Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Nerve Tissue ProteinsHemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
... across the membrane in an excitable cell generated by the activity of voltage-gated ion channels embedded in the membrane. The ... Computer scientists and engineers also study artificial neural networks formed by simplified mathematical abstractions of the ... population of physically interconnected neurons that act cooperatively to form a functional circuit. ... Microglia Astrocyte Oligodendrocyte (CNS) vs Schwann cell (PNS) A neuron (also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an ...
SSRN 2562952 . Liu Yunying, Yang Ru, He Zuping, Gao Wei-Qiang (2013). "Generation of functional organs from stem cells". Cell ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to take significant load off of the native lung tissue and heart. In ... The problem of creating a completely functional artificial electronic eye is even more complex. Advances towards tackling the ... "Artificial Organs". Reference.MD. RES, Inc. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2016. Tang, R. (1998). "Artificial Organs". Bios. ...
It can transfer up to 7 sterol molecules per minute between artificial membranes. STARD4 may regulate cholesterol levels in ... Mice without functional STARD4 weigh less and females tend to have lower cholesterol profiles. The most dramatic change ... Increases in the protein relate to cell stress. High levels of STARD4 increases the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol ... Reductions in cholesterol synthesis by cells increase STARD4 levels while StarD4 declines in mice fed a high cholesterol diet. ...
... s (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors, artificial T cell ... The cell membrane lipid bilayer, through which the transmembrane domain passes, isolates the inside portion (endodomain) from ... Gross, Gideon; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig (1989). "Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional ... The T cells, which can then recognize and kill the cancer cells, are reintroduced into the patient. Modification of T-cells ...
Because of their high degree of morphological and functional differentiation in vitro, HepG2 cells are a suitable model to ... HepG2 cells are also employed in trials with bio-artificial liver devices[citation needed]. Hep G2, American Type Culture ... study the intracellular trafficking and dynamics of bile canalicular, sinusoidal membrane proteins, and lipids in human ... Hep G2 is a human liver cancer cell line. Hep G2 is a perpetual cell line which was derived from the liver tissue of a 15-year- ...
... membrane biology, protein structure, bio informatics, functional genomics, theoretical biology, etc. In recognition for its ... CCMB implements artificial insemination in deer - India - DNA "CCMB scientists develop new drug assay system - The Times of ... CCMB is a designated "Center of Excellence" by the Global Molecular and Cell Biology Network, UNESCO. The Republic of India's ... Developed the first artificial insemination technology in India, to deliver extinct ruminant mammals, like deer. Developed a ...
For an entire neuron in which the cell body conductance is GS and the membrane conductance per unit area is Gmd = Gm / A, we ... "The Artificial Synapse Chip: A Flexible Retinal Interface Based on Directed Retinal Cell Growth and Neurotransmitter ... Note that although the electrophysiological signals in Fig.6 are often similar to the functional signal (signal power / ... For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. Furthermore, many cells in ...
... embedding itself in the bacterial cell membrane. Lipid II must translocate across the cell membrane to deliver and incorporate ... September 2009). "Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria Chlamydia and ... A method for artificial production of lipid II has been described. For synthesis of lipid II from UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide and ... Lipid II biosynthesis is functional and essential even in organisms without a cell wall like Chlamydia and Wolbachia. It has ...
Artificial olivo-cerebellar motor control system as part of the project BAUV (Undersea Vehicle) of the US Navy developed by P. ... Discovery of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in the inferior olive, thalamus and entorhinal cortex. The discovery ... Discovery of the P-type calcium channel in the Purkinje cells. Discovery of low threshold spikes generated by low voltage ... ISBN 0-19-515955-1. Llinas, RR (1969). "Functional aspects of interneuronal evolution in the cerebellar cortex". UCLA Forum Med ...
Also the iBAP will utilize a human embryonic stem cell derived fully functional beta cell that provides and unlimited supply of ... Building an Implantable Artificial Kidney, NIH First Implantation of Silicon Nanopore Membrane Hemofilters, NCBI Pubmed ... "Cell Therapy of Renal Failure", in Cell Therapy, D. Garcia-Olmo, J.M. Garcia-Verdugo, J. Alemany, and J.A. Gutierrez-Fuentes, ... He is the co-inventor of world's first implantable artificial kidney along with nephrologist William H. Fissell. . Roy ...
Pluripotent Xenopus cells, when used in an in vivo strategy, were able to form into functional retinas. By transplanting them ... Xenopus membrane polarity is established with the first cell cleavage. Amphibian EP-cadherin and XB/U cadherin perform a ... Experiments with implantation in mice show that hormonal induction, superovulation and artificial insemination successfully ... Blastula-stage cells can behave as pluripotent stem cells in many species. Pluripotent stem cells are the starting point to ...
Artificial cells essentially function as point processes, implemented into the network. Artificial cells require only a point ... It has the dynamics of the cell membrane simulated using Hodgkin-Huxley squid axon kinetics. The simulator stimulates the cell ... The user can set the number of functional segments in a section, which is a strategy for spatial resolution. The higher the ... Cells can be managed. The user creates the basic grid of network cells, taking previously completed network cells as archetypes ...
Membrane computing is the task of modelling specifically a cell membrane. An open source simulation of C. elegans at the ... Barab, A. -L.; Oltvai, Z. (2004). "Network biology* understanding the cell's functional organization". Nature Reviews Genetics ... Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple ( ... A Whole-Cell Computational Model Predicts Phenotype from Genotype Cell McDonagh, CF (2012) Antitumor Activity of a Novel ...
"Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission". Nat. Cell ... Simon C. Watkins, and Russell D. Salter (2005) "Functional Connectivity between Immune Cells Mediated by Tunneling Nanotubules ... Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels". In Astrid, Sigel; Helmut, Sigel; Roland K.O., Sigel. The Alkali ... These structures may be involved in cell-to-cell communication, transfer of nucleic acids between cells in a tissue, and the ...
While the nano-pillars were not observed to prevent cell adhesion, they acted mechanistically to stretch microbial membranes to ... Several functional nanotopographies have been identified in nature. Certain surfaces like that of the lotus leaf have been ... 2002). "Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces: From Natural to Artificial". Advanced Materials. 14 (24): 1857-1860. doi:10.1002/adma. ... Nanotopography is readily applied to cell culture and has been shown to have a significant impact on cell behavior across ...
... across the plasma membrane of the cell affected both the rate of Mg2+ uptake and the free Mg2+ content of the cell; ... Co2+ and Ni2+ are toxic to S. typhimurium cells containing a functional CorA protein and this toxicity stems from the blocking ... Third, Mg2+ efflux was observed via Mrs2p upon the artificial depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane by valinomycin. ... The human protein, hsaMrs2p, has been localised to the mitochondrial membrane in mouse cells using a GFP fusion protein. Very ...
... freezing and thawing are used to remove cell contents from the ECM by disrupting cell membranes. These methods are usually used ... Toxicological Effects of Residual Detergents on Human Endothelial Cells. Artificial Organs, 34 (3):206-210. Kasimir, M., Rieder ... while not affecting the mechanical strength and functional structure of the ECM through the maintenance of the collagen and ... Decellularization of porcine heart valves is the removal of cells along with antigenic cellular elements by either physical or ...
Gephyrin, an integral membrane protein believed to coordinate glycine receptors, is coded by the gene GPHN. A heterozygous ... Because of its multi-functional nature, it is not presumed to be a common genetic source of hyperekplexia. A defect within the ... In comparison to the GlyT1 transporter, found mostly in glial cells, GlyT2 helps maintain a high concentration of glycine ... Deficiencies in collybistin function would result in an artificial lack of glycine and GABA receptors at the synaptic cleft. ...
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate to become different types of cells. The hope is that stem cells transplanted into ... Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses coordinated electric shocks to muscles to cause them to contract in a walking ... Artificial dura mater was constructed through the utilization of PDMS and gelatin hydrogel. The hydrogel simulates spinal ... tissue and a silicone membrane simulates the dura mater. These properties allow the e-dura implants to sustain long-term ...
"Unique dimeric structure of BNip3 transmembrane domain suggests membrane permeabilization as a cell death trigger". The Journal ... Incorporation of the BNIP3 transmembrane domain into an artificial lipid bilayer resulted in a pH-dependent conductivity ... "Guidelines for the selection of functional assays to evaluate the hallmarks of cancer". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1866 (2 ... "BNIP3 plays a role in hypoxic cell death in human epithelial cells that is inhibited by growth factors EGF and IGF". Oncogene. ...
... are determined by specialists in chemistry and cell biology. Brain imaging determines structural and functional information ... support experimental and theoretical research on the membrane properties that mediate information processing in nerve cells, ... The Neuroinformatics Group in Bielefeld Active in the field of Artificial Neural Networks since 1989. Current research ... Medical and biological specialists help to identify the unique cell types, and their elements and anatomical connections. ...
Different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways". Cell. 112 (3): 293-301. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID ... The protein encoded by the TAS1R2 gene is a G protein-coupled receptor with seven trans-membrane domains and is a component of ... The TAS1R2+3 receptor has been shown to respond to natural sugars sucrose and fructose, and to the artificial sweeteners ... Moreover, the TAS1R2 protein is not functional without formation of the 2+3 heterodimer. Another interesting quality of the ...
... amphiphilic chemicals like quinine across the taste receptor cell membranes. Once inside the taste receptor cell, these ... Functional magnetic resonance images of the blood flow in the subjects' brains were recorded before and after they swallowed ... Low-calorie artificial sweeteners like saccharin and acesulfame-K are known for their bitter aftertastes. Recently, GIV3727 (4 ... than taste cell receptor activation since more time is necessary for the bitter compounds to diffuse across the cell membrane ...
"Cell. 161 (4): 790-802. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.053. PMC 4457382. PMID 25957686.. ... Some pre-tRNAs contain introns that are spliced, or cut, to form the functional tRNA molecule;[56] in bacteria these self- ... For example, in yeast, the splicing is not carried out in the nucleus but at the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial membranes.[ ... Artificial suppressor elongator tRNAs are used to incorporate unnatural amino acids at nonsense codons placed in the coding ...
The toxins form ion-permeable channels in cell membranes and artificial bilayers when exposed to acidic pH. pH-dependent ... "Structural organization of the functional domains of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B". Proceedings of the National Academy ... caused by the actions of the homologous toxins TcdA and TcdB on colonic epithelial cells is due to binding to target cells ... The toxins thus induce redistribution of actin filaments and cause the cells to round up. The catalytic domains of CCTs ...
... s are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes. They include integral membrane proteins that are permanently anchored or part of the membrane and peripheral membrane proteins that are only temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to other integral proteins.[1][2] The integral membrane proteins are classified as transmembrane proteins that span across the membrane and integral monotopic proteins that are attached to only one side of the membrane. Membrane proteins are a common type of proteins along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.[3] They are targets of over 50% of all modern medicinal drugs.[4] It is estimated that 20-30% of all genes in most genomes encode membrane proteins.[5][6]. Compared to other classes of proteins, the determination of membrane protein structures has remained a challenge in large part due to the difficulty in establishing experimental conditions where the correct conformation of the ...
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands internalized from the plasma membrane can follow this pathway all the way to lysosomes for degradation, or they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane. Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans-Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi. Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately 500 nm in diameter when fully mature. Endosomes provide an environment for material to be sorted before it reaches the degradative lysosome. For example, LDL is taken into the cell by binding to the ...
The gag-onc fusion protein (also written as Gag-v-Onc, with "v" indicating that the Onc sequence resides in a viral genome) is a general term for a fusion protein formed from a group-specific antigen ('gag') gene and that of an oncogene ('onc'), a gene that plays a role in the development of a cancer. Onc is a generic placeholder for a given specific oncogene, such as C-jun. (In the case of a fusion with C-jun, the resulting "gag-jun" protein is known alternatively as p65). Gag genes are part of a general architecture for retroviruses, viruses that replicate through reverse transcription, where the gag region of the genome encodes proteins that constitute the matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid of the mature virus particles. Like in HIV's replication cycle, these proteins are needed for viral budding from the host cell's plasma membrane, where the fully formed virions leave the cell to infect other cells. As a specific case, a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the ...
... (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is a vital component in the structure of cell membranes in the human body. It is the calcium salt of phosphorylethanolamine. It was discovered by the eminent biochemist Erwin Chargaff in 1941. Ca-AEP has been shown to help maintain cell membrane integrity and improve cellular functions. It was patented by Hans Alfred Nieper and Franz Kohler. Calcium 2-amino ethyl phosphoric acid (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is also called calcium ethylamino-phosphate (calcium EAP), calcium colamine phosphate, calcium 2-aminoethyl ester of phosphoric acid, and calcium 2-amino ethanol phosphate 2-AEP plays a role as a component in the cell membrane and at the same time has the property to form complexes with minerals. This mineral transporter goes into the outer layer of the outer cell membrane where it releases its associated mineral and is itself metabolized with the structure of the cell ...
Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides spatial positions of membrane protein structures with respect to the lipid bilayer.[1][2][3][4] Positions of the proteins are calculated using an implicit solvation model of the lipid bilayer.[5][6] The results of calculations were verified against experimental studies of spatial arrangement of transmembrane and peripheral proteins in membranes.[4][7][8][9][10][11][12] Proteins structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank. OPM also provides structural classification of membrane-associated proteins into families and superfamilies, membrane topology, quaternary structure of proteins in membrane-bound state, and the type of a destination membrane for each protein. The coordinate files with calculated membrane boundaries are downloadable. The site allows visualization of protein structures with membrane boundary planes through Jmol. The database was widely used in experimental and theoretical studies of ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[8] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[7] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. ...
There are many different types of membranes in a cell. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, covers one cell. Membranes also divide the cell into different spaces called organelles. Organelles are special areas of the cell that do different work. For example, the nucleus holds the DNA in a cell. The mitochondria make energy for the cell. Membranes in cells are made of lipids (fats) and protein. The lipids keep the inside of the cell or the organelle separate from the outside. The proteins do many things. Plasma membranes give the cell messages from outside. They let some things (like glucose, calcium, and potassium) go into and out of the cell. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
... s are an important link in the chain from electrical excitation of a cell to its subsequent contraction (excitation-contraction coupling). When contraction of a muscle is needed, stimulation from a nerve or an adjacent muscle cell causes a characteristic flow of charged particles across the cell membrane known as an action potential. At rest, there are fewer positively charged particles on the inner side of the membrane compared to the outer side, and the membrane is described as being polarised. During an action potential, positively charged particles (predominantly sodium and calcium ions) flow across the membrane from the outside to the inside. This reverses the normal imbalance of charged particles and is referred to as depolarisation. One region of membrane depolarises adjacent regions, and the resulting wave of depolarisation then spreads along the cell membrane.[8] The polarisation of the membrane is restored as potassium ions ...
... is one of cell membrane classes, occurring as set of parallel elemernts with duble same dimensional membranes, as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is arranged in highly ordered structure with a regular specing between themselves. These lamella are characteristic for the oocytes, spermatocytes, some somatic and cancer cels. They are characteristic of actively growing cells, including many functions in genetic information transfer and storage. They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the nucleoplasm, they are small, irrrgular, as well as short-living. It have been established that, in some condition, ribosomes being directly connected to the annulate lamellar membrane, supposing a role in the process of protein synthesis. Cell membranes Nuclear ...
ލައިޓް މައިކްރަސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްތައް ހުންނާނީ ވަށް ނުވަތަ ކުކުޅު ބިސް ބުރުގެ ބައްޓަމަށެވެ. ޕްލޭޓްލިޓް އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީ ބަޔަކާއި، ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދު ބައެއްގެ މަައްޗަށެވެ. މިބުނި ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީހައިއަލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Hyalomere) އެވެ.ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދުގައިވާ ބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީ ގްރެނިއޫލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Granulomere)ނުވަތަ ކްރޯމަމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Chromomere) އެވެ. އިލެކްޓްރޯން މައިކްރޯސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްގެ ބޭރުފަށަލަ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Cell membrane)ހުންނަނީ ...
The haemolysis is usually caused by cavitation rather than mechanical shearing or squeezing of red cells. When the pump speed ... Understanding the physiology of and interplay between the artificial circuit and the native heart, together with management ... analysis by echocardiography of hemodynamic and functional changes of the failed left ventricle during different degrees of ... Types of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits. The basic ECMO circuit comprises a non-pulsatile pump for blood ...
... into cell membrane and cell wall redox sites. This allowed for the capture of electrons from cells and shed new light on their ... Advanced manufacturing of macroporous nanoelectronic artificial functional scaffolds for synthetic tissues. *. DI PALMA G, ... Electrochemical differentiation of cell states (BBSRC). Interfacing cells with electrocatalytic sensors for real-time cell ... Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Scientific reports. 4, ...
Plant Cell. 2013 Aug;25(8):2848-63. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.112805. Epub 2013 Aug 16. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... proteins that transport organic and inorganic molecules across membranes; DMF, protein with diverse functional annotation not ... Plant Cell. 2013 Aug;25(8):2848-63. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.112805. Epub 2013 Aug 16. ... A genomic-scale artificial microRNA library as a tool to investigate the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis.. ...
Researchers Identify Gene with Functional Role in Aging of Eye 11/16/2019 Eyes and Vision ... "Layer-by-layer membrane assembly allows us to create synthetic cells with membranes of arbitrary complexity at the molecular ... The study, "Layer-by-layer Cell Membrane Assembly," was supported by a National Institutes of Health Pathway to Independence ... and even assemble multi-layered membranes that resemble the envelope of the cell nucleus." ...
All cells are surrounded by a closed membrane that defines the cell. Even within the cell, membranes play key roles in ... The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. Each cell is able of self-containing and self- ... The functional size of SecYEG pore has been probed by him by attaching rigid spherical molecules to Outer membrane protein A. ... These membranes prevent molecules generated inside the cell from leaking out and unwanted molecules from diffusing in; yet they ...
Towards self-assembled hybrid artificial cells: Novel bottom-up approaches to functional synthetic membranes. Chemistry 2015, ... "Synthetic cells" research focuses on the construction of cell-like models by using solute-filled artificial microcompartments ... Salehi-Reyhani, A.; Ces, O.; Elani, Y. Artificial cell mimics as simplified models for the study of cell biology. Exp. Biol. ... Shin, J.; Noireaux, V. An E. coli Cell-Free Expression Toolbox: Application to Synthetic Gene Circuits and Artificial Cells. ...
For multi-cellular organisms, a cell also serves as the structural and functional unit. Cells bear the capability of responding ... Example: artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, membrane computing etc.. Natural Computing: Natural computing is an ... Cell: A cell is an independently sustainable and self-replicating unit of any organism. ... Flow diagram of the series of logical behaviors which a bacterial cell undertakes to make a decision on the suitability of its ...
Published studies with both GFP constructs and our own observations showed that they are functional in endocytosis and membrane ... Single-particle tracking of murine polyoma virus-like particles on live cells and artificial membranes. Helge Ewers, Alicia E. ... Single-particle tracking of murine polyoma virus-like particles on live cells and artificial membranes ... Single-particle tracking of murine polyoma virus-like particles on live cells and artificial membranes ...
In-situ Immunofluorescence Study of Artificial Red Blood Cell Membrane Protein Reconstruction in Vitro and Its Functional ... The framework protein system embedded on the surface of erythrocyte membrane can not only make cell membrane deformable, but ... According to the different functions of membrane proteins in the ultrastructure of red blood cells, membrane proteins can be ... The bright fluorescence signals on the cell membrane were the result of concentrated fluorescence staining of membrane proteins ...
Engineering artificial cell membranes by Ting F. Zhu.  Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick) (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ... Engineering functional blood vessels in vivo  Au, Pakwai (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2008) ... Endothelial cells and basement membrane : a co-regulatory unit for fibroblast growth factor-2 in hyperglycemic stress  ... Endothelial cells and basement membrane interact as a biochemical and mechanical co-regulatory unit. The wide spectrum of ...
By going inside a living cell and physically moving its T cell signaling molecules, they showed that the ... enabled them to directly control signaling activity in living T cells from the immune system. ... Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory created unique synthetic membranes that, for the first time ever, ... "The fluidity of our membranes created artificial antigen-presenting cell surfaces that enabled the formation of functional ...
These possess a natural cell membrane and cytoplasm, enclose the artificial organelles and can therefore function as a ... Subsequently, the natural cells were feed with these artificial organelles. After stimulation, the cells produced natural ... To achieve this they loaded artificial organelles inside micrometer-sized natural blisters (vesicles) produced by cells. These ... For medical applications, molecular factories acting as artificial cells would ideally beused - to produce missing or required ...
... promotes cell adhesion, and maintains cells functional activities, is a research focus in the field of tissue engineering. In ... The development of a cell-growth substrate that provides a natural-like microenvironment, ... The developed three-dimensional multiscale fibers-based matrix can be a potential membrane for bioreactor and bio-artificial ... promotes cell adhesion, and maintains cells functional activities, is a research focus in the field of tissue engineering. In ...
Im Focus: Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo. For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of ... Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach ... These commonly complex proteins are located in the outer cell boundaries, the cell membranes, just like very sensitive antenna ... where patients form autoantibodies against a glutamate receptor in the cell membrane of neurons. From electrophysiological ...
... was shown to be sufficient to induce ER tubulation in yeast cells, mammalian cells (Voeltz et al., 2006), and in artificial ... This shape is independent of the ER being attached to a functional cytoskeleton (Boevink et al., 1998; Dreier and Rapoport, ... 2010). Subcellular membrane curvature mediated by the BAR domain superfamily proteins. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol., 21: 340-349. ... 2009). Mechanisms shaping the membranes of cellular organelles. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 25: 329-354. ...
... a well-established tool for the study of membrane biophysics and are increasingly used as artificial cell models and functional ... There is increasing scope for using whole intact cellular components as functional modules within artificial cells, as a route ... the cell membrane. We studied the physical rearrangement process of the lipid membrane during SMase-mediated hydrolysis of SM ... Cell Chemical Biology, Vol: 25, Pages: 840-848.e4, ISSN: 2451-9456 The role of membrane lipids in modulating eukaryotic ...
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microbial Cell Membranes: Structural and Functional Perspectives ... Pressure Effects on Artificial and Cellular Membranes Roland Winter. Pages 345-370 ... Pressure and Functional Sub-states in Proteins. * Front Matter Pages 177-177 ... Ion Channels Activated by Mechanical Forces in Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cells Masahiro Sokabe, Yasuyuki Sawada, Takeshi ...
Penetration of artificial membranes by wild type and punchless was assayed by using a cellophane membrane. The wild-type strain ... The inactivated gene, PLS1, encodes a putative integral membrane protein of 225 aa (Pls1p). A functional Pls1p-green ... In animals, these proteins are components of membrane signaling complexes controlling cell differentiation, motility, and ... We show that punchless differentiates appressoria that fail to breach either the leaf epidermis or artificial membranes such as ...
Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: ... Metabolic Labeling and Membrane Fractionation for Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell ... Purification of Biotinylated Cell Surface Proteins from Rhipicephalus microplus Epithelial Gut Cells, A Primary Human ... Transfer of Mammary Gland-forming Ability Between Mammary Basal Epithelial Cells and Mammary Luminal Cells via Extracellular ...
Proteoliposomes were efficiently prepared by cell-free membrane protein synthesis with liposome chaperone (artificial cell ... We proposed nanogel tectonics using self-assembled nanogels as building blocks to construct multi functional well-controlled ... Functions of T cell derived exosomes for cancer microenvironment were newly found and the exosomes can be applied to new cancer ... gel biomaterials, e.g. artificial cellular matrix and tissue scaffold. ...
Synthetic polyphilic compounds of macromolecular or small size can be incorporated into artificial phospholipid bilayers. ... In DPPC membranes, various trends in the domain morphologies were observed upon structure variations, which entailed branched ... Supramolecular self-assembly of membrane constituents within a phospholipid bilayer creates complex functional platforms in ... biological cells that operate in intracellular signaling, trafficking and membrane remodeling. ...
The fluidity of our membranes created artificial antigen-presenting cell surfaces that enabled the formation of functional ... These ultra-narrow chrome lines served as barriers that restricted the motion of membrane lipids and T cell receptor proteins. ... This enabled the researchers to preserve the membranes in their naturally fluid state, allowing lipids and T cell receptor ... Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. It is well established that the key to T cell activation ...
... are a well-established tool for the study of membrane biophysics and are increasingly used as artificial cell models and ... functional units in biotechnology. This trend is driven by the development of emulsion-based generation methods such as ... a well-established tool for the study of membrane biophysics and are increasingly used as artificial cell models and functional ... However, the ability to control the composition of membranes formed via EPT remains an open question; this is key as ...
When there is equilibrium across the cell membrane, there is no life. Viewed from another aspect, in life the cell also ... Clowes demonstrated a clinically functional membrane oxygenator. Avery proved that DNA carried the genetic information for ... Artificial organs also include interfaces. Most of our man-made organs have membranes. In the artificial kidney, the membranes ... The Renal Assist Device from Renamed includes tubule cells cultured from progenitor cells in adult kidneys. The tubule cells ...
Whether microchips and sensors in clothing or solar cells on a tent roof - polymer electronics makes such technical ... To obtain such proteins, an artificial membrane system is generated and a cell extract containing the genetic information of ... machinery in the cell extract is still functional and inserts the olfactory receptor molecules into the lipid membrane. Finally ... Hydrogen-based fuel cells: The quantum-mechanical quest for the optimal membrane material. 2008 Sebastiani, Daniel ...
  • In this study, we have adopted this technology to analyze the lateral movement of incoming virus-like particles (VLPs) attached to their cell-surface receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Our study focused on murine polyoma virus (Py), a small (diameter, 45 nm), simple, nonenveloped DNA tumor virus ( 12 ) that uses gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as receptors ( 13 ) and relies on clathrin-independent, cholesterol-dependent endocytosis to deliver its genome into the cell for replication (ref. 14 and A.E.S., H.E., and A.H., unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
  • The duration of the activation signal is related to the spatial organization of the T cell receptors rather than cluster size. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a new Collaborative Research Centre scientists from Würzburg and Jena are examining the function of membrane receptors with the most modern light microscopy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Membrane receptors are, for example, the docking stations for adrenaline and growth hormones, for nicotine and opiates. (innovations-report.com)
  • The scientists want to continue to decode the switching plans of different membrane receptors in 22 sub-projects and with an entire arsenal of microscopic technologies. (innovations-report.com)
  • Over the last years, new light-microscopic methods have contributed to a better understanding of the way membrane receptors work. (innovations-report.com)
  • And plant cell receptors are also in the focus of scientists: Würzburg plant scientists professor Rainer Hedrich and Professor Dietmar Geiger are researching the switching behaviour of receptors of the dry stress hormone which regulates the stomata, by means of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The receptor light study groups in Würzburg and Jena are combining their diverse methodical skills in the area of high-performance light microscopy with insights of physiology and biophysics of very different membrane receptors. (innovations-report.com)
  • Washington, Sep 30 (IANS) MIT bio-engineers have found a way to mass-produce smell receptors in the lab, edging closer to creation of 'artificial noses'.The work could also allow scientists to unlock the mystery of how the sense of smell can recognise an infinite range of odours. (thaindian.com)
  • They use an arsenal of membrane receptors, channels and pumps to control signal transduction that is unmatched by even the most powerful computers. (medgadget.com)
  • Interactions between neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors can evoke a wide range of differing responses from the cell receiving the signal, including excitation, inhibition, and various types of modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Category:Receptors Biological neural network - population of physically interconnected neurons that act cooperatively to form a functional circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains attachments factors and receptors that the virus exploits in order to bind to the cell surface and enter the cell. (chalmers.se)
  • Understanding the myriad biochemical roles of membranes requires the ability to prepare synthetic versions of these complex multi-layered structures, which has been a long-standing challenge. (healthcanal.com)
  • Layer-by-layer membrane assembly allows us to create synthetic cells with membranes of arbitrary complexity at the molecular and supramolecular scale," said TSRI Assistant Professor Brian Paegel, who authored the study with Research Associate Sandro Matosevic. (healthcanal.com)
  • The computer-controlled microfluidic circuits we have constructed will allow us to assemble synthetic cells not only from biologically derived lipids, but from any amphiphile and to measure important chemical and physical parameters, such as permeability and stability," said Paegel. (healthcanal.com)
  • Is Research on "Synthetic Cells" Moving to the Next Level? (mdpi.com)
  • Synthetic cells" research focuses on the construction of cell-like models by using solute-filled artificial microcompartments with a biomimetic structure. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we summarize some technical and theoretical aspects of synthetic cells based on gene expression and other enzymatic reactions inside liposomes, and comment on the most recent trends. (mdpi.com)
  • Such a tour will be an occasion for asking whether times are ripe for a sort of qualitative jump toward novel SC prototypes: is research on "synthetic cells" moving to a next level? (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we will refer to all these cell-like systems shortly as synthetic cells (SCs), but most of the discussion will be focused on SCs built from biomolecules as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, enzymes, etc. encapsulated within liposomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California at Berkeley, combining nanotechnology with biochemistry, have created unique synthetic membranes that, for the first time ever, enable them to directly control signaling activity in living T cells from the immune system. (eurekalert.org)
  • Groves and his colleagues constructed their synthetic membranes out of lipids which they assembled onto a substrate of solid silica so that the membranes were able to float freely a few nanometers above the substrate. (eurekalert.org)
  • This combination of natural vesicles and small synthetic organelles is what makes the molecular factory: Reactions that take place inside produce an end product, as also happens inside cells," explain Dr. Tomaz Einfalt and Dr. Martina Garni, first authors of the paper. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The design of vesicle microsystems as artificial cells (bottom-up synthetic biology) has traditionally relied on the incorporation of molecular components to impart functionality. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • These cell mimics have reduced capabilities compared with their engineered biological counterparts (top-down synthetic biology), as they lack the powerful metabolic and regulatory pathways associated with living systems. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Synthetic polyphilic compounds of macromolecular or small size can be incorporated into artificial phospholipid bilayers. (mdpi.com)
  • Through our research, I hope to establish synthetic methods and develop research that will lead to the creation of highly useful and functional biomaterials. (or.jp)
  • A synthetic platform of functional supramolecular polymers could be an extraordinary source of innovation with impact in areas ranging from energy and medicine to environmental sustainability. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that pre-treating human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with synthetic membrane-active myoglobin-polymer-surfactant complexes can provide a reservoir of oxygen capable of alleviating necrosis at the centre of hyaline cartilage. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Therefore, the main aim of this work was to optimize the temperature, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration and the methanol flow-rate for the biosynthesis of recombinant MBCOMT by Pichia pastoris bioreactor methanol-induced cultures using artificial neural networks (ANN). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand what makes a virus infectious and to establish a relation between particle properties and the characteristics of their interaction with the cell surface, we are currently developing methods allowing for the characterization of virus particles on a single particle level. (chalmers.se)
  • The main goal of the Nanoscale Bioelectrical Characterization group is to develop new experimental setups based on atomic force microscopy and theoretical frameworks enabling the access to the electrical properties of biological systems at the nanoscale (including biomembranes, single viruses, single bacteria cells and eukaryotic cells). (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The Nanoscale Biolectrical Characterization group is looking for a Early Stage Researcher (PhD student) to develop his/her PhD thesis project on the label-free mapping of biological membranes' composition with nanoscale spatial resolution. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The role of these candidates is tested using gene knock-out plants and functional characterization of confirmed candidates is performed using a combination of physiological, biochemical and genetic approaches. (mpg.de)
  • In the present study, three-dimensional micro-nano multiscale fiber-based substrates were developed by depositing biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/PCL-Chitosan (C)/ PCL-C-Gelatin (G) electrospun nanofibers (NFs) on the outer surface of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) in one step. (rsc.org)
  • This study shows the successful development of a living membrane consisting of a reproducible ciPTEC monolayer on hollow fiber membranes, an important step towards the development of a bioartificial kidney device," said Prof. Stamatialis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Primary helper T cell activation requires the presentation of MHC class II-antigenic peptide complexes (MHCp) 4 and costimulatory ligands by dendritic cells (DC). (jimmunol.org)
  • On transmission electron microscopy, the basement membrane was irregular but present and adhesion complexes were noted. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, trajectories of individual, fluorescence-labeled VLPs on the surface of tissue culture cells and in artificial lipid bilayers were recorded with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for SPT. (pnas.org)
  • The development of a cell-growth substrate that provides a natural-like microenvironment, promotes cell adhesion, and maintains cells functional activities, is a research focus in the field of tissue engineering. (rsc.org)
  • We proposed nanogel tectonics using self-assembled nanogels as building blocks to construct multi functional well-controlled gel biomaterials, e.g. artificial cellular matrix and tissue scaffold. (go.jp)
  • An artificial organ is an engineered device or tissue that is implanted or integrated into a human - interfacing with living tissue - to replace a natural organ, to duplicate or augment a specific function or functions so the patient may return to a normal life as soon as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomenon of spreading depression, again, is mainly based on the action of ion channels and other ion transport mechanisms of the neuronal and glia cells of the tissue involved. (uni-bremen.de)
  • The results clearly show that the ion channels activity in artificial lipid membranes as well as in complex neuronal tissue interact very sensitive with gravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • The behavior of SoPIN1 and PIN1b in Arabidopsis illustrates how membrane and tissue-level accumulation, transport activity, and interaction contribute to PIN functional specificity. (elifesciences.org)
  • For example, an artificial heart valve needs tissue with smooth surface, high strength and resistance to enzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast to it, bone membrane should dissolve after some time giving way to a patient's bone tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • The cytotoxicity of the tissue - the possible damage that cross-linker residues could cause the cells - was also evaluated. (news-medical.net)
  • Tissue engineering, as an established and growing interdisciplinary field comprising different specialties, such as medicine, materials science, cell biology, genomics and chemical engineering, aims to develop biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue function, thus offering patients the chance to regain normal functionality in their bodies. (who.int)
  • The demand for human tissue in the medical context has increased biological heart valves, vessel grafts and cell grafting into the rapidly since the early 1980s, when human bone, used in allografts heart muscle, e.g. after myocardial infarction). (who.int)
  • tissue function, thus offering patients the chance to regain normal · autologous products, derived from cells and tissues removed from functionality in their body. (who.int)
  • Tissue allografts, in other words, tissue transplanted from one with less frequent adverse immune complications person to another, are used to save and improve the lives of millions · allogeneic products, derived from cells or tissues removed from of people each year. (who.int)
  • The problem, explains M.I.T.'s Mohammad Kaazempur-Mofrad, is that although conventional tissue engineering methods provide a scaffold for the cells of the tissue, they do not offer the vascular support necessary to nourish organs such as livers and kidneys. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The artificial AM retained structural & functional properties similar to normal AM & this human tissue construct may become a useful means to repair defects in the fetal membranes or cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Researchers from the University of Reading have developed the first fully tissue-engineered fetal membrane from human stem cells that could significantly reduce the number of premature births. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Another advantage is that placental tissue and amniotic membrane is readily available and easily procured without invasive procedures. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Our vision is to develop a systems understanding of cell and tissue organization. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • Regenerative medicine on the other hand, attempts to renew damaged tissue and enhance cardiac functional performance. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Currently, tissue engineering has been limited to growing small pieces of tissue, because larger dimensions reduce the oxygen supply to the cells in the center of the tissue. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Hollander's pioneering work includes the development of a method of creating cartilage cells from stem cells, which helped to make possible the first successful transplant of a tissue-engineered trachea, using the patient's own stem cells. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Restricted oxygen diffusion can result in central cell necrosis in engineered tissue, a problem that is exacerbated when engineering large tissue constructs for clinical application. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The functionalization technology is facile, versatile and non-disruptive, and in addition to tissue oxygenation, it should have far-reaching application in a host of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Investigation of human retina donor tissue of patients with retinal diseases to facilitate development of stem cell-derived human retina model systems and regenerative therapies. (crt-dresden.de)
  • These cells appear to be important in embryonic development , helping to define shape and structure of tissue, and also play a transient role in regeneration from injury . (fightaging.org)
  • The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. (springer.com)
  • The lateral mobility of individual murine polyoma virus-like particles (VLPs) bound to live cells and artificial lipid bilayers was studied by single fluorescent particle tracking using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • We show by Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy that several RTNs have the capacity to interact with themselves and each other, and we suggest that oligomerization is responsible for their residence in the ER membrane. (plantcell.org)
  • The synthesis of SNAP-tag-DARC, its correct incorporation into the cell membrane and the functionality of the SNAP-tag® were verified by RT-PCR, Western blotting and confocal fluorescence microscopy and showed the desired functionality as an membrane anchor for an extracellular application entity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, TM expression, however, decreases in perturbed endothelial cells, predisposing to thrombotic occlusion and particularly in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli, direct vessel wall injury, and oxidant stress. (labome.org)
  • Compared to bFGF alone, HA conjugated bFGF displayed enhanced activity to promote the proliferation and more interestingly, the scratch closure of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells. (rsc.org)
  • Tumors contain a dynamic combination of immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and perivascular cells as well as malignant cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In line, a natural splice variant of Amer1 lacking the plasma membrane localization domain is deficient for Wnt inhibition. (xenbase.org)
  • The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • A second proposed mechanism of action for daptomycin is that the antibiotic causes dissipation of bacterial membrane potential, resulting in disruption of multiple aspects of cellular function ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • We wished to further investigate the role of bacterial membrane potential in the mechanism of action of daptomycin. (asm.org)
  • Using MHBc and Mueller-Hinton agar, bacterial cell viability was determined by following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • We showed that with this approach one can detect the presence of small-scale nanostructures inside microorganisms, providing endless applications in the label-free imaging of single bacterial cells at high spatial resolution. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • On the methodological aspects, we have continued our efforts towards providing a simple interpretation to Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Scanning Microwave Microscopy images of highly non-planar samples, such as single bacterial or eukaryotic cells, for which we have developed a method to remove topographic cross-talk effects from the images. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Right: Electrical potential distribution corresponding to the electric interaction between a voltage biased sharp conducting tip of radius 250 nm and a single bacterial cell. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The bacterial cell is represented as a 3D ellipsoid structure with uniform electric polarization. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Computers, due to their raw speed and massive computing power, have been highly used by biologists to expedite life science research whereas several computational algorithms like artificial neural network, genetic algorithm and many similar ones have been inspired by the behaviors of several biological or cellular entities. (igi-global.com)
  • as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. (plos.org)
  • Their methods include computational fluid dynamics as well as multiphase flow simulations and artificial neural network based optimization. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Cell density was determined with the Countess® Automated Cell Counter , and cells were resuspended at 50,000 cells/mL in complete neural culture medium plus mitotic inhibitors. (thermofisher.com)
  • The medium was removed from the glial feeder cultures and replaced with 2 mL of the neural cell suspension. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cell viability decreased in parallel with changes in membrane potential, demonstrating a temporal correlation between bactericidal activity and membrane depolarization. (asm.org)
  • The toxicity of tetralin is partly due to its lipophilic character, leading to accumulation in cell membranes and resulting in changes in membrane structure and function ( 32 , 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The need to functionalize cell membranes in a directed way for specific applications as single cell arrays or to force close cell-to-cell contact for artificial intercellular interaction and/or induction concerning stem cell manipulation or in general to have a tool for membrane and cell surface-associated processes, we envisaged a neutral inactive membrane anchor for extracellular entities to facillitate the above mentioned functionalities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combination of membrane processes with other type of treatments, like adsorption or electrochemical processes is investigated. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Numerics deals with complex simulations of various membrane processes as well as their optimization. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Microglia Astrocyte Oligodendrocyte (CNS) vs Schwann cell (PNS) A neuron (also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other fundamental cellular processes, cell secretion is precisely regulated. (biology-online.org)
  • The scientists are hoping that by means of sophisticated chemical modifications, the optimizing of the production processes, and the use of other nanofabrication approaches can succeed in producing fully functional ionic channels based on ultrashort CNTs. (nanowerk.com)
  • Dreier and Rapoport, 2000 ), indicating that factors within the membrane itself must be responsible for conferring its curvature. (plantcell.org)
  • Sterol precursors incorporated in artificial membranes resulted in decreased bending rigidity and intrinsic curvature compared with cholesterol, thus providing a cholesterol-mediated mechanism for normal granule budding, and an explanation for granule malformation in SLOS and lathosterolosis. (biologists.org)
  • Our devices can stably record the extracellular potential of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocyte cells (hPSCs-CMs) for several weeks. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Tremendous advances have been made in this field since the introduction and ethical approval for use of stem-cells (SC) and relevant technologies in pre-clinical and clinical practice. (eurekaselect.com)
  • While study outcomes are still ambivalent on the potential translational impact of SCs, renewed hope has arisen since the introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cells (iPS) and the prospect of intact organ development and transplantation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The aim of this work is to review recent discoveries and the patent landscape employing stem-cell engineering, labeling and image-based monitoring strategies, their use in bioreactors and constructions of enriched bio-artificial membranes, as well as the potential role in artificial organ development and transplantation, with relevance to anticipated impact in pre-clinical screening and widespread clinical use. (eurekaselect.com)
  • C. Constantinides, C.A. Carr and J.E. Schneider, "Recent Advances in Image-Based Stem-Cell Labeling and Tracking, and Scaffold-Based Organ Development in Cardiovascular Disease", Recent Patents on Medical Imaging (Discontinued) (2014) 4: 110. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical islet transplantation because it allows animal islets or insulin-producing cells engineered from stem cells to be used. (springer.com)
  • Typically, after binding to the cell surface, particles underwent free, cholesterol-dependent, lateral diffusion for a few seconds, rapidly followed by a period of confinement through an actin cytoskeleton-dependent mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • The objective of this study was to further elucidate the role of membrane potential in the mechanism of action of daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic. (asm.org)
  • Bactericidal activity via disruption of membrane potential is the proposed mechanism of action for a variety of antimicrobial peptides, including the pore-forming antibiotic nisin ( 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that one possible mechanism of membrane depolarization involves K + release by bacteria on daptomycin exposure (J. A. Silverman, N. G. Perlmutter, and H. M. Shapiro, Abstr. (asm.org)
  • The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling and the fusion of opposing bilayers, that is, the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, have also been resolved. (biology-online.org)
  • In contrast to flexibility in the mechanism that a virus uses to get into a cell, we postulate that virally encoded machinery plays a far greater role in the subsequent steps leading to the delivery of the viral genome or of a viral nucleoprotein complex to the correct compartment for replication. (asm.org)
  • These hypotheses have already been substantiated for enveloped viruses, where fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane provides a conceptually simple mechanism for delivery of the viral genome into the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • In this feasibility study, we design and embed genetically engineered microbes (Escherichia coli) in a vesicle-based cell mimic and use them as biosensing modules for real-time monitoring of lactate in the external environment. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Scientists from various disciplines have made great endeavors toward the understanding of the cellular evolution by engineering artificial counterparts (protocells) that mimic or initiate structural or functional cellular aspects. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • ELPC was substantiated to achieve effective topical skin delivery of water-insoluble phytochemicals with the ability of anti-oxidation and tyrosinase inhibition, which was quantified by Franz-cell diffusion and visualized by confocal laser microscopy. (rutgers.edu)
  • After binding to the cell surface, particles typically underwent free diffusion for 5-10 s, and then they were confined in an actin filament-dependent manner without involvement of clathrin-coated pits or caveolae. (pnas.org)
  • Although SPT has been used for virus entry ( 10 , 11 ), the movement of virus particles on the cell surface before internalization has not been analyzed in detail. (pnas.org)
  • In this research, I focus on the cell membrane space as a new field for the synthesis of metal particles, and aim to establish a versatile method for the direct synthesis of metal particles by preparing cell membranes fused with metal-binding peptides that promote the growth of uniform crystals under mild conditions. (or.jp)
  • Viruses are nanoscale particles that infect cells of all living organisms to replicate and spread. (chalmers.se)
  • These possess a natural cell membrane and cytoplasm, enclose the artificial organelles and can therefore function as a molecular factory. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Most of what we know about the molecular details of the stable immunological synapse (IS) comes from the study of simplified model systems that replace the DC with a transformed non-DC cell type or supported planar bilayer ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For the more visionary goals of nanotechnology - as opposed to today's nanotechnology applications that mostly deal with nanoscale materials used in coatings and composites - functional and perhaps autonomous molecular motors will play an essential part, just like electric motors can be found in many appliances today. (nanowerk.com)
  • Moreover, chemically stimulated walkers (such as with ATP or cancer cell markers as stimuli) could be used in the future as in situ fueled devices, outperforming natural molecular motors, which require the ATP environment. (nanowerk.com)
  • Using our surface-based approaches we study the molecular and physical mechanisms modulating HSV binding and release from the cell surface (Figure 2). (chalmers.se)
  • The behaviour of these artificial compounds is increasingly similar to that of their cell prototypes, in other words, they have increasingly similar characteristics: molecular selectivity, membrane targeting and transport efficiency. (nanowerk.com)
  • Because of its PM localization, we were able to take advantage of the steep pH gradient that exists across the plant cell PM to investigate AUX1 topology using YFP as a pH-sensitive probe. (plantcell.org)
  • Amer1 stabilizes Axin and counteracts Wnt-induced degradation of Axin, which requires membrane localization of Amer1. (xenbase.org)
  • Traditionally, photo-electrochemical cell electrodes are made of semiconducting materials such as metal oxides, some of which are also known for their photocatalytic properties. (ceramics.org)
  • In the body, red blood cells are mainly responsible for transporting breathing gas, carrying oxygen inhaled from the lung to various tissues and organs of the body, and then transporting metabolite carbon dioxide from various parts, which is an indispensable transport team for the body [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Presented at the 52nd Annual Conference of the American Society for Internal Artificial Organs, Chicago, Illinois, June 8, 2006. (lww.com)
  • Artificial organs also include interfaces. (lww.com)
  • Most of our man-made organs have membranes. (lww.com)
  • For example, replacement bones and joints, such as those found in hip replacements, could also be considered artificial organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research over the past few years has directly connected the growing number of senescent cells in older individuals with age-related disease of the lungs , vascular system , joints , and most of the major organs. (fightaging.org)
  • Unfortunately, a few senescent cells manage to linger, and the signals generated by those few cells ultimately fatally disrupt the function of organs. (fightaging.org)
  • The core research field of the chair focuses on the development and application of membrane technology for current global challenges. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Until now, not much is known about whether and how single (neuronal) cells and (neuronal) tissues sense gravity and which mechanisms they use to react to changes in gravity. (uni-bremen.de)
  • Until now the experiments with single neuronal cells did not show clear effects. (uni-bremen.de)
  • This independent, contrasting modulation of pain-related behaviours mediated by distinct noradrenergic neuronal populations provides evidence for a modular functional organisation of the LC. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus, to become fully engaged into the functional circuitry of the OB, the adult-born GCs face a daunting task-impeccable integration into the existing circuits, to ensure the uninterrupted functioning of the bulbar neuronal assemblies. (nature.com)
  • In diseases such as kidney failure, toxins build up in the fluid around the cell, the ratio between internal and external chemical levels becomes lower, and kinetic and potential energy at the membrane decreases. (lww.com)
  • In the artificial kidney, the membranes transfer urea, creatinine, phosphorus, and other toxins across the membranes to dialysate. (lww.com)
  • Chicago, IL (November 19, 2016) -- Investigators are getting closer to creating a functional bioartificial kidney, with advances being presented at ASN Kidney Week 2016 November 15¬-20 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus, a dialysis machine, while a very successful and critically important life support device that almost completely replaces the duties of a kidney, is not an artificial organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our microfabricated devices can efficiently supply oxygen and nutrients to sustain the viability of human liver and kidney cells for at least one week in the lab," Kaazempur-Mofrad reported yesterday at the American Society for Microbiology's conference on Bio- Micro- Nano-systems in New York City. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cell selectivity in the toxic A β attack is also observed in vitro within cells in cultures externally exposed to the peptide A β , where not all cells are equally affected by A β and some cells are even found to be resistant. (hindawi.com)
  • During the formation of the core, the fusion peptide is translocated to the tip of the rod, permitting it to interact with the target membrane and initiate fusion. (asm.org)
  • Cannulation of vascular endothelial and mesangial cells are attached to a center close to each bag exchange a cap of mm differentiation for transcellular compared to birds most likely to be critical for the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans is reduced by increasing apoptosis or whether it has not received the hepatitisvaccine should be restricted to prevent rejection, which resulted in varying amounts. (nationalnewstoday.com)