Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

(CTG)n repeats markedly inhibit differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell line: implications for congenital myotonic dystrophy. (1/2641)

Although the mutation for myotonic dystrophy has been identified as a (CTG)n repeat expansion located in the 3'-untranslated region of a gene located on chromosome 19, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis is not understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of (CTG)n repeats on the differentiation of myoblasts in cell culture. We report here that C2C12 myoblast cell lines permanently transfected with plasmid expressing 500 bases long CTG repeat sequences, exhibited a drastic reduction in their ability to fuse and differentiate into myotubes. The percentage of cells fused into myotubes in C2 C12 cells (53.4+/-4.4%) was strikingly different from those in the two CTG repeat carrying clones (1.8+/-0.4% and 3.3+/-0. 7%). Control C2C12 cells permanently transfected with vector alone did not show such an effect. This finding may have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail tip. (2/2641)

Using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of adherens junctions, we have reconstructed the changes in cell architecture and intercellular associations that occur during morphogenesis of the nematode male tail tip. During late postembryonic development, the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is reshaped to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome. Developmental profiles using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining suggest that cell fusions are initiated at or adjacent to adherens junctions. Anterior portions of the tail tip cells show the first evidence of retractions and fusions, consistent with our hypothesis that an anterior event triggers these morphogenetic events. Available mutations that interfere with morphogenesis implicate particular regulatory pathways and suggest loci at which evolutionary changes could have produced morphological diversity.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (3/2641)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967) inhibits several Ca2+ and K+ currents in human fusion-competent myoblasts. (4/2641)

1. The effect of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), an inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(T)), on myoblast fusion and on several voltage-gated currents expressed by fusion-competent myoblasts was examined. 2. At a concentration of 5 microM, mibefradil decreases myoblast fusion by 57%. At this concentration, the peak amplitudes of I(Ca)(T) and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(L)) measured in fusion-competent myoblasts are reduced by 95 and 80%, respectively. The IC50 of mibefradil for I(Ca)(T) and I(Ca)(L) are 0.7 and 2 microM, respectively. 3. At low concentrations, mibefradil increased the amplitude of I(Ca)(L) with respect to control. 4. Mibefradil blocked three voltage-gated K+ currents expressed by human fusion-competent myoblasts: a delayed rectifier K+ current, an ether-a-go-go K+ current, and an inward rectifier K+ current, with a respective IC50 of 0.3, 0.7 and 5.6 microM. 5. It is concluded that mibefradil can interfere with myoblast fusion, a mechanism fundamental to muscle growth and repair, and that the interpretation of the effect of mibefradil in a given system should take into account the action of this drug on ionic currents other than Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (5/2641)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP.  (+info)

Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/2641)

We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle checkpoints present in vegetative mitosis.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (7/2641)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

Rapid visualization of metaphase chromosomes in single human blastomeres after fusion with in-vitro matured bovine eggs. (8/2641)

The present study was aimed to facilitate karyotyping of human blastomeres using the metaphase-inducing factors present in unfertilized eggs. A rapid technique for karyotyping would have wide application in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. When cryopreserved in-vitro matured bovine oocytes were fused with human blastomeres, the transferred human nuclei were forced into metaphase within a few hours. Eighty-seven human blastomeres from abnormal or arrested embryos were fused with bovine oocytes in a preclinical study. Fusion efficiency was 100%. In 21 of the hybrid cells, no trace of human chromatin was found. Of the remaining 66, 64 (97%) yielded chromosomes suitable for analysis. The method was used to karyotype embryos from two patients with maternal translocations. One embryo which was judged to be karyotypically normal was replaced in the first patient, resulting in one pregnancy with a normal fetus. None of the second patient's embryos was diagnosed as normal, and hence none was transferred. The results of the present study demonstrated that the ooplasmic factors which induce and maintain metaphase in bovine oocytes can force transferred human blastomere nuclei into premature metaphase, providing the basis for a rapid method of karyotyping blastomeres from preimplantation embryos and, by implication, cells from other sources.  (+info)

Cell fusion is the process by which two or more cells combine to form a single cell with a single nucleus, containing the genetic material from all of the original cells. This can occur naturally in certain biological processes, such as fertilization (when a sperm and egg cell fuse to form a zygote), muscle development (where multiple muscle precursor cells fuse together to create multinucleated muscle fibers), and during the formation of bone (where osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue, are multinucleated).

Cell fusion can also be induced artificially in laboratory settings through various methods, including chemical treatments, electrical stimulation, or viral vectors. Induced cell fusion is often used in research to create hybrid cells with unique properties, such as cybrid cells (cytoplasmic hybrids) and heterokaryons (nuclear hybrids). These hybrid cells can help scientists study various aspects of cell biology, genetics, and disease mechanisms.

In summary, cell fusion is the merging of two or more cells into one, resulting in a single cell with combined genetic material. This process occurs naturally during certain biological processes and can be induced artificially for research purposes.

Membrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that involves the merging of two initially separate lipid bilayers, such as those surrounding cells or organelles, to form a single continuous membrane. This process plays a crucial role in various physiological events including neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, fertilization, viral infection, and intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. Membrane fusion is tightly regulated and requires the participation of specific proteins called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) and other accessory factors that facilitate the recognition, approximation, and merger of the membranes. The energy required to overcome the repulsive forces between the negatively charged lipid headgroups is provided by these proteins, which undergo conformational changes during the fusion process. Membrane fusion is a highly specific and coordinated event, ensuring that the correct membranes fuse at the right time and place within the cell.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Viral fusion proteins are specialized surface proteins found on the envelope of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral infection process by mediating the fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, allowing the viral genetic material to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

The fusion protein is often synthesized as an inactive precursor, which undergoes a series of conformational changes upon interaction with specific receptors on the host cell surface. This results in the exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides or domains that insert into the target cell membrane, bringing the two membranes into close proximity and facilitating their merger.

A well-known example of a viral fusion protein is the gp120/gp41 complex found on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The gp120 subunit binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine coreceptors on the host cell surface, triggering conformational changes in the gp41 subunit that expose the fusion peptide and enable membrane fusion. Understanding the structure and function of viral fusion proteins is important for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines.

Giant cells are large, multinucleated cells that result from the fusion of monocytes or macrophages. They can be found in various types of inflammatory and degenerative lesions, including granulomas, which are a hallmark of certain diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. There are several types of giant cells, including:

1. Langhans giant cells: These have a horseshoe-shaped or crescentic arrangement of nuclei around the periphery of the cell. They are typically found in granulomas associated with infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and histoplasmosis.
2. Foreign body giant cells: These form in response to the presence of foreign material, such as a splinter or suture, in tissue. The nuclei are usually scattered throughout the cell cytoplasm.
3. Touton giant cells: These are found in certain inflammatory conditions, such as xanthomatosis and granulomatous slack skin. They have a central core of lipid-laden histiocytes surrounded by a ring of nuclei.
4. Osteoclast giant cells: These are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption. They can be found in conditions such as giant cell tumors of bone and Paget's disease.

It is important to note that the presence of giant cells alone does not necessarily indicate a specific diagnosis, and their significance must be interpreted within the context of the overall clinical and pathological findings.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

A gene fusion, also known as a chromosomal translocation or fusion gene, is an abnormal genetic event where parts of two different genes combine to create a single, hybrid gene. This can occur due to various mechanisms such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletions, or inversions, leading to the formation of a chimeric gene with new and often altered functions.

Gene fusions can result in the production of abnormal fusion proteins that may contribute to cancer development and progression by promoting cell growth, inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death), or activating oncogenic signaling pathways. In some cases, gene fusions are specific to certain types of cancer and serve as valuable diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalized medicine.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human (HPIV-2) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which also include HPIV-1, HPIV-3, and HPIV-4.

HPIV-2 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract and causes mild to moderate symptoms similar to those caused by other respiratory viruses. The infection can lead to inflammation of the nose, throat, and voice box (larynx), resulting in a runny nose, sore throat, cough, and hoarseness. In some cases, HPIV-2 can also cause croup, a condition characterized by a barking cough and stridor (high-pitched breathing sounds) due to inflammation of the upper airways.

HPIV-2 is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The virus can also be transmitted by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. HPIV-2 infections are most common in infants and young children, but people of all ages can become infected.

There is no specific treatment for HPIV-2 infections, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Vaccines are not available for HPIV-2 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

CD98, also known as 4F2 cell surface antigen or solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), is a heterodimeric amino acid transporter protein. It is composed of two subunits: a heavy chain (CD98hc) and a light chain (4F2hc). CD98 is widely expressed in various tissues, including hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.

As an antigen, CD98 can be recognized by specific antibodies and play a role in immune responses. The protein is involved in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. It also functions as a receptor for certain viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

CD98 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In cancer, CD98 overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. In autoimmune disorders, CD98 may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In infectious diseases, CD98 can serve as a target for viral entry and replication.

Overall, CD98 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, making it an attractive target for therapeutic interventions.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "HN protein" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. HN is an abbreviation commonly used in virology to refer to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as the paramyxoviridae family which includes viruses like parainfluenza and Hendra virus.

The HN protein plays a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect host cells. It helps the virus attach to and enter the host cell, and also assists in the release of new virus particles from infected cells. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "HN protein." If you have more details about the context in which this term was used, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

An oncogene fusion, also known as oncogenic fusion or chimeric oncogene, is a result of a genetic rearrangement where parts of two different genes combine to form a hybrid gene. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that contributes to cancer development and progression. In many cases, one of the fused genes is a proto-oncogene, a normal gene that regulates cell growth and division. When this gene is altered through fusion, it can acquire increased activity or new functions, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and eventually leading to tumor formation. Oncogene fusions are often associated with specific types of cancer and can be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

A gene product is the biochemical material, such as a protein or RNA, that is produced by the expression of a gene. Env, short for "envelope," refers to a type of gene product that is commonly found in enveloped viruses. The env gene encodes the viral envelope proteins, which are crucial for the virus's ability to attach to and enter host cells during infection. These envelope proteins typically form a coat around the exterior of the virus and interact with receptors on the surface of the host cell, triggering the fusion or endocytosis processes that allow the viral genome to enter the host cell.

Therefore, in medical terms, 'Gene Products, env' specifically refers to the proteins or RNA produced by the env gene in enveloped viruses, which play a critical role in the virus's infectivity and pathogenesis.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

HIV Fusion Inhibitors are a type of antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV infection. They work by preventing the virus from entering and infecting CD4 cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune response.

Fusion inhibitors bind to the gp41 protein on the surface of the HIV envelope, preventing it from undergoing conformational changes necessary for fusion with the host cell membrane. This inhibits the virus from entering and infecting the CD4 cells, thereby reducing the viral load in the body and slowing down the progression of the disease.

Examples of HIV Fusion Inhibitors include enfuvirtide (T-20) and ibalizumab (TMB-355). These medications are usually used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. It's important to note that HIV fusion inhibitors must be administered parenterally, typically by injection, due to their large size and poor oral bioavailability.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

HIV Envelope Protein gp41 is a transmembrane protein that forms a part of the HIV envelope complex. It plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process, where it helps the virus to enter and infect the host cell. The "gp" stands for glycoprotein, indicating that the protein contains carbohydrate chains. The number 41 refers to its molecular weight, which is approximately 41 kilodaltons.

The gp41 protein exists as a trimer on the surface of the viral envelope and interacts with the host cell membrane during viral entry. It contains several functional domains, including an N-terminal fusion peptide, two heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2), a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. During viral fusion, the gp41 protein undergoes significant conformational changes, allowing the fusion peptide to insert into the host cell membrane. The HR1 and HR2 regions then interact to form a six-helix bundle structure, which brings the viral and host cell membranes together, facilitating membrane fusion and viral entry.

The gp41 protein is an important target for HIV vaccine development and antiretroviral therapy. Neutralizing antibodies that recognize and bind to specific epitopes on the gp41 protein can prevent viral entry and infection, while small molecule inhibitors that interfere with the formation of the six-helix bundle structure can also block viral fusion and replication.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Myoblasts are types of cells that are responsible for the development and growth of muscle tissue in the body. They are undifferentiated cells, meaning they have not yet developed into their final form or function. Myoblasts fuse together to form myotubes, which then develop into muscle fibers, also known as myofibers. This process is called myogenesis and it plays a crucial role in the growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue throughout an individual's life.

Myoblasts can be derived from various sources, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or satellite cells, which are adult stem cells found within mature muscle tissue. Satellite cells are typically quiescent but can be activated in response to muscle damage or injury, proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts, and fuse together to repair and replace damaged muscle fibers.

Dysregulation of myogenesis and impaired myoblast function have been implicated in various muscle-related disorders, including muscular dystrophies, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Therefore, understanding the biology of myoblasts and their role in muscle development and regeneration is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications for muscle-related diseases.

Respirovirus is not typically used as a formal medical term in modern taxonomy. However, historically, it was used to refer to a genus of viruses within the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. This genus included several important human and animal pathogens that cause respiratory infections.

Human respiroviruses include:
1. Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) types 1, 2, and 3: These viruses are a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, such as croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children.
2. Sendai virus (also known as murine respirovirus): This virus primarily infects rodents but can occasionally cause mild respiratory illness in humans, especially those who work closely with these animals.

The term "respirovirus" is not officially recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) anymore, and these viruses are now classified under different genera within the subfamily Pneumovirinae: Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 belong to the genus Orthorubulavirus, while Human parainfluenza virus 2 is placed in the genus Metapneumovirus.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Trophoblasts are specialized cells that make up the outer layer of a blastocyst, which is a hollow ball of cells that forms in the earliest stages of embryonic development. In humans, this process occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. The blastocyst consists of an inner cell mass (which will eventually become the embryo) and an outer layer of trophoblasts.

Trophoblasts play a crucial role in implantation, which is the process by which the blastocyst attaches to and invades the lining of the uterus. Once implanted, the trophoblasts differentiate into two main layers: the cytotrophoblasts (which are closer to the inner cell mass) and the syncytiotrophoblasts (which form a multinucleated layer that is in direct contact with the maternal tissues).

The cytotrophoblasts proliferate and fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblasts, which have several important functions. They secrete enzymes that help to degrade and remodel the extracellular matrix of the uterine lining, allowing the blastocyst to implant more deeply. They also form a barrier between the maternal and fetal tissues, helping to protect the developing embryo from the mother's immune system.

Additionally, trophoblasts are responsible for the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products. The syncytiotrophoblasts in particular play a key role in this process by secreting hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which helps to maintain pregnancy, and by forming blood vessels that allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste between the mother and fetus.

Abnormalities in trophoblast development or function can lead to a variety of pregnancy-related complications, including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational trophoblastic diseases such as hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Rubulavirus is a genus in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It includes several viruses that primarily cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. The most well-known rubulaviruses affecting humans are the human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 2 and 4, which can cause croup and bronchitis, and mumps virus, which causes mumps. These viruses are typically spread through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. They have enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genomes.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

Luminescent proteins are a type of protein that emit light through a chemical reaction, rather than by absorbing and re-emitting light like fluorescent proteins. This process is called bioluminescence. The light emitted by luminescent proteins is often used in scientific research as a way to visualize and track biological processes within cells and organisms.

One of the most well-known luminescent proteins is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish. However, GFP is actually a fluorescent protein, not a luminescent one. A true example of a luminescent protein is the enzyme luciferase, which is found in fireflies and other bioluminescent organisms. When luciferase reacts with its substrate, luciferin, it produces light through a process called oxidation.

Luminescent proteins have many applications in research, including as reporters for gene expression, as markers for protein-protein interactions, and as tools for studying the dynamics of cellular processes. They are also used in medical imaging and diagnostics, as well as in the development of new therapies.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, a highly contagious and often fatal viral infection affecting birds and poultry worldwide. The virus can cause various clinical signs, including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, and decreased egg production, depending on the strain's virulence. NDV has zoonotic potential, but human infections are rare and typically result in mild, flu-like symptoms.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

The vulva refers to the external female genital area. It includes the mons pubis (the pad of fatty tissue covered with skin and hair that's located on the front part of the pelvis), labia majora (the outer folds of skin that surround and protect the vaginal opening), labia minora (the inner folds of skin that surround the vaginal and urethral openings), clitoris (a small, sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva where the labia minora join), the external openings of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body) and vagina (the passageway leading to the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus).

It's important to note that understanding the anatomy and terminology related to one's own body can help facilitate effective communication with healthcare providers, promote self-awareness, and support overall health and well-being.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Paramyxoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several medically important pathogens. These viruses are characterized by their enveloped particles and helical symmetry. The paramyxoviruses can cause respiratory infections, neurological disorders, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

Some notable members of the Paramyxoviridae family include:

* Human respirovirus (also known as human parainfluenza virus): causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults.
* Human orthopneumovirus (also known as respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV): a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children.
* Measles morbillivirus: causes measles, a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, rash, and cough.
* Mumps virus: causes mumps, an acute infectious disease that primarily affects the salivary glands.
* Hendra virus and Nipah virus: zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can cause severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals.

Effective vaccines are available for some paramyxoviruses, such as measles and mumps, but there are currently no approved vaccines for others, such as RSV and Nipah virus. Antiviral therapies are also limited, with only a few options available for the treatment of severe paramyxovirus infections.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

Membrane fusion proteins are specialized protein molecules that play a critical role in the process of membrane fusion, which is a fundamental biological event that allows for the merging of two separate lipid bilayers to form a single continuous membrane. This process is essential for various cellular functions such as exocytosis, endocytosis, neurotransmitter release, viral entry into host cells, and fertilization.

In membrane fusion, membrane fusion proteins undergo conformational changes that bring the two membranes into close proximity, allowing for non-covalent interactions between lipid molecules to overcome their natural repulsion and merge the membranes. The most well-studied membrane fusion proteins are found in the SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptor) family, which includes both vesicle (v-) SNAREs and target (t-) SNAREs. These proteins interact in a highly specific manner to form a tight complex that brings the vesicle and target membranes together, ultimately leading to fusion.

Membrane fusion proteins can also be classified based on their location within the cell. For example, some are located in the plasma membrane, while others are found in intracellular organelles such as endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, there are viral membrane fusion proteins that facilitate the entry of enveloped viruses into host cells by mediating the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane.

Overall, membrane fusion proteins are crucial for maintaining normal cellular function and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, as well as various disease states such as neurodegenerative disorders and viral infections.

Nuclear reprogramming is a process by which the epigenetic information and gene expression profile of a differentiated cell are altered to resemble those of a pluripotent stem cell. This is typically achieved through the introduction of specific transcription factors, such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (often referred to as the Yamanaka factors), into the differentiated cell's nucleus. These factors work together to reprogram the cell's gene expression profile, leading to the activation of genes that are typically silent in differentiated cells and the repression of genes that are active in differentiated cells.

The result is a cell with many of the characteristics of a pluripotent stem cell, including the ability to differentiate into any cell type found in the body. This process has significant implications for regenerative medicine, as it offers the potential to generate patient-specific stem cells that can be used for tissue repair and replacement. However, nuclear reprogramming is still an inefficient and poorly understood process, and further research is needed to fully realize its potential.

Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human (HPIV-3) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and immunocompromised individuals.

HPIV-3 primarily infects the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild to severe respiratory illnesses. The incubation period for HPIV-3 infection is typically 3-7 days. In infants and young children, HPIV-3 can cause croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, while in adults, it usually results in mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected respiratory secretions or contaminated surfaces, and infection can occur throughout the year but tends to peak during fall and winter months. Currently, there are no approved vaccines for HPIV-3; treatment is primarily supportive and focuses on managing symptoms and complications.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' (C. elegans) is a type of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is often used as a model organism in scientific research. C. elegans proteins refer to the various types of protein molecules that are produced by the organism's genes and play crucial roles in maintaining its biological functions.

Proteins are complex molecules made up of long chains of amino acids, and they are involved in virtually every cellular process, including metabolism, DNA replication, signal transduction, and transportation of molecules within the cell. In C. elegans, proteins are encoded by genes, which are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then translated into protein sequences by ribosomes.

Studying C. elegans proteins is important for understanding the basic biology of this organism and can provide insights into more complex biological systems, including humans. Because C. elegans has a relatively simple nervous system and a short lifespan, it is often used to study neurobiology, aging, and development. Additionally, because many of the genes and proteins in C. elegans have counterparts in other organisms, including humans, studying them can provide insights into human disease processes and potential therapeutic targets.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

The amino acid transport system ASC, also known as system asc or L system, is a type of amino acid transporter found in the membranes of cells. It is responsible for the uptake of small neutral amino acids, such as alanine, serine, and cysteine, into the cell. This transport system is important for maintaining proper levels of these amino acids within the cell, which are necessary for various cellular processes including protein synthesis and metabolism. It is also known to be upregulated in certain cancer cells, allowing them to take up more amino acids from their environment and support their rapid growth. The system asc transporter is a part of the solute carrier 7 (SLC7) family, which are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the transport of various molecules across cell membranes.

"Pregnancy proteins" is not a standard medical term, but it may refer to specific proteins that are produced or have increased levels during pregnancy. Two common pregnancy-related proteins are:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): A hormone produced by the placenta shortly after fertilization. It is often detected in urine or blood tests to confirm pregnancy. Its primary function is to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen during early pregnancy until the placenta takes over these functions.

2. Pregnancy-Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (SP1): A protein produced by the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy. Its function is not well understood, but it may play a role in implantation, placentation, and protection against the mother's immune system. SP1 levels increase throughout pregnancy and are used as a marker for fetal growth and well-being.

These proteins have clinical significance in monitoring pregnancy progression, detecting potential complications, and diagnosing certain pregnancy-related conditions.

SNARE proteins, which stands for Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor, are a family of small proteins that play a crucial role in the process of membrane fusion in cells. They are essential for various cellular processes such as neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and intracellular trafficking.

SNARE proteins are located on both sides of the membranes that are about to fuse, with one set of SNAREs (v-SNAREs) present on the vesicle membrane and the other set (t-SNAREs) present on the target membrane. During membrane fusion, v-SNAREs and t-SNAREs interact to form a tight complex called a SNARE complex, which brings the two membranes into close proximity and facilitates their fusion.

The formation of the SNARE complex is a highly specific process that involves the alignment of specific amino acid sequences on the v-SNARE and t-SNARE proteins. Once formed, the SNARE complex provides the energy required for membrane fusion, and its disassembly is necessary for the completion of the fusion event.

Mutations in SNARE proteins have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including motor neuron disease and epilepsy. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of SNARE proteins is essential for developing therapies for these conditions.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Cell biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of cells, which are the basic units of life. It involves understanding the structure, function, and behavior of cells, as well as their interactions with one another and with their environment. Cell biologists may study various aspects of cellular processes, such as cell growth and division, metabolism, gene expression, signal transduction, and intracellular transport. They use a variety of techniques, including microscopy, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, to investigate the complex and dynamic world inside cells. The ultimate goal of cell biology is to gain a deeper understanding of how cells work, which can have important implications for human health and disease.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a species of the genus Orthohantavirus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. This enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, particularly the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Asia. The virus was initially isolated in 1976 from the Hantaan River area in Korea.

HTNV infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations in HFRS, ranging from mild to severe forms. The symptoms often include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and blurred vision. In severe cases, it can cause acute renal failure, hypotension, and hemorrhagic complications. The incubation period for HTNV infection typically ranges from 7 to 42 days.

Prevention strategies include avoiding contact with rodents, reducing rodent populations in living areas, using personal protective equipment when handling potentially infected materials, and ensuring proper food storage and waste disposal practices. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HFRS caused by HTNV; however, supportive care, such as fluid replacement and hemodialysis, can help manage severe symptoms and improve outcomes.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Rubulavirus infections refer to a group of viral illnesses caused by members of the Rubulavirus genus, which is part of the Paramyxoviridae family. The most well-known rubulavirus is the mumps virus, which causes mumps, a contagious disease characterized by swelling of the salivary glands, fever, and pain while chewing or swallowing. Other rubulaviruses include parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3, which can cause respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Rubulavirus infections are typically spread through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. Vaccination is available for some rubulavirus infections, such as mumps.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

HIV Envelope Protein gp120 is a glycoprotein that is a major component of the outer envelope of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It plays a crucial role in the viral infection process. The "gp" stands for glycoprotein.

The gp120 protein is responsible for binding to CD4 receptors on the surface of human immune cells, particularly T-helper cells or CD4+ cells. This binding initiates the fusion process that allows the virus to enter and infect the cell.

After attachment, a series of conformational changes occur in the gp120 and another envelope protein, gp41, leading to the formation of a bridge between the viral and cell membranes, which ultimately results in the virus entering the host cell.

The gp120 protein is also one of the primary targets for HIV vaccine design due to its critical role in the infection process and its surface location, making it accessible to the immune system. However, its high variability and ability to evade the immune response have posed significant challenges in developing an effective HIV vaccine.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used in medical and biological research to obtain high-resolution, contrast-rich images of thick samples. This super-resolution technology provides detailed visualization of cellular structures and processes at various depths within a specimen.

In confocal microscopy, a laser beam focused through a pinhole illuminates a small spot within the sample. The emitted fluorescence or reflected light from this spot is then collected by a detector, passing through a second pinhole that ensures only light from the focal plane reaches the detector. This process eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in sharp images with improved contrast compared to conventional widefield microscopy.

By scanning the laser beam across the sample in a raster pattern and collecting fluorescence at each point, confocal microscopy generates optical sections of the specimen. These sections can be combined to create three-dimensional reconstructions, allowing researchers to study cellular architecture and interactions within complex tissues.

Confocal microscopy has numerous applications in medical research, including studying protein localization, tracking intracellular dynamics, analyzing cell morphology, and investigating disease mechanisms at the cellular level. Additionally, it is widely used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, such as analyzing skin lesions or detecting pathogens in patient samples.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Vesicular transport proteins are specialized proteins that play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking and transportation of various biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids, within eukaryotic cells. These proteins facilitate the formation, movement, and fusion of membrane-bound vesicles, which are small, spherical structures that carry cargo between different cellular compartments or organelles.

There are several types of vesicular transport proteins involved in this process:

1. Coat Proteins (COPs): These proteins form a coat around the vesicle membrane and help shape it into its spherical form during the budding process. They also participate in selecting and sorting cargo for transportation. Two main types of COPs exist: COPI, which is involved in transport between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and COPII, which mediates transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

2. SNARE Proteins: These proteins are responsible for the specific recognition and docking of vesicles with their target membranes. They form complexes that bring the vesicle and target membranes close together, allowing for fusion and the release of cargo into the target organelle. There are two types of SNARE proteins: v-SNAREs (vesicle SNAREs) and t-SNAREs (target SNAREs), which interact to form a stable complex during membrane fusion.

3. Rab GTPases: These proteins act as molecular switches that regulate the recruitment of coat proteins, motor proteins, and SNAREs during vesicle transport. They cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, controlling the various stages of vesicular trafficking, such as budding, transport, tethering, and fusion.

4. Tethering Proteins: These proteins help to bridge the gap between vesicles and their target membranes before SNARE-mediated fusion occurs. They play a role in ensuring specificity during vesicle docking and may also contribute to regulating the timing of membrane fusion events.

5. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptors (SNAREs): These proteins are involved in intracellular transport, particularly in the trafficking of vesicles between organelles. They consist of a family of coiled-coil domain-containing proteins that form complexes to mediate membrane fusion events.

Overall, these various classes of proteins work together to ensure the specificity and efficiency of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Dysregulation or mutation of these proteins can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

"Cricetulus" is a genus of rodents that includes several species of hamsters. These small, burrowing animals are native to Asia and have a body length of about 8-15 centimeters, with a tail that is usually shorter than the body. They are characterized by their large cheek pouches, which they use to store food. Some common species in this genus include the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Daurian hamster (Cricetulus dauuricus). These animals are often kept as pets or used in laboratory research.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... These four ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion and a ... Cell fusion normally occurs with nuclear fusion, but in the absence of nuclear fusion, the cell would be described as a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
... director of the fusion cell. 'That effort has been extremely beneficial.' "Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell Marks Fifth Anniversary ... prior to the Cell's creation. "Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell Established". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2015-06-15. ... "Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell Marks Third Anniversary: Unified Government Approach Key to Bringing Loved Ones Home to Their ... Seth Loertscher (January 2020). "A View from the CT Foxhole: Rob Saale, Former Director, U.S. Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell". ...
Imperial, SL; Sidhu, JS (Oct 2002). "Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor arising in splenogonadal fusion". Archives of Pathology & ... When limb abnormalities occur, Splenogonadal Fusion with Limb Defects is made as a separate diagnosis. Splenogonadal Fusion ... Treatment remains controversial given the benign nature of splenogonadal fusion. Splenogonadal fusion does not have known ... Splenogonadal fusion occurs with a male-to-female ratio of 16:1, and is seen nearly exclusively on the left side. The condition ...
Interbilayer Forces in Membrane Fusion Fusion mechanism Cell fusion Yeagle, P. L. (1993). The Membranes of Cells (2nd ed.). San ... "Diffusion and redistribution of lipid-like molecules between membranes in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion systems". Biophysical ... Chen, Y.D.; Rubin, R.J.; Szabo, A. (1993). "Fluorescence dequenching kinetics of single cell-cell fusion complexes". ... Lentz, Barry R. (1994). "Polymer-induced membrane fusion: Potential mechanism and relation to cell fusion events". Chemistry ...
Cell fusion is the formation of a hybrid cell from two separate cells. There are three major actions taken in both virus-cell ... A fusion mechanism is any mechanism by which cell fusion or virus-cell fusion takes place, as well as the machinery that ... These reoviral cell-cell fusogens contain fusion loops that can induce cell fusion. They form polymeric structures to induce ... Cell fusion also occurs in a multitude of mammalian cells including gametes and myoblasts. Proteins that allow viral or cell ...
Harris, Henry (1970). Cell Fusion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-857344-9. Harris, Henry (1968). Nucleus and Cytoplasm ... ISBN 978-0-19-951362-8. (The Romanes Lecture for 1993). Harris, Henry (1995). The Cells of the Body: A History of Somatic Cell ... Harris's research interests were primarily focused on cancer cells and their differences from normal cells. He later studied ... In 1960, he was appointed the head of the new department of cell biology at the John Innes Institute, and, in 1964, he ...
Fusion of two cells produces a heterokaryon, i.e., a single hybrid cell with two nuclei, one from each of the cells entering ... When human and mouse cells (or cells of any two mammalian species or of the same species) are mixed, spontaneous cell fusion ... The somatic fusion process occurs in four steps: The removal of the cell wall of one cell of each type of plant using cellulase ... Somatic cells of different types can be fused to obtain hybrid cells. Hybrid cells are useful in a variety of ways, e.g., (i) ...
"Mitofusin-1 protein is a generally expressed mediator of mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 ... MFN2 knockout mice die at embryonic day 11.5 due to a defect in the giant cell layer of the placenta. Mitochondrial fusion is ... A defective mitochondrial fusion has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of CMT2A. Another important cell feature ... Hence, inhibiting mitochondrial fusion would sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, making it a significantly more effective ...
They are found in reoviruses, which are non-enveloped viruses and are specialized for cell-cell rather than virus-cell fusion, ... While adult somatic cells do not typically undergo membrane fusion under normal conditions, gametes and embryonic cells follow ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.024. PMC 5332557. PMID 28235200. Podbilewicz, Benjamin (11 October 2014). "Virus and Cell Fusion ... Membrane fusion proteins (not to be confused with chimeric or fusion proteins) are proteins that cause fusion of biological ...
In 1975, Georges Köhler and César Milstein succeeded in making fusions of myeloma cell lines with B cells to create hybridomas ... similar to a cancer cell). This mixture of cells is then diluted and clones are grown from single parent cells on microtitre ... single cell amplification from various B cell populations and single plasma cell interrogation technologies. Different from ... Only fused hybrid cells referred to as hybridomas, are able to grow indefinitely in the medium because the spleen cell partner ...
The fusion of fluorescent tags to proteins in a host cell is a widely popular technique used in experimental cell and biology ... Examples include: Gag-onc fusion protein Bcr-abl fusion protein Tpr-met fusion protein Antibodies are fusion proteins produced ... Naturally occurring fusion proteins are commonly found in cancer cells, where they may function as oncoproteins. The bcr-abl ... A recombinant fusion protein is a protein created through genetic engineering of a fusion gene. This typically involves ...
Such cell death can be caused by disruptions in the process of either fusion or fission. The shapes of mitochondria in cells ... mitochondrial fusion was shown not to be essential for cell survival in vitro, but necessary for embryonic development and cell ... "OPA1 controls apoptotic cristae remodeling independently from mitochondrial fusion". Cell. 126 (1): 177-189. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... This process can occur in a cell within a time period as short as an hour. The significance of mitochondrial fission and fusion ...
Moreau, K.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2011). "Autophagosome precursor maturation requires homotypic fusion". Cell. 146 (2): 303-317. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.044. PMC 3791395. PMID 24034251. Vicinanza, M.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2015). "PI(5)P regulates ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.023. PMC 3171170. PMID 21784250. Puri, C.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2013). "Diverse autophagosome ... F1000 Prime Faculty Member Research Gate "Publication analysis 2007-2013, Cell Biology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF ...
... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81404-x. PMID 9529252. Zemelman, BV; ... began working in the laboratory of James Rothman on SNARE proteins and their influence on the intracellular membrane fusion. ...
"The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion." Cell, Vol. 116, 153-166, January 23, 2004, Synaptobrevin at the U.S. National ... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81404-X. PMID 9529252. S2CID 5637048. ... Bock JB, Scheller RH (October 1999). "SNARE proteins mediate lipid bilayer fusion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): ... Fasshauer D, Sutton RB, Brunger AT, Jahn R (December 1998). "Conserved structural features of the synaptic fusion complex: ...
... is the merging of a vesicle with other vesicles or a part of a cell membrane. In the latter case, it is the end ... Known as the "clamp" hypothesis, the presence of complexin normally inhibits the fusion of the vesicle to the cell membrane. ... SNARE Presynaptic active zone Liposomes used as models for artificial cells in membrane fusion studies. Page 237 in: Costanzo, ... In synaptic vesicle fusion, the vesicle must be within a few nanometers of the target membrane for the fusion process to begin ...
This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate ... This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the ... Saglio G, Cilloni D (2004). "Abl: the prototype of oncogenic fusion proteins". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (23): 2897-911. doi: ... The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in ...
"Embryonic cell fusion redefined: The new RMX2010". Clonaid. Retrieved January 2, 2008. Human cloning firm sets up affiliate in ... Boisselier revealed the roles of four scientists she says were involved-"a biochemist, a geneticist, a cell fusion expert and a ... Besides offering cloning services, Clonaid has developed one product, an "embryonic cell fusion device" called the RMX 2010. ... A biotechnology company called Advanced Cell Technology had cloned human embryo cells for medical purposes, and its CEO Michael ...
Avigan D, Rosenblatt J, Kufe D (June 2012). "Dendritic/tumor fusion cells as cancer vaccines". Seminars in Oncology. 39 (3): ... whole necrotic or apoptotic tumor cells, tumor cell lysates and DC-fused with tumor cells. An advantage to using tumor cell ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the most potent APC (antigen presenting cell) of the immune system. DC cells have a unique ... Autologous tumor cell vaccines These vaccines are made from antigens taken from the patient's own cancer cells. Autologous ...
Exosomes are released eventually due to fusion of this endosome with plasma membrane of cell. Hijacking of exosomal machinery ... and further fusion or uptake of diffusing OMVs by host/target cells (Fig. 2). In conclusion, membrane vesicle trafficking via ... "The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)01079-1. PMID 14744428. Hehnly ... in the realm of cell-to-cell signaling. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Endocytosis Exocytosis Host-pathogen interaction ...
... has also been used as a mechanism to trigger cell fusion. Artificially induced cell fusion can be used to ... such as in cell vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. However, the first and most known application of cell fusion is production ... Takakura K, Kajihara M, Ito Z, Ohkusa T, Gong J, Koido S (March 2015). "Dendritic-tumor fusion cells in cancer immunotherapy". ... Afterwards, the cells have to be handled carefully until they have had a chance to divide, producing new cells that contain ...
These lack cell walls; the syncytia are created by cell fusion. Some plasmodiophorids and haplosporidians are other ... In some cases, the resulting structure is a syncytium, created by the fusion of cells after division. Under suitable conditions ... A plasmodium is a living structure of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei, rather than being divided into individual cells each ... which in other organisms pulls newly-divided cells apart. ...
She demonstrated the precise fusion of mammalian somatic cells using microsurgery in 1972. She was made head of the Cytobiology ... Diacumakos, Elaine G.; Tatum, Edward L. (October 1972). "Fusion of Mammalian Somatic Cells by Microsurgery". Proceedings of the ... Her work with micropipettes became well known, and she worked with Dana Giulian on electrodes which could impale human cells ... In 1979 she collaborated with William French Anderson to insert a functioning gene into a defective cell within a living mouse ...
... are glycoproteins that facilitate the fusion of cell to cell membranes. Cell-cell fusion is critical for the ... Yet when considering asexual reproduction, somatic cells can also undergo cell-cell fusion or self-fusion. Two particular ... and other developmental cells. These fusogens mediate cell-cell fusion and can perform neuron repairs, auto-fusion, and sealing ... Cell-cell fusion occurs when both actin cytoskeleton and fusogenic proteins properly rearrange across the cell membrane. This ...
Guggenheim, Mary Anne; Tyrrell, S; Rabson, AS (1968). "Studies on Sendai virus cell fusion factor". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 129 ... Guggenheim, Mary Anne; Friedman, RM; Rabson, AS (1968). "Interferon: production by chick erythrocytes activated by cell fusion ...
Bonifacino, Juan S.; Glick, Benjamin S. (2004-01-23). "The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. ... Newly made secretory proteins must pass through the ER and the golgi complex before they can leave the cell. Problems with COP ... Arakel, Eric C.; Schwappach, Blanche (2018-03-01). "Formation of COPI-coated vesicles at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. ... This gene plays an important role in regulating the transport of proteins within cells. Symptoms for Congenital ...
Tang, Jiajia; Frascaroli, Giada; Zhou, Xuan; Knickmann, Jan; Brune, Wolfram (2021-09-30). "Cell Fusion and Syncytium Formation ... To enter CD4+ T cells, HHV-7, unlike HHV-6, uses CD4 and possibly some cell-surface glycoproteins to enter CD4+ T cells. ... Giant cells form when the cell cycle is disrupted and accumulate between the G2 and M phase. However, syncytia formation is ... T-cell death by two distinct mechanisms: necrotic lysis in productively infected cells and apoptosis in uninfected or ...
Reprogramming can be accomplished by nuclear cloning, cell fusion with pluripotent cells, or expression of pluripotency factors ... of embryonic stem cells. Cell hybrid experiments fusing somatic cells and stem cells in vitro resulted in reactivation of the ... In non-cell-autonomous X-linked disorders, such as hemophilia A, the healthy cells can compensate for the diseased cells. In ... January 2017). "Human Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Model X Chromosome Dampening and X Inactivation". Cell Stem Cell. 20 (1): 87 ...
"Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a major human birth defect". Acta Histochemica. 109 ( ... Maternal alcohol use has also been linked to cleft lip and palate due to the effects on the cranial neural crest cells. The ... It is due to the failure of fusion of the maxillary prominence and medial nasal processes (formation of the primary palate). ... It occurs due to the failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, or the median palatine processes ( ...
Certain fusion transcripts are commonly produced by cancer cells, and detection of fusion transcripts is part of routine ... Li; Wang, J; Mor, G; Sklar, J (2008). "A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells". Science. ... Fusion transcript is a chimeric RNA encoded by a fusion gene or by two different genes by subsequent trans-splicing. ... Mitelman; Johansson, B; Mertens, F (2007). "The impact of translocations and gene fusions on cancer causation". Nature Reviews ...
"Mitochondrial fusion and fission in cell life and death". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 11 (12): 872-84. doi:10.1038/ ... "Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for mitochondrial division in mammalian cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 12 (8 ... Xie N, Wang C, Lian Y, Zhang H, Wu C, Zhang Q (June 2013). "A selective inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, protects against cell death ... They found that knocking out Drp1 resulted in the appearance of large mitochondria in Purkinje cells and prevented neural tube ...
This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... These four ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion and a ... Cell fusion normally occurs with nuclear fusion, but in the absence of nuclear fusion, the cell would be described as a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
... and hepatocytes to pancreatic beta cells. Stem cells seemed to home in on injury sites, producing daughters that ... Bone marrow cells could yield liver, muscle, neuron, and endothelium, while neurons could give rise to blood, ... sex-mismatched transplants and experiments with rodents revealed apparent transgressions of embryonic cell fates. ... Stem Cell Fusion Confusion 1. How did the idea of transdifferentiation arise? In the late 1990s, ...
... allowing viral genetic material to enter the target cell. Viral fusion can also occur when the cell is infected and produces ... Innate immunity and fusion of cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Gauche : Cellules infectées par SARS-CoV-2 (en vert) ayant ... they showed that infected cells in culture can fuse with neighboring cells and die after forming giant cells known as "syncytia ... the scientists demonstrated that infected cells fuse with neighboring cells to form syncytia, or giant cells containing dozens ...
... cells and will discuss potential functions of vesicle-free miRNAs and how vesicle-free miRNAs regulate cell-to-cell ... in this way vesicle-free miRNA may regulate celltocell communication including the regulation of gene expression and cellular ... vesicle-free miRNA may regulate cell-to-cell communication including the regulation of gene expression and cellular signaling. ... Recently, miRNA has been shown to be exocytosed by vesicle fusion; this observation demonstrates that vesicle-free miRNAs are ...
In many instances, gene fusions play an important role in oncogenesis; in other instances, they are thought to be passenger ... Gene fusions frequently result from rearrangements in cancer genomes. ... Gene Fusions Create Partner and Collateral Dependencies Essential to Cancer Cell Survival Cancer Res. 2021 Aug 1;81(15):3971- ... We found that 35% of cell lines harbored either a fusion partner dependency or a collateral dependency on a gene within the ...
Text and Cell Formatting. Text Formatting. In Excel, there are 2 types of formatting. One that applies to the text in a cell, ... Cell Formatting. To apply formatting to a cell, you use the Interior object. For example, ... You can also set a cells border using the Borders object and BordersAround object. With these, you can set the following:. ... sets the active cells font colour to Red (255 red, 0 green, 0 blue). Alternatively, you can use the ColorIndex property. This ...
Cell Biology and Physiology. 111 Mason Farm Road. 5200 Medical Biomolecular Research Building. CB# 7545. Chapel Hill, NC 27599- ... Fusion Seminar: Nicole Hondrogiannis and Vickie Williams. May 15 @ 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm. ...
We developed three novel ,i,RET,/i, fusion-positive (,i,RET,/i,+) patient-derived cancer cell lines, CUTO … ... We developed three novel RET fusion-positive (RET+) patient-derived cancer cell lines, CUTO22 [kinesin 5B (KIF5B)-RET fusion], ... RET fusion), to study RET signaling and response to therapy. We confirmed each of our cell lines expresses the RET fusion ... fusion non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and demonstrated that they have differential responses to RET inhibition as well ...
... August 10, 2020. Benjamin Levy, MD, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center. ... I never found a lung cancer patient with NTRK fusion. Im still looking, but since I have an NTRK-MET trial open at my site, ... Ive seen gastrointestinal NTRK fusion. Ive seen a wonderful response in an anaplastic thyroid cancer patient with NTRK fusion ... I will be transparent, and say that I have not yet found an NTRK fusion, and I have not used these drugs yet. Im still looking ...
Mechanism of transformation of neural stem cells by fusion onco-proteins.. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using ... C11orf95-RELA Fusion proteins, when introduced into neural stem cells, rapidly transform to form ependymoma. Furthermore, ... Mechanism of transformation of neural stem cells by fusion onco-proteins. ... We have recently described a highly recurrent 11q structural variant, producing a fusion translocation between the C11orf95 ...
Obama green-car rules, next Hyundai fuel-cell SUV, autonomous Ford Fusion Hybrid: Todays Car News. ... Obama green-car rules, next Hyundai fuel-cell SUV, autonomous Ford Fusion Hybrid: Todays Car News. ... the next Hyundai hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle may get a boost in range over the current Tucson Fuel Cell, and a second-generation ... The Ford Fusion Hybrid will continue to serve as a test platform for autonomous-driving technology as Ford aims to put a self- ...
Cell-cell fusion as a potential target in cancer therapy JM Gasent Blesa1 and VA Candel2 1Hospital General Universitari Marina ... mediated cell-cell fusion was recently shown to reduce breast carcinoma cell fusion with human umbilical vein endothelial cells ... Fusion in cancer cells. Mortensen et al [44] found that human breast cancer cells fused with endothelial cells in culture. ... Mortensen K, Lichtenberg J, Thomsen PD and Larsson LI (2004) Spontaneous fusion between cancer cells and endothelial cells Cell ...
... a naturally occurring compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia, inhibits the ... Khz (fusion of ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells by ... Khz inhibited cell division and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the percentage of A549 ... Kim, T.H., Kim, J.S., Kim, Z.H. et al. Khz (fusion of ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis in ...
Covalent Labeling of Fusion Proteins with Chemical Probes in Living Cells Authors. * Susanne Gendreizig ... A general method for the specific and covalent labeling of fusion proteins in vivo is described. The approach is based on the ... Labeling is possible in bacterial as well as eukaryotic cells and is independent of the nature of the label, thereby opening up ...
... and Philippine forces implemented first ever Combined Information and Effects Fusion Cell (CIEFC) during Balikatan 2023. ... U.S. Army Pacifics First Multi-Domain Task Force (1MDTF) established the Combined Information and Effects Fusion Cell (CIEFC) ... USARPACs first MDTF Advances Interoperability through a Combined US - Philippines Information and Effects Fusion Cell By 1st ...
Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 fastest fuel cell electric racing cars land speed records bonneville salt flats desert speed aces 2007 ... FORD FUSION - HYDROGEN 999 CAR - 2007 AUTOMOTIVE A TO Z CLIMATE CHANGE A TO Z CONTACTS EVENTS FUEL CELLS GROWTH A-Z HYDROGEN. ... The Fusion Hydrogen 999 is powered by a one-of-a-kind Ford-designed 350 kW fuel cell system, comprised of 16 Ballard Mk902 fuel ... Ford fuel cell engineers and aerodynamics specialists worked together to decrease the Fusion drag coefficient from 0.34 to 0.21 ...
Posted by: Fusion Cell on October 03, 2023 at 09:06:54. This position has been filled. Post data is no longer available.. ...
Cell Fusion C Low pH pHarrier Cleansing Water (500ml) Best Before 31/5/2024The low pH series is designed with the core ... Decrease quantity for Cell Fusion C Low Ph Pharrier Cleansing Water 500ML Increase quantity for Cell Fusion C Low Ph Pharrier ... CELL FUSION C Buy 1 Get Extra 20%... Promotion DERMA BEAUTY - Buy Any 2 Get 20%... Promotion DERMA BEAUTY - CELL FUSION C ... Cell Fusion C Low Ph Pharrier Cleansing Water 500ML Regular price $27.50 USD ...
Cell-penetrating anti-GFAP VHH and corresponding fluorescent fusion protein VHH-GFP spontaneously cross the blood-brain barrier ... Cell-penetrating anti-GFAP VHH and corresponding fluorescent fusion protein VHH-GFP spontaneously cross the blood-brain barrier ... Cell-penetrating anti-GFAP VHH and corresponding fluorescent fusion protein VHH-GFP spontaneously cross the blood-brain barrier ... To analyze their ability to be used as a specific transporter, we then expressed a recombinant fusion protein VHH-green ...
It is made of a high-grade silicone oil that will enhance, enlarge, and increase the number of cells within your Pouring Resin ... Our Cell Enhancer is the product you need. ... Looking to add a little bit of an extra effect for your Fusion ... Looking to add a little bit of an extra effect for your Fusion acrylic pour art? Our Cell Enhancer is the product you need. It ... Simply add a couple of drops to each mixed colour, and let the Cell Enhancer do the rest.. Please note: you CANNOT PAINT OVER a ...
Intracranial Efficacy of Selpercatinib in RET Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers on the LIBRETTO-001 Trial. Clin ... Case Report: A case of ultra-late recurrence of KIF13A-RET fusion non-small cell lung cancer response to selpercatinib ... Selpercatinib in RET-fusion positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: achievements and gray areas ... Efficacy and safety of selpercatinib in Chinese patients with advanced RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase ...
Intranasal Immunization With an Apolipoprotein B-100 Fusion Protein Induces Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Reduces ... This effect was accompanied by induction of regulatory T cells that markedly suppressed effector T cells rechallenged with apoB ... This effect was accompanied by induction of regulatory T cells that markedly suppressed effector T cells rechallenged with apoB ... Intranasal Immunization With an Apolipoprotein B-100 Fusion Protein Induces Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Reduces ...
... associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the cytoskeleton and cell motility-2 ... Rac*, cdc42*, Rho* - activated forms; total Rac, cdc42, Rho - total amount revealed in the cell lysates used for the pull down ... BCR and its mutants, the reciprocal t(9;22)-associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the cytoskeleton and ... Taken from "BCR and its mutants, the reciprocal t(9;22)-associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the ...
Tag: HOPE cell. Posted on July 6, 2013. July 6, 2013. HOPE cell offers clean fuel for Hydrogen Economy. Video: HOPE plasma cell ... HOPE cell test unit. Vancina discovered the LENR effect during the first HOPE cell trials, and spent alot of time trying to ... Robert Vancina accepting Energy Globe award for Sustainability 2009 for HOPE cell concept.. Robert Vancinas HOPE cell won the ... Electrochemical plasma cell from Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water by Cirillo and Iorio.. " ...
Treating Bladder Cancer: Engineering of Current and Next Generation Antibody-, Fusion Protein-, mRNA-, Cell- and Viral-Based ... Treating Bladder Cancer: Engineering of Current and Next Generation Antibody-, Fusion Protein-, mRNA-, Cell- and Viral-Based ... Treating Bladder Cancer: Engineering of Current and Next Generation Antibody-, Fusion Protein-, mRNA-, Cell- and Viral-Based ... Furthermore, mRNA-based pharmaceuticals recently reached the market and CAR-T cells and viral-based gene therapy remain a major ...
While receptor antagonists were unable to inhibit NF-κB activation, blocking of the fusion between EVs and their target cells ... While receptor antagonists were unable to inhibit NF-κB activation, blocking of the fusion between EVs and their target cells ... Our findings reveal that fusion renders non-responsive cells susceptible to inflammatory signaling, as evidenced by increased ... Our findings reveal that fusion renders non-responsive cells susceptible to inflammatory signaling, as evidenced by increased ...
Langerhans cell histiocytosis reveals a new IL-17A-dependent pathway of dendritic cell fusion. In: Nature Medicine. 2008 ; Vol ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis reveals a new IL-17A-dependent pathway of dendritic cell fusion. Nature Medicine. 2008;14(1):81- ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis reveals a new IL-17A-dependent pathway of dendritic cell fusion. / Coury, Fabienne; Annels, ... title = "Langerhans cell histiocytosis reveals a new IL-17A-dependent pathway of dendritic cell fusion", ...
... yeast vacuoles have both fission and fusion failures.MAYER/ELSEVIERThe same GTPase that tears membranes apart is needed to put ... The Swiss group finds that yeast cells lacking the dynamin homologue Vps1p resemble both fission and fusion mutants. The ... As vps1 mutants were deficient in vacuole fusion, dynamin must also somehow promote fusion, perhaps by organizing cooperative t ... The linking of dynamin with the fusion machinery may prevent repeated futile cycles of fission and fusion. "Intuitively, [this ...
The rGel/BLyS fusion toxin inhibits diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Lyu MA, Rai D, Ahn KS, Sung B, ... The rGel/BLyS fusion toxin inhibits diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo ... The rGel/BLyS fusion toxin inhibits diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Neoplasia 12(5):366-375. doi: ...
The flavivirus membrane fusion machinery, like that of many other enveloped viruses, is triggered by the acidic pH in endosomes ... The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells involves a fusion step between the viral and a cellular membrane. This process ... Fusion activity of pyrene-labeled WT and mutant RSPs with liposomes at acidic pH. (A) Kinetic fusion curves of RSP WT (red) and ... Fusion activity of pyrene-labeled WT and mutant RSPs with liposomes at acidic pH. (A) Kinetic fusion curves of RSP WT (red) and ...
  • The work conducted by Henry and Nils showed that proteins from one gene fusion affect gene expression in the other partner's nucleus, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few hours after an infection, the body emits an alarm signal, interferon, enabling cells that have not yet been infected to produce antiviral proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • But interferon counters this phenomenon by inducing cellular proteins that prevent the fusion of infected cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Interferon is a substance with antiviral activity that stimulates cells' natural defenses by inducing the synthesis of proteins that protect them from infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • The scientists demonstrated that in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, IFITM proteins inhibit syncytium formation, thereby giving us an insight into the way in which interferon might control the evolution of COVID-19. (pasteur.fr)
  • 1 nM IC 50 ) to inhibition of two cell cycle-regulating proteins, polo-like kinase 1 and Aurora kinase A. Finally, we show that two of these cell lines, CUTO32 and CUTO42, successfully establish xenografted tumors in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • talks.cam : Mechanism of transformation of neural stem cells by fusion onco-proteins. (cam.ac.uk)
  • C11orf95-RELA Fusion proteins, when introduced into neural stem cells, rapidly transform to form ependymoma. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, recent studies analyzing the genomes and transcriptomes of 500 primary ependymomas have reinforced these findings, showing that C11orf95-RELA fusion proteins are found within ~70% of forebrain (supratentorial) ependymomas and correlated with negative overall survival. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In this study we will present our recent efforts integrating transcriptome, proteome, interactome, and genome wide mapping of Fusion proteins (as well as their individual components) to understand the mechanisms by which neural stem cells transform to form ependymomas. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The env gene maintained an ORF coding for a 538-amino acid polypeptide that has all the characteristic features of env proteins and mediates intercellular fusion in vitro [ 11 - 13 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • A general method for the specific and covalent labeling of fusion proteins in vivo is described. (chimia.ch)
  • Labeling is possible in bacterial as well as eukaryotic cells and is independent of the nature of the label, thereby opening up new ways to study proteins in vivo. (chimia.ch)
  • Chapoval, AI, Zhu, G & Chen, L 2002, ' Immunoglobulin fusion proteins as a tool for evaluation of T-cell costimulatory molecules ', Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 259-264. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In cells, membrane fusion is mediated by SNARE proteins, whose activities are calcium-dependent. (rsc.org)
  • 5. The DNA of the infected cell now produces viral RNA as well as proteins that are needed to assemble a new HIV. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We developed three novel RET fusion-positive ( RET +) patient-derived cancer cell lines, CUTO22 [kinesin 5B ( KIF5B )- RET fusion], CUTO32 ( KIF5B - RET fusion), and CUTO42 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4- RET fusion), to study RET signaling and response to therapy. (nih.gov)
  • We confirmed each of our cell lines expresses the RET fusion protein and assessed their sensitivity to RET inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • We discovered that our RET + cell lines had differential regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum on protein expression profile of HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • To analyze their ability to be used as a specific transporter, we then expressed a recombinant fusion protein VHH-green fluorescent protein (GFP). (open.ac.uk)
  • These "fluobodies" specifically labeled GFAP on murine brain sections, and a basic variant (pI=9.3) of the fusion protein VHH-GFP was able to cross the BBB and to label astrocytes in vivo. (open.ac.uk)
  • The effect of nasal administration of the p210-CTB fusion protein on atherogenesis was compared with that of. (lu.se)
  • The effect of nasal administration of the p210-CTB fusion protein on atherogenesis was compared with that of an ovalbumin peptide fused to CTB and with untreated controls. (lu.se)
  • It has been hypothesized that conserved histidines in the class II fusion protein E of these viruses function as molecular switches and, by their protonation, control the fusion process. (rupress.org)
  • The problem is that the fusion oncoprotein is a transcription factor, a protein which regulates gene expression but is currently undruggable. (medboundtimes.com)
  • We describe here a simple and reliable strategy for evaluating the functional activities of potential costimulatory molecules using soluble fusion protein between extracellular portion of costimulatory ligand and Fc portion of mouse IgG2a. (elsevierpure.com)
  • MADRID - The positive effect of the bispecific fusion protein tebentafusp on the overall survival of patients with uveal melanoma in the IMCgp100-202 study lasted through at least 36 months of follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • Tebentafusp is the first T-cell receptor, bispecific fusion protein (specific for glycoprotein 100 [gp100] and CD3) that triggers T cells to target gp100-positive melanoma cells. (medscape.com)
  • Under his leadership, Fusion Cell has received multiple accolades from organizations such as the ESGR (2022 Pro Patria, Patriot Award, "Above and Beyond Award") and the U.S. Department of Labor (2021 Platinum Hire Vets Medallion Award). (fusioncell.com)
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, lacking an animal model, that cumulates symptoms that are found separately in various IL-17A-related diseases, such as aggressive chronic granuloma formation, bone resorption and soft tissue lesions with occasional neurodegeneration(11,12). (dtu.dk)
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by the presence of cells with characteristics similar to bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells juxtaposed against a backdrop of hematopoietic cells, including T-cells, macrophages, and eosinophils. (medscape.com)
  • The term Langerhans cell histiocytosis is generally preferred to the older term, histiocytosis X. This newer name emphasizes the histogenesis of the condition by specifying the type of lesional cell and removes the connotation of the unknown ("X") because its cellular basis has now been clarified. (medscape.com)
  • The pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • These original observations, obtained in in vitro models with IFITM overexpression, now need to be reproduced in physiological models of human bronchial cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Lyu MA, Rai D, Ahn KS, Sung B, Cheung LH, Marks JW, Aggarwal BB, Aguiar RC, Gandhi V, Rosenblum MG (2010) The rGel/BLyS fusion toxin inhibits diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo. (atsbio.com)
  • Human adult stem cells (hASCs) have become an attractive source for autologous cell transplantation, tissue engineering, developmental biology, and the generation of human-based alternative in vitro models. (ac.be)
  • A variety of isolated nonhematopoietic mesoderm-derived stem cell populations exist, and all of them show important differences in terms of function, efficacy, and differentiation potential both in vivo and in vitro. (ac.be)
  • Two hybridomas obtained with HSB-1 were highly invasive in vitro in rat hepatocyte cultures, whereas HSB-1 tumor cells were not. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transdifferentiation was a logical conclusion based on phenotypes, but delving into DNA content and ploidy revealed another explanation for the apparently switching cell fates--merging genomes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Gene fusions frequently result from rearrangements in cancer genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Specialized setting for plant protoplast and mammalian cell fusion can provide a desirable condition for the cell fusion, which is done with DC pulse (100V, max. (nepagene.jp)
  • Analysis of this HA gene shows that it is closely related to avian A(H5) viruses in HA clade 2.3.4.4b and lacked amino acid changes that improve recognition of mammalian receptors or fusion of the viral membrane with the host endosomal membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, miRNA exocytosis by vesicle fusion in response to stimulation was observed in chromaffin cells, which are neuroendocrine cells in the sympathetic nervous system ( 24 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined IL-17A in the context of LCH and found that there were high serum levels of IL-17A during active LCH and unexpected IL-17A synthesis by dendritic cells (DCs), the major cell type in LCH lesions. (dtu.dk)
  • In 1868, Paul Langerhans discovered the epidermal dendritic cells that now bear his name. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, in addition to epidermal Langerhans cells, other potential cellular origins for LCH include dermal langerin + dendritic cells, lymphoid tissue-resident langerin + dendritic cells, and monocytes that can be induced by local environmental stimuli to acquire a Langerhans cell phenotype. (medscape.com)
  • Arguments supporting the reactive nature of LCH include the occurrence of spontaneous remissions, the extensive elaboration of multiple cytokines by dendritic cells and T-cells (the so-called cytokine storm) in LCH lesions, and the good survival rate in patients without organ dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • These four ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion and a newly developed method termed optically controlled thermoplasmonics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this type of cell fusion polyethylene glycol, PEG, acts as a dehydrating agent and fuses not only plasma membranes but also intracellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic human T cells from different sources were fused with different types of human T-lymphoma cells and mouse B-myeloma cells using variations of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) method and electrofusion. (elsevierpure.com)
  • They were taking patients irrespective of tumor type or histology, and if they had an NTRK fusion, they were all treated with larotrectinib. (onclive.com)
  • Zhao S, Ye G, Fu G, Cheng JX, Yang BB, Peng C. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin. (springer.com)
  • Historically, researchers attempted to find a primary muscle tumor to find a more effective way to counter this subtype by identifying its cell of origin. (medboundtimes.com)
  • It overrode any sort of normal differentiation processes, in either muscle or endothelial cells, and forced those cells to become tumor-like. (medboundtimes.com)
  • Despite how hard we looked, we could not find a single distinguishing feature that told us that the tumor from the endothelial cells came from endothelial progenitors and not muscle cells. (medboundtimes.com)
  • For one tumor cell line (HSB-1), considerably more hybridomas were obtained with electrofusion than with the PEG fusion (with or without heat shock). (elsevierpure.com)
  • There was no consistent relationship between the presence or absence of cytotoxic activity of the T lymphocytes against the tumor fusion partner and the yield of hybridomas. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Two of the hybridomas obtained with CEM-1 as tumor fusion partner expressed low levels of lymphocyte-derived CD3 antigens. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cancer cell plasticity during tumor progression, metastasis and response to therapy. (ac.be)
  • Deciphering functional tumor states at single-cell resolution. (ac.be)
  • This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Khz ( fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia ) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. (springer.com)
  • Conclusion-Nasal administration of an apoB-100 peptide fused to CTB attenuates atherosclerosis and induces regulatory Tr1 cells that inhibit T effector responses to apoB-100. (lu.se)
  • Specialized setting for bovine, pig, mouse and rabbit cloning (somatic cell and embryo nuclear transplant) will result in extremely high fusion probability (for example: more than 90% for bovine cloning). (nepagene.jp)
  • Atheroprotection was also documented in apoe(-/-) mice lacking functional transforming growth factor-beta receptors on T cells. (lu.se)
  • Subsequent analysis show that EVs transfer their functionally active receptors to target cells, making them prone to an otherwise unresponsive state. (lu.se)
  • The major role of the NA is to release new progeny virions from an infected cell by enzymatically cleaving sialic acid receptors, which aids virus spread to uninfected cells within an infected host. (cdc.gov)
  • Although regulatory element rearrangements and copy number alterations resulting from these structural variants are known to lead to transcriptional dysregulation across cancers, the extent to which these events result in functional dependencies with an impact on cancer cell survival is variable. (nih.gov)
  • Fusion-associated dependencies revealed numerous novel oncogenic drivers and clinically translatable alterations. (nih.gov)
  • Utility of multigene panel next-generation sequencing in routine clinical practice for identifying genomic alterations in newly diagnosed metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory virus in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulse voltage causes the cell membrane to permeate and subsequent combining of the membranes and the cells then fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this is that the cytoplasm has mixed together and the cell membrane has completely fused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Khz cytotoxicity was measured using an MTT assay and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)-related, calcium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 cells was measured by flow cytometry. (springer.com)
  • At the same time, fusion was inhibited until Vps1p was released from the vacuole membrane, suggesting that the Vps1p-bound t-SNARE is inactive. (rupress.org)
  • The flavivirus membrane fusion machinery, like that of many other enveloped viruses, is triggered by the acidic pH in endosomes after virus uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells involves a fusion step between the viral and a cellular membrane. (rupress.org)
  • While several non-native membrane fusion mechanisms have been demonstrated, few can respond to external stimuli. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we develop a calcium-triggered DNA-mediated membrane fusion strategy where fusion is regulated using surface-bound PEG chains that are cleavable by the calcium-activated protease calpain-1. (rsc.org)
  • 7. The virus pushes (buds) through the membrane of the cell, wrapping itself in a fragment of the cell membrane and pinching off from the infected cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion in Neurodegenerative Disorders. (who.int)
  • Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninucleate cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinucleate cell, known as a syncytium. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hybrid cells that were created were considered forced exceptions to normal cellular integrity and it was not until 2002 that the possibility of cell fusion between cells of different types may have a real function in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the Virus and Immunity Unit (Institut Pasteur/CNRS) investigated viral fusion, the mechanism by which viral membranes and cellular membranes fuse, allowing viral genetic material to enter the target cell. (pasteur.fr)
  • in this way, vesicle-free miRNA may regulate cell-to-cell communication including the regulation of gene expression and cellular signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, EV fusion leads to the modulation of cellular functions and has an impact on both physiological and pathological processes in the recipient cell. (lu.se)
  • This study explores the impact of EV fusion on cellular responses to inflammatory signaling. (lu.se)
  • The study indicates that it may not be possible to find the cellular origin of these cancerous cells and identify potential drug targets using those methods. (medboundtimes.com)
  • Specifically, a variety of other cellular populations have been identified that possess phenotypic characteristics similar to Langerhans cells, including expression of CD207 and Birbeck granules. (medscape.com)
  • CCR5 antagonists and post-attachment inhibitors block different molecules on the CD4 cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Post-attachment inhibitors also prevent HIV from entering cells but in a different way from fusion inhibitors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The overall classes of medications that act against HIV at this stage are called entry inhibitors, and they included attachment inhibitors, post-attachment inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • abstract = "IL-17A is a T cell-specific cytokine(1) that is involved in chronic inflammations, such as Mycobacterium infection(2), Crohn's disease(3), rheumatoid arthritis(4) and multiple sclerosis(5). (dtu.dk)
  • While receptor antagonists were unable to inhibit NF-κB activation, blocking of the fusion between EVs and their target cells with heparin mitigated inflammation in mice challenged with EVs. (lu.se)
  • These medications prevent HIV entry into its target cells or inhibit the three enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease) that the virus uses to replicate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Here we used CRISPR-Cas9 dependency screens to evaluate the fitness impact of 3,277 fusions across 645 cell lines from the Cancer Dependency Map. (nih.gov)
  • Broadly, fusions can result in partner and collateral dependencies that have biological and clinical relevance across cancer types. (nih.gov)
  • SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides insights into how fusions contribute to fitness in different cancer contexts beyond partner-gene activation events, identifying partner and collateral dependencies that may have direct implications for clinical care. (nih.gov)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We have derived and characterized three novel rearranged during transfection (RET) fusion non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and demonstrated that they have differential responses to RET inhibition as well as regulation of downstream signaling, an area that has previously been limited by a lack of diverse cell line modes with endogenous RET fusions. (nih.gov)
  • I never found a lung cancer patient with NTRK fusion. (onclive.com)
  • I've seen a wonderful response in an anaplastic thyroid cancer patient with NTRK fusion, where the drug clearly prolonged the patient's life because he had a very bulky disease in the neck with respiratory symptoms. (onclive.com)
  • Khz, a naturally occurring compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia, inhibits the growth of cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of Khz on A549 lung cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Miyajima, A, Nakashima J, Yoshioka K. Role of reactive oxygen species in cis-dichlorodiammineplatium-induced cytotoxicity on bladder cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Besides, newly emerging entities in the realm of bladder cancer like mRNA, gene therapy or cell-based therapeutics are discussed and evaluated. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • This St. Jude study generated models to find where and how these fusion-positive tumors arise, ultimately providing clues for ways to stop this cancer. (medboundtimes.com)
  • We needed a way to look for genes targeted by the oncoprotein that are driving cancer cell identity and develop strategies to affect them instead. (medboundtimes.com)
  • On the other hand, the infiltration of organs by a monoclonal population of aberrant cells, the possibility of lethal evolution, and the cancer-based modalities of successful treatment are all consistent with a neoplastic process. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Advanced ALK Rearrangement-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Portugal: Results of a National Questionnaire. (cdc.gov)
  • The health inequality impact of liquid biopsy to inform first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer - a distributional cost-effectiveness analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Biomarker Testing, Treatment, and Outcomes in Patients With Advanced/Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using a Real-World Database. (cdc.gov)
  • Compromised Outcomes in Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer With Actionable Mutations Initially Treated Without Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Retrospective Analysis of Real-World Data. (cdc.gov)
  • Importance of ROS1 gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Improving the turnaround time of molecular profiling for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Outcome of a new algorithm integrating multiple approaches. (cdc.gov)
  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Diagnostic Strategies for the Detection of EGFR Mutation in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical Validation of the Unparalleled Sensitivity of the Novel ADPS Technology-Based EGFR Mutation Assay in Patients with Operable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2002, two groups showed bone marrow cells and neural stem cells, respectively, fusing with embryonic stem cells to yield embryonic stem-like cells, in mouse cell culture. (the-scientist.com)
  • Innate immunity occurs rapidly and can act in just a few hours, well before the other two forms of immunity - humoral immunity (the production of neutralizing antibodies that block virus entry into cells) and cell-mediated immunity (involving white blood cells such as cytotoxic lymphocytes that are capable of destroying infected cells). (pasteur.fr)
  • Costimulatory signal(s) in addition to engagement of T cell receptor is important for optimal activation of T lymphocytes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Our Cell Enhancer is the product you need. (homeworksetc.ca)
  • Simply add a couple of drops to each mixed colour, and let the Cell Enhancer do the rest. (homeworksetc.ca)
  • Please note: you CANNOT PAINT OVER a surface that includes Cell Enhancer. (homeworksetc.ca)
  • It should be noted that whereas the term fusion, as used in this article and in spine literature to refer to the concept of internal stabilization of the spine, generally refers to fusion with instrumentation (instrumented fusion), such stabilization has also, albeit with decreasing frequency, been accomplished by means of bone grafting alone. (medscape.com)
  • Of note, the term "fusion" is used in this article and in spine literature to refer to the concept of internal stabilization of spine, generally accomplished by fusion with instrumentation (instrumented fusion), but also, albeit with decreasing frequency, accomplished by bone grafting alone. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, in the cell -to- cell fusion assay, we confirmed that macropinocytosis inhibitors significantly decreased viral spike-mediated cell -to- cell fusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression inside the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • To better understand whether the intrinsic properties of these cells contribute to the overall differentiation potential of hASCs, we compared the global gene expression profiles of 4 mesoderm-derived stem cell populations: human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs), human (fore)skin-derived precursor cells (hSKPs), and human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJs). (ac.be)
  • Significant differences in gene expression profiles were detected between distinct stem cell types. (ac.be)
  • Interestingly, the observed differential gene expression of distinct hASCs could be linked to existing differentiation data in which hASCs were differentiated toward specific cell types. (ac.be)
  • As such, our data suggest that the intrinsic gene expression of the undifferentiated stem cells has an important impact on their overall differentiation potential as well as their application in stem cell-based research. (ac.be)
  • Cell fusion occurs during differentiation of myoblasts, osteoclasts and trophoblasts, during embryogenesis, and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, mutant myoblasts show increased autophagy when cultured in the absence of nutrients, as well as defective cell fusion and increased apoptosis. (escholarship.org)
  • Mesoderm-derived stem cells: the link between the transcriptome and their differentiation potential. (ac.be)
  • Revealing the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ) entry and cell -to- cell spread might provide insights for understanding the underlying mechanisms of viral pathogenesis , tropism , and virulence . (bvsalud.org)
  • The RSV fusion (RSV-F) surface glycoprotein mediates virus fusion to host cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Khz inhibited cell division and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. (springer.com)
  • Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Ganoderic acid Mf and S induce mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • Extracellular circulating miRNAs are also observed outside the cell, but their origin is poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • miRNAs are transcribed within cells, but are also found outside cells, called extracellular miRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Extracellular miRNAs were observed in cell culture system ( 6 ), in blood plasma and serum ( 7 - 10 ), and in other biological fluids ( 11 ) including cerebrospinal fluid ( 12 ), saliva ( 13 ), breast milk, urine, and tears ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The existence of extracellular miRNAs suggests that they participate in cell-to-cell communication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although extracellular miRNAs are believed to contribute to cell-to-cell communication, the mechanisms by which miRNAs are released are still not understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Extracellular miRNAs have been considered as byproducts or artifacts caused by cell lysis and cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a crucial role in intercellular communication by transferring bioactive molecules from donor to recipient cells. (lu.se)
  • If two of the same type of cells fuse, but their nuclei do not fuse, then the resulting cell is called a syncytium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular profiling studies suggests ependymomas in different anatomical compartments are distinct and disparate diseases, with unique cells of origin and genetic drivers. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We consider the origin of syncytin, its normal role in human placentogenesis and data regarding its relevance in cell-cell fusion. (ecancer.org)
  • Among the 3 germ cell layers, the mesoderm is the origin of today's most widely used and characterized hASC populations. (ac.be)
  • Although the epidermal Langerhans cell has been presumed to be the cell of origin in LCH, recent studies have called this belief into question. (medscape.com)
  • Today, the outgoing Obama administration aims to quickly enact more green-car rules, the next Hyundai hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle may get a boost in range over the current Tucson Fuel Cell, and a second-generation Ford Fusion Hybrid autonomous prototype will begin testing in the new year. (greencarreports.com)
  • Ford set a land-speed record for production based fuel cell cars last week when the automaker pushed its Fusion Hydrogen 999 past 207 miles-per-hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. (speedace.info)
  • The Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 demonstrates Ford's commitment to developing innovative and exciting zero emission products while bolstering our proud racing heritage. (speedace.info)
  • The Fusion Hydrogen 999 is powered by a one-of-a-kind Ford-designed 350 kW fuel cell system, comprised of 16 Ballard Mk902 fuel cell rows. (speedace.info)
  • Unlike traditional fuel cell vehicles where only compressed hydrogen gas is stored onboard the vehicle, the Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 also stores compressed Heliox (40% Oxygen & 60% Heliox) onboard in certified oxygen storage tanks. (speedace.info)
  • Moving forward, the lessons learned during the development of the Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 will feed future fuel cell vehicle development at Ford with a goal of reducing vehicle complexity and cost, while making the designs more efficient. (speedace.info)
  • A quick look at the specifications table reveals the impressive power and drag coefficient numbers, but the curb weight of 6,700 pounds reminds us that hydrogen fuel cell technology certainly packs on the pounds. (speedace.info)
  • The green, silver and black car, dubbed the Fusion Hydrogen '999' after company founder Henry Ford's record-setting 1902 racecar, would have set a record at any speed. (speedace.info)
  • It was the first production-based hydrogen fuel-cell racecar ever to attempt the feat. But Ford's team went after the 200-mph mark 'because there's a feeling out here at Bonneville that if you can't do 200, you're a wimp,' said a Mujeeb Ijaz, the Ford engineer who headed the fuel-cell research effort. (speedace.info)
  • Powered entirely by hydrogen fuel cells, the collaboration with Ballard, Roush and Ohio State University represents another significant step toward commercially viable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. (speedace.info)
  • The Fusion Hydrogen 999 is one of two vehicles Ford's fuel cell research team is helping prepare to set world land speed records. (speedace.info)
  • Its 770hp engine was used by Ford engineers as the basis for the 999 with Ballard Power Systems supplying the 400 kW hydrogen fuel cells. (speedace.info)
  • Regardless of how efficient a fuel cell can be developed, existing production of hydrogen by steam thermal reaction produces almost 8.8 billion tons of the carbon per year (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009). (coldfusionnow.org)
  • Robert Vancina 's HOPE cell won the Energy Globe Award 2009 World Award for Sustainability by demonstrating such a process, and he's been developing a usable technology ever since, recently receiving two patents for his hydrogen production process. (coldfusionnow.org)
  • Entrepreneurs such as Elon Musk , Chairman and CEO of TESLA Motors , have manufactured electric cars to run on lithium-ion batteries, not fuel cells, because of the difficulties that hydrogen poses as a fuel. (coldfusionnow.org)
  • HOPE cell technology offers a path to on-demand hydrogen production in-situ , promising to revolutionize power production for applications from transportation to power-production for grid or grid-less energy supply. (coldfusionnow.org)
  • In developing his hydrogen-oxygen plasma electrolysis (HOPE) cell for hydrogen separation, Vancina discovered that it also made excess heat , and he is now developing a 5th generation model to enhance the low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) effect. (coldfusionnow.org)
  • HOPE cell hydrogen production with added efficiency of LENR heat marks a transition technology between the 20th-century fossil fuel infrastructure we have now, and the de-centralized independent power production of the 21st-century new energy age we need. (coldfusionnow.org)
  • To infect a cell, HIV has to bind to two types of molecules on the cell's surface. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The result is immature, defective HIV that does not infect new cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To be able to infect other cells, the budded virus must mature. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Front Cell Infect Microbiol. (who.int)
  • Each of the fused hybrid cells contained a single nucleus with chromosomes from both fusion partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of Ganoderma lucidum spores on HepG2 cells proliferation and growth cycle. (springer.com)
  • Improved understanding of spinal biomechanics, proliferation of sophisticated spinal instrumentation devices, advances in bone fusion techniques, refinement of anterior approaches to the spine, and development of microsurgical and minimally invasive methods have made it possible to stabilize every segment of the spine successfully, regardless of the offending pathology. (medscape.com)
  • Notably, serum IL-17A-dependent fusion activity correlates with LCH activity. (dtu.dk)
  • Notably, LCH cells have been found to express markers of both resting epidermal Langerhans cells (CD1a, intracellular major histocompatibility complex II [MHCII], Birbeck granules) and activated Langerhans cells (including CD54 and CD58). (medscape.com)
  • This review focuses on the mechanisms by which vesicle-free miRNAs are secreted from neuroendocrine cells and will discuss potential functions of vesicle-free miRNAs and how vesicle-free miRNAs regulate cell-to-cell communication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Electron microscopy of kidneys of five rats at 48 hour after nickel -chloride (68 micromoles per kilogram) consistently revealed fusion of foot processes of glomerular epithelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Electrical cell fusion is an essential step in some of the most innovative methods in modern biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed this fusion oncoprotein is such a potent rhabdomyosarcoma driver, it can overwrite a cell's identity," said co-author Brian Abraham, Ph.D., St. Jude Department of Computational Biology, whose lab performed much of the bioinformatics analysis in collaboration with the St. Jude Center for Applied Bioinformatics. (medboundtimes.com)
  • Chen, EH 2008, ' Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods - Preface ', Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) , vol. 475. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Cell fusion is a necessary event in the maturation of cells so that they maintain their specific functions throughout growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the pathologic cells of LCH have been hypothesized to represent Langerhans cells in a state of arrested maturation. (medscape.com)
  • Green: fluorescent marker of cell fusion. (pasteur.fr)
  • Red: fluorescent marker of cell death. (pasteur.fr)
  • There are two different types of cell fusion that can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral fusion can also occur when the cell is infected and produces new viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • These conformational changes are activated by specific triggers, allowing fusion to occur at the right time and at the right place in the viral life cycle. (rupress.org)
  • In current practice, bone grafting and instrumentation are often used concurrently based on the expectation that internal fixation of spine enhances the success of bone fusion while a successful bone fusion eliminates the possibility of hardware failure by reducing the chronic biomechanical stresses on the hardware construct. (medscape.com)
  • DNA methylation and copy number variation profiling of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia-derived exosomes deliver miR-24-3p to hinder the T-cell immune response through DENN/MADD targeting in the NF-κB signaling pathways. (ac.be)
  • It harms your immune system by destroying CD4 cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our findings reveal that fusion renders non-responsive cells susceptible to inflammatory signaling, as evidenced by increased NF-κB activation and the release of inflammatory mediators. (lu.se)
  • However, it soon became apparent that the application of spinal instrumentation (without fusion) for treatment of spinal instability often ended in breakage or loosening of the hardware (hardware failure). (medscape.com)
  • EVs in complex with their agonist, require no further stimulation of the target cells to trigger mobilization of NF-κB. (lu.se)
  • Woloschak, GE & Senitzer, D 1983, ' Effect of mitogenic stimulation of murine splenocytes on PEG-induced cell fusion ', Hybridoma , vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 341-349. (northwestern.edu)
  • It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four methods that cell biologists and biophysicists use to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All that remains separate is the nuclei, which will fuse at a later time within the cell, making the result a heterokaryon cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using real-time video microscopy, they showed that infected cells in culture can fuse with neighboring cells and die after forming giant cells known as "syncytia," composed of dozens of other cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using real-time video microscopy, the scientists demonstrated that infected cells fuse with neighboring cells to form syncytia, or giant cells containing dozens of virus-producing cells, which eventually die. (pasteur.fr)
  • He is the architect behind Fusion Cell's critical relationships with partners in the Department of Defense. (fusioncell.com)
  • A prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter study designed to show the "noninferiority" of cervical total disk replacement (TDR) revealed that this technology was at least equivalent to anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion with regard to outcome at 24 months. (medscape.com)
  • In the late 1990s, sex-mismatched transplants and experiments with rodents revealed apparent transgressions of embryonic cell fates. (the-scientist.com)
  • We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 entry required the small GTPase Rac1 and its effector kinase p21-activated kinase 1 by dominant-negative and RNAi assays in human embryonic kidney 293T- angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cells and that the serine protease transmembrane serine protease 2 reversed the decrease in SARS-CoV-2 entry caused by the macropinocytosis inhibitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using the mutational analysis of recombinant subviral particles of tick-borne encephalitis virus, we provide direct experimental evidence that the initiation of fusion is crucially dependent on the protonation of one of the conserved histidines (His323) at the interface between domains I and III of E, leading to the dissolution of domain interactions and to the exposure of the fusion peptide. (rupress.org)
  • Also, standard PEG cell fusion is poorly reproducible and different types of cells have various fusion susceptibilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chen, Elizabeth H. / Cell Fusion : Overviews and Methods - Preface . (johnshopkins.edu)
  • First, rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to better assess the efficacy of existing methods of fusion. (medscape.com)
  • In 1911, Russell Hibbs and Fred Albee independently developed the concepts and methods for bony fusion of the spine to address the symptoms of Pott disease. (medscape.com)
  • The objective of this review is to discuss how miRNAs are released by active exocytosis and to examine the physiological functions of vesicle-free miRNAs in neuroendocrine cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this setting, clinical practice is guided by an understanding of the principles of spinal biomechanics (see Pathophysiology ) and knowledge of the generally accepted indications, contraindications, and controversies regarding fusion surgery (see Treatment ). (medscape.com)