Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human: A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.HN Protein: Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rubulavirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Membrane Fusion Proteins: Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Rubulavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

(CTG)n repeats markedly inhibit differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell line: implications for congenital myotonic dystrophy. (1/2641)

Although the mutation for myotonic dystrophy has been identified as a (CTG)n repeat expansion located in the 3'-untranslated region of a gene located on chromosome 19, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis is not understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of (CTG)n repeats on the differentiation of myoblasts in cell culture. We report here that C2C12 myoblast cell lines permanently transfected with plasmid expressing 500 bases long CTG repeat sequences, exhibited a drastic reduction in their ability to fuse and differentiate into myotubes. The percentage of cells fused into myotubes in C2 C12 cells (53.4+/-4.4%) was strikingly different from those in the two CTG repeat carrying clones (1.8+/-0.4% and 3.3+/-0. 7%). Control C2C12 cells permanently transfected with vector alone did not show such an effect. This finding may have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail tip. (2/2641)

Using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of adherens junctions, we have reconstructed the changes in cell architecture and intercellular associations that occur during morphogenesis of the nematode male tail tip. During late postembryonic development, the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is reshaped to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome. Developmental profiles using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining suggest that cell fusions are initiated at or adjacent to adherens junctions. Anterior portions of the tail tip cells show the first evidence of retractions and fusions, consistent with our hypothesis that an anterior event triggers these morphogenetic events. Available mutations that interfere with morphogenesis implicate particular regulatory pathways and suggest loci at which evolutionary changes could have produced morphological diversity.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (3/2641)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967) inhibits several Ca2+ and K+ currents in human fusion-competent myoblasts. (4/2641)

1. The effect of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), an inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(T)), on myoblast fusion and on several voltage-gated currents expressed by fusion-competent myoblasts was examined. 2. At a concentration of 5 microM, mibefradil decreases myoblast fusion by 57%. At this concentration, the peak amplitudes of I(Ca)(T) and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(L)) measured in fusion-competent myoblasts are reduced by 95 and 80%, respectively. The IC50 of mibefradil for I(Ca)(T) and I(Ca)(L) are 0.7 and 2 microM, respectively. 3. At low concentrations, mibefradil increased the amplitude of I(Ca)(L) with respect to control. 4. Mibefradil blocked three voltage-gated K+ currents expressed by human fusion-competent myoblasts: a delayed rectifier K+ current, an ether-a-go-go K+ current, and an inward rectifier K+ current, with a respective IC50 of 0.3, 0.7 and 5.6 microM. 5. It is concluded that mibefradil can interfere with myoblast fusion, a mechanism fundamental to muscle growth and repair, and that the interpretation of the effect of mibefradil in a given system should take into account the action of this drug on ionic currents other than Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (5/2641)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP.  (+info)

Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/2641)

We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle checkpoints present in vegetative mitosis.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (7/2641)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

Rapid visualization of metaphase chromosomes in single human blastomeres after fusion with in-vitro matured bovine eggs. (8/2641)

The present study was aimed to facilitate karyotyping of human blastomeres using the metaphase-inducing factors present in unfertilized eggs. A rapid technique for karyotyping would have wide application in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. When cryopreserved in-vitro matured bovine oocytes were fused with human blastomeres, the transferred human nuclei were forced into metaphase within a few hours. Eighty-seven human blastomeres from abnormal or arrested embryos were fused with bovine oocytes in a preclinical study. Fusion efficiency was 100%. In 21 of the hybrid cells, no trace of human chromatin was found. Of the remaining 66, 64 (97%) yielded chromosomes suitable for analysis. The method was used to karyotype embryos from two patients with maternal translocations. One embryo which was judged to be karyotypically normal was replaced in the first patient, resulting in one pregnancy with a normal fetus. None of the second patient's embryos was diagnosed as normal, and hence none was transferred. The results of the present study demonstrated that the ooplasmic factors which induce and maintain metaphase in bovine oocytes can force transferred human blastomere nuclei into premature metaphase, providing the basis for a rapid method of karyotyping blastomeres from preimplantation embryos and, by implication, cells from other sources.  (+info)

The membrane fusion and cell swelling stages of Sendai virus-mediated cell-cell fusion have been studied by thin-section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Sites of membrane fusion have been detected in human erythrocytes arrested at the membrane fusion stage of cell fusion and in virtually all cases a fused viral envelope or envelope components has been identified thus providing further direct evidence that cell-viral envelope-cell bridge formation is the membrane fusion event in Sendai virus-induced cell fusion. Radial expansion of a single virus bridge connecting 2 cells is sufficient to produce a fused cell. Membrane redistribution which occurs during this cell swelling stage of the fusion process is often accompanied by the formation of a system of membrane tubules in the plane of expansion of the virus bridge. The tubules originate from points of fusion between the bridging virus envelope and the erythrocyte membrane and also expand radially as cells swell. Ultimately membrane ...
Moreover, within the body fusion of myoblasts and formation of multinucleate fibers may be exemplified. They can also be allowed to fuse in vitro and form heterokaryons. Macrophages fuse around the foreign body or bacterial cells in the tissues. Bone cells are also known to undergo somatic cell fusion. Cells growing in culture are induced by some of the viruses such as Sendai virus to fuse and form hybrids. This virus induces two different cells first to form heterokaryon (Fig. 6.7). During mitosis chromosome of heterokaryons are brought towards two poles which later on fuse to form hybrids. Removal of surface carbohydrates is necessary before establishment of cell fusion. Some chemicals such as polyethylene glycol also induce somatic cell fusion. It is interesting to note that the cells of taxonomically different animals can fuse and form hybrids. This suggests that there is no compatibility between membranes, nuclei, organelles of two different groups of animal cells (Sidebottom and ...
You are shown the results of a cell fusion experiment in which the plasma membrane of the fused cell looks like it is evenly divided between the two donor cell membranes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation ...
Tissue regeneration after injury poses a major challenge that requires the fine balance between stimulation and dysregulation of cell proliferation in order to facilitate homeostatic repair. We have shown that fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells occurs in response to intestinal epithelial injury as a potential regenerative mechanism. We suggest that fusion also occurs in tumorigenesis based upon the observation of shared microenvironments between injury and tumor models. However, the cellular and environmental requirements for intestinal cell fusion remain unknown. Importantly, the physiologic impact of cell fusion on epithelial homeostasis and tumorigenesis has not been defined. Therefore, to investigate the physiologic relevance of this process in repair and disease, the work in this thesis will test the hypothesis that cell fusion hybrids represent a unique cellular population, retaining characteristics of both parental fusogenic populations. To
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modified hybridoma methodology. T2 - Antigen-directed chemically mediated cell fusion. AU - Kranz, David M. AU - Herron, James N.. AU - Billing, Patricia A.. AU - Voss, Edward W.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions to increase the yield of hybridomas was investigated. To facilitate cell-cell contact, antigen conjugated cells were used in cell fusion studies. Specifically, fluorescyl conjugated murine myeloma cells (Sp 2/0-Ag14) incubated with murine immune (anti-fluorescyl) splenocytes formed aggregates containing fluorescent and non-fluorescent cells. Fusion of these populations with polyethylene glycol resulted in a greater number of anti-fluorescyl hybridomas relative to normal fusions under non-antigen directed condition. Ligand binding data indicated that despite the multicellular aggregates the hybridomas resulting from chemically mediated fusions produced only one monoclonal Ig.. AB - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions ...
Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium. Cell fusion occurs during differentiation of muscle, bone and trophoblast cells, during embryogenesis, and during morphogenesis. Cell fusion is a necessary event in the maturation of cells so that they maintain their specific functions throughout growth. In 1847 Theodore Schwann expanded upon the theory that all living organisms are composed of cells when he added to it that discrete cells are the basis of life. Schwann observed that in certain cells the walls and cavities of the cells coalesce together. It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. It was not until 1960 that cell biologists deliberately fused cells for the first time. To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory ...
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EFF-1 and AFF-1 can fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in C. elegans, in heterologous Sf9 insect cells and in BHK hamster cells. This is a proof of principle that will allow us to test potential fusogens involved in mammalian myoblast fusion [5,10,11]. While candidates for muscle fusogens exist in Drosophila and vertebrates [1,12,13] none of these candidates has been shown to be both essential and sufficient for the cell membrane fusion process. Instead, the many genes involved in muscle cell fusion may be acting in earlier stages in the process that include: cell cycle arrest, recognition, alignment and adhesion (Fig. 1). We use a molecular genetic approach to identify the mammalian myoblast fusogen using expression of candidate genes in BHK cells and complementation of a C. elegans eff-1 deletion mutant with cross species expression of mouse cDNAs expressed during muscle formation. The approach and rationale is novel, risky and with extremely high potential of making a very important ...
Carcinogenesis is a sophisticated biological process consisting of a series of progressive changes in somatic cells from premalignant to malignant phenotype. Despite the vast information available about cancer cells, the origin of cancer and cause of metastasis still remain enigmatic. The hypothesis of cell fusion is one of several models explaining the evolution of neoplasia into clinically significant cancer. This theory states that cancer cells through heterotypic fusion with host cells generate hybrids expressing traits from both parental cells, and acquire metastatic potentials and growth-promoting properties. The cell fusion theory is still unproven and speculative, but cell fusion is a common biological process in normal tissue. Accumulated evidence shows that macrophage-cancer cell fusion occurs in vitro and in vivo and produces hybrids with metastatic potential, but the clinical significant of cell fusion is unclear. The aim of this thesis is to test this hypothesis in clinical patient ...
Introduction] Recent reports demonstrating the ability of bone marrow (BM) cells to regenerate cardiomyocytes (CMs) have prompted clinical as well as basic studies for the treatment of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo, to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs.. [Method and Result] BM cells of mice constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was intravenously injected into irradiated syngeneic newborn C57BL/6 mouse within 48hours after the birth. At 4-5weeks after transplantation, the cardiac tissue of recipients was analyzed for the number of GFP+ CMs per 40 sections. We first separated Linaege antigen− BM cells to CD45+ cells (Lin−CD45+) and CD45− cells ...
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Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown, despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of obvious viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. EFF-1 and AFF-1 comprise the FF family and together they are necessary for virtually all somatic cell fusions in C. elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. ^ Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Yet, FF proteins are sufficient to fuse heterologous invertebrate cell types, suggesting that they function autonomously in foreign molecular and proteomic environments. The work presented here examines whether a predicted 14-3-3
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Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We used the in vivo ER fusion assay to determine whether the rate of fusion decreases in ufe1-1 cells. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at permissive temperature (23°C), ER fusion occurred ∼5 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), similar to what was found for wild-type cells (Fig. 2 e). It was not possible to perform this assay with cells shifted to a nonpermissive temperature (37°C) immediately before mating because yeast will not mate at this temperature (Grote, 2010). Instead, we shifted cells to 32°C just before mating. At this temperature, ufe1-1 strains were viable but grew much more slowly than wild-type cells (unpublished data), suggesting that Ufe1p function is substantially reduced at this temperature. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at 32°C, ER fusion occurred a mean of ∼10 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), indicating that these cells have a modest fusion defect. At this temperature, cells missing only Sey1p fused their ER ∼16 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), somewhat faster than at ...
The role of prostanoids in the regulation of chick myoblast differentiation has been investigated. At 3 X 10(-6) M, indomethacin and chloroquine specifically inhibit cell fusion. They do not affect cell proliferation, alignment, or the expression of two muscle-specific proteins, namely, the acetylcholine receptor and the muscle-specific form of creatine phosphokinase. The results demonstrate that it is indomethacins activity as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis at the cyclooxygenase step that causes the block of cell fusion, whereas chloroquine probably acts at the earlier step of phospholipase A. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), but not prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), rapidly reverses the inhibition of fusion imposed by indomethacin or chloroquine. The dose response of the myoblasts to PGE1 is a bell-shaped curve with a 100% reversal of fusion at approximately 10(-9) M. Eicosatrienoate and linoleate reverse the inhibition of fusion with similar kinetics, whereas arachidonate is completely ineffective. ...
A viral fusogen drives cell-cell fusion by hijacking the actin machinery to directly couple actin assembly with a short fusogenic ectodomain.
Macrophage traits in cancer cells are induced by macrophage-cancer cell fusion and cannot be explained by cellular interaction. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. "Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight," said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. "Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.". Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. "Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight," said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. "Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.". Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Phenotypic analysis of DCs/allo-HCC fusion cells created in the presence of HCCsp. A, Four types of DC were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of the ind
Its not easy to make one plus one equal one. But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells -- a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies.
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and in combination they were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which in turn promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelledinvasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.. ...
Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. With this chapter we describe standard chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during myoblast fusion. Furthermore we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative Omecamtiv mecarbil to the fusion apparatus. is definitely functionally equivalent to vertebrate skeletal muscle mass yet the take flight musculature is much simpler and requires only a short time to develop (1). These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate ...
Skeletal muscle formation depends on the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Myoblast fusion is also the basis of muscle growth and repair during postnatal life. The ability of myoblasts to fuse and thereby inject their nucleus into existing muscle fibers led to several preclinical and clinical trials aimed at treating both muscle and non-muscle-related disorders. Identifying the pattern of events that induce myoblast differentiation and their commitment to fuse would benefit the search for improving myoblast-based therapies.. Using primary myoblast cultures derived from single human satellite cells (Baroffio et al., 1993), we have previously shown that membrane potential and the biophysical properties of specific ionic channels are important actors in the fusion process. We found that human myoblasts hyperpolarize before fusion through the sequential expression of two different K+ channels, ether-à-go-go (EAG) K+ channels (Bijlenga et al., 1998; Occhiodoro et al., ...
We are pursuing three projects that extend from our interests in the development of tissues and the innovative application of light microscopy to biology: Developmental cell fusion, Second-harmonic generation microscopy, and Genome-wide imaging of C. elegans development. Developmental Cell Fusion Formation of multinucleate syncytia (giant cells) is essential to the development and regeneration of human skeletal muscle, and is key to fertilization and the formation of various specialized cell types in many species. Yet the mechanism by which fusing cells recognize each other and merge their membranes is poorly understood. We use genetics and microscopy in the nematode worm C. elegans to study the mechanisms by which cells fuse during this animals development. Our recent studies of the unique cell-fusion protein EFF-1 indicate that the molecular machinery of cell fusion has been re-invented during evolution of different cell types and divergent organisms. We are also investigating the mechanism ...
The Chen lab studies mechanisms underlying cell-cell fusion, a fundamental cellular process in the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. We approach this question using a multifaceted approach including genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, live imaging, super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy. Starting with a forward genetic screen in Drosophila, we have identified multiple evolutionarily conserved core components of the myoblast fusion signaling cascade, and, more importantly, discovered a novel cellular mechanism underlying myoblast fusion. We show that myoblast fusion is an asymmetric process in which one cell invades its fusion partner using actin-propelled membrane protrusions to promote fusion pore formation. Building on insights we learned from myoblast fusion in vivo, we have reconstituted high-efficiency cell-cell fusion in an otherwise non-fusogenic, non-muscle cell line and uncovered a previously unrecognized function for the ...
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Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. Could anybody provide this, or give a source for it ? Please reply to the eMail address indicated below (I will post it afterwards to the discussion group) -- ********************************************* * Silvio Hemmi, PhD * Molecular Biology I * University of Zuerich * ETH-Hoenggerberg, HPM D5 * CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland * Tel +41/1/633 24 93 * eMail hemmi at molbiol.unizh.ch ...
The possibility that isomerization controls the fusion activity was tested by analysing Mo‐MLV fusion and infectivity under conditions that either inhibited or induced isomerization. The fusion was studied as virus‐induced polykaryon formation in XC cells (fusion‐from‐without). Fusion of cell‐bound virus is induced by incubation at 37°C and terminated by pH 3.0 treatment. In confluent cultures (Figure 6A), the fusion will merge cells, and with time these will rearrange into polykaryons (Figure 6B). Preliminary testing demonstrated that TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ supported fusion as effectively as DMEM (data not shown). Therefore, TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ was used as the control condition. The time course of the fusion process is shown in Figure 6C.. We first studied the effect that alkylation‐mediated inhibition of isomerization had on fusion. To avoid adverse effects due to alkylation of internal viral proteins, we used the membrane‐impermeant reagents M135 and MTSET. We observed a ...
Examination under anesthesia to determine the degree of fixed contractures, physical therapy and continuous use of a passive motion machine, protected weight bearing, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications have been reported methods of nonoperative management. (Segaren, 2014) Aggressive surgical release (Roy 1988) and hinged hip distraction (Thacker 2005) may be needed in recalcitrant cases. The clinical course is variable. Some hips will progress to end stage arthritis or even spontaneous fusion, whereas others may completely heal. (Bleck 1983 ...
PRR determinants controlling cell-to-cell and virus-to-cell fusion thresholds.As inferred from the results of syncytium assays, MLV-4070A glycoproteins harboring mutations in the PRR, such as PROMO, PROFR, A2, and A3, appeared more readily fusogenic in cell-to-cell fusion assays and thus seemed more reactive than wild-type amphotropic envelopes. They may thus require fewer PiT-2 amphotropic receptors to trigger their cell-to-cell fusogenicity. To test the relationship between increased fusogenicity and requirements for PiT-2 receptor molecules, we compared cell-to-cell fusion to either XC or XC-A-ST cells. In the latter, constitutive expression of an interfering amphotropic BD reduced the number of available functional PiT-2 receptors as demonstrated by the reduced capacities of either PROMO or MLV-4070A envelope glycoproteins to bind XC-A-ST cells compared to that of parental XC cells (see Fig. 5A). As expected, this resulted in an inhibition of fusion of XC-A-ST cells through cell-to-cell ...
Virus-cell and cell-cell fusion.: Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins; both those that function a
The classical method of producing diagnostic and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is to fuse Ab-producing B-cells with cancerous mouse cells (hybridoma technology). The product of this cellular fusion serves as a source for the production of mAbs in vitro or in vivo. In either case large numbers of animals (i.e. syngeneic mice for in vivo production) or large amounts of animal products (fetal calf serum for in vitro production) are required. In addition, the syngeneic mice are, depending on the treatment and the type of adjuvants applied, often exposed to high physical stress. In addition, if these mAb would be used in humans they would have to be engineered to contain only human DNA-sequences in their framework (humanization). We would like to replace these cumbersome and - in terms of animals sacrificed or fetal calf serum consumed - very intense procedures by a technology which starts directly with the immunological profile of human antigen-specific B-cells to produce pure human ...
Larionova N., Samosudova N., N.Reutov, The possible of L-glutamate and nitric oxide in frog cerebellum cellular fusion and neuronal net functional control // 2-nd International Conference on Glia 1, Interfaces in the Nervous Systems: Development and Repair, Uppsala, Sweden. 2001. p.25 ...
An analysis of the R18 fusion assay was made during the fusion of the Sendai virus with erythrocyte ghosts. The increase in R18 fluorescence, reflecting the interaction process, was evaluated in terms of the different processes that in principle may contribute to this increase, that is, monomeric probe transfer, hemifusion, and complete fusion. To this end, the kinetics of the R18-labeled lipid mixing were compared to those obtained with an assay in which the fusion-monitoring probe, eosin-maleimide, was attached to the viral surface proteins. The experiments relied on the use of native and fusion-inactive viruses and studies involving viral and target membranes that were modified by the incorporation of the lysophospholipid. The total dequenching signal detected in the R18 assay consists of components from probe transferred without fusion and from fusion itself. At 37 degrees C, the initial rate of dequenching (within two minutes) was predominately from the probe diluted by fusion with little
In this paper, a myoblast fusion defect was attributed to mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin gene. We now show that the fusion defect instead apparently arises from the TM3 balancer chromosome. Experiments subsequent to publication using a TM3-containing line that lacked a paramyosin mutation suggested that we had mis-identified balancer chromosome-containing individuals before the late embryonic stage as paramyosin mutant homozygotes (prm1/prm1). By using a lacZ-expressing version of TM3, staining experiments unambiguously identified young prm1 homozygotes and showed them all to lack the fusion defect, implying that the fusion defect is due to the presence of the TM3 chromosome. We have not tested whether this is a homozygous or heterozygous effect of TM3. The apparent rescue of the fusion defect by the wild-type paramyosin transgene is presumably due to the absence of the TM3 chromosome, instead of the presence of the paramyosin transgene. We conclude that embryos identified as ...
Cell fusion is known to underlie key developmental processes in humans and is postulated to contribute to tissue maintenance and even carcinogenesis. The mechanistic details of cell fusion, especially between different cell types, have been difficult
In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed‐color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days
The large regions of DNA that can be cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are ideal for expression studies of the complex genes and gene clusters found in the mammalian genome. Such studies...
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hardware after fusion - MedHelps hardware after fusion Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hardware after fusion. Find hardware after fusion information, treatments for hardware after fusion and hardware after fusion symptoms.
Two haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell which has all genetic info for forming new organism, must have same set of genetic info if organism is to resemble parents, mitosis ensures cell divides to give identical group of cells ...
Jamb and Jamc are an essential cell surface receptor pair that interact to drive fusion between muscle precursor cells during zebrafish development.
Aguilar, P.S., Baylies, M.K., Fleissner, A., Helming, L., Inoue, N., Podbilewicz, B., Wang, H., and Wong, M. (2013). Genetic basis of cell-cell fusion mechanisms. Trends in genetics : TIG 29, 427-437 ...
Plays a role in myoblast fusion; probable mediator of endocytic recycling for membrane trafficking events during myotube formation.
p120 colocalizes with Arm in other tissues. (A-D) Stage 15. p120 (red); Arm (green). Arm is enriched in fusion cells (red arrows). (E) p120-GFP. (F and G) Sta
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Multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), formed from macrophage fusion, occur as a consequence of a number of pathological conditions in the body. MGC formation can be particularly destructive to synthetic implants, as it etches their surface, and could lead to implant failure. Despite significant research into macrophage fusion, there are many underlying molecular events that are still unknown, and there are currently no systems that allow in vitro visualization of this process in living specimens. This is because there are no surfaces that promote macrophage fusion while maintaining the necessary optical properties for advanced imaging. Studies to determine the mechanisms modulating the formation and function of MGCs are needed, not only to identify ways to curb its destructive nature but also to better understand giant cell biology.. Researchers at Arizona State University and their collaborators developed a novel surface coating that promotes high rates of macrophage fusion and formation of ...
Because stem cells are often found to improve repair tissue including heart without evidence of engraftment or differentiation, mechanisms underlying wound healing are still elusive. Several studies have reported that stem cells can fuse with cardiomyocytes either by permanent or partial cell fusion processes. However, the respective physiological impact of these two processes remains unknown in part because of the lack of knowledge of the resulting hybrid cells. To further characterize cell fusion, we cocultured mouse fully differentiated cardiomyocytes with human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells as a model of adult stem cells. We found that heterologous cell fusion promoted cardiomyocyte reprogramming back to a progenitor-like state. The resulting hybrid cells expressed early cardiac commitment and proliferation markers such as GATA-4, myocyte enhancer factor 2C, Nkx2.5, and Ki67 and exhibited a mouse genotype. Interestingly, human bone marrow-derived stem cells shared similar
TY - JOUR. T1 - An actin-based protrusion originating from a podosome-enriched region initiates macrophage fusion. AU - Faust, James J.. AU - Balabiyev, Arnat. AU - Heddleston, John M.. AU - Podolnikova, Nataly P.. AU - Baluch, D. Page. AU - Chew, Teng Leong. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana P.. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Macrophage fusion resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells occurs in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, yet the mechanism responsible for initiating this process is unknown. Here, we used live cell imaging to show that actin-based protrusions at the leading edge initiate macrophage fusion. Phase-contrast video microscopy demonstrated that in the majority of events, short protrusions (∼3 µm) between two closely apposed cells initiated fusion, but occasionally we observed long protrusions (∼12 µm). Using macrophages isolated from LifeAct mice and imaging with lattice light sheet microscopy, we further found that fusion-competent protrusions formed at ...
As for most cell-cell fusion events, the molecular details of membrane fusion during yeast mating are poorly understood. The multipass membrane protein Prm1 is the only known component that acts at the step of bilayer fusion. In its absence, mutant mating pairs lyse or arrest in the mating reaction with tightly apposed plasma membranes. We show that deletion of FIG 1, which controls pheromone-induced Ca(2+) influx, yields similar cell fusion defects. Although extracellular Ca(2+) is not required for efficient cell fusion of wild-type cells, cell fusion in prm1 mutant mating pairs is dramatically reduced when Ca(2+) is removed. This enhanced fusion defect is due to lysis. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that fusion and lysis events initiate with identical kinetics, suggesting that both outcomes result from engagement of the fusion machinery. The yeast synaptotagmin orthologue and Ca(2+) binding protein Tcb3 has a role in reducing lysis of prm1 mutants, which opens the possibility that the observed ...
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium. Tetraspanins, small scaffolding proteins that are enriched in HIV-1 virions and actively recruited to viral assembly sites, have been found to negatively regulate HIV-1 Env-induced cell-cell fusion. How these transmembrane proteins inhibit membrane fusion, however, is currently not known. As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g., CD9 and CD63, we sought to identify the stage of the fusion process during which they operate. Using a chemical epistasis approach, four fusion inhibitors were employed in tandem with CD9 overexpression. Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors
Common themes are emerging from the study of viral, cell-cell, intracellular, and liposome fusion. Viral and cellular membrane fusion events are mediated by fusion proteins or fusion machines. Viral fusion proteins share important characteristics, notably a fusion peptide within a transmembrane-anchored polypeptide chain. At least one protein involved in a cell-cell fusion reaction resembles viral fusion proteins. Components of intracellular fusion machines are utilized in multiple membrane trafficking events and are conserved through evolution. Fusion pores develop during and intracellular fusion events suggesting similar mechanisms for many, if not all, fusion events. ...
The present study demonstrates that Ito1 introduced into freshly isolated guinea pig myocytes by cell fusion substantially changes the early repolarization phase and abbreviates action potential duration. The role of Ito1 in the action potential has been previously assessed indirectly by comparison of Ito1 densities and action potentials throughout the layers of the myocardial wall (ie, humans,24 25 dogs,29 30 31 cats,32 rats,33 and rabbits34 ) or in disease states such as hypertrophy and heart failure.1 2 3 To further elucidate the role of Ito1, Ito1 has been blocked pharmacologically, knocked out by dominant-negative constructs, or artificially introduced into heart failure cells with brief repolarizing current pulses.2 6 33 35 However, K+ channel blockers such as 4-aminopyridine also exhibit nonspecific effects,33 current pulses may lack physiological current kinetics, and previous knockout studies were limited by changes of gene expression during cell culture6 or adaptive upregulation of ...
Myoblast implantation is a unique, patented technology of muscle regeneration being tested in Phase III clinical trials of muscular dystrophy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, Phase II trial of cancer, and Phase I trial of Type II diabetes. Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. Implanted myoblasts fuse spontaneously among themselves, replenishing genetically normal myofibers. They also fuse with genetically abnormal myofibers of muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, or Type II diabetes, transferring their nuclei containing the normal human genome to provide stable, long-term expression of the missing gene products. They develop to become cardiomyocytes in the infracted myocardium. Myoblasts transduced with VEGF165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. They are potent biologics for treating heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic ischemia, erectile dysfunction, and baldness. Myoblasts, because of their small size, spindle shape, and
They are increasing significantly," said Todd Leutheuser, executive director of the Southland Motor Car Dealers Association. "The incentives are strong enough that Chevy Volts are moving extraordinarily well and the Toyota Prius is off the charts - it could almost be its own brand.". Theres no denying the efficiency of hybrids. A recent issue of US News & World Report ranked the 2013 Ford Fusion hybrid No. 1 out of a list of affordable, mid-sized hybrid vehicles.. With an average price ranging from $26,851 to $31,526, the Ford Fusion hybrid was touted for its "excellent fuel economy, strong performance and great reliability." The car is powered by a four-cylinder engine and electric motor that together produce 188 horsepower.. At 47 miles per gallon in both the city and highway, the 2013 Fusion Hybrid has one of the best fuel ratings in its class.. The Fusion was followed in the rankings by the 2013 Hyundai Sonata hybrid, the 2013 Toyota Camry hybrid and the 2013 Toyota Prius V hybrid.. Others ...
This work demonstrates that virion-associated HLA-C molecules, when present on cells expressing gp120/gp41, significantly enhance fusion efficiency and pseudovirus transduction. Our conclusions are supported by the following findings: a) CHO cells co-expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 and human HLA-C fuse more rapidly and produce larger syncytia than the original CHO-gp120/gp41 cells from which they are derived; b) transient transfection of gp120/gp41 from different primary isolates in CHO cells co-expressing HLA-C results in a significant increase in fusion; c) silencing of HLA-C in human cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 of R5 and X4 tropic strains, significantly suppresses fusion, d) pseudoviruses produced in HLA-C silenced 293T cells display a significant reduction of infectivity; e) the fusion enhancement property of HLA-C is specific for HIV-1 Env, since a virus pseudotyped with the G envelope protein of VSV is not influenced by the presence of HLA-C.. The effect of HLA-C on fusion was ...
Introduction to Virus Structure Tutorial Jonathan King, Peter Weigele, Greg Pintilie, David Gossard (MIT) v.November, 2008 Virus Structure • Size вЂ" • Basic shape вЂ" вЂ" • 17 nm вЂ" 3000 nm diameter Rod-like “Spherical” Protective Shell - Capsid вЂ" Made of many identical protein subunits вЂ" Symmetrically organized вЂ" 50% of weight вЂ" Enveloped or non-enveloped • Genomic material вЂ" DNA or RNA вЂ" Single- or double-stranded Virus Structure • Virus capsids function in: вЂ" Packaging and protecting nucleic acid вЂ" Host cell recognition • Protein on coat or envelope “feels” or “recognizes” host cell receptors вЂ" Genomic material delivery • Enveloped: cell fusion event • Non-enveloped: more complex strategies & specialized structures Electron Microscopy Mitra, K. & Frank, J., 2006. Ribosome dynamics: insights from atomic structure modeling into cryo-electron microscopy maps. Annual review of ...
Author: Ngatchou, A. N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010-10-26; Title: Role of the synaptobrevin C terminus in fusion pore formation.
Cell Structure and Processes, Unit Membrane Chloroplast, Mitochondria, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cell Membrane, Nucleus
days in Clicks medium with 0.5% NMS and then placed in IL-2 for 3 days to expand. T cell clones and lines can be successfully fused following an analogous schedule, in this case the clone or line is set up in a standard re-stimulation flask with 5.0 X 105 T cells, 2.0 X 107 irradiated NOD spleen cells in 20 ml DMEM/10% FBS with 50U/ml IL-2. The cultures are incubated for four days at which point they are subjected to Lympholyte M separation and culture for 3 days in 50 U/ml IL-2, the cells are then counted and washed as below.. Hybrid cells are selected by culturing the fused cells in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT). The aminopterin component of HAT inhibits a key enzyme in purine and ...
The current results are consistent with previous observations made in our laboratory3,19,20 in which an enriched population of c-kit-positive BMCs regenerated the infarcted myocardium. Similarly, BMCs and endothelial progenitor cells improve cardiac function in humans.4,6-12 So far, only one negative study has been reported.5 Moreover, a variety of bone marrow-derived cells capable of differentiating into the cardiac myogenic lineage have been described.3,10,17,18,20,29,30 It is therefore, difficult to reconcile our findings and the clinical and experimental studies with the claim made recently.13,14 The most likely possibility is a technical difference in the experimental protocol, identity of the therapeutic cell(s), tissue preparation, and immunocytochemical analysis of the myocardium.. The utilization of frozen tissue samples13,14 has severe limitations in terms of the quality of the sections, immunolabeling, and microscopic resolution. The infarct is rarely preserved in frozen sections. ...
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If there is any sort of financial, climatic and/or conflict-based interruptions to the industrial infrastructure, I have to wonder whether that will be a very sudden end to what we think of as a modern life, because it just doesnt seem possible to me to re-manufacture, e.g., an oil-rig without an initial input of energy to do it, and without the oil-rigs wed not be able to drill down 5 miles under the sea where the oil is these days. It was easy when humans started down this route of burning fossil fuels because the stuff was just laying there in pools on the surface! Imagine that over again, and we didnt have that to start with. How far would we have got if all the oil had been 5 miles under the seabed ...
Alternative splicing (the process during gene expression that generates multiple proteins from a single gene) plays an important role in many developmental processes. In muscle formation, it has been known that this process occurs in multiple genes when muscle cells called myoblasts fuse to become fibers called myotubes; however, not much is known about the…
Nuclear fusion is when the nuclei of a pair or more of atoms become fused together. The fusion of the atoms releases large amounts of energy. Nuclear fusion is what powers stars in space and has also been achieved within a human laboratory. While nuclear fusion could hypothetically be used as a source of terrestrial power, this has proven to be quite difficult. Surrounding each atom is a positively charged field known as the electrostatic force that tends to repel other atoms away before a pair of atoms can become close enough for their nuclei to fuse. It requires massive amounts of energy to overcome the repulsion of the electrostatic forces between neighboring atoms. Although the development of a nuclear fusion reactor has been a high priority for many governments around the world for many decades, nuclear fusion reactions being carried out in a laboratory have yet to result in a sustainable fusion chain reaction as it seems to require more energy to cause atoms to fuse than what is actually ...
A PSYOP fusion team would have similar attributes. It should have specialized and timely if not real time intelligence as well as specialized media intelligence that Ive described in previous postings. It should also have the latest in IO capabilities such as those for CNA and mobile phone PSYOP. The team should also include native speakers who can be employed in real time and that are deployable should it be necessary to execute PSYOP from forward locations ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to self‐renew, execute multiple lineage paths, and dominantly reprogram differentiated cells upon cell fusion
Penske Media Corp. and Wenner Media today announced PMCs strategic investment in Wenner Media, majority owner of Rolling Stone.
Those plucky upstarts in the Rolling Stones have announced a new round of touring and a reissue of their beloved 1971 LP Sticky Fingers. Here are a few facts you should know going into the mania for Mick & Co. on Tuesday morning. 1. There's no L.A. date yet. The last time the Stones dipped through...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
Readers of the National Book Award-winning, The Lives of a Cell, will remember that Thomas explication of evolutionary biology holds that scientific advancement requires an understanding of how biologic systems work and interact. Dr. Thomas grew up in the heyday of microbiology and immunology that spawned antibiotics and vaccines. He posits that molecular biology, through the technology of recombinant DNA and cell fusion, will unlock the age-old secrets of the cell; an underlying single mechanism for each of the chronic degenerative diseases will be discovered ...
The researchers netted a 50% reduction in energy loss with the nuclear fusion project, taking us one step closer to a future of unlimited clean energy.
Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have found a way to keep plasma in nuclear fusion reactors stable and prevent temperature and density levels from careening up and down.
Light & Fusion at Indian Food : These are wonderful & tasty dishes that make a great light meal. My fusion dishes are my creative culinary versions of cooking
How do I sign up my team to play intramurals? 1. Review the Intramural Sports Calendar 2. Register on Fusion IM using your LinkBlue account
Fusion Tables doesnt store images, but will display them when given a URL. Enter the URL of the image in a cell in Fusion Tables. The image must be viewable without having to sign in. During import,
A two-year-old record held by Europe for the most energy produced from fusion has fallen to American scientists. By the end of last week, researchers running the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton University in New Jersey had generated 6.2 megawatts of power for 4 seconds. Far from being bitter about losing their lead, …
News about fusion (nuclear reaction). Commentary and archival information about fusion (Nuclear Reaction) from The New York Times.
!%BTX%! has introduced its fusion microslides designed for observation of the dimer formation during electrofusion. Made of a glass slide with two str
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I had a spinal fusion from T10 - S1 in 2010, the first time both of my rods broke was 5 years later (2015) and my surgeon did a repair. Three weeks ago (January 2019) one of the rods broke again. My surgeon cant figure out why they keep breaking. He said a contributing factor may be that they got my spine "ridiculously straight" which would add more pressure to the rods. He wants me to wait 2 months for the inflammation to go down, do a ct scan and then go back to him so we can figure out whether he is going to do another repair or replace all the hardware. Has anyone had anything similar happen?. ...
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Shop Retinol Fusion PM Overnight Resurfacing Pads - 30 Count at the official Peter Thomas Roth store. Get free samples, free shipping and $10 cash back!
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I had a disc removed between c5-6 in Sept. 2001. I am still in alot of pain and having trouble moving my head from side to side looking up or down. My x-rays and MRI both show everything is healing, my...
The really bad thing is that it looks like the disc above my fusion is poking into the cord. There was very little space and at on point it seemed like there was no space. There was another disk below the fusion that looked questionable but not as bad as the one above it ...
Fusion Pro Rotation gir spesifikk trening av de skråe magemuskulaturene, i tillegg innvirker øvelsen positiv på mobiliteten til nedre del av ryggen. Apparatet sikrer komfortabel og ergonomisk sittestilling.. I ny design med brede rammer, fantastisk Biomekanikk, delvis separate bevegelige armer og skrueforbindelse i rustfritt stål.. DHZ er treningsutstyr av høy kvalitet til hyggelig pris. Utstyret produseres på moderne fabrikker, og med de nyeste produksjonsteknikkene på markedet. Kvaliteten av produksjonen overvåkes kontinuerlig gjennom en effektiv ISO 9001 kvalitetsmanagement. Fusion Pro er TÜV Austri godkjent. ...
Harrelson plays a middle-aged loner curmudgeon in a comedy based on a graphic novel by Daniel Clowes, the creator of Ghost World.
In vivo corneal replicas were made in 20 cases of patients with superficial dendritic ulcers of the cornea. Histopathological study of the replicas and superficial epithelial cells showed that the dendrites are composed of rounded epithelial cells and variable sized syncytia containing bizarre shaped nuclei. Pseudopodia-like processes containing DNA and some RNA extend from the syncytia into the surrounding epithelial cells, which on coming into contact with these processes become rounded and liquefied to give rise to another syncytium. The epithelial cells adjacent to the dendrite and elongated and usually orientated parallel to the long axis of the lesion. Surrounding the terminal bulbs, they are disposed in an arcuate fashion. These cells show C-mitotic lesions, intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and polykaryocyte formation. Microscopic examination of the corneal replicas shows the intranuclear lesions and rounding of cells up to about 2 mm away from the dendritic ulcers. These ...
An (indicative, not exhaustive) list of biotechnology techniques and applications is used as an interpretative guide and includes: • DNA (the coding): genomics, pharmaco-genetics, gene probes, DNA sequencing/synthesis/ amplification, genetic engineering. • Proteins and molecules (the functional blocks): protein/peptide sequencing/synthesis, lipid/protein glyco-engineering, proteomics, hormones and growth factors, cell receptors/signalling/pheromones. • Cell and tissue culture and engineering : cell/tissue culture, tissue engineering, hybridisation, cellular fusion, vaccine/immune stimulants, embryo manipulation. In contrast to the general trend, the share of defence research relative to GDP increased markedly in Spain and to a lesser extent in Sweden. The United Kingdom is the only country that experienced a significant drop. Characteristics of GBAORD GBAORD (government appropriations or outlays for R&D) measures the funds committed by the federal/ central government for R&D to be carried ...
The fusion cell in Faucheocolax attenuata Setch. is a highly lobed, thick-walled, multinucleate and irregularly shaped cell originating from the basal cell of the auxiliary cell branch. The formation of the fusion cell occurs by an incorporation of vegetative cells into the basal cell, after dissolution of septal plugs between these cell types. Thus the fusion cell is a syncytium containing only haploid nuclei, as well as unusual mitochondria and plastids. Mitochondria lack cristae and instead contain a tubular helical structure. Plastids are atypical with regard to thylakoid organization in red algae, because they lack the peripheral thylakoid and their photosynthetic thylakoids are aggregated to one side. In addition, they contain large osmiophilic bodies. Nuclear envelopes appear to produce large quantities of membrane cisternae. Floridean starch is absent and the cytoplasm contains few ribosomes. The plasma membrane is irregular and endoplasmic reticulum cisternae are situated parallel to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Core formation and the acquisition of fusion competence are linked during secretory granule maturation in Tetrahymena. AU - Bowman, Grant R.. AU - Elde, Nels C.. AU - Morgan, Garry. AU - Winey, Mark. AU - Turkewitz, Aaron P.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - The formation of dense core secretory granules is a multi-stage process beginning in the trans Golgi network and continuing during a period of granule maturation. Direct interactions between proteins in the membrane and those in the forming dense core may be important for sorting during this process, as well as for organizing membrane proteins in mature granules. We have isolated two mutants in dense core granule formation in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, an organism in which this pathway is genetically accessible. The mutants lie in two distinct genes but have similar phenotypes, marked by accumulation of a set of granule cargo markers in intracellular vesicles resembling immature secretory granules. Sorting to ...
Definition of foreign body giant cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is foreign body giant cell? Meaning of foreign body giant cell as a finance term. What does foreign body giant cell mean in finance?
Summary This study describes the biological properties of a strain of virus isolated from tissues of a goat with leukoencephalomyelitis-arthritis. The agent is a retrovirus, having a virion-associated reverse transcriptase enzyme and an antigenic determinant(s) which cross-reacts with the p30 of visna-maedi viruses. Morphogenesis of the virus is also similar to visna virus in terms of virus assembly and the multinucleated giant cell formation which accompanies replication of the latter virus. Despite its cytopathogenic property the goat agent was not lytic in goat cell culture, causing instead a productive infection which persisted through multiple subcultures of the cells. The virus replicated incompletely in sheep cell cultures but could be rescued from the latter, weeks after inoculation, by co-cultivation with goat cells. Our data suggest that this strain of goat leukoencephalitis virus is a variant of the ovine retroviruses with a host range limited to the goat.
DC-STAMP was identified from a screening of human monocyte cDNA libraries (17) as a putative seven-transmembrane-spanning receptor with no homology to any other known protein or multimembrane-spanning receptor. DC-STAMP is expressed both in immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), and its mRNA levels fall upon activation of DCs with CD40 ligand (CD40L). DC-STAMP is overexpressed in giant cell tumors together with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a protein required for the development of osteoclasts (18). In a recent study, Kukita et al. showed, using small interfering RNAs and specific antibodies, that DC-STAMP is essential for osteoclastogenesis in mice (2). They reported that overexpression of DC-STAMP enhanced osteoclastogenesis and induced the expression of a marker of osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In this issue, Yagi et al. (1) used gene targeting to demonstrate that DC-STAMP is also essential for the fusion of osteoclast precursor cells and macrophages. ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes progressive pneumonia or paralysis, leading to death. Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) all include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, it has been postulated that all members of the Lentivirus share a common mechanism of entry that involves the use of CXCR4. With the use of syncytia assays, infection-, inhibition- and enhancement studies, it was shown that CXCR4 is not a common lentivirus receptor. U87 and HOS cells, both celllines lacking CXCR4, were susceptible to infection. However, cells transfected with CD4 and CXCR4 showed an increased syncytia formation and the presence of CD¤ and CXCR4 augments virus-induced cell fusion. The nature of MVV receptor is still not known, but our data suggest the use of CD4 and/or CXCR4 as accessory molecules or as part of a ...
"Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (9): 831-9. doi:10.1038/ncb1164. PMID 15322554.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (4): 653-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.200110081. PMC 2174079. PMID 11839770.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (4): 653-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.200110081. PMC 2174079. PMID 11839770.. ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 10 (1): 119-34. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.1.119. PMC 25158. PMID 9880331.. ...
Harris, Henry (1970). Cell Fusion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-857344-8. Harris, Henry (1974). Nucleus and Cytoplasm. ... ISBN 0-19-951362-7. (The Romanes Lecture for 1993). Harris, Henry (1995). The Cells of the Body: A History of Somatic Cell ... Harris's research interests were primarily focused on cancer cells and their differences from normal cells. He later studied ... In 1960, he was appointed the head of the new department of cell biology at the John Innes Institute, and, in 1964, he ...
Dudas M, Li WY, Kim J, Yang A, Kaartinen V (2007). "Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a ... Dudas M, Li WY, Kim J, Yang A, Kaartinen V (2007). "Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a ... It is due to the failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes (formation of the primary palate). Unilateral ... It occurs due to the failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, or the median palatine processes ( ...
"Analplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non-small cell lung cancer". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Retrieved 30 ... "Anapestic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non-small cell lung cancer". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Retrieved 30 ... However, chromosomal translocation and fusion give rise to an oncogenic form of ALK that has been implicated in progression of ... "Roche announces FDA approval of companion diagnostic to identify ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients". diagnostics ...
Podbilewicz, B.; White, J. G. (1994). "Cell fusions in the developing epithelial of C. Elegans". Developmental Biology. 161 (2 ... He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. In more ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (5): 2123-2135. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.5.2123. PMC 2114830. PMID 3680373.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 121 (6): 1343-1355. doi:10.1083/jcb.121.6.1343. PMC 2119718. PMID 8509454.. ...
"Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e43355. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...743355M. ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere. As other non-human extant ... According to the observation of embryonic cells of egg, chromosome number of the itch mite is either 17 or 18. While the cause ...
In 1975, Georges Köhler and César Milstein succeeded in making fusions of myeloma cell lines with B cells to create hybridomas ... Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by cell culture that involves fusing myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells immunized ... similar to a cancer cell). This mixture of cells is then diluted and clones are grown from single parent cells on microtitre ... single cell amplification from various B cell populations and single plasma cell interrogation technologies. Different from ...
Moreau, K.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2011). "Autophagosome precursor maturation requires homotypic fusion". Cell. 146: 303-317. doi: ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.044. PMC 3791395 . PMID 24034251. Vicinanza, M.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2015). "PI(5)P regulates ... F1000 Prime Faculty Member Research Gate Publication analysis 2007-2013, Cell Biology "Centre for Science and Policy". ... Puri, C.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2013). "Diverse autophagosome membrane sources coalesce in recycling endosomes". Cell. 154: 1285- ...
... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81404-x. PMID 9529252. Zemelman, BV; ... began working in the laboratory of James Rothman on SNARE proteins and their influence on the intracellular membrane fusion. ...
"The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion." Cell, Vol. 116, 153-166, January 23, 2004, Synaptobrevin at the US National ... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81404-X. PMID 9529252. Juan S. ... Bock JB, Scheller RH (October 1999). "SNARE proteins mediate lipid bilayer fusion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): ... Fasshauer D, Sutton RB, Brunger AT, Jahn R (December 1998). "Conserved structural features of the synaptic fusion complex: ...
This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative ... 1999). "VAP-33 localizes to both an intracellular vesicle population and with occludin at the tight junction". J. Cell Sci. 112 ...
This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate ... This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the ... Saglio G, Cilloni D (2004). "Abl: the prototype of oncogenic fusion proteins". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (23): 2897-911. doi: ... The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in ...
Bonifacino, Juan S.; Glick, Benjamin S. (2004-01-23). "The mechanisms of vesicle budding and fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. ... Cell Dev. Biol. 18 (4): 424-34. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2007.06.007. PMID 17686639. Hughes H, Stephens DJ (February 2008). " ... 1PCX​; 1PD0​; Mossessova E, Bickford LC, Goldberg J (August 2003). "SNARE selectivity of the COPII coat". Cell. 114 (4): 483-95 ... Cell Biol. 129 (2): 129-51. doi:10.1007/s00418-007-0363-x. PMC 2228377 . PMID 18060556. ...
... a family of NSF attachment proteins involved in intracellular membrane fusion in animals and yeast". Cell. 61: 709-21. doi: ... to the site of membrane fusion, thereby forming the 20S fusion complex. Alpha- and gamma-SNAP are found in a wide range of ... Cell. 9 (6): 1549-63. doi:10.1091/mbc.9.6.1549. PMC 25382 . PMID 9614193. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, Vilim FS, Khatri L, ... Once the 2 classes of SNAREs bind to each other, they form a complex that recruits the general elements of the fusion apparatus ...
These lack cell walls; the syncytia are created by cell fusion. Some plasmodiophorids and haplosporidians are other ... In some cases, the resulting structure is a syncytium, created by fusion of cells. The term plasmodium, introduced by Leon ... A plasmodium is a living structure of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei, rather than being divided into individual cells each ... is created by many nuclear divisions without the process of cytokinesis which in other organisms pulls newly-divided cells ...
The heterokaryon stage is produced from the fusion of two haploid cells. This transient heterokaryon can produce further ... or artificially as formed by the experimental fusion of two genetically different cells, as e.g., in hybridoma technology. A ... or cell nuclei can fuse and produce a diploid cell, which can then undergo mitosis. The term heterokaryon was coined in 1965, ... Eukaryotic cell 2:1-8 Roper, M., C. Ellison, J. W. Taylor, and N. L. Glass. 2011. Nuclear and Genome Dynamics in Multinucleate ...
McClintock observed the breakage and fusion of chromosomes in irradiated maize cells. She was also able to show that, in some ... which initiates the pigment synthesis in cells.[51] The transposition of Ds in different cells is random, it may move in some ... This discovery was made because she observed cells from the microspore as opposed to the root tip.[18][21] By studying the ... "Breakage-Fusion-Bridge: The University of Missouri, 1936-1941", The Barbara McClintock Papers, Profiles in Science, National ...
1992). "A multisubunit particle implicated in membrane fusion". J. Cell Biol. 117 (3): 531-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.117.3.531. PMC ... Cell Biol. 143 (4): 957-71. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.4.957. PMC 2132958 . PMID 9817754. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, et al. ( ...
1992). "A multisubunit particle implicated in membrane fusion". J. Cell Biol. 117 (3): 531-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.117.3.531. PMC ... 1992). "Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment proteins (SNAPs) bind to a multi-SNAP receptor complex in Golgi ... 2000). "Preferential association of syntaxin 8 with the early endosome". J. Cell Sci. 113 (6): 997-1008. PMID 10683148. Chen D ... NAPG mediates platelet exocytosis and controls the membrane fusion events of this process. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
There are two lineages that cytotrophoblastic cells may differentiate through: fusion and invasive. The fusion lineage yields ... Multinucleated giant cells (small syncytia) are found in the placental bed and myometrium as a result of the fusion of ... Once these cells penetrate through the first few layers of cells of the decidua, they lose their ability to proliferate and ... The formation of all syncytiotrophoblast is from the fusion of two or more cytotrophoblasts via this fusion pathway. This ...
"HIV-Envelope-Dependent Cell-Cell Fusion: Quantitative Studies". The Scientific World JOURNAL. 9: 746-763. doi:10.1100/tsw. ... Cells that expressed no signs of cytopathy from SFV were T-cells of the Jurkat's and Hut-78 cell lines. The phylogenetic tree ... SFV can infect a wide range of cells, with in vitro experiments confirming that fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neural cells ... If enough proteins are at the surface with other CD4+ T cells nearby, the glycoproteins will attach and result in the fusion of ...
"Identification and purification of a sperm surface protein with a potential role in sperm-egg membrane fusion". J Cell Biol. ... "Colinear synthesis of an antigen-specific B-cell epitope with a promiscuous tetanus toxin T-cell epitope: a synthetic peptide ... The smaller gamete is the sperm cell and is produced by males of the species. The larger gamete is the ovum and is produced by ... In contrast sperm cells must be highly motile, since they are deposited into the female reproductive tract during sexual ...
"Mitochondrial fusion and fission in cell life and death". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 11 (12): 872-84. doi:10.1038/ ... "Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for mitochondrial division in mammalian cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 12 (8 ... Xie N, Wang C, Lian Y, Zhang H, Wu C, Zhang Q (Jun 2013). "A selective inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, protects against cell death ... They found that knocking out Drp1 resulted in the appearance of large mitochondria in Purkinje cells and prevented neural tube ...
The third stage is the actual cell fusion itself. In this stage, the presence of calcium ions is critical. In mice, fusion is ... Finally, the muscle fibers that form later arise from satellite cells. Two genes significant in muscle fusion are Mef2 and the ... Myogenin (also known as Myf4) is required for the fusion of myogenic precursor cells to either new or previously existing ... In addition, satellite cells have the capability to also differentiate into bone or fat. In this way, satellite cells have an ...
They are involved in virus attachment and cell fusion. Once inside the cell, the viral membrane fuses with the endosomal ... In mosquito cells neither host cell transcription nor translation are inhibited, and although so far no function for the ... It has been shown that in mammalian cells, NSs induces shut-off of host protein synthesis, which leads to cell death. It also ... When the virus crossed the placenta and infected the developing fetus, it showed a tropism for the immature fetal cells of the ...
"OPA1 controls apoptotic cristae remodeling independently from mitochondrial fusion". Cell. 126 (1): 177-89. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... OPA1 has distinct roles in the fusion of mitochondrial inner membranes during mitochondrial fusion events, and in regulation of ... for the cell's functions (See oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain). Retinal ganglion cells (neurons), which ... Biochemical and mitochondrial morphological studies on cells from patients affected by autosomal dominant optic atrophy have ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... April 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on ...
2007): Palatal fusion - Where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a major human birth defect. Acta Histochemica ... which causes a failure of palatal fusion. The secondary palate is thought to have a significant role in the development of warm ... to that portion of the hard palate that is formed by the growth of the two palatine shelves medially and their mutual fusion in ...
Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell ... Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular ... We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both ... Actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions promote fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.. ...
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ... HIV Fusion Inhibitors. Subscribe to New Research on HIV Fusion Inhibitors Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, ... HIV Cell Fusion Inhibitors; Entry Inhibitors, HIV; Fusion Inhibitors, HIV; HIV Entry Inhibitors ... for their ability to block cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 infection in co-cultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO ...
... also likely restricts its interaction with neighboring cells and could account for the observed lack of cell-cell fusion. HAE ... also likely restricts its interaction with neighboring cells and could account for the observed lack of cell-cell fusion. HAE ... also likely restricts its interaction with neighboring cells and could account for the observed lack of cell-cell fusion. HAE ... also likely restricts its interaction with neighboring cells and could account for the observed lack of cell-cell fusion. HAE ...
Targeting a Fusion Oncogene: EML4-ALK. A small group of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have tumors ... Clinicopathologic features of non-small-cell lung cancer with EML4-ALK fusion gene. Ann Surg Oncol 2010;17:889-897. ... Clinical features and outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who harbor EML4-ALK. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:4247-4253. ... Alectinib versus crizotinib in untreated ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. June 6, 2017 (early release ...
Because these proteins also mediate or influence entry of virus into cells, the... ... Attention is focused in this review on viral proteins that are known to mediate or influence virus-induced cell fusion. ... Okada, Y., and Murayama, F., 1966, Requirement of calcium ions for the cell fusion reaction of animal cells by HVJ, Exp. Cell ... Hosaka, Y., and Shimizu, K., 1977, Cell fusion by Sendai virus, in: Virus Infection and the Cell Surface (G. Poste and G. L. ...
In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods, a team of leading experts provide a collection o ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. In Cell Fusion ... Optical Imaging of Cell Fusion and Fusion Proteins in C aenorhabditis elegans ...
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:111-39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101512-122422. Epub 2014 Jun 27. Research Support, Non-U.S ... Four classes of membrane proteins are known in virus and cell fusion. Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are α-helix ... Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. Class I cell-cell fusogens ... Virus and cell fusion mechanisms.. Podbilewicz B1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of ...
... Josef P. Magyar magyar at cell.biol.ethz.ch Tue Sep 2 04:30:10 EST 1997 *Next message: ... We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. Could anybody ...
... cells during palatal fusion, programmed cell death, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and migration of these cells to the ... Our results demonstrate that MEE cells die and transform into mesenchyme during palatal fusion and that dead cells are ... Medial edge epithelial cell fate during palatal fusion.. Martínez-Alvarez C1, Tudela C, Pérez-Miguelsanz J, OKane S, Puerta J ... We show that MEE cell death in TGF-beta(3) null palates is greatly reduced at the time of fusion, revealing that TGF-beta(3) ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Cell Fusion online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Cell Fusion by A. E. Sowers. ... Fusion in Cell Membranes.- Virus-Induced Cell Fusion.- Probing ... Applications of Membrane Fusion.- The Early History of Mammalian Somatic Cell Fusion.- Bioselective Cell-Cell Fusion for ... Fusion-Permissive Protoplasts.- Experimental Cell Fusion with Selected Siphonocladalean Algal Cells.- Fusion in Model Membranes ...
The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat ... The cell fusion method allows DCs to be exposed to the broad array of TAAs originally expressed by whole tumor cells. DCs then ... DC-tumor FCs require optimized enhanced immunogenicity of both DCs and whole tumor cells. In this context, an effective fusion ... are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immunity. Therefore, various ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Cell Fusion by A.E. Sowers at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and ... Title:Cell FusionFormat:HardcoverDimensions:560 pages, 9.21 × 6.14 × 0 inPublished:March 31, 1987Publisher:Springer US ...
Cell Fusion genetic engineering is emerging as a hot topic in the Certified Organic seed and food industry. We can expect the ... What is Cell Fusion?. Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and ... Is Cell Fusion Compatible With Organic Standards?. The discussion at the conference centered around whether it is appropriate ... Cell fusion technology is currently being used extensively in the production of both organic and conventional foods. I have ...
... increasing the amount of fuel available for rampant cell growth. ... at Columbia University discovered that a common fusion of two ... Gene fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer Study suggests new approach to treating cancers with this ... Gene fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer. Columbia University Medical Center ... Central nervous system cells expressing the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion protein.. (Credit: Iavarone and Lasorella labs) ...
Cell to cell fusion is known to be extremely rare in plant cells due to the presence of the relatively tough cell wall. Only ... where the egg cell and the central cell coordinately play key roles in eliminating the persistent synergid cell by cell fusion ... contains a seven-celled embryo sac consisting of two synergid cells, one egg cell, one central cell and three antipodal cells. ... This research reveals a new type of cell fusion that is initiated to destroy a particular cell, and enlightens the evolution of ...
Activation of Army Irregular Warfare Fusion Cell by SWJ Editors. SWJ Blog Post , July 11, 2011 - 8:20am. ... The U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, recently activated the Army IW Fusion Cell (AIWFC) to ... Instead of standing up a fusion cell separate from another organization that is already looking specifically at irregular ... The AIWFC has a small core "cell" that includes the director, and has a wider "in-house" staff from other organizations ...
Is Faradys law applicable to electrochemical cell Jan 15, 2013. Electrolysis (Chemistry) with electrochemical cell Feb 20, ... Polyolefin Ion Membranes in Electrochemical Cells Jan 11, 2017. Electrochemical cell electrode potential difference May 19, ... Potentials are set up by charges, charges create electrical potential, in the case of an electrochemical cell, the anode and ... It is when you connect this two cells, which have differences in potential, with a conducting wire where youll actually have a ...
... a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies. ... But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells -- ... Prior to fusion, cells are engineered to bond to one another by using a minor chemical treatment. Cells are first placed in an ... The power of one: A simpler, cheaper method for cell fusion. WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Its not easy to make one plus one equal ...
CELL fusion is an essential and ubiquitous process in eukaryotic organisms, with many examples of cell fusion events throughout ... Kel1p has multiple functions in cell fusion. Here we show that Kel1p has multiple functions in the cell fusion pathway. First, ... 2008 Dynamic localization of yeast Fus2p to an expanding ring at the cell fusion junction during mating. J. Cell Biol. 181: 697 ... It is thought that Fus2p localizes GTP-bound Cdc42p to the zone of cell fusion, where it activates fusion of vesicles with the ...
This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... These three ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion. ... Cell fusion normally occurs with nuclear fusion, but in the absence of nuclear fusion, the cell would be described as a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
1. Using tabulated standard reduction potentials from your text, calculate the standard cell potential, E°cell (always positive ... Similar Discussions: E Cell Values! * What is the E cell value for the following equation? (Replies: 3) ... 12 H + 2IO3 + 5e- ---, I2 + 6H2O E CELL = ???????. I CANT FIND THIS REACTIONS ECELL IN MY TEXT BOOK BUT SOMEHOW I FOUND IT ON ... Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community. Forums , Homework and Coursework , Biology, Chemistry and Earth Homework ...
... including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with de ... cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety ... Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool ... We suggest that this approach will benefit a broad array of studies that investigate consequences of cell fusion or use cell ...
... cell fusion explanation free. What is cell fusion? Meaning of cell fusion medical term. What does cell fusion mean? ... Looking for online definition of cell fusion in the Medical Dictionary? ... See also betz cells, gauchers cells, golgis cells, hela cells, hürthle cell, kupffers cells, merkel cell, mesangial cell, ... cell fusion. the fusion of two cells in TISSUE CULTURE.. cell. 1. the basic structural unit of living organisms. ...
... and contains EML4-ALK fusion variant 1 (E13; A20). ... An isogenic cell line ATCC CCL-185IG was created by using ... Control parental cell line for the EML4-ALK Fusion-A549 Isogenic Cell Line Human (ATCC® CCL-185IG ™) cells. Date Updated: 1/18/ ... was created from the A549 parental cell line, CCL-185, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. The EML4-ALK fusion in CCL-185IG ... EML4-ALK Fusion-A549 Isogenic Cell Line Human (ATCC® CCL-185IG™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Cell Type: epithelial / Tissue ...
Mating of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of opposite sex provides a powerful model system to study the cell-cell fusion ... Quantitation of yeast cell-cell fusion using multicolor flow cytometry.. [Valentina Salzman, Valentina Porro, Mariela Bollati- ... This current method is limited by expectancy bias and it is time consuming, restricting the number of both cell-cell fusion ... and reliable method to quantify the cell-cell fusion in yeast. ... pairs within a mixture of gametes and quantify cell fusion ...
  • The PIV3 fusion (F) glycoprotein was trafficked exclusively to the apical surface of ciliated cells, which also was the site of release of progeny virus. (utmb.edu)
  • The polarized trafficking of F glycoprotein to the apical surface also likely restricts its interaction with neighboring cells and could account for the observed lack of cell-cell fusion. (utmb.edu)
  • Abstract -To investigate the still-undetermined role of the Ca 2+ -independent transient outward current ( I to1 ) on repolarization of the cardiac action potential, we used cell fusion to introduce I to1 into guinea pig cardiomyocytes, which normally lack this current. (ahajournals.org)
  • Over the last decade the volume Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Most of the current work in the field of membrane fusion takes place within the context of intact or modified cells. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Control of Membrane Fusion in Polyethylene Glycol-Resistant Cell Mutants. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Physicochemical Factors Underlying Lipid Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • New Membrane Fusion Methods. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Applications of Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Class-I PI3-kinases are needed for pronuclear envelope formation and fusion in sea urchin zygotes, and Rab7 GTPase and PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 directly interact during the membrane fusion process. (biologists.org)
  • Accumulation of organelle content is signaled to the surface of yeast vacuoles in order to increase their storage capacity by homotypic membrane fusion. (biologists.org)
  • We show that furin cleavage at the modified R667 position generates discrete S1 and S2 subunits and potentiates membrane fusion activity. (osti.gov)
  • For the 15 years or so, we have developed a series of reconstitution platforms to investigate the molecular mechanism of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and the regulation of this process by regulatory factors. (yale.edu)
  • Besides demonstrating the core function of SNAREs during membrane fusion, we also applied various biophysical approaches to evaluate the energy landscape of the fusion process in a quantitative way. (yale.edu)
  • Currently, we are developing and applying novel tools, using DNA nanotechnology, microfluidic devices and single-molecule optical tweezers, to further elucidate the molecular mechanism and the energy evolved in the SNARE-mediate membrane fusion. (yale.edu)
  • Mapping the water molecules is key to understanding the process of cell membrane fusion, which could help facilitate the development of treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. (phys.org)
  • New 3-D maps of water distribution during cellular membrane fusion are accelerating scientific understanding of cell development, which could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. (phys.org)
  • Using neutron diffraction at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, researchers have made the first direct observations of water in lipid bilayers used to model cell membrane fusion. (phys.org)
  • For the neutron scattering experiments, we replaced some of the water's hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms, which helped the neutrons observe the water molecules during membrane fusion ," said Shuo Qian, the study's corresponding author and a neutron scattering scientist at ORNL. (phys.org)
  • While the basic steps of membrane fusion have been extensively investigated in the context of enveloped virus entry and SNARE-mediated intracellular vesicle fusion ( Südhof and Rothman, 2009 ), the molecules and pathways responsible for cell-cell fusion are less well understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • The UL53 gene product is thought to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion because mutations giving rise to the syncytial phenotype, wherein cells are extensively fused, frequently map to this gene. (asm.org)
  • It's probably the single most common gene fusion in human cancer," said study co-leader Antonio Iavarone, MD, professor of neurology and of pathology and cell biology (in the Institute for Cancer Genetics) at CUMC. (eurekalert.org)
  • Electrical cell fusion, is an essential step in some of the most innovative methods in modern biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a report published Nov. 29 in the Journal of Cell Biology, the researchers described experiments using fruit fly embryos to identify an invasive projection propelled by the rapid elongation of actin filaments as the main player in the cellular power struggle. (healthcanal.com)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • In 1960, he was appointed the head of the new department of cell biology at the John Innes Institute, and, in 1964, he succeeded Florey as head of the Dunn School. (wikipedia.org)
  • But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells - a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies. (psychcentral.com)
  • My device uses constant DC voltage and would enable researchers to fuse one pair of cells at a time. (psychcentral.com)
  • Electrofusion - the process of using electric shocks to fuse two or more living cells - is a growing technology with a wide variety of applications in research, biotechnology and medicine. (psychcentral.com)
  • Passing through this narrow section, cells are subjected to a strong electrical field that causes them to become destabilized and fuse together. (psychcentral.com)
  • In one of electrofusion's applications, scientists can fuse antibody-producing cells from the spleen (beta cells) with cancer cells in order to create a virtually immortal, antibody-producing hybrid, called a hybridoma. (psychcentral.com)
  • Although Lu's technology currently fuses single pairs at once, it may be expanded so that multiple devices simultaneously fuse cells in parallel. (psychcentral.com)
  • He said his technology could be developed to fuse different types of cells in the future. (psychcentral.com)
  • It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory virus in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • If two of the same type of cells fuse, but their nuclei do not fuse, then the resulting cell is called a syncytium. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three methods that cell biologists use to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All that remains separate is the nuclei, which will fuse at a later time within the cell, making the result a heterokaryon cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be that this new understanding of muscle cell fusion will apply generally to other cells that fuse," Chen says, "such as egg and sperm, for instance, as well as bone resorption cells and cells that are vital for immune responses. (healthcanal.com)
  • Recent data both from cell-free experiments and from cultured cells have shown that lysosomes can fuse directly with late endosomes to form a hybrid organelle. (biologists.org)
  • As measured by Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) (Figure 4), partial zippering of the SNARE core domain generates about 35 kBT energy, corresponding closely to the energy needed to fuse outer but not inner leaflets (hemi-fusion) of outer lipid bilayer. (yale.edu)
  • When transfected into nonhuman NIH 3T3 cells expressing human CD4, the STRL33 cDNA rendered these cells competent to fuse with cells expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs). (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, bone marrow transplantation demonstrates that BMDCs fuse in vivo with hepatocytes in liver, Purkinje neurons in the brain and cardiac muscle in the heart, resulting in the formation of multinucleated cells. (caltech.edu)
  • A limited number of human cells can fuse to form multinucleated syncytia. (biochemj.org)
  • Specific Pn.p cells fuse with an epidermal syncytium, hyp7, in a sexually dimorphic pattern. (biologists.org)
  • Genomicrearrangements responsible for the fusion events in NSCLC cells were confirmed by genomic PCR analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (uptodate.com)
  • The above results suggest that CD74-ROS1 fusion is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of NSCLCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the future. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, since the incidence of ROS1 or RET fusions is less than that of ALK fusions in NSCLC, only a small number of NSCLC patients with ROS1 or RET fusions has thus far been identified. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, to contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 or RET fusion-positive NSCLC, we examined 114 NSCLCs derived from Japanese patients for the expression of ROS1 and RET fusion transcripts and pathohistologically and molecularly characterized those fusions that were detected. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed in advanced stage and their prognosis is extremely poor [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • About 5%-7% of NSCLC rely on fusion oncogenes for growth and survival such as the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) and RET proto-oncogene (RET) [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we present a NanoString gene expression platform and a novel platform-independent, single sample predictor (SSP) of NSCLC histology for combined, simultaneous, histological classification and fusion gene detection in minimal formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • The presence of an EML-ALK rearrangement was verified by identifying genomic fusion points in tumor samples representative of breast, colon, and NSCLC. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, this process is paralleled by DC migration to the lymphoid organs, where the mature DCs efficiently present processed antigenic peptides to interacting T cells (for a review see reference 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fusion peptides were identified against a customized database built by FusionPro. (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we develop a versatile proteogenomic tool "FusionPro," which facilitates the identification of fusion transcripts and their potential translatable peptides. (mcponline.org)
  • We use FusionPro to identify 18 fusion junction peptides and three potential fusion-derived peptides by MS/MS-based analysis of leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and K562) and ovarian cancer tissues from the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium. (mcponline.org)
  • and (iii) there may be subtle genetic differences among various crypt stem cells that can be detected in vivo by observing mosaic patterns of transgene expression along the villus epithelium. (pnas.org)
  • The results generated with the CRE-LoxP system also suggest that in vivo cell fusion is an unlikely explanation for the "transdifferentiation" of bone marrow-derived cells into differentiated cell phenotypes. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo , to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The LEGACY ECM 2001 is a multipurpose electro cell manipulation pulse generator capable of performing both electrofusion for hybridoma production, hybrid cell formation and nuclear transfer applications in addition to electroporation of cells in suspension and in vivo applications. (btxonline.com)
  • This result contrasted with the marked preferential fusion of the laboratory-adapted 81A over NL4-3 in immature MDDCs and in ex vivo Langerhans cells, indicating that these laboratory-adapted HIV strains do not fully recapitulate all of the properties of primary HIV isolates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These observations provide the first in vivo evidence for cell fusion of BMDCs with neurons and cardiomyocytes, raising the possibility that cell fusion may contribute to the development or maintenance of these key cell types. (caltech.edu)
  • In vivo cell lineage analysis in cypreterone acetate‐treated rat liver using genetic labeling of hepatocytes. (currentprotocols.com)
  • It is therefore attractive for use in multidimensional studies of in vivo cell behavior and cell fate. (columbia.edu)
  • Bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into cells of nonhematopoietic tissues of neuronal, endothelial, epithelial, and muscular phenotype. (jci.org)
  • All of the RSV-specific TCC proved to be of the CD8 + phenotype in fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. (asm.org)
  • The claim has also been made that BMCs acquire a cell phenotype different from the blood lineages only by fusing with resident cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that an N. crassa mutant disrupted in mak - 2 exhibits a pleiotropic phenotype: derepressed conidiation, shortened aerial hyphae, lack of vegetative hyphal fusion, female sterility, and autonomous ascospore lethality. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, the bulging cells observed on the MEE surface of wild-type mice prior to palatal shelf contact are very rare in the TGF-beta(3) null mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Candida albicans , Aspergillus nidulans , and Magnaporthe grisea mutants with lesions in the cell wall integrity-associated pathway ( SLT2 pathway) show pleiotropic effects, including increased sensitivity to cell wall degrading enzymes ( 9 , 39 , 66 ). (asm.org)
  • The Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat has a broad spectrum of epigenetic activities and sensitizes lymphoma and myeloma cells for a variety of cytotoxic drugs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have generated cytotoxic T-cell clones (TCC) from two infants who had just recovered from severe RSV infection. (asm.org)
  • Columbia researchers have discovered how a gene fusion found in 3 percent of glioblastoma tumors boosts mitochondrial activity, triggering cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • At the time, it was thought that this gene fusion was limited to a fraction of brain tumors, affecting about 300 patients in the U.S. per year. (eurekalert.org)
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Primers were designed to detect all possible in-frame fusions of EML4 to exon 20 of ALK, and a single-tube multiplex RT-PCR assay was done with total RNA from 656 solid tumors of the lung (n = 364) and 10 other organs. (uptodate.com)
  • No fusion transcripts were detected for other types of lung cancer (n = 111) or for tumors from 10 other organs (n = 292). (uptodate.com)
  • 11 Interestingly, the same aberrations have been detected in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT) 12 and non-small cell lung cancer. (haematologica.org)
  • In the present study, we report 2 new ALK + LBCL cases characterized by cryptic ALK rearrangements, and functional studies of the SEC31A-ALK fusion detected in one of these tumors that, like NPM-ALK , was shown to be sensitive for TAE-684. (haematologica.org)
  • For example, fusion proteoforms influence the development of tumors by serving as cancer markers or cell cycle regulators. (mcponline.org)
  • Subsequently, ALK gene was also recognized in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT) [ 2 - 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We hypothesize that these protruding cells are critical for palatal adhesion, being morphological evidence of increased cell motility/migration. (nih.gov)
  • In vertebrates, the homologue of Dock - called Nck - links cell adhesion during podocyte formation with actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by binding to the intracellular domain of Nephrin. (uni-marburg.de)
  • These data indicate that Dock functions in both myoblast populations during myoblast fusion and serves as a linker to transfer the fusion signal from the cell adhesion molecules Duf and Hbs to the actin cytoskeleton, e.g. by interacting with WASP and WIP. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Formation of this ∼3-μm-long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt+) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt−) gametes. (rupress.org)
  • and iii) on cell motility by studying migration into a three-dimensional stroma spheroid model, adhesion on an endothelial cell layer under shear stress in a flow chamber model, and chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration in a transwell model with an SDF-1α gradient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We first separated Linaege antigen − BM cells to CD45 + cells (Lin − CD45 + ) and CD45 − cells (Lin − CD45 − ) and transplanted each. (ahajournals.org)
  • The fusion parent of choice is the TCR abvariant of BW5147, to this are fused T cells from a line or clone reactive to the antigen of interest. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Typically the T cells are obtained by harvesting the inguinal and periaortic lymph nodes of mice primed to the antigen of interest with CFA/antigen. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • The anatomic localization of DCs is intimately linked to their function as antigen-presenting cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a membrane oncofetal glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight of M r 180,000 expressed on most adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, on 70% of non-small cell lung cancers, and on 50% of breast cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although CEA is a self-antigen with a tendency to be immunologically tolerant, a HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitope peptide of CEA, CAP-1 (CEA 605-613 , YLSGANLNL), is a target for T cell lines derived from HLA-A2.1-positive patients with CEA-expressing malignancies ( 14 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-lymphoblastic cell lines (B-LCL) were generated by Epstein-Barr virus transformation ( 22 ), infected with RSV A2 (ATCC VR1322), and UV irradiated ( 24 ) to serve as autologous antigen-presenting cells (APC). (asm.org)
  • A potential limitation of therapeutic CD47-SIRPα antagonists is that expression of CD47 on normal cells may create sites of toxicity or an "antigen sink. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SIRPabodies selectively bound to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells in the presence of a large antigen sink. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our bispecific antibodies incorporate a blocking component with weak affinity for CD47, rendering them unable to bind normal cells expressing CD47 alone, and require simultaneous binding to CD20 for high avidity binding to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3-6 Although pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity account for cholesterol uptake and contribute to activation of macrophages and endothelial cells, antigen-specific T cells recognizing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the intima provide strong proinflammatory stimuli that accelerate atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Antigen-specific immunoprotection can be achieved through several different mechanisms, such as production of protective antibodies, deletion or inactivation (anergy) of pathogenic T-cell clones, or induction of suppressive cellular immunity mediated by the family of regulatory T cells (Treg). (ahajournals.org)
  • 2001) and others, SPYMEG can produce antigen-specific antibody-producing cells through direct fusion with human PBMCs. (mbl.co.jp)
  • Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced by a nucleus from a different plant that might be from a different species or genera. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Growing non-hybrid seed is currently the most reliable way to avoid growing plants created via cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • I would like to see the release of a Safe Seed Pledge 2.0 which generally bans the use of cytoplasmic male sterility and specifically bans cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cell fusion genetic engineering allowed the creation of hybrid broccoli (and other brassicas) by combining a broccoli nucleus with radish organelles. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The organic food and seed industry is faced with a decision about whether to continue business as usual by using hybrids derived from cell fusion genetic engineering or to come clean, resolve mistakes made in the past, and get on with providing the kind of food and seeds that people expect from "Certified Organic" and the Safe Seed Pledge. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells, the bacteria, have no nucleus, and their genetic material, consisting of a single circular naked DNA molecule, is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other organic seed companies which have similarly adopted a policy of banning cell fusion-created F1 hybrid seeds, because company owners view the process as genetic engineering, are challenging the current USDA National Organic Program which permits cisgenic cell fusion hybrid seed in organic production. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • By international organic certification standards, cell fusion is classified as genetic engineering, but these standards established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are being ignored by the United States, Europe and other countries. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • All typical plant syncytia (articulated laticifers, amoeboid tapetum, the nucellar plasmodium of river weeds) are formed only by fusion of sporophytic cells which possess the same genetic material, unlike Utricularia in which the syncytium possesses nuclei from two different sources: cells of maternal sporophytic nutritive tissue and endosperm haustorium (both maternal and paternal genetic material). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Muscle fusion is an integral part of muscle regeneration in genetic and acquired muscle diseases, and an accurate understanding of this basic cellular event could have important clinical applications in people with muscular dystrophy and other degenerative disorders, according to Chen. (healthcanal.com)
  • He later studied the possibility of genetic modification of human cell lines with the material of other species to increase the range of genetic markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify these controversies, we first utilized TUNEL techniques to detect apoptosis in mouse palates at the fusion stage and concomitantly analyzed the presence of macrophages by immunochemistry and confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate that MEE cells die and transform into mesenchyme during palatal fusion and that dead cells are phagocytosed by macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • The hybrid products of these fusions, heterokaryon, were hybrids that maintained two or more separate nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of cell fusion is widely used for the production of somatic cell hybrids and for nuclear transfer in mammalian cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell fusion is also called protoplast or somantic fusion and can involve a mutant gene with the purpose of creating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which allows classified F1 hybrids to avoid inbreeding. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Several of the large production research seed companies that produce organic seed are not talking when asked which of their hybrids are produced using cell fusion-mediated CMS. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Not all F1 hybrids are developed using CMS GE cell fusion. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The presence of a normal enzyme encoded in chromosomes of the normal T cell component of the hybrids allows them to survive in HAT. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Compared with traditional protocols, cell fusion using this approach is well defined with better control, which leads to an improved yield of heterotypic binucleated hybrids. (rsc.org)
  • After fusion, the AC pulse reapplication maintains compression of the cells following the DC pulse resulting in a higher number of hybrids. (btxonline.com)
  • Carrot and tobacco somatic cell hybrids were isolated using a carrot cell line resistant to S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) and a tobacco cell line resistant to DL-5-methyltryptophan (5MT). (illinois.edu)
  • Benomyl, which inhibits nuclear fusion in yeast, did not appreciably reduce nuclear fusion in plant cell hybrids, based on complementation frequencies of 5MT and A2C, or 5MT and S-2(aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) resistant cell lines fused with the glyphosate resistant line. (illinois.edu)
  • No binucleate cells were observed in hybrid colonies and hybrids possessed additive parental chromosome numbers. (illinois.edu)
  • We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. (bio.net)
  • Each of the fused hybrid cells contained a single nucleus with chromosomes from both fusion partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second case with complex rearrangements of both chromosomes 2, a submicroscopic NPM1-ALK fusion created by insertion of the 3′ end of ALK into the NPM1 locus was evidenced. (haematologica.org)
  • Using a variety of experimental techniques, the researchers determined that the gene fusion initiates a cascade of events that increases mitochondrial activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • The same effect was seen in a mouse model of human brain cancer containing this gene fusion. (eurekalert.org)
  • These drugs are now being tested in patients with recurrent glioblastoma that contains the gene fusion by one of the paper's co-authors, Marc Sanson, MD, of Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris. (eurekalert.org)
  • TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Bioinformatics analysis identified the novel SPTAN1-ABL1 gene fusion in which exon 2 of SPTAN1 was fused with exon 4 of ABL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fusion proteoforms are translation products derived from gene fusion. (mcponline.org)
  • FusionPro provides an independent gene fusion prediction module and can build sequence databases for annotated fusion proteoforms. (mcponline.org)
  • Since hematopoietic cells generated CMs, we next transplanted limiting numbers of purified HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors by cell sorting. (ahajournals.org)
  • The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat cancer patients. (mdpi.com)
  • They also found that drugs that target this newly identified cancer pathway can prevent tumor growth, both in human cancer cells and mice with a form of brain cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • We wanted to determine how FGFR3-TACC3 fusion induces and maintains cancer so that we could identify novel targets for drug therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Changes in mitochondria--the 'powerhouse' of the cell--have been observed in cancer for a long time, but researchers have found only recently that mitochondrial activity and cellular metabolism are linked to certain cancers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer cells, which require huge amounts of energy to rapidly divide and grow, can thrive when mitochondrial activity has been amped up. (eurekalert.org)
  • In another experiment, treating human brain cancer cells containing FGFR3-TACC3 with mitochondrial inhibitors interrupted the production of energy inside cancer cells and significantly slowed tumor growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • By manipulating the beta cells prior to fusion, scientists can create thousands of different hybridomas that produce antibodies effective against different viruses and diseases like cancer. (psychcentral.com)
  • This isogenic cell line (CCL-185IG) was created from the A549 parental cell line, CCL-185, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. (atcc.org)
  • We employed the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing platform for the generation of the desired targeted genomic rearrangement in the A549 lung cancer cell line. (atcc.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer cells require the activation of MMP-2 during invasion and migration. (hindawi.com)
  • Launched in January,, it covers biological functions and molecular interactions of molecules, cell fusion , immune synapse formation, and pathological conditions such as cancer cell migration or degenerative diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The research, published in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters , could provide new insights into diseases in which normal cell fusion is disrupted, such as Albers-Schönberg disease (osteopetrosis), help facilitate the development of fusion-based cell therapies for degenerative diseases, and lead to treatments that prevent cell-to-cell fusion between cancer cells and non-cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • We are especially pleased with the strong anti-tumor activity observed in a model of B-cell lymphoma, the first non-solid cancer we have successfully addressed using our VTA technology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The silencing of FUBP1 or the administration of a c-Myc inhibitor abrogated the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics induced by RARS-MAD1L1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such bispecific antibodies targeting CD47 along with tumor-associated antigens may be an effective strategy for selectively eliminating tumor cells that can be broadly applied to cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This distinct cytologic characteristic is reminiscent of the signet-ring cells more commonly seen in gastric carcinoma than in lung cancer. (alliedacademies.org)
  • An ever growing amount of genomic and pharmacogenomic data on cancer tissue and cell lines reveals the enormous heterogeneity and complexity of the disease but it also holds the promise to inform new strategies for its targeted and patient-specific treatment. (separationsnow.com)
  • Harris's research interests were primarily focused on cancer cells and their differences from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique enables the rapid delivery of premade functional ion channels to cardiomyocytes within hours of isolation, thus eliminating the action potential alterations that complicate prolonged cell culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 To circumvent this problem, in the present study, we have adapted standard protocols for somatic cell fusion 9 to deliver premade functional Kv4.3 ion channels to acutely dissociated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, which under physiological conditions lack an endogenous I to1 . (ahajournals.org)
  • The aminopterin component of HAT inhibits a key enzyme in purine and thymine biosynthesis, cells in culture can survive this inhibition due to the presence of an alternate pathway and the exogenously added hypoxanthine and thymidine, a key enzyme in this pathway is not functional in BW5147 and this cell line dies in the presence of HAT. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • 12-14 However, the use of cell lines may not accurately model the functional effects of AML1-ETO expression, owing to the different complement of transcription factors found in transformed cells versus hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Huxley, C., Hagino, Y., Schlessinger, D., and Olson, M. V. (1991) The human HPRT gene on a yeast artificial chromosome is functional when transferred to mouse cells by cell fusion. (springer.com)
  • EDO-S101 is a first-in-class alkylating histone-deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) fusion molecule that combines the strong DNA damaging effect of bendamustine, with a fully functional pan-HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We conclude that EDO-S101, an alkylating HDAC inhibitor fusion molecule, displays bi-functional activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The recurrence, subtype enrichment, and the remarkably conserved nature of the TP63 portion of the fusion suggest an important functional role in the lymphomas that harbor this event. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Atheroprotection was also documented in apoe −/− mice lacking functional transforming growth factor-β receptors on T cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • This unit describes quantitation of functional interactions between HIV envelope glcoprotein and target cell receptors, using assay of cell fusion‐dependent reporter gene activation. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Here we show that both ABL/BCRs lost fundamental functional features of BCR regarding the regulation of small Rho-like GTPases with negative consequences on cell motility, in particular on the capacity to adhere to endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Divided into two convenient parts, the volume begins with nine overviews which describe different cell fusion events in models from yeast to mammals, and it continues with thirteen chapters illustrating commonly used methods to assay cell fusion in particular systems. (springer.com)
  • CTL responses were tested against naturally HPV-infected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells using IFN-γ ELISPOT and [(51)Cr]release assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using an HIV virion-based fusion assay, we now show that HIV fusion to monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) both decreases and kinetically slows when DCs are induced to mature with poly(I:C) and tumor necrosis factor alpha. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to prescreen the expression of ALK-positive in signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma by IHC assay. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In conclusion, the expression of ALK fusion is found in signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma by IHC assay. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Expression of RstΔPADVI in all myoblasts or exclusively in FCs as well as FCMs impaired myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This indicates that the PADVI domain in the intracellular domain of Rst plays an important role during myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Second, I investigated the role of the SH2-SH3 adopter Dreadlock (Dock) in myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased in recent decades, though HPV prevention vaccines may reduce this rise in the future. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Medial edge epithelial cell fate during palatal fusion. (nih.gov)
  • To explain the disappearance of medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells during palatal fusion, programmed cell death, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and migration of these cells to the oral and nasal epithelia have been proposed. (nih.gov)
  • However, MEE cell death has not always been accepted as a mechanism involved in midline epithelial seam disappearance. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion) venom, which inhibits low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • RESULTS: From consecutive lung adenocarcinoma cases (n = 253), we identified 11 specimens (4.35%) positive for fusion transcripts, 9 of which were positive for the previously identified variants 1, 2, and 3. (uptodate.com)
  • The recent discovery of fusion oncokinases in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since NSCLCs that express such fusion oncokinases are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 15. The formulation of claim 13, wherein said tumor cells are selected from the group consisting of melanoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, sarcomas, prostate carcinoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, colon carcinoma cells and cervical carcinoma cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • DCs then process TAAs endogenously and present them through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II pathways in the context of costimulatory molecules, resulting in simultaneous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Nagoya, Japan - Dr. Daisuke Maruyama and Professor Tetsuya Higashiyama at the Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) of Nagoya University and the JST-ERATO Higashiyama Live-Holonics Project along with their international team have shown by live-cell imaging techniques that flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana undergo a cell to cell fusion to prevent the attraction of the second pollen tube after fertilization has occurred. (innovations-report.com)
  • These molecules serve as cell receptors and are involved in signal transduction for a wide range of ligands, including hormones, cytokines and incidentally serve as receptors for viruses and drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Illustration of neutron diffraction data showing water distribution (red and white molecules) near lipid bilayers prior to fusion (left) and during fusion. (phys.org)
  • Mapping the distribution of water molecules is key to understanding the fusion process. (phys.org)
  • Experiments tracking the entry of simian immunodeficiency virus into the vaginal epithelia of macaque monkeys have suggested that immature epidermal DCs, namely Langerhans cells, are among the first cells to be infected ( 21 , 36 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Four to six weeks after transplantation, recipient mice revealed Y chromosome and EGFP double-positive cells in their pancreatic islets. (jci.org)
  • Pavan, W. J., Hieter, P., and Reeves, R. H. (1990) Modification and transfer into an embryonal carcinoma cell line of a 360-kilobase human-derived yeast artificial chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Featherstone, T. and Huxley, C. (1993) Extrachromosomal maintenance and amplification of yeast artificial chromosome DNA in mouse cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, our prediction results indicate that fusion transcripts often have multiple fusion junctions and that these fusion junctions tend to be distributed in a nonrandom pattern at both the chromosome and gene levels. (mcponline.org)
  • EGFP and the Y-chromosome were used as markers of the progeny of the transplanted cells in the recipient heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Depending on the breakpoint on chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia chromosome - Ph+) the derivative 9+ encodes either the p40 (ABL/BCR) fusion transcript, detectable in about 65% patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, or the p96 (ABL/BCR) fusion transcript, detectable in 100% of Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell fusion occurs during differentiation of muscle, bone and trophoblast cells, during embryogenesis, and during morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of PKA activity resulted in decreased Cx43 phosphorylation, which was associated with reduced trophoblast fusion and differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • Agents that block the CD47-SIRPα interaction synergize with pro-phagocytic FcR-activating antibodies, including the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, for potent phagocytic elimination of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Through the fusion of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with SPYMEG (Fig. 1), we can efficiently and reproducibly establish hybridomas that stably produce monoclonal antibodies of complete human origin. (mbl.co.jp)
  • This method is based on staining the cell wall of yeast populations with different Concanavalin A-fluorophore conjugates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The results show that mating pair counts using both methods produce indistinguishable outcomes and that the flow cytometry-based method provides quantitative relevant information in a short time, making possible to quickly analyze many different cell populations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Muscle fusion in Drosophila involves two distinct cell populations, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). (uni-marburg.de)
  • Understanding these relationships has shed light on mechanisms of HIV-1 entry into cells and on the tropisms of HIV-1 strains for specific populations of CD4 + cells. (rupress.org)
  • Similarly, the accurate analysis of the cell populations implicated in the regeneration of the dead tissue is complex and these factors together may account for the negative findings. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • The new work shows what is believed to be the first time that an invasive podosome-like structure has been found in developing tissue of any kind, Chen says, noting that although podosomes were discovered several decades ago in studies of cells growing in dishes, they have not been seen in a developing animal or implicated as a mechanism in cell fusion. (healthcanal.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that complexation of IL-2 with the JES6-1 Ab preferentially biases cytokine activity toward T Reg cells through a unique mechanism whereby IL-2 is exchanged from the Ab to IL-2Rα. (jimmunol.org)
  • EGFP-positive cells purified from islets express insulin, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and transcription factors typically found in pancreatic β cells. (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent pancreatic endocrine β cells and that represent a source for cell-based treatment of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
  • As translocation across the plasma membrane is a limiting step for delivery of macromolecules, these polypeptides were utilized in a pancreatic xenograft model to study the plasma clearance, biodistribution, tumor accumulation, and tumor reduction capabilities of the polypeptide with and without a cell-penetrating peptide. (dovepress.com)
  • In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods , a team of leading experts provide a collection of overviews that outline our current understanding of cell fusion and methods that present classic and state-of-the-art experimental approaches in a variety of systems. (springer.com)
  • Cutting-edge and user-friendly, Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods serves as a comprehensive resource for anyone, expert or novice, interested in the fascinating biological process of cell fusion. (springer.com)
  • New methods of inducing fusion have been invented or discovered, and new applications for fusion have been found. (booktopia.com.au)
  • However, current methods of cell fusion are not satisfactory because of their toxicity, inefficiency, or lack of flexibility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The 1 MHz AC pulse aligns cells together in real time, saving time (seconds vs. hours) in comparison to PEG methods. (btxonline.com)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate the capability of our device for long-term cell culture and cell harvesting. (rsc.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that MSC-induced spinal fusion can convey biomechanical rigidity to a targeted segment that is comparable to that achieved using an instrumental fixation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the defect in HIV replication observed in mature MDDCs stems at least in part from a decline in viral fusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we demonstrate that cell fusion in Aspergillus fumigatus under standard culture conditions is not predominately constitutive, as with most ascomycetes, but can be induced by a range of extracellular stressors. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that this histone fusion reporter allows the direct visualization of active chromatin in situ. (columbia.edu)
  • The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements were initially identified in anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) for over 20 years [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)