Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

(CTG)n repeats markedly inhibit differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell line: implications for congenital myotonic dystrophy. (1/2641)

Although the mutation for myotonic dystrophy has been identified as a (CTG)n repeat expansion located in the 3'-untranslated region of a gene located on chromosome 19, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis is not understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of (CTG)n repeats on the differentiation of myoblasts in cell culture. We report here that C2C12 myoblast cell lines permanently transfected with plasmid expressing 500 bases long CTG repeat sequences, exhibited a drastic reduction in their ability to fuse and differentiate into myotubes. The percentage of cells fused into myotubes in C2 C12 cells (53.4+/-4.4%) was strikingly different from those in the two CTG repeat carrying clones (1.8+/-0.4% and 3.3+/-0. 7%). Control C2C12 cells permanently transfected with vector alone did not show such an effect. This finding may have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail tip. (2/2641)

Using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of adherens junctions, we have reconstructed the changes in cell architecture and intercellular associations that occur during morphogenesis of the nematode male tail tip. During late postembryonic development, the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is reshaped to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome. Developmental profiles using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining suggest that cell fusions are initiated at or adjacent to adherens junctions. Anterior portions of the tail tip cells show the first evidence of retractions and fusions, consistent with our hypothesis that an anterior event triggers these morphogenetic events. Available mutations that interfere with morphogenesis implicate particular regulatory pathways and suggest loci at which evolutionary changes could have produced morphological diversity.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (3/2641)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967) inhibits several Ca2+ and K+ currents in human fusion-competent myoblasts. (4/2641)

1. The effect of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), an inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(T)), on myoblast fusion and on several voltage-gated currents expressed by fusion-competent myoblasts was examined. 2. At a concentration of 5 microM, mibefradil decreases myoblast fusion by 57%. At this concentration, the peak amplitudes of I(Ca)(T) and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(L)) measured in fusion-competent myoblasts are reduced by 95 and 80%, respectively. The IC50 of mibefradil for I(Ca)(T) and I(Ca)(L) are 0.7 and 2 microM, respectively. 3. At low concentrations, mibefradil increased the amplitude of I(Ca)(L) with respect to control. 4. Mibefradil blocked three voltage-gated K+ currents expressed by human fusion-competent myoblasts: a delayed rectifier K+ current, an ether-a-go-go K+ current, and an inward rectifier K+ current, with a respective IC50 of 0.3, 0.7 and 5.6 microM. 5. It is concluded that mibefradil can interfere with myoblast fusion, a mechanism fundamental to muscle growth and repair, and that the interpretation of the effect of mibefradil in a given system should take into account the action of this drug on ionic currents other than Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (5/2641)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP.  (+info)

Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/2641)

We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle checkpoints present in vegetative mitosis.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (7/2641)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

Rapid visualization of metaphase chromosomes in single human blastomeres after fusion with in-vitro matured bovine eggs. (8/2641)

The present study was aimed to facilitate karyotyping of human blastomeres using the metaphase-inducing factors present in unfertilized eggs. A rapid technique for karyotyping would have wide application in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. When cryopreserved in-vitro matured bovine oocytes were fused with human blastomeres, the transferred human nuclei were forced into metaphase within a few hours. Eighty-seven human blastomeres from abnormal or arrested embryos were fused with bovine oocytes in a preclinical study. Fusion efficiency was 100%. In 21 of the hybrid cells, no trace of human chromatin was found. Of the remaining 66, 64 (97%) yielded chromosomes suitable for analysis. The method was used to karyotype embryos from two patients with maternal translocations. One embryo which was judged to be karyotypically normal was replaced in the first patient, resulting in one pregnancy with a normal fetus. None of the second patient's embryos was diagnosed as normal, and hence none was transferred. The results of the present study demonstrated that the ooplasmic factors which induce and maintain metaphase in bovine oocytes can force transferred human blastomere nuclei into premature metaphase, providing the basis for a rapid method of karyotyping blastomeres from preimplantation embryos and, by implication, cells from other sources.  (+info)

The membrane fusion and cell swelling stages of Sendai virus-mediated cell-cell fusion have been studied by thin-section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Sites of membrane fusion have been detected in human erythrocytes arrested at the membrane fusion stage of cell fusion and in virtually all cases a fused viral envelope or envelope components has been identified thus providing further direct evidence that cell-viral envelope-cell bridge formation is the membrane fusion event in Sendai virus-induced cell fusion. Radial expansion of a single virus bridge connecting 2 cells is sufficient to produce a fused cell. Membrane redistribution which occurs during this cell swelling stage of the fusion process is often accompanied by the formation of a system of membrane tubules in the plane of expansion of the virus bridge. The tubules originate from points of fusion between the bridging virus envelope and the erythrocyte membrane and also expand radially as cells swell. Ultimately membrane ...
Moreover, within the body fusion of myoblasts and formation of multinucleate fibers may be exemplified. They can also be allowed to fuse in vitro and form heterokaryons. Macrophages fuse around the foreign body or bacterial cells in the tissues. Bone cells are also known to undergo somatic cell fusion. Cells growing in culture are induced by some of the viruses such as Sendai virus to fuse and form hybrids. This virus induces two different cells first to form heterokaryon (Fig. 6.7). During mitosis chromosome of heterokaryons are brought towards two poles which later on fuse to form hybrids. Removal of surface carbohydrates is necessary before establishment of cell fusion. Some chemicals such as polyethylene glycol also induce somatic cell fusion. It is interesting to note that the cells of taxonomically different animals can fuse and form hybrids. This suggests that there is no compatibility between membranes, nuclei, organelles of two different groups of animal cells (Sidebottom and ...
You are shown the results of a cell fusion experiment in which the plasma membrane of the fused cell looks like it is evenly divided between the two donor cell membranes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation ...
Cell fusion is a natural process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages generates metastatic hybrids with genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. However, there are no clinical markers for detecting cell fusion in clinical context. Macrophage-specific antigen CD163 expression in tumor cells is reported in breast and colorectal cancers and proposed being caused by macrophages-cancer cell fusion in tumor stroma. The purpose of this study is to examine the cell fusion process as a biological explanation for macrophage phenotype in breast. Monocytes, harvested from male blood donor, were activated to M2 macrophages and co-cultured in ThinCert transwell system with GFP-labeled MCF-7 cancer cells. MCF7/macrophage hybrids were generated by spontaneous cell fusion, isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, short tandem repeats analysis and flow cytometry. CD163 expression was evaluated in
Tissue regeneration after injury poses a major challenge that requires the fine balance between stimulation and dysregulation of cell proliferation in order to facilitate homeostatic repair. We have shown that fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells occurs in response to intestinal epithelial injury as a potential regenerative mechanism. We suggest that fusion also occurs in tumorigenesis based upon the observation of shared microenvironments between injury and tumor models. However, the cellular and environmental requirements for intestinal cell fusion remain unknown. Importantly, the physiologic impact of cell fusion on epithelial homeostasis and tumorigenesis has not been defined. Therefore, to investigate the physiologic relevance of this process in repair and disease, the work in this thesis will test the hypothesis that cell fusion hybrids represent a unique cellular population, retaining characteristics of both parental fusogenic populations. To
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modified hybridoma methodology. T2 - Antigen-directed chemically mediated cell fusion. AU - Kranz, David M. AU - Herron, James N.. AU - Billing, Patricia A.. AU - Voss, Edward W.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions to increase the yield of hybridomas was investigated. To facilitate cell-cell contact, antigen conjugated cells were used in cell fusion studies. Specifically, fluorescyl conjugated murine myeloma cells (Sp 2/0-Ag14) incubated with murine immune (anti-fluorescyl) splenocytes formed aggregates containing fluorescent and non-fluorescent cells. Fusion of these populations with polyethylene glycol resulted in a greater number of anti-fluorescyl hybridomas relative to normal fusions under non-antigen directed condition. Ligand binding data indicated that despite the multicellular aggregates the hybridomas resulting from chemically mediated fusions produced only one monoclonal Ig.. AB - The concept of antigen-directed cell fusions ...
Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium. Cell fusion occurs during differentiation of muscle, bone and trophoblast cells, during embryogenesis, and during morphogenesis. Cell fusion is a necessary event in the maturation of cells so that they maintain their specific functions throughout growth. In 1847 Theodore Schwann expanded upon the theory that all living organisms are composed of cells when he added to it that discrete cells are the basis of life. Schwann observed that in certain cells the walls and cavities of the cells coalesce together. It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. It was not until 1960 that cell biologists deliberately fused cells for the first time. To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory ...
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EFF-1 and AFF-1 can fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in C. elegans, in heterologous Sf9 insect cells and in BHK hamster cells. This is a proof of principle that will allow us to test potential fusogens involved in mammalian myoblast fusion [5,10,11]. While candidates for muscle fusogens exist in Drosophila and vertebrates [1,12,13] none of these candidates has been shown to be both essential and sufficient for the cell membrane fusion process. Instead, the many genes involved in muscle cell fusion may be acting in earlier stages in the process that include: cell cycle arrest, recognition, alignment and adhesion (Fig. 1). We use a molecular genetic approach to identify the mammalian myoblast fusogen using expression of candidate genes in BHK cells and complementation of a C. elegans eff-1 deletion mutant with cross species expression of mouse cDNAs expressed during muscle formation. The approach and rationale is novel, risky and with extremely high potential of making a very important ...
Carcinogenesis is a sophisticated biological process consisting of a series of progressive changes in somatic cells from premalignant to malignant phenotype. Despite the vast information available about cancer cells, the origin of cancer and cause of metastasis still remain enigmatic. The hypothesis of cell fusion is one of several models explaining the evolution of neoplasia into clinically significant cancer. This theory states that cancer cells through heterotypic fusion with host cells generate hybrids expressing traits from both parental cells, and acquire metastatic potentials and growth-promoting properties. The cell fusion theory is still unproven and speculative, but cell fusion is a common biological process in normal tissue. Accumulated evidence shows that macrophage-cancer cell fusion occurs in vitro and in vivo and produces hybrids with metastatic potential, but the clinical significant of cell fusion is unclear. The aim of this thesis is to test this hypothesis in clinical patient ...
Introduction] Recent reports demonstrating the ability of bone marrow (BM) cells to regenerate cardiomyocytes (CMs) have prompted clinical as well as basic studies for the treatment of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo, to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs.. [Method and Result] BM cells of mice constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was intravenously injected into irradiated syngeneic newborn C57BL/6 mouse within 48hours after the birth. At 4-5weeks after transplantation, the cardiac tissue of recipients was analyzed for the number of GFP+ CMs per 40 sections. We first separated Linaege antigen− BM cells to CD45+ cells (Lin−CD45+) and CD45− cells ...
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Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown, despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of obvious viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. EFF-1 and AFF-1 comprise the FF family and together they are necessary for virtually all somatic cell fusions in C. elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. ^ Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Yet, FF proteins are sufficient to fuse heterologous invertebrate cell types, suggesting that they function autonomously in foreign molecular and proteomic environments. The work presented here examines whether a predicted 14-3-3
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Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We used the in vivo ER fusion assay to determine whether the rate of fusion decreases in ufe1-1 cells. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at permissive temperature (23°C), ER fusion occurred ∼5 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), similar to what was found for wild-type cells (Fig. 2 e). It was not possible to perform this assay with cells shifted to a nonpermissive temperature (37°C) immediately before mating because yeast will not mate at this temperature (Grote, 2010). Instead, we shifted cells to 32°C just before mating. At this temperature, ufe1-1 strains were viable but grew much more slowly than wild-type cells (unpublished data), suggesting that Ufe1p function is substantially reduced at this temperature. When ufe1-1 cells were mated at 32°C, ER fusion occurred a mean of ∼10 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), indicating that these cells have a modest fusion defect. At this temperature, cells missing only Sey1p fused their ER ∼16 min after cell fusion (Fig. 3 c), somewhat faster than at ...
The role of prostanoids in the regulation of chick myoblast differentiation has been investigated. At 3 X 10(-6) M, indomethacin and chloroquine specifically inhibit cell fusion. They do not affect cell proliferation, alignment, or the expression of two muscle-specific proteins, namely, the acetylcholine receptor and the muscle-specific form of creatine phosphokinase. The results demonstrate that it is indomethacins activity as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis at the cyclooxygenase step that causes the block of cell fusion, whereas chloroquine probably acts at the earlier step of phospholipase A. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), but not prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), rapidly reverses the inhibition of fusion imposed by indomethacin or chloroquine. The dose response of the myoblasts to PGE1 is a bell-shaped curve with a 100% reversal of fusion at approximately 10(-9) M. Eicosatrienoate and linoleate reverse the inhibition of fusion with similar kinetics, whereas arachidonate is completely ineffective. ...
A viral fusogen drives cell-cell fusion by hijacking the actin machinery to directly couple actin assembly with a short fusogenic ectodomain.
Macrophage traits in cancer cells are induced by macrophage-cancer cell fusion and cannot be explained by cellular interaction. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Looney TJ, Zhang L, Chen CH, Lee JH, Chari S, Mao FF, Pelizzola M, Zhang L, Lister R, Baker SW, Fernandes CJ, Gaetz J, Foshay KM, Clift KL, Zhang Z, Li WQ, Vallender EJ, Wagner U, Qin JY, Michelini KJ, Bugarija B, Park D, Aryee E, Stricker T, Zhou J, White KP, Ren B, Schroth GP, Ecker JR, Xiang AP, Lahn BT. Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells. Genome Res. 2014 Feb; 24(2):267-80 ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight, said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.. Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified proteins that allow muscle cells in mice to form from the fusion of the early stage cells that give rise to the muscle cells.. The findings have implications for understanding how to repair and rehabilitate muscle tissue and to understanding other processes involving cell fusion, such as when a sperm fertilizes an egg, when viruses infect cells, or when specialized cells called osteoclasts dissolve and assimilate bone tissue in order to repair and maintain bones.. The findings were published online January 7 in the Journal of Cell Biology.. Through a process that starts with these progenitor cells, the body forms tissue that accounts for about one-third of its total weight, said the studys senior author, Leonid V. Chernomordik, PhD. Our study provides the first look at the very early stages of this fusion process.. Muscle cells originate from precursor cells known as myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to form a single long ...
Phenotypic analysis of DCs/allo-HCC fusion cells created in the presence of HCCsp. A, Four types of DC were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of the ind
Its not easy to make one plus one equal one. But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells -- a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional analysis of glycoprotein L (gL) from rhesus lymphocryptovirus in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated cell fusion indicates a direct role of gL in gB-induced membrane fusion. AU - Plate, Aileen E.. AU - Smajlović, Jasmina. AU - Jardetzky, Theodore S.. AU - Longnecker, Richard. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Glycoprotein L (gL), which complexes with gH, is a conserved herpesvirus protein that is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) entry into host cells. The gH/gL complex has a conserved role in entry among herpesviruses, yet the mechanism is not clear. To gain a better understanding of the role of gL in EBVmediated fusion, chimeric proteins were made using rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV) gL (Rh gL), which shares a high sequence homology with EBV gL but does not complement EBV gL in mediating fusion with B cells. A reduction in fusion activity was observed with chimeric gL proteins that contained the amino terminus of Rh gL, although they retained their ability to process ...
During human placentation, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form a multinucleated syncytia ensuring hormonal production and nutrient exchanges between the maternal and fetal circulation. Syncytia formation is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and for fetal growth. The trophoblast cell fusion process first requires the acquisition of cell fusion properties, then cells set up plasma membrane protein macrocomplexes and fusogen machinery that trigger cellecell fusion. Numerous proteins have been shown to be directly involved in the initiation of trophoblast cell fusion. These proteins must expressed at the right time and in the right place to trigger cellecell fusion. In this review, we describe the role of certain fusogenic protein macrocomplexes that form the scaffold for the fusogen machinery underlying human trophoblastic-lipid mixing and merging of cell contents that lead to cell fusion in physiological conditions.
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and in combination they were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which in turn promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelledinvasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drosophila Myoblast Fusion. T2 - Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union. AU - Lee, Donghoon M.. AU - Chen, Elizabeth H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants R01 AR053173 and R01 GM098816, an American Heart Association Established Investigator Award, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Faculty Scholar Award to E.H.C. D.M.L. is supported by a Canadian Institute of Health Research postdoctoral fellowship. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Annual Reviews Inc.. All rights reserved.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying cell-cell ...
Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. With this chapter we describe standard chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during myoblast fusion. Furthermore we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative Omecamtiv mecarbil to the fusion apparatus. is definitely functionally equivalent to vertebrate skeletal muscle mass yet the take flight musculature is much simpler and requires only a short time to develop (1). These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate ...
Skeletal muscle formation depends on the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Myoblast fusion is also the basis of muscle growth and repair during postnatal life. The ability of myoblasts to fuse and thereby inject their nucleus into existing muscle fibers led to several preclinical and clinical trials aimed at treating both muscle and non-muscle-related disorders. Identifying the pattern of events that induce myoblast differentiation and their commitment to fuse would benefit the search for improving myoblast-based therapies.. Using primary myoblast cultures derived from single human satellite cells (Baroffio et al., 1993), we have previously shown that membrane potential and the biophysical properties of specific ionic channels are important actors in the fusion process. We found that human myoblasts hyperpolarize before fusion through the sequential expression of two different K+ channels, ether-à-go-go (EAG) K+ channels (Bijlenga et al., 1998; Occhiodoro et al., ...
We are pursuing three projects that extend from our interests in the development of tissues and the innovative application of light microscopy to biology: Developmental cell fusion, Second-harmonic generation microscopy, and Genome-wide imaging of C. elegans development. Developmental Cell Fusion Formation of multinucleate syncytia (giant cells) is essential to the development and regeneration of human skeletal muscle, and is key to fertilization and the formation of various specialized cell types in many species. Yet the mechanism by which fusing cells recognize each other and merge their membranes is poorly understood. We use genetics and microscopy in the nematode worm C. elegans to study the mechanisms by which cells fuse during this animals development. Our recent studies of the unique cell-fusion protein EFF-1 indicate that the molecular machinery of cell fusion has been re-invented during evolution of different cell types and divergent organisms. We are also investigating the mechanism ...
The Chen lab studies mechanisms underlying cell-cell fusion, a fundamental cellular process in the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. We approach this question using a multifaceted approach including genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, live imaging, super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy. Starting with a forward genetic screen in Drosophila, we have identified multiple evolutionarily conserved core components of the myoblast fusion signaling cascade, and, more importantly, discovered a novel cellular mechanism underlying myoblast fusion. We show that myoblast fusion is an asymmetric process in which one cell invades its fusion partner using actin-propelled membrane protrusions to promote fusion pore formation. Building on insights we learned from myoblast fusion in vivo, we have reconstituted high-efficiency cell-cell fusion in an otherwise non-fusogenic, non-muscle cell line and uncovered a previously unrecognized function for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two genes required for cell fusion during yeast conjugation. T2 - evidence for a pheromone-induced surface protein.. AU - Trueheart, J.. AU - Boeke, J. D.. AU - Fink, G. R.. PY - 1987/7. Y1 - 1987/7. N2 - We characterized two genes, FUS1 and FUS2, which are required for fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells during conjugation. Mutations in these genes lead to an interruption of the mating process at a point just before cytoplasmic fusion; the partition dividing the mating pair remains undissolved several hours after the cells have initially formed a stable prezygote. Fusion is only moderately impaired when the two parents together harbor one or two mutant fus genes, and it is severely compromised only when three or all four fus genes are inactivated. Cloning of FUS1 and FUS2 revealed that they share some functional homology; FUS1 on a high-copy number plasmid can partially suppress a fus2 mutant, and vice versa. FUS1 remains essentially unexpressed in vegetative cells, but ...
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Using gene KO experiments, we uncovered the crucial function of MymX, MymK, and MRF regulators during human myoblast differentiation and fusion. With these unique gene KO reagents, we also carefully compared the fusogenic activities of human and mouse MymX/MymK orthologs. Contrary to a protein homology-assisted prediction, human MymK, instead of MymX, showed higher activities compared with their mouse orthologs. Even in the absence of MymX, MymK protein can induce low-level myoblast fusion in a dosage-dependent manner. Future endeavors are needed to study the biochemical basis underlying the functional gain of human MymK protein.. MymX and MymK expression ought to be tightly controlled for proper multinucleations of myoblasts in coordination with differentiation program. Our functional studies of MyoD, MyoG, and other MRFs highlight the distinct contributions of these factors in governing human myoblast fusion. Specifically, MyoD is essential and sufficient to transactivate the fusion program. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Transplanted hematopoietic stem cells are a promising vehicle for treatment of disease. Recently, cell fusion between bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) and extra-hematopoietic cells has been demonstrated in both tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis, although the physiologic fate of these cells has not been determined. Our long-range research goal is to understand the role of BMDC fusion in tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. This application is designed to characterize donor and host contributions to fusion between BMDCs and intestinal tumor epithelium, and to determine if cell fusion plays a direct role in tumor progression. Based upon the observation that myeloid progenitor cells fuse with differentiated hepatocytes, we will identify the discrete subset of BMDCs that is competent to fuse with intestinal epithelium. Next, we will define components of the host environment that synergistically act to optimize fusion between the two cell types. Finally, we ...
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. Could anybody provide this, or give a source for it ? Please reply to the eMail address indicated below (I will post it afterwards to the discussion group) -- ********************************************* * Silvio Hemmi, PhD * Molecular Biology I * University of Zuerich * ETH-Hoenggerberg, HPM D5 * CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland * Tel +41/1/633 24 93 * eMail hemmi at molbiol.unizh.ch ...
The possibility that isomerization controls the fusion activity was tested by analysing Mo‐MLV fusion and infectivity under conditions that either inhibited or induced isomerization. The fusion was studied as virus‐induced polykaryon formation in XC cells (fusion‐from‐without). Fusion of cell‐bound virus is induced by incubation at 37°C and terminated by pH 3.0 treatment. In confluent cultures (Figure 6A), the fusion will merge cells, and with time these will rearrange into polykaryons (Figure 6B). Preliminary testing demonstrated that TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ supported fusion as effectively as DMEM (data not shown). Therefore, TN/1.8 mM Ca2+ was used as the control condition. The time course of the fusion process is shown in Figure 6C.. We first studied the effect that alkylation‐mediated inhibition of isomerization had on fusion. To avoid adverse effects due to alkylation of internal viral proteins, we used the membrane‐impermeant reagents M135 and MTSET. We observed a ...
Examination under anesthesia to determine the degree of fixed contractures, physical therapy and continuous use of a passive motion machine, protected weight bearing, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications have been reported methods of nonoperative management. (Segaren, 2014) Aggressive surgical release (Roy 1988) and hinged hip distraction (Thacker 2005) may be needed in recalcitrant cases. The clinical course is variable. Some hips will progress to end stage arthritis or even spontaneous fusion, whereas others may completely heal. (Bleck 1983 ...
PRR determinants controlling cell-to-cell and virus-to-cell fusion thresholds.As inferred from the results of syncytium assays, MLV-4070A glycoproteins harboring mutations in the PRR, such as PROMO, PROFR, A2, and A3, appeared more readily fusogenic in cell-to-cell fusion assays and thus seemed more reactive than wild-type amphotropic envelopes. They may thus require fewer PiT-2 amphotropic receptors to trigger their cell-to-cell fusogenicity. To test the relationship between increased fusogenicity and requirements for PiT-2 receptor molecules, we compared cell-to-cell fusion to either XC or XC-A-ST cells. In the latter, constitutive expression of an interfering amphotropic BD reduced the number of available functional PiT-2 receptors as demonstrated by the reduced capacities of either PROMO or MLV-4070A envelope glycoproteins to bind XC-A-ST cells compared to that of parental XC cells (see Fig. 5A). As expected, this resulted in an inhibition of fusion of XC-A-ST cells through cell-to-cell ...
Virus-cell and cell-cell fusion.: Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins; both those that function a
The classical method of producing diagnostic and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is to fuse Ab-producing B-cells with cancerous mouse cells (hybridoma technology). The product of this cellular fusion serves as a source for the production of mAbs in vitro or in vivo. In either case large numbers of animals (i.e. syngeneic mice for in vivo production) or large amounts of animal products (fetal calf serum for in vitro production) are required. In addition, the syngeneic mice are, depending on the treatment and the type of adjuvants applied, often exposed to high physical stress. In addition, if these mAb would be used in humans they would have to be engineered to contain only human DNA-sequences in their framework (humanization). We would like to replace these cumbersome and - in terms of animals sacrificed or fetal calf serum consumed - very intense procedures by a technology which starts directly with the immunological profile of human antigen-specific B-cells to produce pure human ...
Larionova N., Samosudova N., N.Reutov, The possible of L-glutamate and nitric oxide in frog cerebellum cellular fusion and neuronal net functional control // 2-nd International Conference on Glia 1, Interfaces in the Nervous Systems: Development and Repair, Uppsala, Sweden. 2001. p.25 ...
An analysis of the R18 fusion assay was made during the fusion of the Sendai virus with erythrocyte ghosts. The increase in R18 fluorescence, reflecting the interaction process, was evaluated in terms of the different processes that in principle may contribute to this increase, that is, monomeric probe transfer, hemifusion, and complete fusion. To this end, the kinetics of the R18-labeled lipid mixing were compared to those obtained with an assay in which the fusion-monitoring probe, eosin-maleimide, was attached to the viral surface proteins. The experiments relied on the use of native and fusion-inactive viruses and studies involving viral and target membranes that were modified by the incorporation of the lysophospholipid. The total dequenching signal detected in the R18 assay consists of components from probe transferred without fusion and from fusion itself. At 37 degrees C, the initial rate of dequenching (within two minutes) was predominately from the probe diluted by fusion with little
In this paper, a myoblast fusion defect was attributed to mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin gene. We now show that the fusion defect instead apparently arises from the TM3 balancer chromosome. Experiments subsequent to publication using a TM3-containing line that lacked a paramyosin mutation suggested that we had mis-identified balancer chromosome-containing individuals before the late embryonic stage as paramyosin mutant homozygotes (prm1/prm1). By using a lacZ-expressing version of TM3, staining experiments unambiguously identified young prm1 homozygotes and showed them all to lack the fusion defect, implying that the fusion defect is due to the presence of the TM3 chromosome. We have not tested whether this is a homozygous or heterozygous effect of TM3. The apparent rescue of the fusion defect by the wild-type paramyosin transgene is presumably due to the absence of the TM3 chromosome, instead of the presence of the paramyosin transgene. We conclude that embryos identified as ...
Podosomes and Invasive Protrusions. Our genetic and cell biological studies led to the discovery of an actin-enriched podosome-like structure (PLS) at the site of Drosophila myoblast fusion. The PLS is only generated in one of the two fusing cells (attacking cell). It projects finger-like invasive protrusions into the receiving cell, increasing membrane contact area and facilitating membrane juxtaposition and fusion. The one-sided PLS invasion makes the site of fusion an asymmetric structure, which we termed the asymmetric fusogenic synapse. Similar invasive protrusions mediate the induced fusion of cultured Drosophila non-muscle cells, and the fusion of mammalian myoblasts, osteoclasts and macrophages. Thus, invasive protrusions are used as a conserved and general mechanism to promote cell-cell fusion.. ...
Cell fusion is known to underlie key developmental processes in humans and is postulated to contribute to tissue maintenance and even carcinogenesis. The mechanistic details of cell fusion, especially between different cell types, have been difficult
In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed‐color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days
The large regions of DNA that can be cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are ideal for expression studies of the complex genes and gene clusters found in the mammalian genome. Such studies...
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hardware after fusion - MedHelps hardware after fusion Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hardware after fusion. Find hardware after fusion information, treatments for hardware after fusion and hardware after fusion symptoms.
Two haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell which has all genetic info for forming new organism, must have same set of genetic info if organism is to resemble parents, mitosis ensures cell divides to give identical group of cells ...
Jamb and Jamc are an essential cell surface receptor pair that interact to drive fusion between muscle precursor cells during zebrafish development.
The Fleischmann-Pons press conference was 30 years ago this month! I didnt pay much attention to it at the time---I was, after all, in preschool---and then I heard hardly a word about cold fusion in college, or in physics grad school, or as a professional physicist. Finally, a few years ago, I was surprised to…
The Fleischmann-Pons press conference was 30 years ago this month! I didnt pay much attention to it at the time---I was, after all, in preschool---and then I heard hardly a word about cold fusion in college, or in physics grad school, or as a professional physicist. Finally, a few years ago, I was surprised to…
Spinal self fusion usually is a prolonged process, and the outcome cannot be predicted as the fusion can be irregular. Consult a doctor now.
Aguilar, P.S., Baylies, M.K., Fleissner, A., Helming, L., Inoue, N., Podbilewicz, B., Wang, H., and Wong, M. (2013). Genetic basis of cell-cell fusion mechanisms. Trends in genetics : TIG 29, 427-437 ...
Plays a role in myoblast fusion; probable mediator of endocytic recycling for membrane trafficking events during myotube formation.
Provides in-depth assessment of 500+ genes associated with fusions in cancer, including solid tumors, soft tissue cancers and hematological malignancies. Delivers detected fusions in a simple report.
Are you looking for a unique way of getting fit? Try fusion. A fusion workout blends different disciplines or different styles within a discipline to offer variety and a more complete workout. Here, we look at four variations:
p120 colocalizes with Arm in other tissues. (A-D) Stage 15. p120 (red); Arm (green). Arm is enriched in fusion cells (red arrows). (E) p120-GFP. (F and G) Sta
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Harris, Henry (1970). Cell Fusion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-857344-9. Harris, Henry (1968). Nucleus and Cytoplasm ... ISBN 978-0-19-951362-8. (The Romanes Lecture for 1993). Harris, Henry (1995). The Cells of the Body: A History of Somatic Cell ... Harris's research interests were primarily focused on cancer cells and their differences from normal cells. He later studied ... In 1960, he was appointed the head of the new department of cell biology at the John Innes Institute, and, in 1964, he ...
Mantle cell lymphoma Kite Pharma selpercatinib[15] RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer Eli Lilly ... MET exon 14 skipping mutated non-small cell lung cancer Novartis KTE-X19[15] ...
"Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (9): 831-9. doi:10.1038/ncb1164. PMID 15322554.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (4): 653-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.200110081. PMC 2174079. PMID 11839770.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (4): 653-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.200110081. PMC 2174079. PMID 11839770.. ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 10 (1): 119-34. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.1.119. PMC 25158. PMID 9880331.. ...
"Mitofusin-1 protein is a generally expressed mediator of mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 ... MFN2 knockout mice die at embryonic day 11.5 due to a defect in the giant cell layer of the placenta. Mitochondrial fusion is ... A defective mitochondrial fusion has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of CMT2A. Another important cell feature ... Hence, inhibiting mitochondrial fusion would sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, making it a significantly more effective ...
Karyogamy in the context of cell fusion. 1-haploid cells, 2-cell fusion, 3-single cell with two pronuclei, 4-fusing pronuclei ( ... C) Before cell-cell fusion, MTs are maintained at the shmoo tip. (D) Sliding cross-bridge model for nuclear congression. ... Pronuclear fusion (karyogamy)[editar]. Merging of the nuclear envelopes of the pi occurs in three steps: fusion of the outer ... A shmoo is a projection of the cellular membrane which is the site of initial cell fusion in plasmogamy. After plasmogamy, the ...
In 1975, Georges Köhler and César Milstein succeeded in making fusions of myeloma cell lines with B cells to create hybridomas ... similar to a cancer cell). This mixture of cells is then diluted and clones are grown from single parent cells on microtitre ... that produce antibodies specific to an antigen of interest and fusing these cells with myeloma cells. Rabbit B-cells can be ... single cell amplification from various B cell populations and single plasma cell interrogation technologies. Different from ...
Moreau, K.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2011). "Autophagosome precursor maturation requires homotypic fusion". Cell. 146 (2): 303-317. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.044. PMC 3791395. PMID 24034251. Vicinanza, M.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2015). "PI(5)P regulates ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.023. PMC 3171170. PMID 21784250. Puri, C.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2013). "Diverse autophagosome ... F1000 Prime Faculty Member Research Gate Publication analysis 2007-2013, Cell Biology "Centre for Science and Policy". ...
... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81404-x. PMID 9529252. Zemelman, BV; ... began working in the laboratory of James Rothman on SNARE proteins and their influence on the intracellular membrane fusion. ...
"The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion." Cell, Vol. 116, 153-166, January 23, 2004, Synaptobrevin at the US National ... minimal machinery for membrane fusion". Cell. 92 (6): 759-72. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81404-X. PMID 9529252. S2CID 5637048. ... Bock JB, Scheller RH (October 1999). "SNARE proteins mediate lipid bilayer fusion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (22): ... Fasshauer D, Sutton RB, Brunger AT, Jahn R (December 1998). "Conserved structural features of the synaptic fusion complex: ...
Dudas M, Li WY, Kim J, Yang A, Kaartinen V (2007). "Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... Boklage CE (2010). How new humans are made cells and embryos, twins and chimeras, left and right, mind/selfsoul, sex, and ... Maternal alcohol use has also been linked to cleft lip and palate due to the effects on the cranial neural crest cells. The ...
Dudas M, Li WY, Kim J, Yang A, Kaartinen V (2007). "Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a ... Dudas M, Li WY, Kim J, Yang A, Kaartinen V (2007). "Palatal fusion - where do the midline cells go? A review on cleft palate, a ... It is due to the failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes (formation of the primary palate). Unilateral ... It occurs due to the failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, or the median palatine processes ( ...
This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate ... This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the ... Saglio G, Cilloni D (2004). "Abl: the prototype of oncogenic fusion proteins". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (23): 2897-911. doi: ... The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in ...
"Embryonic cell fusion redefined: The new RMX2010". Clonaid. Retrieved 2 January 2008. Human cloning firm sets up affiliate in ... Boisselier revealed the roles of four scientists she says were involved-"a biochemist, a geneticist, a cell fusion expert and a ... Besides offering cloning services, Clonaid has developed one product, an "embryonic cell fusion device" called the RMX 2010. ... A biotechnology company called Advanced Cell Technology had cloned human embryo cells for medical purposes, and its CEO Michael ...
Bonifacino JS, Glick BS (January 2004). "The mechanisms of vesicle budding and fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-66. doi:10.1016/ ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.036. PMID 17604721. S2CID 10692166. Belden WJ, Barlowe C (November 2001). "Role of Erv29p in ... Cell Dev. Biol. 18 (4): 424-34. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2007.06.007. PMID 17686639. Hughes H, Stephens DJ (February 2008). " ... Cell Biol. 129 (2): 129-51. doi:10.1007/s00418-007-0363-x. PMC 2228377. PMID 18060556. D'Arcangelo, Jennifer G.; Stahmer, Kyle ...
Avigan D, Rosenblatt J, Kufe D (June 2012). "Dendritic/tumor fusion cells as cancer vaccines". Seminars in Oncology. 39 (3): ... whole necrotic or apoptotic tumor cells, tumor cell lysates and DC-fused with tumor cells. An advantage to using tumor cell ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the most potent APC (antigen presenting cell) of the immune system. DC cells have a unique ... Autologous tumor cell vaccines These vaccines are made from antigens taken from the patient's own cancer cells. Autologous ...
Exosomes are released eventually due to fusion of this endosome with plasma membrane of cell. Hijacking of exosomal machinery ... and further fusion or uptake of diffusing OMVs by host/target cells (Fig. 2). In conclusion, membrane vesicle trafficking via ... "The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)01079-1. PMID 14744428. Hehnly ... in the realm of cell-to-cell signaling. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Endocytosis Exocytosis Host-pathogen interaction ...
... has also been used as a mechanism to trigger cell fusion. Artificially induced cell fusion can be used to ... such as in cell vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. However, the first and most known application of cell fusion is production ... Takakura K, Kajihara M, Ito Z, Ohkusa T, Gong J, Koido S (March 2015). "Dendritic-tumor fusion cells in cancer immunotherapy". ... Afterwards, the cells have to be handled carefully until they have had a chance to divide, producing new cells that contain ...
These lack cell walls; the syncytia are created by cell fusion. Some plasmodiophorids and haplosporidians are other ... In some cases, the resulting structure is a syncytium, created by the fusion of cells after division. Under suitable conditions ... A plasmodium is a living structure of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei, rather than being divided into individual cells each ... which in other organisms pulls newly-divided cells apart. ...
She demonstrated the precise fusion of mammalian somatic cells using microsurgery in 1972. She was made head of the Cytobiology ... Diacumakos, Elaine G.; Tatum, Edward L. (October 1972). "Fusion of Mammalian Somatic Cells by Microsurgery". Proceedings of the ... Her work with micropipettes became well known, and she worked with Dana Giulian on electrodes which could impale human cells ... In 1979 she collaborated with William French Anderson to insert a functioning gene into a defective cell within a living mouse ...
Bonifacino, Juan S.; Glick, Benjamin S. (2004-01-23). "The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. ... Newly made secretory proteins must pass through the ER and the golgi complex before they can leave the cell. Problems with COP ... Arakel, Eric C.; Schwappach, Blanche (2018-03-01). "Formation of COPI-coated vesicles at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. ... This gene plays an important role in regulating the transport of proteins within cells. Symptoms for Congenital ...
Bonifacino JS, Glick BS (January 2004). "The mechanisms of vesicle budding and fusion". Cell. 116 (2): 153-166. doi:10.1016/ ... a family of NSF attachment proteins involved in intracellular membrane fusion in animals and yeast". Cell. 61 (4): 709-721. doi ... where they recycle key tethering components after each fusion event. After membrane fusion, the tethering SNARE proteins remain ... NSF provides the energy to untangle the SNARE complex, allowing it to be recycled for future fusion events. Mammals have three ...
"Analplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non-small cell lung cancer". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Retrieved 30 ... "Anapestic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non-small cell lung cancer". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Retrieved 30 ... However, chromosomal translocation and fusion give rise to an oncogenic form of ALK that has been implicated in progression of ... "Roche announces FDA approval of companion diagnostic to identify ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients". diagnostics ...
Podbilewicz, B.; White, J. G. (1994). "Cell fusions in the developing epithelial of C. Elegans". Developmental Biology. 161 (2 ... He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. In more ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (5): 2123-2135. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.5.2123. PMC 2114830. PMID 3680373.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 121 (6): 1343-1355. doi:10.1083/jcb.121.6.1343. PMC 2119718. PMID 8509454.. ...
"Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e43355. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...743355M. ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere. As other non-human extant ... According to the observation of embryonic cells of egg, chromosome number of the itch mite is either 17 or 18. While the cause ...
Telomere fusion to chromosome breaks reduces oncogenic translocations and tumour formation. „Nat Cell Biol". 7 (7), s. 706-11, ... Cell". 123 (6), s. 1121-31, Dec 2005. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.020. PMID: 16360040. ... Cell". 51 (6), s. 887-98, Dec 1987. PMID: 3319189. *EH. Blackburn, CW. Greider, E. Henderson, MS. Lee i inni. Recognition and ... Mol Cell". 24 (3), s. 423-32, Nov 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.10.020. PMID: 17070718. ...
... and motor-dependent fusion in vitro between apical and basolateral endocytic vesicles from MDCK cells". Cell. 62 (4): 719-731. ... Gruenberg, J.; Howell, K. E. (1988). "Fusion in the endocytic pathway reconstituted in a cell-free system using immuno-isolated ... Gorvel, J. P.; Chavrier, P.; Zerial, M.; Gruenberg, J. (1991-03-08). "rab5 controls early endosome fusion in vitro". Cell. 64 ( ... Gruenberg, J. E.; Howell, K. E. (1986-12-01). "Reconstitution of vesicle fusions occurring in endocytosis with a cell-free ...
... cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion ... to the site of membrane fusion, thereby forming the 20S fusion complex. Alpha- and gamma-SNAP are found in a wide range of ... Cell. 9 (6): 1549-63. doi:10.1091/mbc.9.6.1549. PMC 25382. PMID 9614193. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, Vilim FS, Khatri L, ... Once the 2 classes of SNAREs bind to each other, they form a complex that recruits the general elements of the fusion apparatus ...
"Mitochondrial fusion and fission in cell life and death". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 11 (12): 872-84. doi:10.1038/ ... "Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for mitochondrial division in mammalian cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 12 (8 ... Xie N, Wang C, Lian Y, Zhang H, Wu C, Zhang Q (June 2013). "A selective inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, protects against cell death ... They found that knocking out Drp1 resulted in the appearance of large mitochondria in Purkinje cells and prevented neural tube ...
The third stage is the actual cell fusion itself. In this stage, the presence of calcium ions is critical. In mice, fusion is ... Finally, the muscle fibers that form later arise from satellite cells. Two genes significant in muscle fusion are Mef2 and the ... Myogenin (also known as Myf4) is required for the fusion of myogenic precursor cells to either new or previously existing ... In addition, satellite cells have the capability to also differentiate into bone or fat. In this way, satellite cells have an ...
The features of craniosynostosis' particular phenotype are determined by which suture is closed.[7] The fusion of this suture ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... New insights have given fuel to a debate whether there might be an intrinsic factor causing the premature fusion of the sutures ... Not all cranial abnormalities seen in children with craniosynostosis are solely a consequence of the premature fusion of a ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... Entry/fusion inhibitors (Discovery and development). *gp41 (Enfuvirtide (ENF, T-20)). *CCR5 (Maraviroc (MVC) ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... This musical fusion is essentially what constitutes the flow and foundational "heartbeat" of a variety of genres. ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... April 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... Brain PET-MRI fusion image. PET scans are increasingly read alongside CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with the ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research ...
... which is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes.[50] The virions taken up by the cell then travel to ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... fusion protein against VEGF (Aflibercept). *proapoptotic peptide against ANXA2 and prohibitin (Adipotide) ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
In his speech he used words such as "cell" and "metabolism" in relation to urban design. The Metabolist movement grew out of ... the hall he conceived was a fusion of Shinto shrine architecture and the plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome. The design was not ...
Over 90% of thyroid tumors arise from follicular thyroid cells.[8] A fusion protein, PAX8-PPAR-γ, is implicated in some ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
"The Resurrection of Cell and Frieza" / "The Villains Of Hell!! The Revival of Cell and Frieza". Transcription: "Jigoku no ... "Super Saiyan 4 Fusion" / "Fu--sion!! The Ultimate Super Gogeta". Transcription: "Fyū-jon!! Kyuukyoku no Sūpā Gojīta" (Japanese ... Cell and Frieza show up, and now that he's trapped in hell, he has no choice but to fight them. ... He says that there is a single cell on the chest of the robot, and that hitting it with simultaneous blasts from the inside and ...
It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... fusion protein against VEGF (Aflibercept). *proapoptotic peptide against ANXA2 and prohibitin (Adipotide) ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... May 2012). "Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, in a process linked to androgen receptor levels.[9] ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.[ ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... For the original use of the term 'cold fusion', see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion ( ... Cold fusion researchers (McKubre since 1994,[144] ENEA in 2011[89]) have speculated that a cell that is loaded with a deuterium ... "cold fusion" in 1986 in an investigation of "geo-fusion", the possible existence of fusion involving hydrogen isotopes in a ...
Hybrid Fusion-FISH[edit]. Hybrid Fusion FISH (HF-FISH) uses primary additive excitation/emission combination of fluorophores to ... Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ... "Defining the sister rat mammary tumor cell lines HH-16 cl.2/1 and HH-16.cl.4 as an in vitro cell model for Erbb2". PLOS ONE. 7 ...
... such as the coding of speech for digital transmission in cell phone networks). In such applications, the data must be ...
The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... Inside the endosome, the decreased pH induces the fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope. The capsid enters ... After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ...
Heat of fusion. *Heat of vaporization. *Ionization energy. *Melting point. *Oxidation state ... 18-column, detailed cells. *32-column, detailed cells. Alternative. *Alternatives. *Janet's left step table ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... Benzo[a]pyrene, showing the base pyrene ring and numbering and ring fusion locations according to IUPAC nomenclature of organic ... BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into macrophages, the body's ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ...
It is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission.[3]. Many of the most pressing ... Lighter and cheaper wires, antistatic materials, organic solar cells Femtotechnology, picotechnology Hypothetical Present ... Other examples can be seen in the "plastic" casings of television sets, cell-phones and so on. These plastic casings are ... storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars, filtration systems, longer-lasting and faster-charging batteries, sensors to ...
Sir Arthur Eddington of Weston-super-Mare was the first to realise that nuclear fusion powered the Sun; at the 1920 British ... Nearby on Lydiard Fields in Lydiard Tregoze is Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, which in 2002 was the world's first production site ...
That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ... For instance, in children age is typically estimated by assessing their dental development, ossification and fusion of specific ...
Load cell. *Magnetic level gauge. *Nuclear density gauge. *Piezoelectric sensor. *Strain gauge ...
Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... this fusion may make their membranes more rigid and better able to resist harsh environments.[112] For example, the lipids in ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
... "a quintessential fusion of pop and Indian music".[265] Lennon called the song one of Harrison's best: "His mind and his music ... he began radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City for non-small cell lung cancer that had spread to ... songs remain the most imaginative and successful examples of this type of fusion - for example, 'Blue Jay Way' and 'The Inner ...
Fusion power. *Home fuel cell. *Hydrogen economy. *Methanol economy. *Molten salt reactor ... Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells.[27] The wood gas ... Electricity from wood through the combination of gasification and solid oxide fuel cells, Ph.D. Thesis by Florian Nagel, Swiss ...
"Fusion. Retrieved September 29, 2016. *^ "Slavery to Mass Incarceration". Equal Justice Initiative. Retrieved September 29, ... Using photos sent via cell phone, Crabapple recreated rare glimpses of daily life in ISIS-occupied Syria. The series so far ... with Kim Boekbinder and Jim Batt to create a series of five videos on political topics in 2015 for the media website fusion.net ...
cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... "Wnt-independent activation of beta-catenin mediated by a Dkk1-Fz5 fusion protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328 (2): 533- ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ... negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt ...
The album continued the fusion of electronic music and rock and also featured guest appearances from two future Porcupine Tree ... cell phones, iPods, this download culture, 'American Idol,' reality TV, prescription drugs, PlayStations-all of these things ...
cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • negative ... 2003). "A novel fusion gene, SS18L1/SSX1, in synovial sarcoma". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 37 (2): 195-200. doi:10.1002/gcc. ... 2006). "Gene expression profiles relate to SS18/SSX fusion type in synovial sarcoma". Int. J. Cancer. 118 (5): 1165-72. doi: ... 2002). "Co-existence of SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 fusions in synovial sarcomas". Oncogene. 21 (26): 4181-90. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Because these proteins also mediate or influence entry of virus into cells, the... ... Attention is focused in this review on viral proteins that are known to mediate or influence virus-induced cell fusion. ... Okada, Y., and Murayama, F., 1966, Requirement of calcium ions for the cell fusion reaction of animal cells by HVJ, Exp. Cell ... Hosaka, Y., and Shimizu, K., 1977, Cell fusion by Sendai virus, in: Virus Infection and the Cell Surface (G. Poste and G. L. ...
In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods, a team of leading experts provide a collection o ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. In Cell Fusion ... Optical Imaging of Cell Fusion and Fusion Proteins in C aenorhabditis elegans ...
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:111-39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101512-122422. Epub 2014 Jun 27. Research Support, Non-U.S ... Four classes of membrane proteins are known in virus and cell fusion. Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are α-helix ... Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. Class I cell-cell fusogens ... Virus and cell fusion mechanisms.. Podbilewicz B1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of ...
... Josef P. Magyar magyar at cell.biol.ethz.ch Tue Sep 2 04:30:10 EST 1997 *Next message: ... We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. Could anybody ...
... cells during palatal fusion, programmed cell death, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and migration of these cells to the ... Our results demonstrate that MEE cells die and transform into mesenchyme during palatal fusion and that dead cells are ... Medial edge epithelial cell fate during palatal fusion.. Martínez-Alvarez C1, Tudela C, Pérez-Miguelsanz J, OKane S, Puerta J ... We show that MEE cell death in TGF-beta(3) null palates is greatly reduced at the time of fusion, revealing that TGF-beta(3) ...
This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... These four ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion and a ... Cell fusion normally occurs with nuclear fusion, but in the absence of nuclear fusion, the cell would be described as a ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Cell Fusion online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Cell Fusion by A. E. Sowers. ... Fusion in Cell Membranes.- Virus-Induced Cell Fusion.- Probing ... Applications of Membrane Fusion.- The Early History of Mammalian Somatic Cell Fusion.- Bioselective Cell-Cell Fusion for ... Fusion-Permissive Protoplasts.- Experimental Cell Fusion with Selected Siphonocladalean Algal Cells.- Fusion in Model Membranes ...
The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat ... The cell fusion method allows DCs to be exposed to the broad array of TAAs originally expressed by whole tumor cells. DCs then ... DC-tumor FCs require optimized enhanced immunogenicity of both DCs and whole tumor cells. In this context, an effective fusion ... are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immunity. Therefore, various ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Cell Fusion by A.E. Sowers at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and ... Title:Cell FusionFormat:HardcoverDimensions:560 pages, 9.21 × 6.14 × 0 inPublished:March 31, 1987Publisher:Springer US ...
Cell Fusion genetic engineering is emerging as a hot topic in the Certified Organic seed and food industry. We can expect the ... What is Cell Fusion?. Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and ... Is Cell Fusion Compatible With Organic Standards?. The discussion at the conference centered around whether it is appropriate ... Cell fusion technology is currently being used extensively in the production of both organic and conventional foods. I have ...
... increasing the amount of fuel available for rampant cell growth. ... at Columbia University discovered that a common fusion of two ... Gene fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer Study suggests new approach to treating cancers with this ... Gene fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer. Columbia University Medical Center ... Central nervous system cells expressing the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion protein.. (Credit: Iavarone and Lasorella labs) ...
... prior to the Cells creation. "Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell Established". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2015-06-15. ... Since the White House established the fusion cell on June 24, 2015-along with positions including a special presidential envoy ... The Cell has a team to assist the family members of hostages. Rob Saale, director of the Cell from 2017-2019, described the ... The Presidency of Barack Obama established the Hostage Recovery Fusion Cell on June 24, 2015. The Federal Bureau of ...
Cell to cell fusion is known to be extremely rare in plant cells due to the presence of the relatively tough cell wall. Only ... where the egg cell and the central cell coordinately play key roles in eliminating the persistent synergid cell by cell fusion ... contains a seven-celled embryo sac consisting of two synergid cells, one egg cell, one central cell and three antipodal cells. ... This research reveals a new type of cell fusion that is initiated to destroy a particular cell, and enlightens the evolution of ...
Activation of Army Irregular Warfare Fusion Cell by SWJ Editors. SWJ Blog Post , July 11, 2011 - 8:20am. ... The U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, recently activated the Army IW Fusion Cell (AIWFC) to ... Instead of standing up a fusion cell separate from another organization that is already looking specifically at irregular ... The AIWFC has a small core "cell" that includes the director, and has a wider "in-house" staff from other organizations ...
Is Faradys law applicable to electrochemical cell Jan 15, 2013. Electrolysis (Chemistry) with electrochemical cell Feb 20, ... Polyolefin Ion Membranes in Electrochemical Cells Jan 11, 2017. Electrochemical cell electrode potential difference May 19, ... Potentials are set up by charges, charges create electrical potential, in the case of an electrochemical cell, the anode and ... It is when you connect this two cells, which have differences in potential, with a conducting wire where youll actually have a ...
The Principle of Membrane Fusion in the Cell: Lecture Slides. Pdf 7.49 MB. Copyright © James E. Rothman ... James E. Rothman - Nobel Lecture: The Principle of Membrane Fusion in the Cell ...
... a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies. ... But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells -- ... Prior to fusion, cells are engineered to bond to one another by using a minor chemical treatment. Cells are first placed in an ... The power of one: A simpler, cheaper method for cell fusion. WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Its not easy to make one plus one equal ...
CELL fusion is an essential and ubiquitous process in eukaryotic organisms, with many examples of cell fusion events throughout ... Kel1p has multiple functions in cell fusion. Here we show that Kel1p has multiple functions in the cell fusion pathway. First, ... 2008 Dynamic localization of yeast Fus2p to an expanding ring at the cell fusion junction during mating. J. Cell Biol. 181: 697 ... It is thought that Fus2p localizes GTP-bound Cdc42p to the zone of cell fusion, where it activates fusion of vesicles with the ...
1. Using tabulated standard reduction potentials from your text, calculate the standard cell potential, E°cell (always positive ... Similar Discussions: E Cell Values! * What is the E cell value for the following equation? (Replies: 3) ... 12 H + 2IO3 + 5e- ---, I2 + 6H2O E CELL = ???????. I CANT FIND THIS REACTIONS ECELL IN MY TEXT BOOK BUT SOMEHOW I FOUND IT ON ... Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community. Forums , Homework and Coursework , Biology, Chemistry and Earth Homework ...
... including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with de ... cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety ... Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool ... We suggest that this approach will benefit a broad array of studies that investigate consequences of cell fusion or use cell ...
Gene Ontology Term: cell morphogenesis involved in conjugation with cellular fusion. GO ID. GO:0000753 Aspect. Biological ... The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs during sexual reproduction in order to facilitate direct contact between ... the compatible mating types in organisms that undergo conjugation cellular fusion.. Synonyms. shmooing, shmoo orientation View ...
... cell fusion explanation free. What is cell fusion? Meaning of cell fusion medical term. What does cell fusion mean? ... Looking for online definition of cell fusion in the Medical Dictionary? ... See also betz cells, gauchers cells, golgis cells, hela cells, hürthle cell, kupffers cells, merkel cell, mesangial cell, ... cell fusion. the fusion of two cells in TISSUE CULTURE.. cell. 1. the basic structural unit of living organisms. ...
... and contains EML4-ALK fusion variant 1 (E13; A20). ... An isogenic cell line ATCC CCL-185IG was created by using ... Control parental cell line for the EML4-ALK Fusion-A549 Isogenic Cell Line Human (ATCC® CCL-185IG ™) cells. Date Updated: 1/18/ ... was created from the A549 parental cell line, CCL-185, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. The EML4-ALK fusion in CCL-185IG ... EML4-ALK Fusion-A549 Isogenic Cell Line Human (ATCC® CCL-185IG™) Organism: Homo sapiens, human / Cell Type: epithelial / Tissue ...
... and bis-amidines are capable ofblocking cell fusion induced by Respiratory Syncytial (RS) virus.Suitable amidino compounds ... A number of aromatic mono- and bis-amidines are capable ofblocking cell fusion induced by Respiratory Syncytial (RS) virus. ... U.S. Inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus-induced cell fusion by amidino compounds. (U.S. Patent No. 4324794). ... Inhibition occurs in RS virus-infectedHep-2 cells as well as CV-1 cells. BABIM also causes a significantretardation of RS virus ...
Mating of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of opposite sex provides a powerful model system to study the cell-cell fusion ... Quantitation of yeast cell-cell fusion using multicolor flow cytometry.. [Valentina Salzman, Valentina Porro, Mariela Bollati- ... This current method is limited by expectancy bias and it is time consuming, restricting the number of both cell-cell fusion ... and reliable method to quantify the cell-cell fusion in yeast. ... pairs within a mixture of gametes and quantify cell fusion ...
... cell fusion hybrid seeds as GE and GMOs, excluding cisgenic cell fusion as a "traditional method" and not genetic engineering/ ... and cited the process of cell fusion as GE. This ruling defines seeds produced with cell fusion as a genetically engineered/ ... Cell fusion is also called protoplast or somantic fusion and can involve a mutant gene with the purpose of creating cytoplasmic ... Cisgenic cell fusion is a biotechnical process of mutagenesis whereby the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced ...
Here, we set out to generate an isogenic EML4-ALK fusion non-small cell lung cancer model in the A549 lung cancer cell line ( ... mediated genomic DNA cleavage in A549 cells revealed the successful creation of the EML4-ALK fusion found in tumor cells from a ... Cell Mol Life Sci 73(6): 1209-24, 2016. PubMed: 26755435 *Koivunen JP et al., EML4-ALK fusion gene and efficacy of an ALK ... cells were treated with 1 µM of same compounds and cell survival was confirmed by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability ...
That evolution is now moving forward with adult stem cell therapy. ... When a report came out in 2005 that researchers had found the stem cell origin of vertebrates in the human neck and shoulders, ... We know that subsets of stem cells from the marrow also can robustly build bone. Their use now to promote vertebral fusion is a ... More about adult stem cell, Therapy, spinal fusion, Surgeries, University of California Davis Health System ...
You are shown the results of a cell fusion experiment in which the plasma membrane of the fused cell looks like it is evenly ... D) the fused cell is in the process of dividing back into the two donor cells. E) the membrane of the fused cell is a static ... Cell Fusion experiment. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... B) the fused cell was incubated below 150 C preventing diffusion and mixing of the membrane proteins. C) the fused cell was ...
The effect on cell proliferation in PANC-1 cells by M-CTX-Fc was evaluated by cell count. PANC-1 cells were seeded onto 12-well ... Cell Migration Assay. The migration of PANC-1 cells was assayed in 24-well plates with 8 μm pore cell culture inserts (BD, ... H. Nagase, "Cell surface activation of progelatinase A (proMMP-2) and cell migration," Cell Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 179- ... The cells were washed twice with PBS to evaluate specific binding to cell surfaces. The cells were fixed with 4% ...
  • In biomembrane fusion pathways, membranes are destabilized through insertions of amphipathic protein segments, lipid reorganization via hemifusion, protein restructuring, and dimpling of the membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Protein Modulation of Liposome Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In their previous study, the researchers found that drugs that inhibit FGFR3 kinase, an enzyme that helps the protein produced by this fusion gene do its work, increased survival when tested in mice with glioblastoma. (eurekalert.org)
  • The technique is integral to stem cell research, where it affords researchers greater insight into how genes guide protein synthesis. (psychcentral.com)
  • C-terminal truncations of Fus2p cause mislocalization and fusion defects, which are suppressed by overexpression of Kel1p , a kelch-domain protein of unknown function previously implicated in cell fusion. (genetics.org)
  • We describe a simple, versatile, scalable, and nontoxic approach that we call V-fusion, as it is based on the ability of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a viral fusogen of broad tropism, to become rapidly and reversibly activated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which contains the genetic material, composed of the chromosomes , each of which is a long linear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule associated with protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The EML4-ALK gene fusion caused by a chromosomal inversion can produce constitutively active ALK tyrosine kinase protein, which leads to enhanced cell survival and cell proliferation. (atcc.org)
  • The EML4-ALK fusion in CCL-185IG has been intensively validated at the genomic, transcript and protein levels. (atcc.org)
  • An isogenic cell line was created to model cancer patients with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene, a key oncogenic driver, and then tested for its sensitivity to known selective inhibitors of ALK. (atcc.org)
  • We subsequently confirmed expression of the EML4-ALK fusion protein to be an 86 kDa fragment as expected by western blotting (data not shown). (atcc.org)
  • In this study, the fusion protein was generated by joining the CTX peptide to the amino terminus of the human IgG-Fc domain without a hinge domain, the monomeric form of chlorotoxin (M-CTX-Fc). (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting fusion protein was then used to target pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • When the cells were treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), the internalization of the fusion protein was reduced, implicating a clathrin-dependent internalization mechanism of M-CTX-Fc in PANC-1 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • MT1-MMP is expressed as a 63 kDa protein on the surface of tumor cells and acts as a cell-surface receptor and activator of proMMP-2 [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression of any of these protein fusions in Brca2 mutant cells substantially improved HDR while suppressing mutagenic repair. (pnas.org)
  • To explore the role of syp in membrane fusion and dense-core vesicle function, we used amperometry to measure catecholamine release from single vesicles in male and female mouse chromaffin cells with altered levels of syp and the related tetraspanner protein synaptogyrin (syg). (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The secretory vesicle protein synaptophysin (syp) is known to function in synaptic vesicle cycling, but its roles in dense-core vesicle functions, and in controlling membrane fusion during Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis remain unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hi all, I've run into a curious problem with a fusion protein I recently generated. (protocol-online.org)
  • I've generated cell lines and cannot get it to express at 1/10 the level of mutant L. Transient expression also appears to result in very few viable cells expressing high-levels of the protein, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and western blotting. (protocol-online.org)
  • My guess is that the DmrB fusion destabilizes the protein, renders it toxic, prevents its proper localization, increases turnover, etc. (protocol-online.org)
  • A Kozak consensus sequence provides optimal expression of the fusion protein when the N-terminal vectors are used. (agilent.com)
  • Indeed, the protein that these people make doesn't include the immunosuppressive domain or the part thought to mediate cell fusion in the syncytium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) gene exhibits cell-specific as well as regional differences in its expression within the continuously regenerating small intestinal epithelium. (pnas.org)
  • Bone marrow cells from male mice that express, using a CRE-LoxP system, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) if the insulin gene is actively transcribed were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient female mice. (jci.org)
  • PURPOSE: EML4-ALK is a fusion-type protein tyrosine kinase that is generated by inv(2)(p21p23) in the genome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (uptodate.com)
  • Method and Result] BM cells of mice constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was intravenously injected into irradiated syngeneic newborn C57BL/6 mouse within 48hours after the birth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Deletion of the pef1 gene in the wild-type and different lysis-prone gene knock out mutants revealed a function of the protein in maintaining cell integrity during cell-cell fusion and in the presence of pore-forming drugs, such as the plant defense compound tomatine. (genetics.org)
  • The acute myelogenous leukemia-1 (AML1)-ETO fusion protein is generated by the t(8;21), which is found in 40% of AMLs of the French-American-British M2 subtype. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To dissect the molecular mechanism for the unique synergistic cytotoxicity of EDO-S101 with proteasome inhibition, which contrasted to the established alkylating drugs, we analysed proteasome activity, protein acetylation status, accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins as well as regulatory and effector proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in RPMI8226 myeloma cells by western blot. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Interestingly, and in contrast to bendamustine, melphalan and vorinostat, EDO-S101 was a strong inducer of pIRE-1, the key activator protein of the UPR in MM cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Enhanced Cytotoxic CD8 T Cell Priming Using Dendritic Cell-Expressing Human Papillomavirus-16 E6/E7-p16INK4 Fusion Protein with Sequenced Anti-Programmed Death-1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We developed potential adenoviral vaccines that express a fusion protein of HPV-16 E6 and E7 (Ad.E6E7) alone or fused with p16 (Ad.E6E7p16) and also encoding an anti-programmed death (PD)-1 Ab. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The new class of fusion protein agents falls under Peregrine's VTA technology platform for cancer therapy that includes over 200 patents and patent applications covering broad concepts of tumor therapy using agents that target tumor blood vessels. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The cell tropism of HIV-1 is though to be largely determined at the level of virus entry and mapped to the V3 region of the gp120 envelope protein ( 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Gp96-chaperoned peptides comprise the entire spectrum of peptides and larger protein fragments generated in cells and transported into the ER ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Using p14 mutants, we demonstrate that fusion is abrogated when binding of an adaptor protein is prevented and that direct coupling of the fusogenic ectodomain to branched actin assembly is sufficient to drive cell-cell fusion. (elifesciences.org)
  • One example is the reptilian orthoreovirus fusion protein p14, a non-structural, single-pass transmembrane protein, that is expressed after viral entry. (elifesciences.org)
  • To demonstrate that these protein interactions are relevant for myoblast fusion, I carried out double mutant experiments. (uni-marburg.de)
  • I could show that dock interacts genetically with the FC-specific gene rols, which encodes for an adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of Duf, and with the FCM-specific cell adhesion molecule hbs. (uni-marburg.de)
  • We had shown that spine fusion could be achieved by injection of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the paraspinal muscle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we report the efficient induction of tumor antigen-specific immune response by dendritic cells pulsed with recombinant fusion protein of Hsp70L1 and CEA 576-669 fragment of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) containing CAP-1 (a HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fusion protein CEA 576-669 -Hsp70L1 can promote dendritic cell maturation and activate dendritic cells to produce cytokines, such as interleukin-12, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and chemokines, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted, indicating the adjuvant ability of Hsp70L1 in the fusion protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, Hsp70L1 has potent adjuvant effect in form of fusion protein, indicating that Hsp70L1 may be widely used as Th1 adjuvant to prepare antigenic fusion protein for the therapeutics of cancer or infectious diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HSP-peptide complexes isolated from intact tumor cells or virus-infected cells or reconstituted by covalent cross-link or fusion-protein strategies are all capable of eliciting potent CD8 + CTL responses to the antigenic peptides bound to the HSP ( 1 , 2 , 8 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hsp70-like protein 1 (Hsp70L1) is structurally and functionally similar to Hsp70 and has the ability to promote dendritic cell maturation and activation as described previously by us ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report a case of relapsed T-ALL, despite low risk stratification at the time of diagnosis, harboring a novel fusion protein SPTAN1-ABL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Translation of the fusion product sequence showed in-frame fusion leading to the generation of a chimeric protein containing N-terminal SPTAN1 and C-terminal ABL1 with intact kinase domain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The full-length SPTAN1-ABL1 fusion protein was cloned in a mammalian expression vector and expressed in BaF3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The tropisms of HIV-1 strains for subgroups of CD4 + cells can be explained, at least partly, by the selective use of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (rupress.org)
  • PCR, FISH and immunoprecipitation were used to examine the fusion gene expression at RNA, DNA, and protein levels in NPC biopsies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 40-kDa gK protein was also immunoprecipitated from cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the UL53 gene. (asm.org)
  • In addition, a 36-kDa protein was detected in extracts from cells infected with HSV-2 with use of these sera. (asm.org)
  • Named BioID for proximity-dependent biotin identification, this approach is based on fusion of a promiscuous Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase to a targeting protein. (rupress.org)
  • BioID features proximity-dependent biotinylation of proteins that are near-neighbors of the fusion protein. (rupress.org)
  • When expressed in eukaryotic cells, the fusion protein will uniquely methylate DNA sequences with which it comes in to contact, thereby leaving a chemical trace of its interactions. (rupress.org)
  • Analogous to DamID, the biotin ligase is fused to a protein of interest, and then introduced into mammalian (or other) cells where it will biotinylate vicinal proteins upon supplementation of the culture medium with biotin. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, sequence analysis suggests that the fusion protein participates in the cell cycle progression. (mcponline.org)
  • The goal of the project presented in this thesis was to develop a method for high-throughput analyses of protein localization in mouse stem cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • it was therefore not possible to characterize protein localization in mouse stem cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Over the last decade the volume Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Most of the current work in the field of membrane fusion takes place within the context of intact or modified cells. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Control of Membrane Fusion in Polyethylene Glycol-Resistant Cell Mutants. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Physicochemical Factors Underlying Lipid Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • New Membrane Fusion Methods. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Applications of Membrane Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Class-I PI3-kinases are needed for pronuclear envelope formation and fusion in sea urchin zygotes, and Rab7 GTPase and PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 directly interact during the membrane fusion process. (biologists.org)
  • Accumulation of organelle content is signaled to the surface of yeast vacuoles in order to increase their storage capacity by homotypic membrane fusion. (biologists.org)
  • Previous work has demonstrated functions for syp in synaptic vesicle cycling, endocytosis, and synaptic plasticity, but the role of syp in the process of membrane fusion during Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis remains poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study used amperometry recording of catecholamine release from endocrine cells to assess the impact of syp and related proteins on membrane fusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Evidence indicating cell membrane fusion among cells and their processes where subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) virus is present is shown in an ultrastructural study of a brain biopsy. (nih.gov)
  • We show that furin cleavage at the modified R667 position generates discrete S1 and S2 subunits and potentiates membrane fusion activity. (osti.gov)
  • For the 15 years or so, we have developed a series of reconstitution platforms to investigate the molecular mechanism of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and the regulation of this process by regulatory factors. (yale.edu)
  • Besides demonstrating the core function of SNAREs during membrane fusion, we also applied various biophysical approaches to evaluate the energy landscape of the fusion process in a quantitative way. (yale.edu)
  • Currently, we are developing and applying novel tools, using DNA nanotechnology, microfluidic devices and single-molecule optical tweezers, to further elucidate the molecular mechanism and the energy evolved in the SNARE-mediate membrane fusion. (yale.edu)
  • Mapping the water molecules is key to understanding the process of cell membrane fusion, which could help facilitate the development of treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. (phys.org)
  • New 3-D maps of water distribution during cellular membrane fusion are accelerating scientific understanding of cell development, which could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. (phys.org)
  • Using neutron diffraction at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, researchers have made the first direct observations of water in lipid bilayers used to model cell membrane fusion. (phys.org)
  • For the neutron scattering experiments, we replaced some of the water's hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms, which helped the neutrons observe the water molecules during membrane fusion ," said Shuo Qian, the study's corresponding author and a neutron scattering scientist at ORNL. (phys.org)
  • While the basic steps of membrane fusion have been extensively investigated in the context of enveloped virus entry and SNARE-mediated intracellular vesicle fusion ( Südhof and Rothman, 2009 ), the molecules and pathways responsible for cell-cell fusion are less well understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • The UL53 gene product is thought to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion because mutations giving rise to the syncytial phenotype, wherein cells are extensively fused, frequently map to this gene. (asm.org)
  • Abstract -To investigate the still-undetermined role of the Ca 2+ -independent transient outward current ( I to1 ) on repolarization of the cardiac action potential, we used cell fusion to introduce I to1 into guinea pig cardiomyocytes, which normally lack this current. (ahajournals.org)
  • The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic abnormality is a key oncogenic driver, especially in non-small cell lung cancer. (atcc.org)
  • 1 When ALK acquires gene-specific mutations, forms a fusion gene with other genes, or gains additional gene copies, it becomes oncogenic. (atcc.org)
  • This ALK genetic abnormality is a key oncogenic driver, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 3%-7% of NSCLC cases observed in the United States. (atcc.org)
  • RET fusions are targetable oncogenic drivers that are present in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancer diagnoses. (curetoday.com)
  • The ALK fusion gene is a key oncogenic driver in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) ( 1 - 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, molecular data regarding oncogenic fusion may have a significant clinical impact. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Both ROS1 and RET receptor tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as oncogenic fusions in NSCLC ( 4 , 5 , 9 - 17 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • New York, NY (January 3, 2017)--The fusion of two adjacent genes can cause cancer by kicking mitochondria into overdrive and increasing the amount of fuel available for rampant cell growth, researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have discovered. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a 2012 study published in Science, the CUMC team found that some cases of glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of primary brain cancer, are caused by the fusion of two genes, FGFR3 and TACC3. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the CUMC researchers compared the activity of thousands of genes in cancer cells with and without FGFR3-TACC3. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study offers the first clues as to how cancer genes activate mitochondrial metabolism, a crucial and longstanding question in cancer research, and provides the first direct evidence that peroxisomes are involved in cancer," said study co-leader Anna Lasorella, MD, professor of cell biology (in the Institute for Cancer Genetics) and of pediatrics at CUMC. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results of the cascade are the activation of mating-specific genes, cell-cycle arrest, and polarized growth along the pheromone gradient toward the mating partner. (genetics.org)
  • FUS1 , FUS2 , and PRM1 are all pheromone-induced genes and are required in at least one of two mating cells to produce a diploid. (genetics.org)
  • The red dashed line indicates the genomic fusion junction for the ALK and EML4 genes. (atcc.org)
  • To allow sensitive detection of EML4-ALK fusion transcripts, we have now developed a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) system that captures all in-frame fusions between the two genes. (uptodate.com)
  • No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and the entire coding region of p53 in the carcinoma, and the expression of ALK fusion was negative. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Demmer, L. A. and Chaplin, D. D. (1993) Simultaneous transfer of four functional genes from the HLA class II region into mammalian cells by fusion with yeast spheroplasts carrying an artificial chromosome. (springer.com)
  • In an attempt to identify genes whose expression levels are differentially modulated by structurally different EWS-FLI-1 transcription factors, we have used microarray technology to interrogate 19,000 sequence genes to compare gene expression profile of type 1 or non-type 1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines. (cun.es)
  • expression of only 41 genes (0.215% of possible sequences analyzed) differed significantly between Ewing tumor cell lines carrying EWS-FLI-1 fusion type 1 with respect to those with non-type 1 fusion. (cun.es)
  • Detection of these fusion genes, generally identified by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques, is thus very important in guiding specific treatment decisions and selecting the most appropriate targeted therapy. (omicsonline.org)
  • 8 ] we have validated this platform in the clinical setting, demonstrating that it allows effective detection of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion genes from FFPE samples and identifies a greater number of positive cases that could benefit from targeted therapies. (omicsonline.org)
  • More than 75 chimeric fusion genes have been reported in T-ALL, the majority of which encode factors involved in transcriptional regulation, while only a smaller percentage codes for tyrosine kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Applying stem cells for therapeutic purposes will require an in-depth understanding of their biology, not only of the genes they express, but also the functions of the proteins encoded by the genes. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Accurate histological classification and identification of fusion genes represent two cornerstones of clinical diagnostics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (diva-portal.org)
  • 5] . This RCC subtype is defined by different translocations involving chromosome Xp11.2, all of which result in TFE3 gene fusions. (scirp.org)
  • Translocations may affect the level of gene expression, or more commonly, these genetic abnormalities may generate fusion or chimeric proteins with altered functional properties. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3 - 4 , 7 - 10 It is noteworthy that ALK -involving translocations were originally identified in ALK + T-/null-cell anaplastic large cell lymphoma. (haematologica.org)
  • Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are α-helix-rich prefusion trimers that form coiled-coil structures that insert hydrophobic fusion peptides or loops (FPs or FLs) into membranes and refold into postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class II virus-cell fusogens are β-sheet-rich prefusion homo- or heterodimers that insert FLs into membranes, ending in postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class III virus-cell fusogens are trimers with both α-helices and β-sheets that dissociate into monomers, insert FLs into membranes, and oligomerize into postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Class I cell-cell fusogens (Syncytins) were captured by mammals from retroviruses, and class II cell-cell fusogens (EFF-1/AFF-1) fuse membranes via homotypic zippering. (nih.gov)
  • The pulse voltage causes the cell membrane to permeate and subsequent combining of the membranes and the cells then fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this type of cell fusion polyethylene glycol, PEG, acts as a dehydrating agent and fuses not only plasma membranes but also intracellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusion in Cell Membranes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Role of Metalloendoprotease in the Fusion of Biological Membranes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Fusion in Model Membranes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The Mechanism of Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Fusion in Model Membranes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • You are shown the results of a cell fusion experiment in which the plasma membrane of the fused cell looks like it is evenly divided between the two donor cell membranes. (biology-online.org)
  • We present a new methodology to reconstitute proteins on membranes with complex geometry by means of vesicle fusion, unveiling a putative novel function of CHMP2B as a diffusion barrier in dendritic spines. (biologists.org)
  • The presence of fused membranes between cell processes and cell soma probably explains the rapid spread of this virus throughout the nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • We found that two muscle cells don't simply open up their membranes and symmetrically fuse together," says Elizabeth H. Chen, Ph.D ., an assistant professor in the department of molecular biology and genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
  • Before the new study, it was assumed that actin-enriched blobs sit atop the membranes of muscle cells preparing to fuse, equally dispersed. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the intermediate fusion phase, known as hemifusion, the water is significantly reduced and squeezed into pockets around a stalk-a highly curved lipid "bridge" connecting two membranes before fusion fully occurs. (phys.org)
  • 10 nm) ectodomains that undergo conformational changes to bring apposing membranes in close contact prior to fusion. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, in other instances of cell-cell fusion, transmembrane proteins required for fusion are short by comparison and do not appear to undergo conformational changes, raising the question of how they bring two plasma membranes into close contact ( Figure 1a ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell fused to either at least one tumor cell or at least one virally infected cell, or the products of co-cultures of antigen presenting cells and either tumor cells or virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The anatomic localization of DCs is intimately linked to their function as antigen-presenting cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Heat shock proteins (HSP) have been revealed to interact with antigen-presenting cells and have potent adjuvant capability to induce antigen-specific CD8 + CTL and Th1 responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HSP-peptide complexes can be taken quite efficiently in a receptor-mediated manner by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells ( 2 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-lymphoblastic cell lines (B-LCL) were generated by Epstein-Barr virus transformation ( 22 ), infected with RSV A2 (ATCC VR1322), and UV irradiated ( 24 ) to serve as autologous antigen-presenting cells (APC). (asm.org)
  • The hybrid products of these fusions, heterokaryon, were hybrids that maintained two or more separate nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organic food and seed industry is faced with a decision about whether to continue business as usual by using hybrids derived from cell fusion genetic engineering or to come clean, resolve mistakes made in the past, and get on with providing the kind of food and seeds that people expect from "Certified Organic" and the Safe Seed Pledge. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cell fusion is also called protoplast or somantic fusion and can involve a mutant gene with the purpose of creating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which allows classified F1 hybrids to avoid inbreeding. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Several of the large production research seed companies that produce organic seed are not talking when asked which of their hybrids are produced using cell fusion-mediated CMS. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Not all F1 hybrids are developed using CMS GE cell fusion. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Importantly, we show that the fate of these hybrids is to embark upon apoptosis unless Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in the transplanted cells. (fightaging.org)
  • The presence of a normal enzyme encoded in chromosomes of the normal T cell component of the hybrids allows them to survive in HAT. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Compared with traditional protocols, cell fusion using this approach is well defined with better control, which leads to an improved yield of heterotypic binucleated hybrids. (rsc.org)
  • After fusion, the AC pulse reapplication maintains compression of the cells following the DC pulse resulting in a higher number of hybrids. (btxonline.com)
  • Carrot and tobacco somatic cell hybrids were isolated using a carrot cell line resistant to S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) and a tobacco cell line resistant to DL-5-methyltryptophan (5MT). (illinois.edu)
  • Benomyl, which inhibits nuclear fusion in yeast, did not appreciably reduce nuclear fusion in plant cell hybrids, based on complementation frequencies of 5MT and A2C, or 5MT and S-2(aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) resistant cell lines fused with the glyphosate resistant line. (illinois.edu)
  • No binucleate cells were observed in hybrid colonies and hybrids possessed additive parental chromosome numbers. (illinois.edu)
  • The ALK gene regulates cell growth and plays an essential role in the development of the brain by helping with the proliferation of nerve cells. (atcc.org)
  • In an effort to better understand the Warburg effect (or aerobic glycolysis) in relation to the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation, Yao et al. (isotope.com)
  • The authors show that the cancer cells they examined consume more oxygen during proliferation to sustain their mitochondria. (isotope.com)
  • Contrary to the common assumption that proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of mitochondrial metabolism, their results show that glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration increase by equal amounts during proliferation. (isotope.com)
  • In this study, p21-ELP-Bac and its control, ELP-p21, were used in cell proliferation studies using the pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, MiaPaca-2, and S2013. (dovepress.com)
  • Xp11.2 translocation RCC is a rare pediatric neoplasm that harbors gene fusions involving TFE3, which plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival. (scirp.org)
  • RARS-MAD1L1 overexpression increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenicity in vitro, and the silencing of endogenous RARS-MAD1L1 reduced cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further studies of SEC31A-ALK showed that this variant fusion transforms IL3-dependent Ba/F3 cells to growth factor independence, and that the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 reduces cell proliferation and kinase activity of SEC31A-ALK and its downstream effectors ERK1/2, AKT, STAT3 and STAT5. (haematologica.org)
  • We also defined the proliferation of the fused cells in HAT medium and the function of the fused cells in the Ouchterlony method, i.e. production of IgG.This method is applicable to fuse cells which are difficult to be fused by conventional methods. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It was this observation that provided the first hint that cells fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory virus in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • If two of the same type of cells fuse, but their nuclei do not fuse, then the resulting cell is called a syncytium. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four methods that cell biologists and biophysicists use to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All that remains separate is the nuclei, which will fuse at a later time within the cell, making the result a heterokaryon cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • But biological engineer Chang Lu has done just that with a new and cheaper method to electrically fuse cells - a vital technology for studying stem cells, creating clones and finding disease antibodies. (psychcentral.com)
  • My device uses constant DC voltage and would enable researchers to fuse one pair of cells at a time. (psychcentral.com)
  • Electrofusion - the process of using electric shocks to fuse two or more living cells - is a growing technology with a wide variety of applications in research, biotechnology and medicine. (psychcentral.com)
  • Passing through this narrow section, cells are subjected to a strong electrical field that causes them to become destabilized and fuse together. (psychcentral.com)
  • In one of electrofusion's applications, scientists can fuse antibody-producing cells from the spleen (beta cells) with cancer cells in order to create a virtually immortal, antibody-producing hybrid, called a hybridoma. (psychcentral.com)
  • Although Lu's technology currently fuses single pairs at once, it may be expanded so that multiple devices simultaneously fuse cells in parallel. (psychcentral.com)
  • He said his technology could be developed to fuse different types of cells in the future. (psychcentral.com)
  • The new undifferentiated cells fuse with the retinal neurones and these acquire the ability to regenerate the tissue. (fightaging.org)
  • We show that upon [induced] retinal damage, transplanted stem and progenitor cells (SPCs), such as mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (mHSPCs), human (h)HSPCs, retinal (R)SPCs, and embryonic stem cells, can fuse with retinal neurons in vivo with high efficiency. (fightaging.org)
  • It may be that this new understanding of muscle cell fusion will apply generally to other cells that fuse," Chen says, "such as egg and sperm, for instance, as well as bone resorption cells and cells that are vital for immune responses. (healthcanal.com)
  • Recent data both from cell-free experiments and from cultured cells have shown that lysosomes can fuse directly with late endosomes to form a hybrid organelle. (biologists.org)
  • As measured by Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) (Figure 4), partial zippering of the SNARE core domain generates about 35 kBT energy, corresponding closely to the energy needed to fuse outer but not inner leaflets (hemi-fusion) of outer lipid bilayer. (yale.edu)
  • When transfected into nonhuman NIH 3T3 cells expressing human CD4, the STRL33 cDNA rendered these cells competent to fuse with cells expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs). (rupress.org)
  • Using a simple method based on Cre/lox recombination to detect cell fusion events, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) fuse spontaneously with neural progenitors in vitro. (caltech.edu)
  • Furthermore, bone marrow transplantation demonstrates that BMDCs fuse in vivo with hepatocytes in liver, Purkinje neurons in the brain and cardiac muscle in the heart, resulting in the formation of multinucleated cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Second, we in vitro infected the MEE with the replication-defective helper-free retroviral vector CXL, which carries the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, and analyzed beta-galactosidase activity in cells after fusion to follow their fate. (nih.gov)
  • The latter process, which leads to syncytia formation in vitro and in vivo, is driven by the viral fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Using truncation mutants, we further establish that the C-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of BST2 is required for the restriction of MeV replication in vitro and cell-cell fusion. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, in vitro these bone marrow-derived cells exhibit - as do pancreatic β cells - glucose-dependent and incretin-enhanced insulin secretion. (jci.org)
  • 14. The formulation of claim 13, wherein said dendritic cells are selected from the group consisting of cutaneous epidermal Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells, lymph node dendritic cells, spleen dendritic cells and dendritic cells derived through in vitro culture of precursors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Retroviral gene transfer was used to examine the effect of AML1-ETO on the in vitro behavior of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The aim of the in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of EDO-S101 against Multiple Myeloma (MM), leukemia and lymphoma cells with established alkylating agents and to investigate its cellular and molecular effects in combination with proteasome inhibitors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Compared to bendamustine and melphalan, it has superior monoactivity in vitro against hematologic malignancies including MM, mantle cell lymphoma and ABC type DLBCL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) transduced with Ad.E6E7 or Ad.E6E7p16 with or without Ad.αPD1 were used to activate autologous CD8 CTL in vitro. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two glycosylated species of 39 and 41 kDa were produced when UL53 mRNA was translated in vitro in the presence of microsomes, and these proteins differed from gK produced in infected cells not only because they possessed different electrophoretic mobilities but also because they were unable to enter gels after being heated. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies show that tumor cells derived from a subset of patients with NSCLC harbor the EML4-ALK fusion oncogene, which is the result of a paracentric chromosomal inversion on the short arm of chromosome 2. (atcc.org)
  • Currently, Gavreto is approved in the U.S. for treatment of RET fusion-positive NSCLC and advanced or metastatic RET - altered thyroid cancers. (curetoday.com)
  • In particular, the safety population for this study included 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and 238 patients with other RET-altered solid tumors. (curetoday.com)
  • 48% men) with RET fusion-positive NSCLC had measurable disease. (curetoday.com)
  • Genomicrearrangements responsible for the fusion events in NSCLC cells were confirmed by genomic PCR analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (uptodate.com)
  • The above results suggest that CD74-ROS1 fusion is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of NSCLCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the future. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, since the incidence of ROS1 or RET fusions is less than that of ALK fusions in NSCLC, only a small number of NSCLC patients with ROS1 or RET fusions has thus far been identified. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, to contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 or RET fusion-positive NSCLC, we examined 114 NSCLCs derived from Japanese patients for the expression of ROS1 and RET fusion transcripts and pathohistologically and molecularly characterized those fusions that were detected. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Patients must have RET fusion-positive NSCLC as determined by the Foundation Medicine (FMI) tissue-assay, other tumor-based assays such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or follicular in situ hybridization (FISH), or by cfDNA blood assay. (rush.edu)
  • Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed in advanced stage and their prognosis is extremely poor [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • About 5%-7% of NSCLC rely on fusion oncogenes for growth and survival such as the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) and RET proto-oncogene (RET) [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we present a NanoString gene expression platform and a novel platform-independent, single sample predictor (SSP) of NSCLC histology for combined, simultaneous, histological classification and fusion gene detection in minimal formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subsequently, a ligand for fusin was identified as SDF-1, a bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor ( 17 , 18 ) that had been molecularly cloned and was known to stimulate the growth of pre-B cells in mouse ( 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Characterization of phenotype of human mesenchymal stem cells and HL-1 cardiomyocytes and vMSC-CM fusion products. (hindawi.com)
  • Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET. (nature.com)
  • Bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into cells of nonhematopoietic tissues of neuronal, endothelial, epithelial, and muscular phenotype. (jci.org)
  • however, like the BCR-ABL isoforms, the cellular background in which these fusion proteins are expressed may be critical to the phenotype observed. (bloodjournal.org)
  • All of the RSV-specific TCC proved to be of the CD8 + phenotype in fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. (asm.org)
  • The claim has also been made that BMCs acquire a cell phenotype different from the blood lineages only by fusing with resident cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • These four ways include electrical cell fusion, polyethylene glycol cell fusion, and sendai virus induced cell fusion and a newly developed method termed optically controlled thermoplasmonics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing Kv4.3 (CHO-Kv4.3) were loaded with a fluorescent dye and fused to guinea pig cardiomyocytes using polyethylene glycol. (ahajournals.org)
  • We describe the operation principles of the method and demonstrate its compatibility with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion. (rsc.org)
  • The work conducted by Henry and Nils showed that proteins from one gene fusion affect gene expression in the other partner's nucleus, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Columbia researchers have discovered how a gene fusion found in 3 percent of glioblastoma tumors boosts mitochondrial activity, triggering cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • At the time, it was thought that this gene fusion was limited to a fraction of brain tumors, affecting about 300 patients in the U.S. per year. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's probably the single most common gene fusion in human cancer," said study co-leader Antonio Iavarone, MD, professor of neurology and of pathology and cell biology (in the Institute for Cancer Genetics) at CUMC. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a variety of experimental techniques, the researchers determined that the gene fusion initiates a cascade of events that increases mitochondrial activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • The same effect was seen in a mouse model of human brain cancer containing this gene fusion. (eurekalert.org)
  • These drugs are now being tested in patients with recurrent glioblastoma that contains the gene fusion by one of the paper's co-authors, Marc Sanson, MD, of Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris. (eurekalert.org)
  • Xp11.2/TFE3 Gene Fusion Renal Cell Carcinoma Help! (cancer.org)
  • We herein present a case of RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion in a 14-year-old Japanese boy presenting gross hematuria and body weight loss. (scirp.org)
  • TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Bioinformatics analysis identified the novel SPTAN1-ABL1 gene fusion in which exon 2 of SPTAN1 was fused with exon 4 of ABL1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fusion proteoforms are translation products derived from gene fusion. (mcponline.org)
  • FusionPro provides an independent gene fusion prediction module and can build sequence databases for annotated fusion proteoforms. (mcponline.org)
  • Using quantitative cell-cell fusion assays, immunolabeling, and biochemistry we further demonstrate that ectopically expressed BST2 directly inhibits MeV cell-cell fusion. (mdpi.com)
  • The ImageXpress® Pico system does more than imaging-it offers unparalleled analysis capabilities that simplifies image analysis for cell-based assays. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Following transduction of CD34 + cells, stem and progenitor cells were quantified in clonogenic assays, cytokine-driven expansion cultures, and long-term stromal cocultures. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Probing the Function of Viral Fusion Proteins with Synthetic Peptides. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Gp96 obtained from tumor cells and used as a vaccine induces specific tumor immunity ( 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ), presumably through the transport of tumor-specific peptides to APCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vivo, this process is paralleled by DC migration to the lymphoid organs, where the mature DCs efficiently present processed antigenic peptides to interacting T cells (for a review see reference 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fusion peptides were identified against a customized database built by FusionPro. (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we develop a versatile proteogenomic tool "FusionPro," which facilitates the identification of fusion transcripts and their potential translatable peptides. (mcponline.org)
  • We use FusionPro to identify 18 fusion junction peptides and three potential fusion-derived peptides by MS/MS-based analysis of leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and K562) and ovarian cancer tissues from the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium. (mcponline.org)
  • This occurs after their spontaneous fusion with transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) . (fightaging.org)
  • 12-14 However, the use of cell lines may not accurately model the functional effects of AML1-ETO expression, owing to the different complement of transcription factors found in transformed cells versus hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • They include the development of coronary vessels that rescue hibernating myocardium, 11,12 de novo formation of myocytes 8,10 and vascular structures 4,8,9,12 or the activation and growth of resident progenitor cells via a paracrine effect 12 mediated by BMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sanger sequencing of prepared EML4-ALK cDNA from mRNA of the mutated cell line was carried out to confirm the expression of the EML4-ALK fusion transcript (Figure 2C). (atcc.org)
  • The supplementary information contains representative images of MSC-CM fusion products and corresponding fusion partners (MSCs and CMs) following immunocytochemistry for expression of CD73, CD90, CD105 and sarcomeric myosin proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to the epitope tag sequences, the pCMV-3Tag vectors contain features for optimal expression of fusion proteins in mammalian cells. (agilent.com)
  • The cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV) promoter allows constitutive expression of the cloned DNA in a wide variety of mammalian cell lines. (agilent.com)
  • pCMV-Tag 1 is an epitope tagging vector designed for gene expression in mammalian cells. (agilent.com)
  • This protocol describes the complete imaging experiment, consisting of transient expression of tetraspanin reporters (2 d), live-cell (dual-color) total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (30-60 min per condition), and semiautomatic image analysis by using a newly developed ImageJ macro (±30 min per condition). (nature.com)
  • The distribution of hGH in villus-associated enterocytes and goblet cells and its lack of expression in the crypts of Lieberkuhn mimicked that of the endogenous I-FABP gene product in all transgenic pedigrees. (pnas.org)
  • and (iii) there may be subtle genetic differences among various crypt stem cells that can be detected in vivo by observing mosaic patterns of transgene expression along the villus epithelium. (pnas.org)
  • Although the expression of SLC34A2-ROS1, EZR-ROS1, or KIF5B-RET fusion transcripts was not detected in any of the cases, the expression of CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts was detected in one (0.9%) of the 114 NSCLCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The expression of these fusion proteins transforms noncancerous cells ( 4 , 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Expression of AML1-ETO inhibited colony formation by committed progenitors, but enhanced the growth of stem cells (cobblestone area-forming cells), resulting in a profound survival advantage of transduced over nontransduced cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Such studies require that the YAC of interest be transferred into a suitable expression system, such as mammalian cells in tissue culture or transgenic animals. (springer.com)
  • To detect expression of CXCR-4 at the single cell level and dissect postbinding events of HIV-1 infection, we generated three mAbs against human CXCR-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, expression of CXCR-4 is not ubiquitous but cell type specific in hemopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although these data suggest that gp120 of T-tropic or M-tropic virus directly interacts with the relevant coreceptor to initiate the process of viral entry, the precise mechanism of cell tropism remains to be elucidated partly because cell surface expression of these coreceptors on target cells has not been thoroughly described. (jimmunol.org)
  • For analysis of intracellular expression of gp96-Ig, cells were lysed by three freeze-thaw cycles and centrifuged 60 min at 13,000 × g ( 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Expression of RstΔPADVI in all myoblasts or exclusively in FCs as well as FCMs impaired myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 was transfected with adenovirus expression vector containing cytosine deaminase (CD) and thymidine kinase (TK) fusion gene. (wjgnet.com)
  • The expression of CD-TK fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (wjgnet.com)
  • This involved exploring methods for optimizing cDNA synthesis, designing a retroviral vector (pBES23) for the expression of cDNA?GFP fusions in mouse stem cells, and constructing a cDNA?GFP fusion library in this vector using R1 mouse embryonic stem cell mRNA. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Functional analysis after stable mammalian cell culture expression. (springer.com)
  • The results generated with the CRE-LoxP system also suggest that in vivo cell fusion is an unlikely explanation for the "transdifferentiation" of bone marrow-derived cells into differentiated cell phenotypes. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that retinal damage is essential for cell-hybrid formation in vivo. (fightaging.org)
  • In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo , to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The LEGACY ECM 2001 is a multipurpose electro cell manipulation pulse generator capable of performing both electrofusion for hybridoma production, hybrid cell formation and nuclear transfer applications in addition to electroporation of cells in suspension and in vivo applications. (btxonline.com)
  • Tumor cells secreting gp96-Ig exhibited decreased tumorigenicity and increased immunogenicity in vivo and were rejected after initial growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • As shown in this publication, gp96-Ig-secreting tumor cells caused powerful immunization and tumor rejection in vivo dependent exclusively on CD8 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This result contrasted with the marked preferential fusion of the laboratory-adapted 81A over NL4-3 in immature MDDCs and in ex vivo Langerhans cells, indicating that these laboratory-adapted HIV strains do not fully recapitulate all of the properties of primary HIV isolates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These observations provide the first in vivo evidence for cell fusion of BMDCs with neurons and cardiomyocytes, raising the possibility that cell fusion may contribute to the development or maintenance of these key cell types. (caltech.edu)
  • C) Sequence of EML4-ALK fusion transcript across cDNA breakpoint for the isolated clone. (atcc.org)
  • The cyan dashed line is the EML4-ALK cDNA fusion junction. (atcc.org)
  • In 1996, this idea was finally substantiated by functional cDNA cloning of a cofactor for T cell-tropic (T-tropic) 3 HIV-1 infection ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Transfection of tumor cells with the cDNA for gp96-Ig resulted in gp96-Ig secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • The research outlined in this thesis focused on developing a system to create a large number of GFP-tagged proteins by constructing a cDNA?GFP fusion library. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • A streamlined workflow for cell counting and phenotypic characterization is critical to many experiments. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Identification and characterization of a novel herpes simplex virus glycoprotein, gK, involved in cell fusion. (asm.org)
  • Electrical cell fusion is an essential step in some of the most innovative methods in modern biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a report published Nov. 29 in the Journal of Cell Biology, the researchers described experiments using fruit fly embryos to identify an invasive projection propelled by the rapid elongation of actin filaments as the main player in the cellular power struggle. (healthcanal.com)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine the safety of CT-011 alone, and in combination with the Dendritic Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (DC RCC) vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gene fusions involving two of the MiT subfamily factors, such as TFE3, TFEB, TFC and MiTF, have been identified in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (scirp.org)
  • Our case report describes the fusion of heterotopic splenic tissue with the right adrenal gland, which was misinterpreted as a metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma. (degruyter.com)
  • it was interpreted as a suspected renal cell carcinoma ( Figure 1a ). (degruyter.com)
  • The Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat has a broad spectrum of epigenetic activities and sensitizes lymphoma and myeloma cells for a variety of cytotoxic drugs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have generated cytotoxic T-cell clones (TCC) from two infants who had just recovered from severe RSV infection. (asm.org)
  • Here, we set out to generate an isogenic EML4-ALK fusion non-small cell lung cancer model in the A549 lung cancer cell line (ATCC ® CCL-185IG ™), which harbors other naturally occurring genomic aberrations inherent in non-small cell lung cancer. (atcc.org)
  • These results indicate that bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent pancreatic endocrine β cells and that represent a source for cell-based treatment of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
  • The EML4-ALK oncogene, like other ALK fusion oncogenes, is a druggable target that is responsive to ALK inhibitors. (atcc.org)
  • The occurrence of a positive ~500bp PCR band for any isolated single cell clone using the primers 'A' and 'C' as well as 'B' and 'D' suggests the successful generation of an EML4-ALK fusion product. (atcc.org)
  • The introduction of the EML4-ALK mutation in the cell line was confirmed via Sanger sequencing as shown in Figure 2 (A, B) for the expected 5p and 3p genomic breakpoints. (atcc.org)
  • A, B) Sanger sequencing results for the 5p and 3p genomic junction PCR confirmed the accuracy of the generated EML4-ALK fusion product. (atcc.org)
  • Functional testing of the isogenic A549 EML4-ALK cell line gave a favorable drug response in comparison to its parental A549 cell line (Figure 3). (atcc.org)
  • Dose response curves for cells treated with ALK inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib (Figure 3 A, B) showed that the isogenic A549 EML4-ALK cell line has selective drug sensitivity to ALK inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib relative to the parental A549 cell line. (atcc.org)
  • Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR screening for EML4-ALK fusion transcripts. (uptodate.com)
  • The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat cancer patients. (mdpi.com)
  • For the past 50 years, bone marrow-derived stem cells have been used to rebuild patients' blood-forming systems. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Sixty percent of patients who have spinal fusion surgeries develop chronic pain or persistent discomfort, with adequate spinal fusions failing in approximately eight to 35 percent of patients. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Patients with RET fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer who received 400 mg of Gavreto (pralsentinib) once per day responded well to treatment and was tolerated, as shown by improved objective response rates. (curetoday.com)
  • So far, cases or even smaller groups of patients with spleno-pancreatic, spleno-gonadal, and spleno-renal fusion have been published. (degruyter.com)
  • This phase II LUNG-MAP treatment trial studies how well selpercatinib works in treating patients with RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer that is stage IV or has come back (recurrent). (rush.edu)
  • Patients with RET fusions detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) alone are not eligible. (rush.edu)
  • The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of Ewing tumor patients and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene that encodes a chimeric transcription factor. (cun.es)
  • Although CEA is a self-antigen with a tendency to be immunologically tolerant, a HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitope peptide of CEA, CAP-1 (CEA 605-613 , YLSGANLNL), is a target for T cell lines derived from HLA-A2.1-positive patients with CEA-expressing malignancies ( 14 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although survival rates have improved considerably, event free survival for patients with T-ALL are generally inferior compared to B-cell ALL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest the possibility that the presence of SPTAN1-ABL1 fusion gene may confer a higher risk disease thereby leading to early recurrence, similar to the treatment failures observed in B-ALL patients later found to harbor BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study also indicates a potential therapeutic role for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of T-ALL patients with ABL1 fusion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An example of this would be Bone Marrow Derived Cells (BMDCs) being fused with parenchymatous organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that bone marrow-derived cells populate pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (jci.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Legacy ECM 2001 EP System is designed for transfection of eukaryotic cells in suspension using electroporation cuvettes . (btxonline.com)
  • We have developed a new technique for proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in eukaryotic cells. (rupress.org)
  • These two types include homotypic and heterotypic cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterotypic cell fusion occurs between cells of different types, making it the exact opposite of homotypic cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The syncytia of Utricularia developed through heterotypic cell fusion involving the digestion of the cell wall, and finally, heterokaryotic multinucleate structures were formed, which possessed different-sized nuclei that were not regularly arranged in the cytoplasm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We are looking for a cell fusion library containig characterised human chromosomes e.g. chromosome 1 or 2 etc. (bio.net)
  • Four to six weeks after transplantation, recipient mice revealed Y chromosome and EGFP double-positive cells in their pancreatic islets. (jci.org)
  • Pavan, W. J., Hieter, P., and Reeves, R. H. (1990) Modification and transfer into an embryonal carcinoma cell line of a 360-kilobase human-derived yeast artificial chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Huxley, C., Hagino, Y., Schlessinger, D., and Olson, M. V. (1991) The human HPRT gene on a yeast artificial chromosome is functional when transferred to mouse cells by cell fusion. (springer.com)
  • Featherstone, T. and Huxley, C. (1993) Extrachromosomal maintenance and amplification of yeast artificial chromosome DNA in mouse cells. (springer.com)
  • In addition, our prediction results indicate that fusion transcripts often have multiple fusion junctions and that these fusion junctions tend to be distributed in a nonrandom pattern at both the chromosome and gene levels. (mcponline.org)
  • EGFP and the Y-chromosome were used as markers of the progeny of the transplanted cells in the recipient heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Extracellular vesicles derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenesis in a rat myocardial infarction model. (nature.com)
  • Although little is known about the molecular mechanism, several proteins required for cell fusion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified. (genetics.org)
  • Mating of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of opposite sex provides a powerful model system to study the cell-cell fusion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This isogenic cell line was created at ATCC by using CRISPR gene editing technology. (atcc.org)
  • Each of the fused hybrid cells contained a single nucleus with chromosomes from both fusion partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riley, J. H., Morten, J. E. N., and Anand, R. (1992) Targeted integration of neomycin into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) for transfection into mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • 1993) New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • In the second case with complex rearrangements of both chromosomes 2, a submicroscopic NPM1-ALK fusion created by insertion of the 3′ end of ALK into the NPM1 locus was evidenced. (haematologica.org)
  • However, MEE cell death has not always been accepted as a mechanism involved in midline epithelial seam disappearance. (nih.gov)
  • The study, published online on April 23, 2015 in the journal Cell, outlines the complicated mechanism of communication between plant cells, where an unusual cell fusion induces selective elimination of the cell responsible for pollen tube attraction after successful fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the role of synergid cells has been identified, we did not exactly know how the persistent synergid cell is degenerated and induces the polytubey block mechanism upon successful fertilization," says Daisuke Maruyama, an Assistant Professor at Nagoya University who is the first author and leader of this research. (innovations-report.com)
  • These rare findings reinforce the hypothesis of cell-to-cell transmission as the most likely mechanism of SSPE virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers] have used the cell fusion mechanism to reprogramme the neurones in the retina. (fightaging.org)
  • This mechanism consists of introducing bone marrow stem cells into the damaged retina. (fightaging.org)
  • However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • The new work shows what is believed to be the first time that an invasive podosome-like structure has been found in developing tissue of any kind, Chen says, noting that although podosomes were discovered several decades ago in studies of cells growing in dishes, they have not been seen in a developing animal or implicated as a mechanism in cell fusion. (healthcanal.com)
  • This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • We wanted to determine how FGFR3-TACC3 fusion induces and maintains cancer so that we could identify novel targets for drug therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Indeed, the activation of the Wnt pathway induces reprogramming of retinal neurons back to precursor or embryonic stages after HSPC or ESC fusion, respectively. (fightaging.org)
  • The Early History of Mammalian Somatic Cell Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • This process is also called somatic fusion or protoplast fusion. (motherearthnews.com)
  • 8 To circumvent this problem, in the present study, we have adapted standard protocols for somatic cell fusion 9 to deliver premade functional Kv4.3 ion channels to acutely dissociated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, which under physiological conditions lack an endogenous I to1 . (ahajournals.org)
  • The somatic musculature of Drosophila is analogous to vertebrate skeletal muscles and is generated by the fusion of mononucleate myoblasts. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This indicates that the PADVI domain in the intracellular domain of Rst plays an important role during myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Second, I investigated the role of the SH2-SH3 adopter Dreadlock (Dock) in myoblast fusion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • These data indicate that Dock functions in both myoblast populations during myoblast fusion and serves as a linker to transfer the fusion signal from the cell adhesion molecules Duf and Hbs to the actin cytoskeleton, e.g. by interacting with WASP and WIP. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased in recent decades, though HPV prevention vaccines may reduce this rise in the future. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CTL responses were tested against naturally HPV-infected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells using IFN-γ ELISPOT and [(51)Cr]release assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Attention is focused in this review on viral proteins that are known to mediate or influence virus-induced cell fusion. (springer.com)
  • 1982). IPC No. U.S. Inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus-induced cell fusion by amidino compounds. (rti.org)
  • Sacramento - When a report came out in 2005 that researchers had found the stem cell origin of vertebrates in the human neck and shoulders, a new step toward vertebrae evolution had begun. (digitaljournal.com)
  • That evolution is now moving forward with adult stem cell therapy. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Neurosurgery researchers, Kee Kim and Rudolph Schrot, of the University of California - Davis Health System, have developed a leading-edge stem cell therapy to relieve the debilitating pain that can occur following the removal of cervical discs. (digitaljournal.com)
  • The researchers used adult stem cells from bone marrow in order to promote growth of bone tissue for spinal fusion after surgery, used for numerous conditions like degenerative disc disease. (digitaljournal.com)
  • We know that subsets of stem cells from the marrow also can robustly build bone. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Kim is also planning on launching a clinical trial that will study how safe it is to inject stem cells into disc tissue to repair degenerated discs. (digitaljournal.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • These newly licensed patents are in addition to the 31 patents and over 280 patent applications pending worldwide that ACT owns or has licensed in the field of regenerative medicine, cloning, cell fusion , and related stem cell technologies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Not so long ago a reader asked me about cell fusion in relation to repairing age-damaged cells, and I noted that while some work on cell fusion is taking place it seems far less researched as a basis for regenerative therapies than, say, straightforward stem cell transplants. (fightaging.org)
  • Still, fusion of transplanted stem cells with local cells shows up in the recent work linked below, in which researchers demonstrate partial functional regeneration of damaged retinal tissue in mice - which is a pretty big deal as an outcome, and I can't imagine that the authors will have any trouble finding additional funds to move ahead with their work. (fightaging.org)
  • Thus, AML1-ETO enhances the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells, the physiological target of many acute myeloid leukemias. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Both mice lack definitive hematopoiesis and die in utero, and embryonic stem cells from these null mice are unable to contribute to definitive hematopoiesis in chimeric mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3-7 These findings demonstrate that AML1/CBFβ is required for the development of hematopoietic stem cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The silencing of FUBP1 or the administration of a c-Myc inhibitor abrogated the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics induced by RARS-MAD1L1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 The recognition that BMCs maintain some of the growth potential of younger cells has promoted a heated debate about stem cell plasticity and the utilization of BMCs in the treatment of ischemic heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stem cells have great potential value for treating a number of diseases and conditions, including diabetes, Parkinson's, and spinal cord injuries. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods , a team of leading experts provide a collection of overviews that outline our current understanding of cell fusion and methods that present classic and state-of-the-art experimental approaches in a variety of systems. (springer.com)
  • Divided into two convenient parts, the volume begins with nine overviews which describe different cell fusion events in models from yeast to mammals, and it continues with thirteen chapters illustrating commonly used methods to assay cell fusion in particular systems. (springer.com)
  • Cutting-edge and user-friendly, Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods serves as a comprehensive resource for anyone, expert or novice, interested in the fascinating biological process of cell fusion. (springer.com)
  • New methods of inducing fusion have been invented or discovered, and new applications for fusion have been found. (booktopia.com.au)
  • However, current methods of cell fusion are not satisfactory because of their toxicity, inefficiency, or lack of flexibility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results show that mating pair counts using both methods produce indistinguishable outcomes and that the flow cytometry-based method provides quantitative relevant information in a short time, making possible to quickly analyze many different cell populations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • According to the bill, those methods include cell fusion , microencapsulation and macroencapsulation, and recombinant DNA technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They can be secreted in bulk in response to cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals that cause multivesicular body (MVB) fusion with the plasma membrane (PM). However, research on the regulation of exosome release is hampered by the failure of current methods to capture the dynamics of exosome release. (nature.com)
  • The 1 MHz AC pulse aligns cells together in real time, saving time (seconds vs. hours) in comparison to PEG methods. (btxonline.com)
  • The fusogenic potential of Class I viral envelope glycoproteins is activated by proteloytic cleavage of the precursor glycoprotein to generate the mature receptor-binding and transmembrane fusion subunits. (osti.gov)
  • When two cells combine during fertilization, or a membrane-bound vesicle fuses during viral entry, neuron signaling, placental development and many other physiological functions, the semi-permeable membrane bilayers between the fusing partners must be merged to exchange their internal contents. (phys.org)
  • We are now assessing our options to further develop and commercialize these cytokine fusion proteins for cancer and potentially, viral infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A key feature of viral and cell-cell fusogens is their tall ectodomains, which in their metastable pre-fusion state typically extend more than 10 nm from the membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the defect in HIV replication observed in mature MDDCs stems at least in part from a decline in viral fusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These cells are thus well positioned to play an important role in regulating the effectiveness of HIV transmission and subsequent viral spread. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that HIV-1 exploits the unique distribution and function of DCs to promote effective viral spread to CD4 T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interestingly, the virions produced in such cocultures principally derive from the T cells ( 15 ), indicating that DCs can facilitate productive infection of T cells while not themselves serving as hosts for viral replication ( 2 , 18 , 25 , 27 , 28 , 42 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced by a nucleus from a different plant that might be from a different species or genera. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Growing non-hybrid seed is currently the most reliable way to avoid growing plants created via cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • I would like to see the release of a Safe Seed Pledge 2.0 which generally bans the use of cytoplasmic male sterility and specifically bans cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cell fusion genetic engineering allowed the creation of hybrid broccoli (and other brassicas) by combining a broccoli nucleus with radish organelles. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Genetic studies have identified four shmoo-tip-localized proteins ( Fus1p , Fus2p , Rvs161p , and Prm1p ) likely to play direct roles in the fusion pathway. (genetics.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells, the bacteria, have no nucleus, and their genetic material, consisting of a single circular naked DNA molecule, is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other organic seed companies which have similarly adopted a policy of banning cell fusion-created F1 hybrid seeds, because company owners view the process as genetic engineering, are challenging the current USDA National Organic Program which permits cisgenic cell fusion hybrid seed in organic production. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • By international organic certification standards, cell fusion is classified as genetic engineering, but these standards established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are being ignored by the United States, Europe and other countries. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • All typical plant syncytia (articulated laticifers, amoeboid tapetum, the nucellar plasmodium of river weeds) are formed only by fusion of sporophytic cells which possess the same genetic material, unlike Utricularia in which the syncytium possesses nuclei from two different sources: cells of maternal sporophytic nutritive tissue and endosperm haustorium (both maternal and paternal genetic material). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Muscle fusion is an integral part of muscle regeneration in genetic and acquired muscle diseases, and an accurate understanding of this basic cellular event could have important clinical applications in people with muscular dystrophy and other degenerative disorders, according to Chen. (healthcanal.com)
  • Huxley, C. (1994) Transfer of YACs to mammalian cells and transgenic mice, in Genetic Engineering (Setlow, J. K., ed. (springer.com)
  • Medial edge epithelial cell fate during palatal fusion. (nih.gov)
  • To explain the disappearance of medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells during palatal fusion, programmed cell death, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and migration of these cells to the oral and nasal epithelia have been proposed. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion) venom, which inhibits low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The two sperm cells independently fertilize the egg cell and the central cell to produce the embryo and the endosperm (a tissue that surrounds and nourishes the embryo), respectively, which eventually develops into a seed. (innovations-report.com)
  • the fusion of two cells in TISSUE CULTURE . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are currently several lines of research that explore the possibility of tissue regeneration through cell reprogramming. (fightaging.org)
  • However, nodules of splenic tissue can merge with other organs during embryonic development, in which case we speak of spleno-visceral fusions: most often, they merge with the tail of the pancreas (thus forming spleno-pancreatic fusion or an intrapancreatic accessory spleen), with the reproductive gland (i.e., spleno-gonadal fusion), or with the kidney (i.e., spleno-renal fusion). (degruyter.com)
  • Congenital heterotopia of splenic tissue can occur in the form of isolated accessory spleens, which are relatively common, or in the form of spleno-visceral fusions, i.e., the association of splenic tissue with another abdominal organ. (degruyter.com)
  • Our article presents a case report of fusion of heterotopic splenic tissue and the right adrenal gland. (degruyter.com)
  • Similarly, the accurate analysis of the cell populations implicated in the regeneration of the dead tissue is complex and these factors together may account for the negative findings. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we have implemented a simple protocol that can easily be reproduced and have reevaluated whether injection of BMCs restores the infarcted myocardium in mice and whether cell fusion is involved in tissue reconstitution. (ahajournals.org)
  • The t(2;17)(p23;q23) resulting in the CLTC-ALK fusion and a granular cytoplasmic ALK reactivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) 6 was observed in at least 70% of informative ALK + LBCL cases. (haematologica.org)
  • This technique enables the rapid delivery of premade functional ion channels to cardiomyocytes within hours of isolation, thus eliminating the action potential alterations that complicate prolonged cell culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aminopterin component of HAT inhibits a key enzyme in purine and thymine biosynthesis, cells in culture can survive this inhibition due to the presence of an alternate pathway and the exogenously added hypoxanthine and thymidine, a key enzyme in this pathway is not functional in BW5147 and this cell line dies in the presence of HAT. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • EDO-S101 is a first-in-class alkylating histone-deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) fusion molecule that combines the strong DNA damaging effect of bendamustine, with a fully functional pan-HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We conclude that EDO-S101, an alkylating HDAC inhibitor fusion molecule, displays bi-functional activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The recurrence, subtype enrichment, and the remarkably conserved nature of the TP63 portion of the fusion suggest an important functional role in the lymphomas that harbor this event. (bcgsc.ca)
  • In the present study, we report 2 new ALK + LBCL cases characterized by cryptic ALK rearrangements, and functional studies of the SEC31A-ALK fusion detected in one of these tumors that, like NPM-ALK , was shown to be sensitive for TAE-684. (haematologica.org)
  • Mutations that reduced ssDNA or Rad51 binding impaired the ability of the fusion proteins to function in HDR. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Meanwhile, the complexes or HSPs in the complexes interact with dendritic cells and stimulate dendritic cells to express MHC class II molecules, to secrete cytokines and chemokines, resulting in maturation of dendritic cells with migration to draining lymph nodes where they present antigen to T cells and initiate T-cell responses ( 1 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Likewise, the bulging cells observed on the MEE surface of wild-type mice prior to palatal shelf contact are very rare in the TGF-beta(3) null mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitation of yeast cell-cell fusion using multicolor flow cytometry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This method is based on staining the cell wall of yeast populations with different Concanavalin A-fluorophore conjugates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, our data show multicolor flow cytometry-based fusion quantitation to be a fast, robust, and reliable method to quantify the cell-cell fusion in yeast. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We describe two sets of vectors, one for yeast (pY1, pY2 and pY3) and one for mammalian cells (pM1, pM2, and pM3), that simplify the production of fusion proteins containing the DNA-binding domain of GAL4. (nih.gov)
  • Cell fusion normally occurs with nuclear fusion, but in the absence of nuclear fusion, the cell would be described as a binucleated heterokaryon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this fusion is also a synkaryon produced by the merging of the nuclei, and a binucleated heterokaryon in the absence of nuclear fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA from one cell and the nuclear DNA from a different one. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Chemicals and radiation are used in the process to created a hybrid plant with mixed genetics containing the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA from one cell and the nuclear DNA from a different one. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • ELP was modified by p21, a cell cycle inhibitory peptide, and the addition of Bac, a cell-penetrating peptide with nuclear localization capabilities. (dovepress.com)
  • Blastomeres and oocytes can also be aligned to the correct position for better fusion accuracy during nuclear transfer and embryo manipulation. (btxonline.com)
  • We report 2 ALK-positive large B-cell lymphoma cases showing granular cytoplasmic and cytoplasmic/nuclear ALK immunostaining in which cryptic ALK rearrangements were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization and molecular analysis. (haematologica.org)
  • The t(2;5)(p23;q35) and/or NPM1-ALK fusion, flagged by a nuclear and cytoplasmic ALK immunostaining, was reported in 10% of ALK + LBCL cases. (haematologica.org)
  • Muscle fusion in Drosophila involves two distinct cell populations, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). (uni-marburg.de)
  • Understanding these relationships has shed light on mechanisms of HIV-1 entry into cells and on the tropisms of HIV-1 strains for specific populations of CD4 + cells. (rupress.org)
  • 11 12 13 Further applications have included delivery of macromolecules to mammalian cells, manipulation of Na + /K + -ATPase isoforms in embryonic myocytes, investigation of the dynamics of organelle turnover and processing, and studies of a dominant regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We believe that the cause of retroperitoneal spleno-visceral fusions is the anomalous migration of splenic cells along the dorsal mesentery to the urogenital ridge, together with primitive germ cells, at the end of the fifth week and during the sixth week of embryonic age. (degruyter.com)
  • All cells are bounded by a structure called the cell membrane or plasma membrane , which is a lipid bilayer composed of two layers of phospholipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As translocation across the plasma membrane is a limiting step for delivery of macromolecules, these polypeptides were utilized in a pancreatic xenograft model to study the plasma clearance, biodistribution, tumor accumulation, and tumor reduction capabilities of the polypeptide with and without a cell-penetrating peptide. (dovepress.com)
  • Experiments with a syp construct lacking its C terminus indicated that the transmembrane domain (TMD) influences the initial fusion pore, while the C-terminal domain influences later stages after fusion pore expansion. (jneurosci.org)
  • I'm trying to produce GST fusion proteins to use in pull down experiments. (protocol-online.org)
  • Really precise and perfect for in-cell western experiments! (selectscience.net)
  • Experiments tracking the entry of simian immunodeficiency virus into the vaginal epithelia of macaque monkeys have suggested that immature epidermal DCs, namely Langerhans cells, are among the first cells to be infected ( 21 , 36 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finally, experiments based on coculture of infected lymphocytes and DCs indicate that conjugates of DCs and T cells form important sites of productive HIV-1 infection ( 8 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cultures can be established between 2 x 10 3 and 1 x 10 4 viable cells/cm 2 . (atcc.org)
  • Intergrated viable cell density and IgG production were used as quantitative indices of raw material quality. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Upon fusion, both the membrane and the cargos become completely mixed and we also show that the cells remain viable after fusion. (spie.org)
  • To clarify these controversies, we first utilized TUNEL techniques to detect apoptosis in mouse palates at the fusion stage and concomitantly analyzed the presence of macrophages by immunochemistry and confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Cell to cell fusion is known to be extremely rare in plant cells due to the presence of the relatively tough cell wall. (innovations-report.com)
  • Autoradiographic signal denoting the presence of CAT mRNA was detected only over aboral ectoderm cells, in which the CyIIIa gene is normally expressed, and not over any recognizable regions of gut or oral ectoderm included in the same sections. (caltech.edu)
  • Fusion of Phospholipid Vesicles Induced by Divalent Cations and Protons. (booktopia.com.au)
  • A detailed analysis of amperometric spikes arising from the exocytosis of single vesicles showed that these proteins influence fusion pores at multiple stages and control the choice between kiss-and-run and full-fusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 40-150 nm, and are implicated in cellular homeostasis and cell-cell communication. (nature.com)
  • van der Vlist, E. J., Nolte-'t Hoen, E. N., Stoorvogel, W., Arkesteijn, G. J. & Wauben, M. H. Fluorescent labeling of nano-sized vesicles released by cells and subsequent quantitative and qualitative analysis by high-resolution flow cytometry. (nature.com)
  • If such a hot metallic nanoparticle is brought into the contact zone between two cells or vesicles, this local temperature increase can cause a total fusion of the selected cells or vesicles. (spie.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer cells require the activation of MMP-2 during invasion and migration. (hindawi.com)
  • EGFP-positive cells purified from islets express insulin, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and transcription factors typically found in pancreatic β cells. (jci.org)
  • Pressure as a Probe of Vesicle Fusion. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Knocking out syp slightly reduced the frequency of vesicle fusion events below wild-type (WT) levels, but knocking out both syp and syg reduced the frequency 2-fold. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results demonstrated that syp and syg regulate dense-core vesicle function at multiple stages to initiate fusion, control the choice of mode between full-fusion and kiss-and-run, and influence the dynamics of both initial and late-stage fusion pores. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have since demonstrated SNARE-mediated fusion by reconstituting SNAREs into giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV, shown in Figure 1) and supported bilayer (SBL, shown in Figure 2). (yale.edu)
  • We hypothesize that these protruding cells are critical for palatal adhesion, being morphological evidence of increased cell motility/migration. (nih.gov)
  • In vertebrates, the homologue of Dock - called Nck - links cell adhesion during podocyte formation with actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by binding to the intracellular domain of Nephrin. (uni-marburg.de)
Category:Cell biology - Wikimedia Commons