the cell's normal trafficking. The smooth LPS also inhibits ...
He creates sculptures of primordial shapes that, at first sight, evoke human cells or the notion of fertility. Made out of ... Once suspended in air, the vibrating play of light on the sculptures, and the apparent fusion with their surroundings into one ...
Two molecules that regulate cell fusion have been identified and designated fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) and FRP-2. FRP- ... and FRP-1-mediated T-cell activation. The FRP-1 system is involved in virus-mediated cell fusion and multinucleated giant cell ... Function of fusion regulatory proteins (FRPs) in immune cells and virus-infected cells Crit Rev Immunol. 2000;20(3):167-96. ... Two molecules that regulate cell fusion have been identified and designated fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) and FRP-2. FRP- ...
The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific ... To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which ... with a hemagglutinin epitope and a biotin acceptor peptide and performed a transposon-mediated transfection of myeloma cell ... secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell when they possess the desired antigen-specificity. ...
The Fusion Cell will serve as a space for Philippine security forces and U.S. troops to plan and implement programs for ... Fusion Cell includes the refurbishing of a 600-sq ft structure that had become unusable, and construction of a 400-sq ft ... led the inauguration today of the $36,768 Fusion Cell project which he called a symbol of the decades-old alliance between his ... Thomas emphasized that the construction of the Fusion Cell doesnt mean US troops will permanently stay in the country ...
... expressed in HEK 293 cells; Synonyms: B7 homolog 1,B7-H1,CD274,PD-L1,PDCD1L1,Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1; find Sigma- ... Human secreted Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-Fc fusion protein, also known as CD274 and B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) with a ... B7 homolog 1, B7-H1, CD274, PD-L1, PDCD1L1, Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 ... expressed in a HEK293 cell expression system and enzymatically biotin-labeled using Avitag™ technology. MW = 54 kDa. ...
become predominantly cell fusion CMS in the future if nothing is done to prevent this.. • Cell fusion CMS is truly anti- ... Lack of labeling of cell fusion CMS hybrids makes it nearly impossible to know which varieties are cell fusion CMS. hybrids and ... Using a cell of a Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) and a cell of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus), the cell walls are ... me want to avoid cell fusion CMS they should be able to buy certified organic seed and be confident that it is not cell fusion ...
... which includes fusion of the peptidoglycan cell walls and membranes. Heterologous cell fusion facilitated a large-scale ... ljungdahlii undergoes heterologous cell-to-cell fusion, which facilitates the exchange of cytoplasmic protein and RNA between ... Fusion led to persistent hybrid cells containing DNA from both parents but with distinct properties and morphologies. Moreover ... Here we present new evidence that cell fusion events also facilitate the exchange of plasmid DNA between the two organisms of ...
Anti-parasitic drug may protect against lung cell fusion induced by SARS-CoV-2 ... Some of these fused cells, known as syncytia, contain over 20 different nuclei. The authors found that this fusion process is ... Virology: Anti-parasitic drug may protect against lung cell fusion induced by SARS-CoV-2. Nature ... Virology: Anti-parasitic drug may protect against lung cell fusion induced by SARS-CoV-2 ...
Understanding Metastatic RET Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer [Infographic] by Brandpoint (BPT) October 30, 2020. ...
Role of Mechanical Properties of Cell Mediated Vesicles in Membrane Fusion. D. Vorselen, W.H. Roos, J.J.W.A. van Loon, G.J.L. ... Role of Mechanical Properties of Cell Mediated Vesicles in Membrane Fusion. / Vorselen, D.; Roos, W.H.; van Loon, J.J.W.A. et ... Role of Mechanical Properties of Cell Mediated Vesicles in Membrane Fusion. In: Biophysical Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 104, No. 2. pp ... Role of Mechanical Properties of Cell Mediated Vesicles in Membrane Fusion. Biophysical Journal. 2013;104(2):620A-620A. https ...
CELL FUSION C Derma Relief Sunscreen 100 SPF50+/PA++++ Duo Set 2pcs Regular price $22.20 USD ... CELL FUSION C SPF50+PA++++ Toning Sunscreen 100 2ps Regular price $22.20 USD ... CELL FUSION C Laser Sunscreen 100 SPF50+ PA+++ 2piece Regular price $22.20 USD ...
... Dr. Jean -Luc VayLawrence Berkeley ... The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFSVNL) is. involved in the development of accelerators that can ... Jean-Luc Vay is a physicist in the Accelerator and Fusion Research. Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He ... energy density experiments and implosion of inertial fusion capsules. For such. studies, the HIFSVNL has developed original ...
Call for papers: Cell and Tissue Polarity. The eighth Journal of Cell Science Special Issue will focus on cell and tissue ... Phagosome-lysosome fusion is a calcium-independent event in macrophages. J. Cell Biol. ... Cytosolic free calcium elevation mediates the phagosome-lysosome fusion during phagocytosis in human neutrophils. J. Cell Biol. ... B) Antisense- or sense-treated neutrophils(1×108 cells) were allowed to ingest H37Rv at the ratio of one cell to 20 H37Rv or to ...
US-6482919-B2 chemical patent summary.
Here we describe a novel determinant of antitumour activity using fusion proteins consisting of IL-2 and the antibody fragment ... Since treatment efficacy is mediated by CD8+ and NK cell activity at the tumour site, considerable efforts have focused on ... in which CD25 binding is abolished through mutation effectively prevents unwanted activation of CD25+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs ... Potent antitumour activity of IL-2-Fc fusion proteins requires Fc-mediated depletion of regulatory T-cells. Abstract. ...
Abstract 2434: DNA methylation characterization of fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma primary tumors and cell ... DNA methylation characterization of fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma primary tumors and cell lines. [ ... DNA methylation characterization of fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma primary tumors and cell lines. Cancer ... Though unsupervised clustering analysis indicated that FP tumors and cell lines cluster as do the FN tumors and cell lines, a ...
White/MacmillanThe only confirmed mechanism for protein-mediated membrane fusion involves ... Membrane fusion is blocked by mutations in the HA leash region (right). ... Nicole LeBrasseur; Fusion gets in the groove . J Cell Biol 24 November 2003; 163 (4): 691. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/ ... "You can do it with other types of interactions." This may help explain why class II viral fusion proteins work although they do ...
Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were ... Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were ... Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were ... Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were ...
One single case with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion in NGS showed ATF1 gene rearrangement by FISH and was reclassified as clear cell ... "hyalinizing clear cell," and "clear cell malignant myoepithelioma" yielded 94 clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas (CCMCs) for ... None of the CCMCs with EWSR1 rearrangements detected by FISH had an EWSR1 fusion transcript. Fusion transcripts were detected ... PLAG1 fusions were found in 5 cases (5/12, 41.6%) with LIFR (2 cases), FGFR1 (2 cases), and CTNNB1 (1 case) as partner genes. ...
N2 - A cell line derived from Sendai virus-induced fusion of human adenocarcinoma and CBA mouse embryo cells and Sendai virus ... AB - A cell line derived from Sendai virus-induced fusion of human adenocarcinoma and CBA mouse embryo cells and Sendai virus ... Persistent infection of a cell line of mouse origin after cell fusion by u.v.-inactivated Sendai virus. / Schnitzer, T. J.; ... A cell line derived from Sendai virus-induced fusion of human adenocarcinoma and CBA mouse embryo cells and Sendai virus ...
We show here that BCL6 is present throughout the cell fusion process in the fusogenic trophoblastic cell line BeWo. Suppression ... Conversely, stable overexpression of BCL6 reduces the fusion capacity of BeWo cells. These data suggest that an accurately ... Preeclamptic placentas are characterized by various defects like deregulated differentiation and impaired fusion of ... of BCL6 promotes trophoblast fusion, indicated by enhanced levels of fusion-related β-hCG, syncytin 1 and syncytin 2. Increased ...
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Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ... Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion and foam cell formation by Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces a Niemann-Pick type C1 like ...
... est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les ... DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, ... Langerhans cells in odontogenic cysts. A retrospective study ... Recherche avancée , Historique de recherche Mon DI-fusion , À propos de DI-fusion , Contact , ... DI-fusion. * Attitudes towards monkeypox vaccination among healthcare workers in France and Belgium: an element of complacency? ...
Sutton, Thomas L. ; Walker, Brett S. ; Wong, Melissa H. / Rebuttal to : Confusion on Cell Fusion. In: CMGH. 2021 ; Vol. 11, No ... title = "Rebuttal to: Confusion on Cell Fusion",. author = "Sutton, {Thomas L.} and Walker, {Brett S.} and Wong, {Melissa H.}", ... Rebuttal to: Confusion on Cell Fusion. CMGH. 2021 Jan;11(1):307-308. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2020.09.018 ... Rebuttal to : Confusion on Cell Fusion. / Sutton, Thomas L.; Walker, Brett S.; Wong, Melissa H. ...
... I are have that it announced the download cell himself that was the History, though we can yet write him ... No safe download cell fusion of his, as, included. Napoleon would be no kitchen. Paris theories on its download cell to the boy ... An download cell in London would choose Lady Mary. right this had so compare Montagu to the download cell fusion of reading ... In download cell fusion to recommend out of this end look get your locating world likely to be to the resonant or soft ceding. ...
PAST Fusion Cell Academy 2022 Course Catalog The Argonne National Laboratory PAST Fusion Cell Academy has released its 2022 ... PAST Fusion Cell. Argonne National Laboratory. 9700 S. Cass Ave. Bldg. 221. Argonne, IL 60439 ... Fusion Cell conducted a case study on a tunnel collapse that occurred May 9, 2017, at the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of ... guest presented during a PAST Fusion Cell Facebook Live event highlighting her FEMA Master Public Information Officer thesis on ...
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Tumor cells would display both fluorescent proteins only if cell fusion with normal cells occurred. In addition, if cell fusion ... Tumor cells would display both fluorescent proteins only if cell fusion with normal cells occurred. In addition, if cell fusion ... Cell fusion between neoplastic and normal cells has been suggested to play a role in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. ... Cell fusion between neoplastic and normal cells has been suggested to play a role in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor controls exocytosis in chromaffin cells by increasing full-fusion events * González-Santana, A ...
I like to call it the grandfather of the Fusion Cell because it had many of the same components that the Fusion Cell had. It ... and approves policies and recovery strategies that are brought to it by the Fusion Cell. The Fusion Cell is responsible for ... Rob Saale was the director of the U.S. Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell, an interagency group housed at the FBI, between 2017 and ... CTC: This past June marked the fourth anniversary of the creation of the Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell at the FBI, an ...
  • Here we describe a novel determinant of antitumour activity using fusion proteins consisting of IL-2 and the antibody fragment crystallizable (Fc) region. (garvan.org.au)
  • In the final fused state, six-helix bundles are formed by HIV Env and paramyxovirus F proteins, members of the class I group of viral fusion proteins. (rupress.org)
  • This may help explain why class II viral fusion proteins work although they do not have a lot of helical structure. (rupress.org)
  • Antigen-negative cells contained no virus proteins and could be superinfected with wild-type virus, when all virus proteins appeared. (northwestern.edu)
  • Tumor cells would display both fluorescent proteins only if cell fusion with normal cells occurred. (unicatt.it)
  • In this context, WNT proteins have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages and other cells of the immune system as well as on bacterial number development during infection. (fz-borstel.de)
  • Those tubercular studs colorized maroon, are known as H-proteins (hemagglutinin), while those colorized gray, represented what are referred to as F-proteins (fusion). (cdc.gov)
  • Just like our GFP-Trap®, F2H® takes advantage of simple fusions to fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP), which most cell biologists generate for their proteins of interest anyways. (science4life.de)
  • These include the GFP-Trap® for rapid pull-down of GFP fusion proteins, GFP- and RFP-Booster for intensifying the fluorescence signal of GFP or RFP fusion proteins, Chromobody®-based live-cell assays for screening and compound validation, the F2H® assay for protein-protein interaction analysis in living mammalian cells, as well as a selection of conventional monoclonal antibodies. (science4life.de)
  • F/G group (single-cycle infectious virions with NiV B F and G proteins on the cell surface). (cdc.gov)
  • The various proteins and asymmetric lipid bilayers present in cell membranes form curvatures, resulting in structural transformations to generate vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • The precurssor is processed into S1 and S2 by host cell furin or another cellular protease to yield the mature S1 and S2 proteins (PubMed:32155444). (bioss.com.cn)
  • This interaction has been confirmed in vitro with GST fusion proteins and in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in NIH3T3 cells stably transfected with Grb3-3. (drugbank.com)
  • The Argonne National Laboratory PAST Fusion Cell Academy has released it's 2022 course catalog. (anl.gov)
  • Sep 22, 2022 Telomere vesicles retained the Rad51 recombination factor that enabled telomere fusion with T-cell chromosome ends lengthening them by an average of 3,000 base pairs. (hilfenetzwerk-cic.de)
  • Two molecules that regulate cell fusion have been identified and designated fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) and FRP-2. (nih.gov)
  • Human secreted Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-Fc fusion protein, also known as CD274 and B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) with a T20Q mutation,GenBank Accession No. NM_014143,amino acids 19-239, fused at the Cterminus with the Fc portion of human IgG1, with C-terminal Avitag ™ expressed in a HEK293 cell expression system and enzymatically biotin-labeled using Avitag ™ technology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Heterologous cell fusion facilitated a large-scale exchange of cytoplasmic protein and RNA between the two organisms, leading to the formation of hybrid bacterial cells containing cytoplasmic material of the two parent organisms. (biorxiv.org)
  • Previously, we have shown the syntrophic coculture of C. acetobutylicum and C. ljungdahlii undergoes heterologous cell-to-cell fusion, which facilitates the exchange of cytoplasmic protein and RNA between the two organisms, and leads to the formation of hybrid bacterial cells. (biorxiv.org)
  • The authors found that this fusion process is mediated by the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which triggers calcium oscillations and the activation of a protein called TMEM16F. (natureasia.com)
  • The enrichment of PAX3-FOXO1 binding sites in genes that are differentially methylated between these FP and FN tumors suggests that the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein may contribute to this methylation pattern. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The only confirmed mechanism for protein-mediated membrane fusion involves the formation of helix bundles, in which helices attached to two membranes pack against one another to draw together the membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Acrylamide gel analysis showed that all the Sendai virus antigens of antigen-positive cells were normal with the exception of the M protein. (northwestern.edu)
  • The interaction of the G protein and specific cell surface receptors may be involved. (cdc.gov)
  • However, PLD1 precipitated from cell lysates with immobilized glutathione S-transferase-RalA fusion protein is active. (embl.de)
  • The F-protein is responsible for fusion of the virus and host cell membranes, viral penetration, and hemolysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The H-protein is responsible for the binding of virions to cells. (cdc.gov)
  • ChromoTek GmbH (Marinsried, Germany) announces the launch of a new research assay for protein-protein interaction analysis in live mammalian cells, the Fluorescence Two-Hybrid (F2H®) Kit. (science4life.de)
  • ChromoTek's F2H® Kit enables effortless analysis of interactions between any GFP- and RFP-tagged protein pairs in living mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy. (science4life.de)
  • S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity. (bioss.com.cn)
  • We demonstrated the application of this fusion protein in a sandwich IgG detection immunoassay using surface-bound antigens to capture target IgG and protein A-Nanoluc fusion as the detector. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • We optimized the platform's sensitivity by incorporating multiple repeats of the Z domain into the fusion protein constructs. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Protein A-Nanoluciferase fusion protein for generalized, sensitive detection of immunoglobulin G'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • A panel of these scFv antibodies was further produced in the form of stable protein in mammalian cells and cell-cell fusion of Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. (dhakahalalfood-otaku.com)
  • The current study will explore these issues in a larger, separate cohort of RMS tumors and compare DNA methylation in RMS cell lines and primary tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • METHODS: DNA methylation was examined in 48 RMS tumors (21 FP and 27 FN) as well as 10 RMS cell lines (5 FP and 5 FN) on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though unsupervised clustering analysis indicated that FP tumors and cell lines cluster as do the FN tumors and cell lines, a principal component analysis clarified these relationships by showing that the two groups of cell lines are located at a considerable distance from the two tumor subtypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of the most varied probes in the tumors indicated that the vast majority of these probes are hypermethylated in all RMS cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a complementary analysis with the most variable probes (top 1%) in the cell lines, most of these probes are hypomethylated in all RMS tumors, though two smaller groups of probes show differential methylation between both groups of FP and FN samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These analyses also indicate that RMS cell lines do not faithfully recapitulate the DNA methylation patterns that characterize primary tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Within 47 HPV-positive OPSCC tumors, 282 gene fusions were identified. (elsevier.com)
  • Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of these genes followed similar patterns of up regulation and down regulation in tumors without these fusions compared to normal tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Tumors positive for EWSR1 gene rearrangement were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using fusion-detecting panels. (utu.fi)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Participants whose tumors have a known sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation must also have experienced disease progression (during or after treatment) or have an intolerance to treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor(s). (who.int)
  • Since S -palmitoylation and cholesterol homeostasis are crucial for viral infections, we investigated IFITM interactions with cholesterol by molecular dynamic stimulations, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis in vitro and photoaffinity crosslinking in mammalian cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Notably, we discovered that the S -palmitoylation levels regulate differential IFITM isoform interactions with cholesterol in mammalian cells and specificity of antiviral activity towards IAV, SARS-CoV-2 and EBOV. (bvsalud.org)
  • To facilitate the isolation of specific antibody-producing hybridomas, a method has to be established which temporarily restricts the cells from releasing the antibody into the culture medium and thus retaining the genotype (the antibody-coding genes) and the phenotype (the produced antibodies) in one entity. (nature.com)
  • Gene fusions were associated with significant up regulation of 16 genes (including EGFR and ERBB4) and down regulation of four genes (PTPRT, ZNF750, DLG2, SLCO5A1). (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that gene fusions may be one mechanism by which functionally relevant genes are altered in HPV-positive OPSCC. (elsevier.com)
  • PLAG1 fusions were found in 5 cases (5/12, 41.6%) with LIFR (2 cases), FGFR1 (2 cases), and CTNNB1 (1 case) as partner genes. (utu.fi)
  • How we, as individuals, result from a unique combination of genes in a single cell produced by the fusion of egg and sperm. (le.ac.uk)
  • We now provided evidence that WNT6 promotes foam cell formation by regulating key lipid metabolic genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) during pulmonary TB. (fz-borstel.de)
  • Detecting ALK, ROS1 and RET Fusion Genes in Cell Block Samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Uncontrolled EZH2 enzyme activity results in poorly regulated genes that control cancer cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • We have previously shown that in syntrophic cocultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium ljungdahlii , the two organisms undergo heterologous cell fusion, which includes fusion of the peptidoglycan cell walls and membranes. (biorxiv.org)
  • Fission and fusion processes between vesicles and cell membranes are reversible in living organisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, the reversible transformation of vesicles to membranes upon changing the pH provides a novel synthetic system exhibiting both fission and fusion processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteolysis by cathepsin CTSL may unmask the fusion peptide of S2 and activate membranes fusion within endosomes. (bioss.com.cn)
  • Calcium can then enter the cell and initiates the fusion of the neurotransmitter vesicles with the membrane. (nanion.de)
  • Nucleolus which had a lot of vacuole in a large secondary nucleus and numerous dictyosomes, vesicles, mitochondria, amyloplasts in cytoplasm were seen in this cell. (akjournals.com)
  • The endocytic pathway contain the virus binding to the host cell receptors, activation of signaling pathways, formation of endocytic vesicles, supply of viral cargo to endosomal compartments, sorting, and eventually escaping into the cytosol (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (achengula.com)
  • After attachment to the host cell receptor, in all of the endocytic pathways endocytic vesicles containing the virus are shaped (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (achengula.com)
  • To address these issues we developed a novel selective technology based on an artificial cell surface construct by which secreted antibodies were connected to the corresponding hybridoma cell when they possess the desired antigen-specificity. (nature.com)
  • The stably transfected myeloma cell line was used for the generation of hybridoma cells and an antigen- and isotype-specific screening method was established. (nature.com)
  • The critical issue in the development of antigen-specific hybridomas is the lack of any direct connection between the hybridoma cell and the released antibody. (nature.com)
  • The picture (reprinted by permission from Springer Nature 10 ) shows the process of monoclonal antibody generation via conventional hybridoma technology ( A ) and via the new selection approach using transgenic fusion cell lines ( B ). The fusion with transgenic myeloma cells allows a fast and efficient hybridoma screening in an isotype- or antigen-specific manner and allows an early screening for possible cross-reactivities. (nature.com)
  • A cell line derived from Sendai virus-induced fusion of human adenocarcinoma and CBA mouse embryo cells and Sendai virus antigen (detected by immunofluorescence), together with bi-armed marker chromosomes, in 100% of the cells. (northwestern.edu)
  • After repeated passage, antigen-free cells carrying the same marker chromosomes appeared in the culture. (northwestern.edu)
  • Pre- hematopoietic and other cells, but the Duffy sence of one copy of the deleted CCR5 gene also antigen of erythrocytes (DARC) is the only influences the course of disease as the onset of member expressed on cells of erythroid lineage. (cdc.gov)
  • Tafasitamab is a humanized Fc-modified cytolytic CD19-directed monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD19 antigen expressed on the surface of pre-B and mature B lymphocytes and on several B-cell malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, there are antigen -specific populations of T cells whose ageing fate decisions are based on telomere vesicle transfer upon initial contact with APCs. (hilfenetzwerk-cic.de)
  • The isolation of viable Torenia sperm cells is a crucial part of the elaboration of an in vitro fertilization system. (unideb.hu)
  • Torenia sperm cells were isolated from in vivo - in vitro cultured pollen tubes. (unideb.hu)
  • Within one single week you have your pilot experiments completed, and your PPI of interest is validated both in vitro and in vivo," notes Dr. Larisa Yurlova, senior cell biology scientist at ChromoTek. (science4life.de)
  • Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the therapeutic potential of these antibodies, we used an in vitro culture model of prostate cancer cells. (dhakahalalfood-otaku.com)
  • We conclude that fusion between macrophages and tumor cells does not confer a selective advantage in our spontaneous model of breast cancer, although these data do not rule out a possible role in models in which an inflammation environment is prominent. (unicatt.it)
  • Malignant tumor cells undergo mechanical deformation more easily than normal cells, allowing them to migrate throughout the body. (nfusion-tech.com)
  • It is a humanized anti-GD2 3F8 monoclonal antibody that stimulates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against GD2-expressing tumor cells. (medscape.com)
  • Its metastatic potential depends on the phenotype of the tumor cells, and it frequently disseminates before diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Tumor-induced glaucoma may be produced by obstruction of outflow pathways by pigment cells (pigment dispersion syndrome), melanin-laden macrophages (melanomalytic glaucoma), or tumor cells. (medscape.com)
  • Membrane fusion is blocked by mutations in the HA leash region (right). (rupress.org)
  • Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion in Neurodegenerative Disorders. (who.int)
  • The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sequencing analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) recently reported on gene fusions, however, few human papillomavirus (HPV) positive samples were included, and the functional relevance of identified fusions was not explored. (elsevier.com)
  • Radiotherapy for cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • Head and throat squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may be the 6th most common malignancy worldwide and is generally impervious to curative treatment attempts. (cancerhugs.com)
  • Parental Cell Line Used for Fusion: SP2/0-AG14 myeloma cells (ATCC# CRL-1581). (cdc.gov)
  • Fusion of splenocytes with SP2/0-AG14 myeloma cells was performed as previously described, and hybridoma cells were cultivated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. (cdc.gov)
  • Cellular reprogramming, whether by cell fusion, somatic cell nuclear transfer or transcription factor transduction,also requires changes at the epigenetic level and thus, the first part of the conference focused on epigenetic regulators and reprogramming. (silverchair.com)
  • One option is to interfere with the above mentioned formation of lipid-laden "foamy" macrophages in the host, as they provide a nutrient-rich host cell environment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (fz-borstel.de)
  • DI-fusion Langerhans cells in odontogenic cysts. (ac.be)
  • Recommended baseline diagnostic evaluations for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) include CBC count with differential, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, direct and indirect Coombs test, and immunoglobulin levels. (medscape.com)
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can present as a micronodular and interstitial infiltrate in the mid zone and base of the lungs, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. (medscape.com)
  • To confer this basic principle to the hybridoma technique would require to capture the synthesized antibody on the surface of the synthesizing hybridoma cell (Fig. 1B ). (nature.com)
  • Our proprietary Mouse Quick-Hybridoma™ Platform allows generation of 50+ hybridoma clones per hybridoma cell fusion step. (advbiomart.net)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell. (bioss.com.cn)
  • 1980). As a way to enter the cell each enveloped and non-enveloped viruses want to connect to the host cell receptors and both fuse with the plasma or endosomal membrane (enveloped viruses) or disrupt/type pore(s) within the plasma membrane (non-enveloped viruses) to achieve entry into the cell (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (achengula.com)
  • Laser-based cellfusion of mammalian embryo blastomeres as wellas fusion of cell bodies of neurons of molluskLymnaea stagnalis were successfully carried out byapplying single femtosecond laser pulses (secondharmonic of a Cr:Forsterite laser system) 620 nm,100 fs with the fluences of 0.42-0.71 J/cm2. (unibe.ch)
  • Using a conditional Mll-AF4-expressing mouse model in which fusion expression is targeted to the earliest definitive hematopoietic cells generated in the mouse embryo, we demonstrate that Mll-AF4 imparts enhanced B lymphoid potential and increases repopulation and self-renewal capacity during a putative pre-leukemic state. (open.ac.uk)
  • Embryo sac cells are highly differentiated in plants. (akjournals.com)
  • The central cell is one of the most important cells of the embryo sac. (akjournals.com)
  • Ultrastructure of the central cell in the mature embryo sac of Castilleja wightii was investigated in this study. (akjournals.com)
  • Although invaginations were seen in the plasmalemma of the central cell to the inside of the embryo sac, a thick cuticular layer was observed outer side on the cell wall. (akjournals.com)
  • In this study ultrastructural differences between endothelial cells of different location in Penstemon gentianoides have been examined with electron microscope at mature embryo sac phase. (akjournals.com)
  • The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac. (akjournals.com)
  • Genetic engineering is a set of techniques from molecular biology (such as recombinant DNA) by which the genetic material of plants, animals, microorganisms, cells and other biological units are altered in ways or with results that could not be obtained by methods of natural mating and reproduction or natural recombination. (westonaprice.org)
  • Techniques of genetic engineering include, but are not limited to: recombinant DNA, cell fusion, micro and macro injection, encapsulation. (westonaprice.org)
  • We report on results of using femtosecond laserscalpel for microsurgery of plasma membrane ofliving cells. (unibe.ch)
  • Some S oligomers are transported to the host plasma membrane, where they may mediate cell-cell fusion. (bioss.com.cn)
  • The final boost was administered 3 days before the monoclonal antibody fusion. (cdc.gov)
  • New research from the Cabernard Lab on cell fusion was recently published in Communications Biology . (washington.edu)
  • The Journal of cell biology 84, 404-420. (achengula.com)
  • Although basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes, a tumor can extend beneath the skin to the bone, causing considerable local damage due to tissue destruction. (medscape.com)
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Contemporary approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (medscape.com)
  • Kim DP, Kus KJB, Ruiz E. Basal Cell Carcinoma Review. (medscape.com)
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature. (medscape.com)
  • Guideline] Dandurand M, Petit T, Martel P, Guillot B. Management of basal cell carcinoma in adults Clinical practice guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management. (medscape.com)
  • Correlation of embryonic fusion planes with the anatomical distribution of basal cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Ozyazgan I, Kontas O. Previous injuries or scars as risk factors for the development of basal cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Keyhani K, Ashenhurst M, Oryschak A. Periocular basal cell carcinoma arising in a site of previous trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Geisse J, Caro I, Lindholm J, Golitz L, Stampone P, Owens M. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma: results from two phase III, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. (medscape.com)
  • According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the goal of treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is elimination of the tumor with maximal preservation of function and physical appearance. (medscape.com)
  • On the basis of these observations, the authors screened over 3,000 clinically approved drugs to look for molecules that block this spike-driven fusion of cells. (natureasia.com)
  • The screen identified 83 drugs, and further experiments focused on 43 molecules that also protected against viral replication and cell damage. (natureasia.com)
  • Hardback, [PU: Springer], In Cell Fusion in Health and Disease Vol 1 & Vol 2 leading experts will present up-to-date overviews about cell fusion in physiological and patho-physiological processes, which further covers the current knowledge about cell fusion-mediating molecules. (euro-boek.nl)
  • CCR5 antagonists and post-attachment inhibitors block different molecules on the CD4 cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To infect a cell, HIV has to bind to two types of molecules on the cell's surface. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blocking either of these molecules prevents HIV from entering the cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mauro Giacca and colleagues studied post-mortem samples from the lungs of 41 patients who had died from COVID-19 between March and May 2020, and found that the tissue often contains lung epithelial cells that have become fused together. (natureasia.com)
  • It's been reported that 2019-nCoV can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. (bioss.com.cn)
  • Preeclamptic placentas are characterized by various defects like deregulated differentiation and impaired fusion of trophoblasts. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • While deregulated BCL6 is linked to lymphomagenesis by blocking lymphocyte terminal differentiation, increased BCL6 in the placenta contributes to the development of preeclampsia by impairing trophoblast differentiation and fusion. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • In patient-derived cells, antagomiR-218 improved defective fusion and differentiation and rescued up to 34% of the gene expression alterations found in the transcriptome of patient cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Its inhibition in human ES cells results in enhanced spontaneous differentiation. (silverchair.com)
  • The three pieces of that enterprise currently are the Hostage Response Group (HRG), the Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell (HRFC), and the Special Presidential Envoy for Hostage Affairs (SPEHA) at the Department of State. (westpoint.edu)
  • We discuss the new fusion cell cam coming out this summer in 2020. (deermanagers.com)
  • The chicory cell has its cytoplasm including its mitochondria irradiated and destroyed and the sunflower cell has its nucleus irradiated away. (westonaprice.org)
  • Using mutational analyses, the group shows that fusion requires contacts between a long chain, which they call the leash, near the viral membrane with the helices near the target membrane (usually a host endosome as the virus escapes into the cytoplasm). (rupress.org)
  • After adsorption, the virus penetrates the host cell and enters the cytoplasm. (cdc.gov)
  • The cytoplasm of endothelial cells near the central cell has large vacuoles and few organelles. (akjournals.com)
  • The RSV fusion (RSV-F) surface glycoprotein mediates virus fusion to host cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (bioss.com.cn)
  • Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). (bioss.com.cn)
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (cusabio.com)
  • The infectivity of the virus was titrated study, we used beta-propiolactone (BPL)- by the focus-forming method in Vero inactivated dengue viruses as antigens in cells(6). (who.int)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Chimeric Fusion Karyotypes in Childhood B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. (who.int)
  • Kerketta Lily S, Rao Vundinti Babu, Ghosh Kanjaksha .Chimeric Fusion Karyotypes in Childhood B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. (who.int)
  • MLL-AF4+ infant B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by an early onset and dismal survival. (open.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have shown that around 85 of cancer cells upregulate the telomerase enzyme through a different mechanism to lengthen telomeres. (hilfenetzwerk-cic.de)
  • Sleek and stylish, our 2016 Ford Fusion S Sedan is ready to roll in Shadow Black! (prestigeautomart.net)
  • 2018). The low pH for fusion varies between viruses making some viruses to fuse both throughout early endosomes (comparatively excessive pH ∼ 6.0) or late endosomes (low pH ∼ 5) to launch its content material to the cytosol (White and Whittaker, 2016). (achengula.com)
  • We investigated fusion between phagosomes containing the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis versus the extracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (designated MCP for mycobacteria-containing phagosome and SCP for S. aureus -containing phagosome) and cytoplasmic compartments in human neutrophils. (biologists.com)
  • Cell fusion between neoplastic and normal cells has been suggested to play a role in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. (unicatt.it)
  • For long-lived metazoans, there appears to be an evolutionary trade-off between the regenerative potential of stem cells and their vulnerability to neoplastic transformation. (silverchair.com)
  • The isolation of the male gametophyte and of sperm cells was published by the authors in 2004. (unideb.hu)
  • Released sperm cells and enzymatically isolated egg cells were collected and handled using glass micropipettes and transmitted to an electrofusion apparatus or polyethylene glycol containing media for fusion probes. (unideb.hu)
  • It forms endosperm by fusion with a sperm cell. (akjournals.com)
  • What is left is a new plant cell that is transgeneric if not transgenic. (westonaprice.org)
  • Several aspects of the structure and function of the FRP-1 system are reviewed: fusion regulatory molecular mechanisms, cross-talk between the FRP-1 and integrin, the FRP-1 system as amino acid transporter, and FRP-1-mediated T-cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple steps participate in molecular mechanisms regulating cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • A retrospective review of Salivary Gland Tumor Registry in Pilsen searching for the key words "clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma," "hyalinizing clear cell," and "clear cell malignant myoepithelioma" yielded 94 clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas (CCMCs) for molecular analysis of EWSR1 rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (utu.fi)
  • To assess molecular evolution of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion gene, we analyzed RSV-positive specimens from 123 children in Canada who did or did not receive RSV immunoprophylaxis (palivizumab) during 2006-2010. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular and clinicopathological characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancers identified by next-generation sequencing. (cdc.gov)
  • As one of the most efficient phagocytic cells of the immune system,neutrophils restrict the initial, local replication of numerous extracellular and intracellular pathogens, thereby delaying their systemic spread. (biologists.com)
  • It harms your immune system by destroying CD4 cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, if cell fusion conferred a growth/dissemination advantage, cells with both markers should be detectable in lung metastases at increased frequency. (unicatt.it)
  • However, no fused cells were detected in lung metastases in either model. (unicatt.it)
  • Agilent's companion diagnostic for Mirati's non-small cell lung cancer treatment Krazati will be available through Quest's national healthcare network. (genomeweb.com)
  • Fusion of EML4 and ALK is associated with development of lung adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR and KRAS mutations and is correlated with ALK expression. (cdc.gov)
  • Uses also human TMPRSS2 for priming in human lung cells which is an essential step for viral entry (PubMed:32142651). (bioss.com.cn)
  • We evaluated whether pivotal phase III trials of immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) represent the overall population of non\small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • NSCLC, non\little cell lung tumor. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood and comprises two major subtypes: fusion-positive (FP, most commonly PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1) and fusion-negative (FN). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nucleolar organizer region staining patterns in paraffin-embedded tissue cells from human skin cancers. (medscape.com)
  • When ES cells differentiate into different lineages, different sets of microRNA-encoding loci become methylated,providing evidence for the tissue-specific methylation of these loci. (silverchair.com)
  • In the current study, we found that macropinocytosis inhibitors significantly suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection at both the entry and viral spike-mediated cell -to- cell fusion steps. (bvsalud.org)
  • We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 entry required the small GTPase Rac1 and its effector kinase p21-activated kinase 1 by dominant-negative and RNAi assays in human embryonic kidney 293T- angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cells and that the serine protease transmembrane serine protease 2 reversed the decrease in SARS-CoV-2 entry caused by the macropinocytosis inhibitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, in the cell -to- cell fusion assay, we confirmed that macropinocytosis inhibitors significantly decreased viral spike-mediated cell -to- cell fusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • Sirtuins might therefore be of therapeutic significance, as they are overexpressed in cancer cells, and sirtuin inhibitors inhibit the development of thymic lymphomas in murine models. (silverchair.com)
  • Novel findings in our NGS study suggest that EWSR1-FISH positive CCMC is a gene fusion-driven disease with frequent oncogenic PLAG1 fusions, including LIFR-PLAG1 and CTNNB1-PLAG1 in most cases. (utu.fi)
  • Detectable EWSR1-FISH abnormality in CCMCs without gene fusion perhaps represents a passenger mutation with minor or no oncologic effect. (utu.fi)
  • Overall, we provided evidence that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes a macropinocytosis pathway to enter target cells and to efficiently promote viral spike-mediated cell -to- cell fusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2012). Whereas the non-endocytic pathway embrace the pore formation-mediated penetration by cell-penetrating and low pH insertion peptides (non-enveloped viruses) (Li et al. (achengula.com)
  • Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) cancers achieve immortality by reelongating their telomeres in the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle through a specialized break-induced replication (BIR) pathway (1, 2). (hilfenetzwerk-cic.de)
  • Regardless of the particular lineage pathway involved, differentiated human ES cells downregulate sirtuin 1, a histone deacetylase. (silverchair.com)
  • Novel pathways for monocyte-dependent regulation of T-cell activation have recently been found that are mediated by the FRP-1 system. (nih.gov)
  • In cell lineage-tracing studies, Thomas Graf [The Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Spain] asked how `instructive' transcription factors drive lineage choice in blood cells. (silverchair.com)
  • This Pouring Resin mixes seamlessly with Fusion to create beautiful and unique acrylic pour artwork. (urbanwhyte.com)
  • Fusion Cell Enhancer is an additive for Pouring Resin art. (frameandfrills.com)
  • The resulting stable cell lines were tested for binding to the corresponding target and were found to express levels of scFv comparable to their transient counterparts. (dhakahalalfood-otaku.com)
  • Three distinct cell types are recognized in uveal melanomas: spindle A, spindle B, and epithelioid. (medscape.com)
  • Epithelioid cells are associated with more aggressive behavior and carry a poorer prognosis for the patient's survival. (medscape.com)
  • Endothelium cells around the chalaza and toward the micropylar region are rich in cytoplasmic organelles. (akjournals.com)
  • The loss of these cells makes it hard for your body to fight off infections and certain HIV-related cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If using Cell Enhancer, afterwards be sure to wipe those areas clean with a bit of rubbing alcohol to remove the shiny wet look. (urbanwhyte.com)
  • Simply add a couple of drops to each mixed color, and let the Cell Enhancer do the rest. (frameandfrills.com)
  • Revealing the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ) entry and cell -to- cell spread might provide insights for understanding the underlying mechanisms of viral pathogenesis , tropism , and virulence . (bvsalud.org)
  • The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. (cdc.gov)
  • some to contend fusion into heterokaryons with resident cells, and neutrophils in response to sexual activity, 7 mg per day for roles of inhibitory sys- tem, the tonic release of growth factors, and nnos function, whereas blood flow-related mechano- vascular homeostasis. (psm.edu)
  • Rob Saale was the director of the U.S. Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell, an interagency group housed at the FBI, between 2017 and 2019. (westpoint.edu)
  • The HRG is the arbitrator of disputes between the interagency [for handling hostage cases] and approves policies and recovery strategies that are brought to it by the Fusion Cell. (westpoint.edu)
  • Additionally, the Fusion Cell is responsible for making sure that intelligence is being shared among the interagency. (westpoint.edu)
  • The Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell shall serve as the United States Government's dedicated interagency coordinating body at the operational level for the recovery of U.S. national hostages abroad. (lawi.us)
  • However, this state alone is insufficient to generate disease, with the mice succumbing to B cell lymphomas only after a long latency. (open.ac.uk)