Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/4968)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (2/4968)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

Isolation of rat liver albumin messenger RNA. (3/4968)

Rat liver albumin messenger RNA has been purified to apparent homogeneity by means of polysome immunoprecipitation and poly(U)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Specific polysomes synthesizing albumin were separated from total liver polysomes through a double antibody technique which allowed isolation of a specific immunoprecipitate. The albumin-polysome immunoprecipitate was dissolved in detergent and the polysomal RNA was separated from protein by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Albumin mRNA was then separated from ribosomal RNA by affinity chromatography through the binding of poly(U)-Sepharose to the polyadenylate 3' terminus of the mRNA. Pure albumin mRNA migrated as an 18 S peak on 85% formamide-containing linear sucrose gradients and as a 22 S peak on 2.5% polyacrylamide gels in sodium dodecyl sulfate. It coded for the translation of authentic liver albumin when added to a heterologous protein-synthesizing cell-free system derived from either rabbit reticulocyte lysates or wheat germ extracts. Translation analysis in reticulocyte lysates indicated that albumin polysomes were purified approximately 9-fold from total liver polysomes, and that albumin mRNA was purified approximately 74-fold from albumin polysomal RNA. The total translation product in the mRNA-dependent wheat germ system, upon addition of the pure mRNA, was identified as authentic albumin by means of gel electrophoresis and tryptic peptide chromatography.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (4/4968)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

Nuclear location of mammalian DNA polymerase activities. (5/4968)

Nuclei were isolated from monolayer cultures of mouse and human cells using a nonaqueous procedure of cell fractionation in which lyophilized cells were homogenized and centrifuged in 100% glycerol. In previous work we have shown that the nuclear pellet and cytoplasmic supernatant fraction contained 10% or less of the nucleic acids characteristic of the other cell fraction. Aqueous extracts made from fresh cultures and from nonaqueous material at each step of the fractionation procedure were assayed fro DNA polymerase activity. Activities were normalized to DNA contents of extracted material. Specific activity was preserved quantitatively through freezing and drying the cells, but was found to be unstable in glycerol suspensions with approximate half-lives and 1 h at 23 degrees and 4 h at 0-4 degrees. Activities were relatively stable at -25 degrees, however, so that by homogenizing only 15 min at 4 degrees and centrifuging at -25 degrees we preserved approximately 85% of the specific activity of fresh cultures in the nonaqueous nuclear fraction. Sedimentation analyses showed that the nuclear fraction contained both DNA polymerase-alpha and-beta in approximately the proportions expected if all polymerase activities were confined to the nucleus in living cells. DNA polymerase-alpha was found to be more unstable in glycerol suspensions than DNA polymerase-beta. Nuclear location of both activities was found in exponential cultures and in 3T3 mouse cultures synchronized in the G1 and S phases of the cell division cycle. We found no evidence for cytoplasmic factors affecting nuclear polymerase activities. We have concluded that the two major DNA polymerases are nuclear although one, DNA polymerase-alpha, frequently is present as a weakly bound nuclear protein.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (6/4968)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (7/4968)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (8/4968)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Stimulation of hepatocytes with vasopressin (10 nM) in the presence of 1.25 mM extracellular Ca2+ increased glycogen phosphorylase activity 4-fold within 15s and provoked a rapid efflux of cell-associated Ca2+. Vasopressin also caused a transient increase in the Ca content of a mitochondria-rich fraction separated within seconds of hormone stimulation by a rapid fractionation technique [Shears & Kirk (1984) Biochem. J. 219, 375-382]. The Ca content of this fraction was restored to the control value within 2 min of hormone addition. These results indicate that mitochondria are not the source of the cell-associated Ca which is mobilized in the cytosol of vasopressin-stimulated hepatocytes. Rather, these organelles buffer the increase in cytosol [Ca2+] attributable to Ca mobilization from non-mitochondrial sources. ...
These intriguing results compelled us to develop a wide range of analytical tools to better study the intricacies of cellular biosynthetic machinery. We have perfected non-aqueous subcellular fractionation techniques in order to separate chloroplasts and vacuoles from cytosol. We are operating a metabolite profiling system, using GC-MS, which allows us to distinguish among large numbers of metabolites within each of these samples (subcellular fractions or tissue samples). In excess of 300 compounds can be profiled in this way , 100 of these compounds having known chemical structures. A further experimental development that we are exploring is the use of chemically-inducible promoters to drive transgene expression in a controlled manner in order to study perturbations of metabolism on a temporal basis. In recent years we have additionally established an RT-PCR platform for tomato transcription factors and sensitive methods for following the metabolism of stable isotope labeled substrate and an ...
Hi Peter Which cell type do you wish to stain? Neurons or glia? Julia >I am looking for an antibody against a plasma membrane >marker protein for > >IHC (brainstem slices). _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] ...
Beanwise Tasting Emporium offers an assortment of premium Equipment and other selections of coffee beans and coffee pods. Shop for Cilio Perfetto French Press.
In keeping with the theme of Kyles hilarious post, Ill throw in my own two cents. A couple of weeks ago some friends from the lab next door went to a Starbucks coffee tasting. It was one of the windiest, rainiest, nastiest nights in a while, so they apparently were the only ones there. By the way, the Christmas Blend is the same as the Holiday Blend, in case you were wondering. Yes, the Starbucks people used a French press. The only nagging question I have is whether there is some cutesy urban legend about the connection between the coffee French press and the French press biologists use to gently crack open cells. Usually, when you want to recover a protein that you have manufactured in lab bacteria, you want a gentle method that wont damage your protein. You may also want to get at intact organelles, or something. In my very minimal protein purification experience, we would rapidly freeze, then thaw cells for a few cycles. For the proteomics I currently do, I use a Dounce homogenizer ...
Here we present protocols for detergent-free homogenization of cultured mammalian cells based on nitrogen cavitation and subsequent...
3IGMM-CNRS, Montpellier, France. There is increasing evidence that mRNAs can be found localised in different regions of the cytoplasm. Such mRNA localisation occurs in a variety of cells from yeast to mammals, as does the association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton. Both association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton and mRNA localisation depend in the majority of cases on signals within the 3 untranslated sequences (3UTRs) of the mRNAs. Using cell fractionation techniques the mRNAs encoding c-myc, c-fos, ribosomal proteins L1 and S6, cyclin A and metallothionein (MT1) have been found associated with the cytoskeleton. These mRNAs all code for proteins which under all or some circumstances are imported into the nucleus after synthesis; e.g. MYC and FOS are transcription factors and MT1 can be found in the nucleus during. S-phase of the cell cycle. In situ hybridisation shows that c-myc and MT1mRNAs are localised around the nucleus. In addition analysis of mammalian cell lines expressing chimaeric ...
Then, the report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers analysis is also carried out. Whats more, the Cell Fractionation industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
I am trying to carry out the fractionation of cardiac tissue.I am specifically looking to isolate mitochondria, myofibril and nuclei. Anyone got any ideas ...
There are for example some growth factors which have a signal sequence targeting the protein in mammalian cells to endosomes with a specific protease to cleave that pepide in acidic enviroment. because of the lack of the acidic enviroment and the protease, the growth factors are insoluble in Ecoli, but when you express them without the peptide, they are soluble. The signal peptide in this case is anyhow not needed in Ecoli. You might consider this also.. ...
The distribution of [3H]leukotriene D4 [( 3H]LTD4) receptors in subcellular membrane fractions obtained from sheep tracheal smooth muscle was studied. Using differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, the subcellular membranes were separated into six fractions. The [3H]LTD4 receptor distribution profile in these fractions correlated with markers for the plasma membrane (5-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase) and did not correlate with markers for the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and succinate-dependent cytochrome c reductase). The dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the crude mixture of membranes (PII) were 0.38 +/- 0.2 nM and 77 +/- 14 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Kd and Bmax of [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction (FII) were 0.40 +/- 0.2 nM and 268 +/- 46 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The specificity profile of ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
In order to study the release of ATP from a neuronal preparation thought to be purinergic, isolated varicosities were prepared from myenteric plexus by mincing and homogenizing the longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum in 0.32 M sucrose. The presence of varicosities within the crude preparation (P2), isolated by differential centrifugation, was confirmed by electron microscopy and by the presence of occluded lactate dehydrogenase as a cytoplasmic marker. Varicosities were purified further from the P2 fraction on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and characterized morphologically. Varicosities resembling cholinergic, purinergic, and adrenergic axonal terminals were identified. The release of ATP from both crude and purified varicosities was detected by monitoring the light produced when the released ATP reacted with firefly luciferin-luciferase which was present in the incubation medium. Elevated extracellular K+ or Rb+ caused the release of ATP, whereas elevated Na+ and Li+ did not. ...
Learn the secrets of making good coffee with a French press pot. THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is an online gourmet food magazine and website with 1000+ reviews of gourmet food and beverages, including coffee. Sign up for the Top Pick Of The Week to get a product recommendation and recipe emailed to you.
Albumin is one of the most extensively used proteins in biological research today. It acts as a powerful antioxidant in cell culture. It binds, sequesters and stabilizes a variety of molecular species which are often unstable. This acidic, soluble protein has both high-affinity and secondary binding sites, optimizing the roles that fatty acids, metals, disulfides, and other molecules play in cellular metabolism. Seralab BSA products are prepared by heat shock with the exception of GEM-700-108 which is produced by a modified method of the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation method. Heat shock produces the highest purity BSA product Cohn fractionation method remains the gold standard - this method preserves the biological activity of albumin. Ready-to-buy solutions offer the convenience of not having to solubilise BSA in - house. Available in 20g, 100g and 1kg quantities (lyophilised); or 50mL, 100mL and 1L volumes (solution). Sourced serum or plasma is filtered through a 0.2 μm filter before
Microreactors have gained increasing attention in their application toward continuous micro flow synthesis. An unsolved problem of continuous flow synthesis is the lack of techniques for continuous...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High-Affinity Transport of L-Glutamine by a Plasma Membrane Preparation from Rat Brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Specialty bakeware & kitchen appliances from Frieling offers fresh solutions to daily cooking & kitchen challenges - including things you never knew you needed like the layer cake slicing kit or French fry crisper pan. Enjoy exclusive savings + FREE Shipping!
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We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, September 13, 2017 ) The market is projected to grow at a substantial pace in the forecasting period and in the future years to follow because of the developments in biotechnology sector in past few years. Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular...
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В месте субклеточных фракционирования клеток млекопитающих на микроскопе покровные позволяет визуализировать белки...
Part of a whole; part of a set; equivalent fractions; comparing; ordering; lowest terms; renaming improper fractions and mixed numbers; Adding and subtracting like and unlike fractions; adding and subtracting mixed numbers with like and unlike fractions; Multiplying a whole number times a fraction and a fraction times a whole number; multiplying a fraction times a fraction; multiplying a whole number times a mixed number; multiplying a mixed number times a mixed number; Dividing a whole number by a fraction; dividing a fraction by a fraction; reciprocals. ...
A method for the isolation of brush-border membranes from newborn-rat kidney, employing centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis, is described. The composition and purity of the preparation was assessed by determination of enzyme activities specific for various cellular membranes. Free-flow electrophoresis resolves the newborn-rat renal membrane suspension into two populations of alkaline phosphatase-enriched brush-border membranes, designated A and B, with the A peak also showing activity of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, the basolateral membrane marker enzyme, whereas those of the B peak were enriched 11-fold in alkaline phosphatase and substantially decreased in (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Membranes in the A peak showed a 7-fold enrichment of alkaline phosphatase, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the original homogenate. Proline uptake employed to assess osmotic dependency revealed 7% binding of proline to the B vesicles and 31% to the A vesicles. ...
A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was used to separate membrane fractions from a homogenate of maize root tips. Endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi apparatus-, plasma membrane- and mitochondria-rich fractions were identified by their enzymic characteristics and by their appearance under the electron microscope. Maize roots were incubated in vivo with D-[U-14C]glucose, [Me-14C]choline chloride and diazotized [U-3H]sulphanilic acid. The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity into the various membrane fractions was investigated. Analyses of the polypeptide chains of the membrane fractions by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the mitochondria-rich fraction had a different pattern of polypeptides from that of the other membrane fractions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis of endomembrane flow and differentiation. ...
The metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in homogenates and sub-fractions from normal rat liver and premalignant liver nodules was investigated. The activities of 5-phosphatase, expressed as pmol converted substrate per minute and mg protein, were equal when using the two substrates, and did not differ between normal and nodular homogenates. Subcellular fractions were purified by sequential steps of differential centrifugation and density gradient fractionation procedures. The total phosphatase activity was found to be distributed between cytosol (15%) and membraneous fractions (75%), with most of the enzyme activity residing in the plasma membranes. A doubling of phosphatase specific activity was seen in the nodular low density membrane fraction, containing Golgi apparatus and endosomes, as compared with normal liver. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity was found to be exclusively cytosolic. No difference in this enzyme was seen between ...
Purification of mitochondria and mitochondrial subfractionation. Mitochondria were purified from brain tissue using the discontinuous sucrose gradient method. Briefly, brain homogenate was made in ice-cold homo-buffer (0.32 M sucrose, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 900 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The supernatant was transferred to another clean tube and spun at 10,000 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The resultant pellet, enriched for mitochondria, was resuspended in 2 ml homo-buffer, loaded on top of a sucrose gradient (1.2 M, 0.8 M, and 0.32 M sucrose; 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 53,000 g, 4°C, for 2 hours. The white band at the interface between medium (0.8 M) and heavy (1.2 M) solutions was collected as highly purified mitochondria. Mitochondria from cultured cells were isolated using a kit (catalog no. 89874) from Pierce. Mitochondrial subfractionation was carried out as described by Hovius et al. (40). Briefly, purified mitochondria (1 mg) were resuspended in 500 μl ice-cold buffer (10 ...
Next, in a saucepan, heat milk but be careful not to scald it. Simmer and swirl to prevent the formation of a protein skin on top. If you have a milk frother, you can use it for this step and create a nice, foamy frothed milk. Using a French press is another method. Hot milk is pumped with air and a good froth is produced by the French press, but If you hate extra washing up its not a necessity! ...
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated from human gliomas and brain white matter. These membrane fractions were characterized by electron microscopy and by the distribution of the membrane...
Ns by differential centrifugation. B and C. Immunoblot analysis of soluble/ insoluble fractions separated by differential centrifugation. FKIPS DCARD stable
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POULARD, Fabien; HERNANDEZ, Nicolás y DAILLE, Béatrice. Detecting Derivatives using Specific and Invariant Descriptors. Polibits [online]. 2011, n.43, pp.7-13. ISSN 1870-9044.. This paper explores the detection of derivation links between texts (otherwise called plagiarism, near-duplication, revision, etc.) at the document level. We evaluate the use of textual elements implementing the ideas of specificity and invariance as well as their combination to characterize derivatives. We built a French press corpus based on Wikinews revisions to run this evaluation. We obtain performances similar to the state of the art method (n-grams overlap) while reducing the signature size and so, the processing costs. In order to ensure the verifiability and the reproducibility of our results we make our code as well as our corpus available to the community.. Palabras clave : Textual derivatives; detection of derivations; near-duplicates; revisions; linguistic descriptors; French corpus. ...
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Product Type Make-up Base French press Brand Korea Model Number 103719072 Manufacturer 제조자:상세페이지참조 / 제조판매업자:상세페이지참조 Info. DETAILED IMAGES…
The aerolatte stainless steel microfilter is acid etched with super fine 0.2mm holes for maximum flavour. Since there is only one level of filter, the end result is a smooth coffee but with body; somewhere between our paper filters and our cafetieres or French presses.. ...
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coffee machines - The Ora French Press is a set of luxury coffee machines designed to brew the beans without letting air enter the glass chamber and disturb the arom...
What are the benefits and drawbacks to making coffee using the pourover method, especially, but not limited to, using a French press? How might some of th...
Caltag Medsystems supply whole cell extraction, nuclear extract, cell fractions and lysates from multiple species including human, mouse, rat, monkey, dog, whole cell extraction, nuclear extract.
Fig 1. Principle of free-flow electrophoresis. The miniaturization of FFE implies several advantages especially considering sample volume and separation speed. In contrast to the tens of milliliters of sample consumed by conventional large scale FFE devices, microfluidic FFE systems require only tens of nanoliters up to hundreds of microliters of sample. This is especially interesting in clinical analysis where often only low sample volumes are available. Furthermore, instead of residence times of up to tens of minutes, microfluidic FFE (µ-FFE) devices separate within several seconds. The aim of this project is to develop a microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis device (as shown in figure 2 and 3) which eventually might find application in so called proteomics-on-a-chip systems for proteome analysis.. ...
In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylinositol 4-hydroxy kinase and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-hydroxy kinase are responsible for the formation of the two second messenger precursors phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (Ptdlns(4)P) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (Ptdlns(4,5)P2). In plant cells, these kinases have been considered to be exclusively membrane associated, with the majority of activity residing in the inner leaflet of the plasmalemma. By sequentially extracting carrot protoplasts with the detergent Nonidet P-40 then more rigorously with Triton X-100, we were able to remove the activity of three separate plasma membrane marker enzymes and to demonstrate that a significant proportion of cellular Ptdlns 4-kinase is associated with the cytoskeleton. When only endogenous substrates were present, Nonidet P-40-permeabilized protoplasts and Nonidet P-40-extracted cytoskeletons displayed a pattern of lipid phosphorylation similar to that obtained with isolated plant membranes or ...
Engineered nanomaterials are subject of intense research since several years - nanoanalytical tools are mainly based on fractionation techniques such as FFF, HDC and CE coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Nowadays imaging techniques gain importance in life-science, e.g. for the application of nanomaterials or the analysis of single-cells.. Thus, the 7th Workshop on Field Flow Fractionation and Mass Spectrometry (FFF-MS) will focus on the application of nanomaterials in life science and environmental technology and the applicability of nanoanalytical tools in these fields.. A special focus will be placed on the complementary analysis of nanomaterials in life science application as well as during their synthesis. Special topics are. ...
Histochemical studies and electron microscopy of Bacillus subtilis revealed the presence of ATPase in various subcellular fractions. The enzyme was preferentially localized in mesosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space, and cell wall ...
We are studying the cellular expression of an enzyme which can exist both in the Golgi and at the level of the cell membrane. In vivo, subcellular fractionation is relatively straightforward using a differential gradient system. However, I have not come accross a parallel method for separating the plasma membranes and Golgi fractions from a cultured cell monolayer. This is a particular problem when the small amount of starting material is taken into consideration. Has anybody elso come accross this problem, or how it may be addressed? Kieran Breen Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, U.K. k.c.breen at ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: During cultivation, the internal phosphorus cycle of Mollisols (Chernozems) of the CanadianPrairies is perturbed by crop sequences including wheat phases, tillage practices, and regularapplications of fertilizers. To monitor these changes, a proximate sequential phosphorus (P)fractionation procedure was developed by Hedley et al. (1982) to extract inorganic and organic Pfractions as very labile (resin-P), labile (NaHCO3-P), slowly available (NaOH-P), and very slowlyavailable (HCl-P) pools. Models used so far to monitor P pools do not address the interactivebehaviour of P fractions constrained to a closed compositional space. Compositional data analysisusing isometric log ratio (ilr) coordinates is appropriate for modelling the interactive P pools usingsequential binary partitions of P pools. Our objective was to model changes of P pools in Mollisolsin response to management and time using ilr coordinates. We used a dataset with treatments andanother where a
Instead of making a brewed cup of coffee, I use the double shot of espresso to make a concentrated Americano... to do this, I only add 1 inch of boiling water from my teapot to the mug after adding the double espresso to the mug. In a normal Americano that you get at most coffee shops, much greater amounts of hot water are added to the cup, which dilutes the espresso too much in my opinion. I know some people love to make brewed coffee from a drip maker or a French press or some other method, but from what Ive seen, my version of the concentrated Americano using the espresso as the base seems to get the best taste votes from everybody thats taste-tested with me ...
Fresh Roasted Coffee Grinding & Brewing, top quality coffee products you need! French presses, coffee makers, mugs and kitchen tools galore.
Make a delicious yet simple Chamomile Tea Latte at home and learn the secret to getting the perfect latte froth using just a French press.
Here we describe a method capable of identifying interactions between candidate trafficking proteins and a defined vesicle population in intact cells
AXIS-SHIELD Density Gradient Media - Macromolecule indexes - Isolation of cells, cell organelles, subcellular membranes, viruses and macromolecules using centrifugation techniques
For fractionation we use a Qiagen kit, but somehow I have a feeling that it must be technical problem of correct separation of cellular fractions. We suspect also that the protein can be attached to nuclear envelope and nuclear location can be linked to the developmental stage of the cells ...
In erythrocytapheresis, centrifugation is the most commonly used red blood cell fractionation method. This is because the ... The centrifugal force will separate the red blood cells from other cells due to their high specific weight. These cells can ... This includes either two standard units of red blood cells or one unit plus of red blood cells and another of either plasma or ... This process is commonly referred to as 'double reds' or 'double red cell apheresis'. Double Red Cell Apheresis Kim HC, Dugan ...
Through biochemical fractionation of cell extracts and quantitative mass spectrometry, Sun, et al. identified cGAS as the DNA- ... Cell. 176 (6): 1432-1446.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.049. PMC 6697112. PMID 30827685. Sun L, Wu J, Du F, Chen X, Chen ZJ ( ... and T cells. In many tumor cells, the DNA damage response is constitutively active, leading to the accumulation of cytoplasmic ... "Cell intrinsic immunity spreads to bystander cells via the intercellular transfer of cGAMP". Nature. 503 (7477): 530-4. Bibcode ...
... and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. They ... While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with cell compartment, a space often bound by one or ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell, that has a specific function. The name organelle ... Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some ...
Novikoff had successfully developed a technique of cell fractionation. Using this he had separated cell fractions and ... Novikoff, PM; Novikoff, AB (1972). "Peroxisomes in absorptive cells of mammalian small intestine". The Journal of Cell Biology ... His works in cell biology are best summed up in a textbook he wrote with his student Eric Holtzman, Cells and Organelles, first ... E.B.Wilson Award from the American Society for Cell Biology in 1982 Elected to the US National Academy of Sciences in 1974 A ...
Different techniques including freeze-fracturing and cell fractionation may be used to overcome the problems of artifacts. A ... Inflammatory and tumor cells are most susceptible to crush artifacts. Cellulose contamination, in H&E stain and polarized light ... Staining can cause the appearance of solid chemical deposits that may be seen as structures inside the cell. ...
At the end of the separation cell, the separated sample is split up at the fractionation tubes and collected in microtiter ... cells, subcellular compartments (like organelles, ribosomes, etc.), Separation size range from ions to complete cells Sample ... Until the 1980s, it was a standardized technology for the separation of cells and organelles, and FFE was even tested in space ... The front plate also contains the inlets for the separation buffers and the sample, the outlets for the fractionation tubes and ...
Cell fractionation is done by homogenizer to release the organelles from cell. Whereas older technologies just focused on the ... Homogenization is a very common sample preparation step prior to the analysis of nucleic acids, proteins, cells, metabolism, ... There are often many different names for the same piece of mechanical homogenizing equipment, including Cell Lysor, Disperser, ...
Clearing factor Svedberg Sedimentation Centrifugation Introduction to Cell Fractionation in the Cell Biology Laboratory Manual ...
... follicular mixed cell lymphoma - follicular thyroid cancer - formaldehyde - FR901228 - fractionation - free radical - ... cell - cell differentiation - cell motility - cell proliferation - cell respiration - cell adhesion - cellular adoptive ... systemic therapy T cell - T-3 - T-cell depletion - T-cell lymphoma - T138067 - T4N5 liposomal lotion - T900607 - TAC-101 - ... basal cell - basal cell carcinoma - basal cell nevus syndrome - basophil - batimastat - BAY 12-9566 - BAY 43-9006 - BAY 56-3722 ...
Cell disruption Media for cell separation by density: Percoll Ficoll Alberts, B; Johnson, A. "Fractionation of Cells". ... It is the formation of homogenous mass of cells (cell homogenate or cell suspension). It involves grinding of cells in a ... Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component ... This step may not be necessary depending on the source of the cells. Animal tissue however is likely to yield connective tissue ...
Fractionation also allows tumor cells that were in a relatively radio-resistant phase of the cell cycle during one treatment to ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Schedules for fractionation. One fractionation schedule that is increasingly being used and continues to be studied is ...
Fractionation processEdit. General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ... Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally ...
This is a graph showing the effect of fractionation on the ability of gamma rays to cause cell death. The blue line is for ... For many short term radiation deaths (3 days to 30 days) the loss of cells forming blood cells (bone marrow) and the cells in ... a dose/survival curve for a hypothetical group of cells has been drawn with and without a rest time for the cells to recover. ... The human body contains many types of cells[citation needed] and a human can be killed by the loss of a single tissue in a ...
Most cancer cells are fully treated with some type of radiotherapy, however some cells such as stem cell cancer cells show a ... dose fractionation refers to breaking down one dose of radiation into separate, smaller doses. Hypomethylation of these genes ... Accumulation of DNA double strand breaks can lead to cell cycle arrest in somatic cells and cause cell death. Due to its ... and apoptotic cell death. The extent of how radiation effects cells depends on the type of cell and the dosage of the radiation ...
Isolation and fractionationEdit. Thylakoids can be purified from plant cells using a combination of differential and gradient ... "Plant Cell. 16 (2): 478-99. doi:10.1105/tpc.017814. PMC 341918 . PMID 14729914.. - The Plastid Proteome Database ... "Plant Cell. 12 (3): 319-41. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.3.319. PMC 139834 . PMID 10715320.. ... "Plant Cell. 20 (10): 2552-2557. doi:10.1105/tpc.108.059147. PMC 2590735 . PMID 18952780.. ...
... and kits for cell analysis, reagent systems for life science research, cell imaging systems, laboratory products for tissue ... which specialized in the separation and fractionation of complex proteins. 2006 was also an important year to document BD's ... BD FACSAria Cell Sorter-the first entirely new instrument in the next-generation portfolio of flow cytometers (2003), BD ... and reagents for real-time analysis of interactions taking place in living cells. In 2005 BD entered the field of proteomics ...
... the cell's current is measured over time), and voltammetry (the cell's current is measured while actively altering the cell's ... Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. Then ... These methods can be categorized according to which aspects of the cell are controlled and which are measured. The four main ... Electroanalytical methods measure the potential (volts) and/or current (amps) in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte ...
U1 snRNP is the initiator of spliceosomal activity in the cell by base pairing with the 5′ splice site of the pre-mRNA. In the ... Hadjiolov AA, Venkov PV, Tsanev RG (November 1966). "Ribonucleic acids fractionation by density-gradient centrifugation and by ... However, U1 snRNP's abundance in human cells is far greater than that of the other snRNPs. Through U1 snRNA gene knockdown in ... Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (3): 209-220. doi:10.1038/nrm2124. PMID 17318225. S2CID 30268055. Hamm J, Darzynkiewicz E, Tahara SM ...
DEP as a cell characterisation tool[edit]. DEP is mainly used for characterising cells measuring the changes in their ... Dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation[edit]. The utilization of the difference between dielectrophoretic forces exerted on ... Instruments capable of separating cancer cells from healthy cells have been made [18][20][21][22] as well as isolating single ... or to force contact between selected single cells to study cell-cell interaction.[25] ...
This suggests the effect of cell-to-cell communication such as paracrine and juxtacrine signaling. Normal cells do not lose DNA ... Employing IG-IMRT, protons and heavy ions are likely to minimize dose to normal tissues by altered fractionation. Molecular ... It was found that even cells up to 50-75 cell diameter distant from irradiated cells have phenotype of enhanced genetic ... In this case, cells are able to replicate without repair of their DNA, prone to incidence of cancer. Most cells are in G1 and S ...
Within the cell eIF4G is found primarily in the cytoplasm, usually bound to eIF4E; however, it is also found in the nucleus, ... It was initially isolated by fractionation, found present in fraction 4 gamma, and was involved in eukaryotic translation ... Molecular Cell Biology (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 978-1-4292-3413-9. Goyer C, Altmann M, Lee HS, ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 15: 1232-1242. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.46. PMID 18451872. Kally Z. Pan; Julia E. Palter; Aric N. ...
The damage to the cell can be lethal (the cell dies) or sublethal (the cell can repair itself). Cell damage can ultimately lead ... Fractionation of dose, dose rate, the application of antioxidants and other factors may affect the precise threshold at which a ... epidermal stem cells, gastrointestinal stem cells. The least sensitive are nerve cells and muscle fibers. Very sensitive cells ... they concluded that quickly dividing tumor cells are generally more sensitive than the majority of body cells. This is not ...
The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors ... "A close look at human IgG sialylation and subclass distribution after lectin fractionation". Proteomics. 9 (17): 4143-4153. doi ... The Fc region is, therefore, sometimes incorrectly termed the "fragment constant region". Fc binds to various cell receptors ... In this way, it mediates different physiological effects of antibodies (detection of opsonized particles; cell lysis; ...
Red blood cells or packed cells is transfused to patients with anemia/iron deficiency. It also helps to improve the oxygen ... If it is intended to be made into other products, it is typically labeled as recovered plasma or plasma for fractionation. ... The cells are incubated in a glycerol solution which acts as a cryoprotectant ("antifreeze") within the cells. The units are ... Frozen red cells are given an expiration date of up to ten years and are stored at −85 °F (−65 °C). The less-dense blood plasma ...
... cell fractionation MeSH E05.200.500.307 - cell fusion MeSH E05.200.500.363 - cell separation MeSH E05.200.500.363.285 - ... cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107 - blood cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195. ... tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.385 - cytogenetic analysis MeSH E05.200.500.385.130 - chromosome banding MeSH E05.200. ... tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.337.550.200.900 - xenograft model antitumor assays MeSH E05.337.550.200.900.830 - subrenal ...
ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where other cells such as white blood cells are of greater ... Posch, Anton (2008). 2D PAGE: Sample Preparation and Fractionation. Humana Press. pp. 24. ISBN 978-1-58829-722-8. Affairs, EMBL ... "Labeling Cultured Cells with32Piand Preparing Cell Lysates for Immunoprecipitation". Labeling Cultured Cells with 32Pi and ... Dish soap can be used in a pinch to break down the cell and nuclear membranes, allowing the DNA to be released. Other such ...
... an can an aa be purifee'd bi cell fractionation. Thare are mony teeps o organelles, pairteecularly in eukaryotic cells. While ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialised subunit within a cell that haes a speceefic function, in that thair function is ... The name organelle comes frae the idea that thir structures are pairts o cells, as organs are tae the bouk, hence organelle, ... vital for the cell tae live. Individual organelles are uisually separately enclosed within thair awn lipid bilayers. ...
Serum does not contain white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets, or clotting factors. The ... Antiserum Albumin Blood fractionation Globulin Human serum albumin Lipid Serum iron Serum protein electrophoresis Serum- ... Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is rich in growth factors and is frequently added to growth media used for eukaryotic cell culture. A ... Lee JE, Lee DR (June 2011). "Human embryonic stem cells: derivation, maintenance and cryopreservation". International Journal ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... After size fractionation of FCS and analysis of the lipids that bound to serum albumin, the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
Place cells are also found in the hippocampus. The parietal cortex encodes spatial information using an egocentric frame of ... Within the literature, it is suggested that further research into the fractionation of STM and WM be explored. However, much of ... Brun, V. H.; Otnaess, M. K.; Molden, S.; Steffenach, H.; Witter, M. P.; Moser, M.; Moser, E. I. (2002). "Place cells and place ... Participants are presented with a series of matrix patterns that have half their cells coloured and the other half blank. The ...
Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte-dependent mast cell proliferation»։ J. Biol. Chem. 257 (15): ... Fractionation of proteins by heparin chromatography։ Methods Mol Biol։ Methods in Molecular Biology™ 424։ 2008։ էջեր 213-21։ ... Cell. Biochem. 48 (3): 161-182։ PMID 6757715։ doi:10.1007/BF00421226 *↑ Cox M., Nelson D. (2004)։ Lehninger, Principles of ... Effects of heparin on polymerase chain reaction for blood white cells»։ J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 13 (3): 133-40։ 1999։ PMID 10323479 ...
PDF)You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells. Toshiba. Hentet 17. maj 2009.. ... "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and ... Battery Anodes , Batteries & Fuel Cells , Research , The Energy Materials Center at Cornell. Hentet 10. ...
"Gene Expression Profiles from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Sensitive to Short Processing Delays". Biopreservation ... Blood plasma fractionation requires phlebotomist to collect Urine marker for some diagnostic tests Urination non-invasive ...
Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... Abundance in cells. It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli ... The total complement of proteins present at a time in a cell or cell type is known as its proteome, and the study of such large ...
Solid foams can be closed-cell or open-cell. In closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete pockets, each completely surrounded by ... foams having very high specific surface area is exploited in the chemical processes of froth flotation and foam fractionation. ... In open-cell foam, gas pockets connect to each other. A bath sponge is an example of an open-cell foam: water easily flows ... The closed cells can be filled with a specialized gas to provide improved insulation. The closed-cell structure foams have ...
... which separates the cells from the blood plasma in a process known as blood fractionation. Packed red blood cells, which are ... Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells,[1] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ... Red blood cells are cells present in blood in order to transport oxygen. The only known vertebrates without red blood cells are ...
... as well as the fractionation history the rock has undergone.[20] Fractionation is in turn a function of the partition ... Ce, La and Nd are important in alloy making, and in the production of fuel cells and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Ce, Ga and ... Partition coefficients are responsible for the fractionation of a trace elements (including rare-earth elements) into the ... which causes preferential fractionation of some rare earths relative to others depending on the processes at work.[20] ...
CBLB502, 'Protectan', a radioprotectant drug under development for its ability to protect cells during radiotherapy. ... it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer. ... Dose fractionation. *Radioresistance. *Radiation protection. * ...
In such a plasma donation procedure, blood is removed from the body, blood cells and plasma are separated, and the blood cells ... Most plasmapheresis is for fractionation into other products; other blood donations are transfused with relatively minor ... and the red blood cells are returned to the donor. Since returning red cells causes the body to replace plasma more rapidly, a ... There is no risk of receiving the wrong red cells.[10] The devices used are very similar to the devices used for therapeutic ...
The inner platinum ends (DD) of the wire receive a current from a battery of five Grove cells and a Ruhmkorff coil of medium ... Argon is isolated from air by fractionation, most commonly by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that also produces ... Cryosurgery procedures such as cryoablation use liquid argon to destroy tissue such as cancer cells. It is used in a procedure ...
Discoloration may occur throughout the swollen area as red blood cells and plasma leak into muscle tissue.[14] Death from ... Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC (February 1968). "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and ...
A more recent method involved the use of live cells that are attached to a support membrane and are used for identification and ... are available in a variety of geometries and chemistry which allows them to be used for purification and also fractionation, ... It is an advancement of qualitative hull cell testing or less accurate UV testing. Ions, catalysts, brighteners and ... "Size-Based Chromatography of Signaling Clusters in a Living Cell Membrane". Nano Letters. 14 (5): 2293-2298. Bibcode:2014NanoL ...
Citing that most of the nutrient costs in the brain are in maintaining the brain cells and their synapses, rather than the ... human brains with those of 8 adults using estimates based upon size and evidence gathered from stereological fractionation. ... However, in terms of glial cells, adults had far larger estimates than those in newborns; 36.3 million on average in adult ... The proposed pathway involves EphB being expressed on the surface of target cells that results in tyrosine phosphorylation of ...
Stem cell genomics: Helps in stem cell biology. Aim is to establish stem cells as a leading model system for understanding ... various ChIP-seq and other sequencing methods combined with proteomic fractionations, and sequencing methods that find chemical ... "Omicum": Building of the Estonian Biocentre which houses the Estonian Genome Centre and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology ... Nucleomics: Study of the complete set of genomic components which form "the cell nucleus as a complex, dynamic biological ...
Cryopreservation of red blood cells is done to store rare units for up to ten years.[37] The cells are incubated in a glycerol ... A blood collection program was initiated in the US in 1940 and Edwin Cohn pioneered the process of blood fractionation. He ... Routine blood storage is 42 days or 6 weeks for stored packed red blood cells (also called "StRBC" or "pRBC"), by far the most ... With red cells, this can decrease viability and ability for tissue oxygenation.[23] Although some of the biochemical changes ...
"You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells" (PDF). Toshiba. Diakses tanggal 17 May 2009.. ... "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and ... "Battery Anodes , Batteries & Fuel Cells , Research , The Energy Materials Center at Cornell". Diakses tanggal ...
Biological processes preferentially take up the lower mass isotope through kinetic fractionation. In aqueous geochemistry, by ... "Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture" (SILAC). 13C-enriched compounds are used in medical diagnostic tests ...
... where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells or directly within high-temperature fuel cells.[68] The conversion of ammonia ... Millar, T. J. (2003). "Deuterium Fractionation in Interstellar Clouds". Space Science Reviews. 106 (1): 73-86. Bibcode:2003SSRv ... Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen (28 August 2014). "Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells". Frontiers in Energy Research. 2: 35. doi ... Two demonstration fuel cell vehicles have the technology, a Hyundai Nexo and Toyota Mirai.[83] ...
... is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension ... Blood plasma fractionation. *Chromatography in blood processing. *Hypoxia preconditioned plasma. References[edit]. *^ Dennis ... this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume.[1] It is the ... When donating whole blood or packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, O- is the most desirable and is considered a "universal ...
Fuel cell - Gasoline - Green chemistry - Hormonal contraception - Insulin - Nuclear fuel - Nuclear fusion - Nylon - Ozone - ... Fractionation - Reflux - Spectrometry - Sublimation - Titration - Standard addition - Isotope dilution. ...
The pH of the feces is lowered along with an increase in fecal bulk that mainly consists of bacterial cell mass and water. ... The most important growing area centres on Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India where demand for guar for fractionation produced an ...
... fractionation reveals a large population of mRNAs with a short poly(A) tail in mammalian cells". Nucleic Acids Research 35 (19 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.029.. *↑ 62,0 62,1 Martin, G.; Keller, W. (2007). "RNA-specific ribonucleotidyl transferases". RNA ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.12.038.. *↑ Benoit, P.; Papin, C.; Kwak, J. E.; Wickens, M.; Simonelig, M. (2008). "PAP- and GLD-2-type ... Guhaniyogi, J; Brewer, G (2001). "Regulation of mRNA stability in mammalian cells". Gene 265 (1-2): 11-23. PMID 11255003. doi: ...
Cell fate is regulated by both interactions between stem cells and interactions between stem cells and membrane proteins. ... sample fractionation, signal amplification, analyte detection, data analysis, and result display. In particular, blood is a ... Manipulating cell seeding density is a common biological technique in controlling cell-cell interactions, but controlling local ... cell-ECM interactions, cell-cell interactions, as well as embryoid body formation and organization. Bio-MEMS have been used to ...
Plant Cell Environ.' 19: 427-436. *^ Noblin, X.; Rojas, N. O.; Westbrook, J.; Llorens, C.; Argentina, M.; Dumais, J. (2012). " ... Cavitation plays a key role in non-thermal, non-invasive fractionation of tissue for treatment of a variety of diseases[15] and ... Larger plants direct solutes into the xylem via ray cells, or in tracheids, via osmosis through bordered pits. Solutes attract ... The opening phase is driven by water vaporization and by the resulting pressure decrease inside annulus cells (that is the ...
... Mandar Joshi joshi.34 at Mon Mar 19 17:05:50 EST 2001 *Previous message: coating slides ... I am trying to carry out the fractionation of cardiac tissue.I am specifically looking to isolate mitochondria, myofibril and ...
12 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Cell Fractionation. 13 Conclusion of the Global Cell Fractionation Industry ... 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Cell Fractionation. 4 Capacity, Production and Revenue Analysis of Cell ... on Global Cell Fractionation Industry is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Cell Fractionation ... has announced the addition of the "Global Cell Fractionation Industry 2016 Market Research Report", the report ...
Using cell fractionation techniques the mRNAs encoding c-myc, c-fos, ribosomal proteins L1 and S6, cyclin A and metallothionein ... Using these cell lines it has been found that loss of localisation of MT1transcripts is associated with a lack of MT1 in the ... S-phase of the cell cycle. In situ hybridisation shows that c-myc and MT1mRNAs are localised around the nucleus. In addition ... Such mRNA localisation occurs in a variety of cells from yeast to mammals, as does the association of mRNAs with the ...
Cell disruption Media for cell separation by density: Percoll Ficoll Alberts, B; Johnson, A. "Fractionation of Cells". ... It is the formation of homogenous mass of cells (cell homogenate or cell suspension). It involves grinding of cells in a ... Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component ... This step may not be necessary depending on the source of the cells. Animal tissue however is likely to yield connective tissue ...
... Merike Meier meerike at KBFI.EE Mon Oct 25 09:38:49 EST 1999 *Previous message: DNA ... Sf9 cell line)? Also, any information about the densities or/and sedimentation coefficients of different types of INSECT cell ... Unfortunately, I have no possibility for electron microscopy and no knowledge about marker enzymes for insect cell organelles ... can help with working protocol about differential or gradient centrifugation for subcellular fractionation of insect cells ( ...
... mitochondrial and nuclear fractions from cells in 1 hour (ab109718). 96 well plate format. ... ab109719 Cell Fractionation Kit - Standard. This version is designed for fractionating cells grown in batches and is ideal for ... high throughput fractionation of adherent cells in a 96-well plate format. The entire fractionation of 96 samples into the ... Abcams Cell Fractionation Kit - High Throughput (HT), provides a method and reagents for a simple and rapid preparation of ...
Eukaroytic cells are organized by segregating essential cellular functions into discrete compartments composed of proteins and ... A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. ... USA Home > Product Directory > Molecular Biology > Proteomics > Native Protein Sample Preparation > Cell Fractionation and ... A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. Eukaroytic cells are organized by ...
Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets, usually organelles, from a heterogeneous population of cells. ... See Cell disruption for further details. Filtration. This step may not be necessary depending on the source of the cells. ... Purification of cell components.. Homogenization. Tissue is typically homogenised in an isotonic buffer solution using a ... Retrieved from "" ...
See our top tips and troubleshooting FAQs for use of our tissue lysis, cell lysis, and fractionation products for various ... Find resources and answers to your technical questions regarding cell lysis and fractionation. ... Cell Lysis and Fractionation Support * Cell Lysis and Fractionation Support-Getting Started ... GeneArt™ Cell Lines and Proteins. GeneArt™ Cell Lines and Proteins are a suite of service offerings designed to help facilitate ...
Cell Lysis/Cell Fractionation Market by Product (Consumables (Reagents, Enzymes, Detergent), Instruments (Sonicator, ... What are the Known and Unknown Adjacencies Impacting the Cell Lysis/Cell Fractionation Market ... The cell lysis market is consolidated in nature due to the presence of a few large players. The prominent players in the cell ... held the second position in cell lysis market in 2015 which can be attributed to the strong portfolio of cell lysis products. ...
The Subcellular Protein Fractionation Kit includes a combination of reagents for stepwise lysis of cells into functional ... Cultured mammalian cells or tissues are processed by first disrupting the outer cell membrane to obtain the cytoplasmic ... The first reagent added to a pellet of cultured cells is buffer A, which causes selective permeabilization of the cell membrane ... Schematic of subcellular fractionation using a commercially available kit. At each step, the supernatant contains the ...
... mycb cells. The cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis and the absence of a G1 block for Rat1:mycb cells led to ... Radiation-induced Apoptosis: Effects of Cell Age and Dose Fractionation. C. Clifton Ling, Min Guo, Chang Hu Chen and Thomas ... Radiation-induced Apoptosis: Effects of Cell Age and Dose Fractionation. C. Clifton Ling, Min Guo, Chang Hu Chen and Thomas ... Radiation-induced Apoptosis: Effects of Cell Age and Dose Fractionation. C. Clifton Ling, Min Guo, Chang Hu Chen and Thomas ...
Fractionation of Golgi, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Plasma Membrane from Cultured Cells in a Preformed Continuous Iodixanol ... The strategy is widely used to study the processing of proteins within cells. ... and plasma membrane from a postnuclear supernatant prepared from a cultured cell homogenate. The precise density range of the ... gradient and the centrifugation conditions (100,000-200,000 g for 2-16 h) vary with the type of cell and the requirements of ...
Some people suggested to do freeze-thaw or to pass my cells through a syringe. Any comments or suggestion? Thanks. ... Im planning to do fractionation to determine the localization of peroxiredoxin. My organism is single-celled and Im would ... Method for lysing cells for fractionation - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hello. ... Method for lysing cells for fractionation. Started by Tenuissimus, May 13 2009 06:55 AM ...
... such as free cells, viruses, macromolecules, or minute particles in a fluid medium. The sorting apparatus is composed of a ... B. Cell Fractionation. The flexibility of cells is a structural variable of some interest to cell biologists. The flexibility ... The fractionation of larger microstructures, such as mammalian cells, promises to afford cell biologists new insights into the ... 16 illustrates an apparatus 212 for cell sorting and fractionation. As an example, and not as a limitation, cells 214 are shown ...
Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene ... Fraction-PrepTM Cell Fractionation System: The Fraction-PREPTM Cell Fractionation System is designed to fractionate cellular ... Stem Cell Research Tools(82)*Neuronal Transdifferentiation Modulators(3). *Stem Cell Fate Regulators(79)*Stem Cell Fate ... Mammalian Cell Extraction Kit: Extract mammalian proteins from tissues and cells under nondenaturing conditions. Cell extracts ...
Cell Fractionation & Protein Extraction. Reliable Protein Extraction Kits to efficiently isolate cell membrane/cell surface ... The Cell Fractionation Kits enable a perfect separation of the cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions to ... Complete Cell Fractionation Kit. For serial sample preparation of four distinct protein fractions (cytosol, particulate, ... Cells and media are our specialty, and we want to support you and your research in primary cell culture. Weve got your back ...
descrepancy between total cell lysate and cell fractionation - (Dec/19/2010 ). Hi All,. I have done total protein lysates using ... But I was wondering if this is an issue with my nuclear extracts? I used tubulin and lamin A/C and confirmed fractionation. ... I have been thinking of doing IF to confirm inhibition rather than subcellular fractionation. ...
Cell Fractionation of Anterior Pituitary Glands from Beef and Pig. Frank S. Labella, J. H. U. Brown ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jan 1959, 5 (1) 17-23; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.5.1.17 ...
Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB Non- ... An Alternative Radiation Fractionation Strategy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). This study has ... An Alternative Radiation Fractionation Strategy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). ... To test the safety and tolerability of an alternative fractionation regimen in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer ( ...
... in particular by controlling alveolar/bronchial epithelial cell function. TGF-beta signaling involves ligand-dependent ... Subcellular fractionation of TGF-beta1-stimulated lung epithelial cells: a novel proteomic approach for identifying signaling ... we have analyzed A549 human lung epithelial cells, using subcellular fractionation combined with 2-D PAGE, tryptic digestion, ... To uncover novel proteins that participate in TGF-beta signaling via nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling in lung epithelial cells, ...
Separating the cell envelope compartments enables proteins to be localized to confirm where in the cell they function. Cell ... fractionation can also provide a first step in a protein purification strategy (Williams et al., 1998). This protocol has been ... Separating the cell envelope compartments enables proteins to be localized to confirm where in the cell they function. Cell ... Figure 1. AaaA is found in the outer membrane fraction of P. aeruginosa. Cell fractionation was performed as described, ...
Cell Wall Fractionation for Yeast and Fungal Proteomics. The cell wall is an external envelope shared by yeasts and filamentous ... We describe a typical procedure of cell wall fractionation to isolate and solubilize different CWP species from yeasts and ... Intriguingly, these cell wall proteins (CWPs) play a key role in morphogenesis, adhesion, pathogenicity, antigenicity, and as a ... This strategy is a powerful tool not only for obtaining an overview of the sophisticated cell wall proteome of yeasts and ...
Using the GELFREE 8100 Fractionation System for Molecular Weight-Based Fractionation with Liquid Phase Recovery… ... In situ Subcellular Fractionation of Adherent and Non-adherent Mammalian Cells. J. Vis. Exp. (41), e1958, doi:10.3791/1958 ( ... Implications for immunofluorescence microscopy. J Cell Sci. 101, 731-743 (1992).. *Zou, N., Lin, B. Y., Duan, F., Lee, K. Y., ... Melan, M. A., Sluder, G. Redistribution and differential extraction of soluble proteins in permeabilized cultured cells. ...
Isolation of Cell Wall Proteins. Cell wall fractionation was performed basically as described previously (35, 36) with some ... Different Mechanisms of Retention of Some CWPs into the Cell Wall-. The combination of sequential cell wall fractionation and ... cell wall fractionation was carried out. We evaluated the protein profiles of different enriched cell wall fractions from yeast ... The cell wall architecture of Candida albicans wild-type cells and cell wall-defective mutants. Mol. Microbiol. 35, 601- 611. ...
Cell membrane; lipid anchor; GPI anchor. May be involved in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction.. 64 ... Proteomics Analysis of Cells in Whole Saliva from Oral Cancer Patients via Value-added Three-dimensional Peptide Fractionation ... Proteomics Analysis of Cells in Whole Saliva from Oral Cancer Patients via Value-added Three-dimensional Peptide Fractionation ... Proteomics Analysis of Cells in Whole Saliva from Oral Cancer Patients via Value-added Three-dimensional Peptide Fractionation ...
Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular... ... Latin America Cell Fractionation Market is estimated to reach USD 307 million by 2021. The Latin America Cell Fractionation ... The Latin America Cell Fractionation ... Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular parts but still retain the independent features of ...
... ... Seung Mi Yoo (2010). Fractionation of non-animal protein hydrolysates for use in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell media. UWSpace. ... The bioactivity of feed and fractions was measured as cell density for CHO (beta-IFN producers) in basal medium supplemented ... This thesis presents a study on the enhancement of CHO cell growth by Yeast extract, Yeastolate, and Primatone fractions ...
Tissue-culture cell fractionation. Fractionation of cellular membranes from 125I/lactoperoxidase-labelled Lettrée cells ... Tissue-culture cell fractionation. Fractionation of cellular membranes from 125I/lactoperoxidase-labelled Lettrée cells ... Tissue-culture cell fractionation. Fractionation of cellular membranes from 125I/lactoperoxidase-labelled Lettrée cells ... Tissue-culture cell fractionation. Fractionation of cellular membranes from 125I/lactoperoxidase-labelled Lettrée cells ...
the cell organelles are spun at different speeds in order to seperate the organelles depending on their dencity/weight. Hevier ... the now broken cell is serperated through a gauze in order to serperate the debris tissue from the smaller organelles ... Homogenisation is the breaking up of a cells plasma membrane in order to seperate the organelles ...
... cell fractionation and high energy synchrotron analyses. Environmental Science and Technology, 43 (17). pp. 6822-6829. ISSN ... In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to ... Accumulated metal speciation in field populations of earthworms with multi-generational exposure to metalliferous soils:cell ...
  • has announced the addition of the "Global Cell Fractionation Industry 2016 Market Research Report", the report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification. (
  • The 2016 Market Research Report on Global Cell Fractionation Industry is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Cell Fractionation industry. (
  • The Cell Fractionation market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status. (
  • Other uses of subcellular fractionation is to provide an enriched source of a protein for further purification, and facilitate the diagnosis of various disease states. (
  • Hello - Does anybody can help with working protocol about differential or gradient centrifugation for subcellular fractionation of insect cells (Sf9 cell line)? (
  • Subcellular fractionation and protein enrichment are important methods in the rapidly growing field of proteomics. (
  • I have been thinking of doing IF to confirm inhibition rather than subcellular fractionation. (
  • Efficiently lyse cells and extract separate cytoplasmic and nuclear protein fractions in less than two hours with this subcellular fractionation kit. (
  • We describe a method for subcellular fractionation of mouse skeletal muscle, myoblast and myotubes to obtain relatively pure fractions of nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. (
  • The cell lysis market is consolidated in nature due to the presence of a few large players. (
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (U.S.) was the global leader in the cell lysis market in 2015. (
  • Merck KGaA (Germany) held the second position in cell lysis market in 2015 which can be attributed to the strong portfolio of cell lysis products. (
  • Thermo Scientific NE-PER Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Extraction Reagent kit enables stepwise lysis of cells that generates both functional cytoplasmic and nuclear protein fractions in less than two hours. (
  • This kit provides optimized lysis buffer and protease inhibitor cocktail as well as other reagents for convenient extraction of mammalian proteins from tissues and cells under nondenaturing conditions. (
  • Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular parts but still retain the independent features of each part. (
  • On the basis of product, the cell lysis market is segmented into consumables and instruments. (
  • On the basis of type of cell, the cell lysis market is segmented into mammalian cells, microbial cells, and other cells. (
  • This report aims to provide insights into the global cell lysis market. (
  • NO consumption by a preparation of central glial cells was abolished by cell lysis and recovered by addition of NADPH. (
  • The primary goal of this study was to isolate pharmacologically and characterize the mechanism and site of Na + uptake in isolated populations of gill epithelial cells. (
  • Isolation and fractionation of gill epithelial cells was completed using a modification of techniques developed by Goss et al. (
  • We conclude that GM-CSF protects alveolar epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial injury via the Akt pathway and its downstream components, including Mcl-1. (
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an endogenous growth factor found in the normal lung that is a product of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) ( 5 , 9 , 13 ). (
  • The Mitochondria Isolation Kit allows a highly efficient isolation of intact, functional mitochondria from tissue and cultured cells. (
  • Simple and efficient method for isolation of cell surface proteins. (
  • This kit allows isolation of a highly enriched mitochondrial fraction from cytosol fraction of mammalian cells. (
  • The Minute TM kit represents the next generation product for plasma membrane (PM) isolation and cell fractionation, offering unsurpassed convenience and consistency by eliminating uncontrollable variations associated with traditional homogenization and density gradient centrifugation including two phase partitioning. (
  • Isolation of nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of reasonable purity from mammalian tissues and cells has generated great interest as it has the advantage of allowing different cellular proteins and organelles to be studied and characterised. (
  • I am trying to carry out the fractionation of cardiac tissue.I am specifically looking to isolate mitochondria, myofibril and nuclei. (
  • The kit is based on sequential detergent extraction of cytosolic, mitochondrial and nuclear proteins without the need for mechanical disruption of cells, and thus fractionates adherent cells into cytosol-containing, mitochondria-containing and nuclei-containing fractions. (
  • Separate highly enriched mitochondria from cytosol of mammalian cells. (
  • Simple & rapid method to isolate highly pure, intact and functional mitochondria from tissues and cultured cells. (
  • Consequently, in response to ER stress, cells deficient in IRE1 were susceptible to leakage of ER contents, which was associated with the accumulation of calcium in mitochondria, oxidative stress in the cytosol, and ultimately cell death. (
  • In cells, to test whether αE-catenin regulates actin dynamics independently of the cadherin complex, the cytosolic αE-catenin pool was sequestered to mitochondria without affecting overall levels of αE-catenin or the cadherin-catenin complex. (
  • Sequestering cytosolic αE-catenin to mitochondria alters lamellipodia architecture and increases membrane dynamics and cell migration without affecting cell-cell adhesion. (
  • Mitochondria-rich (MR) cells that migrated to the 1.05-1.09 g ml -1 interface of the Percoll gradient demonstrated acidification-activated bafilomycin and phenamil-sensitive Na + influx. (
  • To eliminate the effect of cytosolic Bax, we incubated cell-free mitochondria with HA14-1 to study its effect on cytochrome c release. (
  • Experiments using Din7p fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cell fractionation experiments indicate that the protein is located in mitochondria. (
  • The protocol described has been optimized for use with primary skeletal muscle tissue (e.g. mouse anterior tibialis (AT) muscle) and both proliferating and differentiated C2C12 cells to isolate subcellular fractions of nuclei, cytosol, and mitochondria from a single starting sample, thereby reducing the quantity of starting material, cost and total time needed for sample preparation. (
  • Proteomics methodology has revolutionized the way that proteins are studied and opened new channels to understanding both cell functions and the cellular changes involved in disease states. (
  • Timely and highly practical, The Proteomics Protocols Handbook offers molecular biologists, protein chemists, clinical and medicinal chemists, biochemists, and microbiologists a comprehensive collection of today's best tools for understanding not only the function of individual proteins in the cell, but also for identifying new therapeutic targets. (
  • Unfortunately, I have no possibility for electron microscopy and no knowledge about marker enzymes for insect cell organelles to design a good experimental protocol for determining the insect cell subcellular fractions. (
  • Abcam's Cell Fractionation Kit - High Throughput (HT), provides a method and reagents for a simple and rapid preparation of cytosolic, mitochondrial and nuclear fractions from adherent cells. (
  • The Cell Fractionation Kit is designed to produce highly enriched fractions that allow for the monitoring of proteins of interest through various cellular compartments. (
  • These kits provide unique formulations of buffers and reagents for convenient preparation of highly enriched cellular fractions from mammalian cells and tissues. (
  • The Cell Fractionation Kits enable a perfect separation of the cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions to enrich the concentration of the respective cellular proteins. (
  • These highly enriched cell wall fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE, showing that a large number of proteins are involved in cell wall construction and that the wall remodeling that occurs during germ tube formation is related to changes in the composition of CWPs. (
  • This thesis presents a study on the enhancement of CHO cell growth by Yeast extract, Yeastolate, and Primatone fractions obtained by dead-end ultrafiltration. (
  • The bioactivity of feed and fractions was measured as cell density for CHO (beta-IFN producers) in basal medium supplemented with a combination of the crude non-fractionated feed material and a specific fraction and grown in T25 flasks. (
  • In conclusion, the fractions obtained from the two non-animal protein hydrolysates considered in this study, YE and YET showed limited CHO cell growth enhancement effect when compared to the non-fractionated material. (
  • The PSC methodology and tFMSA device can advance a better understanding of complex factors affecting mechanical cell fractionation and provide a miniature platform for obtaining rationally designed cell fractions for biomedical applications. (
  • The activity promoting cell-free recombination elutes from the Sephacryl S-300 matrix with the shoulder and not the peak fractions of the absorbancy profile. (
  • To identify the immune-activation fractions of the plant, we performed the systematic fractionation of ginger with methanol, hexane, chloroform, butanol and water for separation and refining. (
  • 5 distinct cell fractions (total membrane, PM, cytosol, nucleus and organelles) can be obtained at the completion of the protocol. (
  • Further separation of the MR fraction into PNA + and PNA - fractions using magnetic separation demonstrated that only the PNA - cells (α-MR cells) demonstrated phenamil-and bafilomycin-sensitive acid-activated 22 Na + uptake. (
  • Five fractions of phosphoprotein kinase activity were separated by phosphocellulose chromatography of nuclear non-histone phosphoproteins isolated from exponentially-growing HeLa S 3 cells. (
  • Report Date: May SUMMARY Guideline Question Do any altered fractionation radiation schemes prolong survival in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with the North American standard of 60 Gy in 30 fractions? (
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. (
  • A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. (
  • 4 Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. (
  • Dynamic Organellar Maps enable the proteome-wide analysis of physiological protein movements, without requiring any reagents specific to the investigated process, and will thus be widely applicable in cell biology. (
  • Between 1940 and 1970 pioneers in the new field of cell biology discovered the operative parts of cells and their contributions to cell life. (
  • Cell biology was a revolutionary science but in this book it also provides fuel for yet another revolution, one that focuses on the very conception of science itself. (
  • Part I. Introduction: Cell Mechanisms and Cell Biology: 1. (
  • 30. Giving cell biology an institutional identity. (
  • Eukaryotic cells are complex, and include all animal and plant cells. (
  • The specialization of cellular regions is what makes eukaryotic cells so much more complex than prokaryotic cells. (
  • The hallmark of eukaryotic cells is their compartmentalization into distinct membrane-bound organelles. (
  • The entire fractionation of 96 samples into the cytosolic, mitochondrial and nuclear fraction is achieved in one hour. (
  • The cells are first permeabilized with a mild detergent, allowing the release of soluble cytosolic proteins, after which a second detergent solubilizes membrane proteins. (
  • These results demonstrate that the cytosolic pool of αE-catenin regulates actin dynamics independently of cell-cell adhesion. (
  • After cell fractionation and barcode sequencing, we identified 109 unique RNA regions that significantly enriched this cytosolic transcript in the nucleus including a cytosine‐rich motif. (
  • We describe a typical procedure of cell wall fractionation to isolate and solubilize different CWP species from yeasts and filamentous fungi according to the type of linkages that they establish with other wall components and under suitable conditions for following reproducible proteomic analyses. (
  • Most of the mannoproteins present in this compartment were extracted by cell wall fractionation according to the type of interactions that they establish with other structural components. (
  • The precise density range of the gradient and the centrifugation conditions (100,000-200,000 g for 2-16 h) vary with the type of cell and the requirements of the separation. (
  • PM is further separated from the cell lysate (a mixture of crude membranes, intact nuclei, cytosol proteins and organelles) by subsequent differential and density centrifugation with a regular tabletop microcentrifuge. (
  • In erythrocytapheresis, centrifugation is the most commonly used red blood cell fractionation method. (
  • Toward developing this workflow we enriched Golgi membranes from two human colon cancer cell lines by sucrose density centrifugation and further mass-based fractionation by SDS-PAGE. (
  • Fresh AT tissue and scraped cells were washed with cold PBS, cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 200 g for 7 minutes whereas tissues were placed in a pre-chilled glass Petri dish and minced on ice using sharp scissors. (
  • To date, little is known on whether different dose/fractionation regimens have a specific impact on the anti-tumor immune response. (
  • These nuclear enrichment sequences are highly conserved and over‐represented in global nuclear fractionation sequencing. (
  • Schematic of nuclear fractionation and example Western blot. (
  • Isolate integral membrane and/or plasma membrane proteins efficiently from cultured mammalian cells. (
  • A. SDS-PAGE profiles of total cell lysate (TC) and isolated plasma membrane proteins (PM) from human and rat cultured cells. (
  • Cell fractionation, two-phase partitioning, and detergent extraction indicate that RbohA is an intrinsic plasma membrane protein. (
  • We propose that plants have a plasma membrane enzyme similar to the neutrophil NADPH oxidase but with novel potential regulatory mechanisms for Ca 2+ and G protein stimulation of O 2 − and H 2 O 2 production at the cell surface. (
  • In both immune systems, the plasma membrane ( PM ) is important because it is the first point of contact between plant cells and pathogens. (
  • This article also highlights the usefulness of the combination of sequential fractionation and two-dimensional PAGE followed by Western blotting using specific antibodies against known CWPs in the characterization of incorporation mechanisms of such CWPs into the cell wall and of their interactions with other wall components. (
  • Fractionation and initial characterization of the kinetochore from mammalian metaphase chromosomes. (
  • In this chapter we describe how Localization of Organelle Proteins by Isotope Tagging (LOPIT), a mass spectrometry based workflow coupling biochemical fractionation and iTRAQ™ 8-plex quantification, can be applied for the high-throughput characterization of protein localization in a mammalian cell culture line. (
  • The Thermo Scientific Mem-PER Plus Membrane Protein Extraction Kit enriches for integral membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins from cultured mammalian cells or tissue via selective solubilization using a mild detergent-based protocol. (
  • Reliable Protein Extraction Kits to efficiently isolate cell membrane/cell surface proteins from mammalian cells. (
  • C. Densitometry measurement of Na/K ATPase alpha1 signals in B (TC vs. PM). Total cell lysates were extracted by Minute Denaturing Total Protein Extraction Kit (SD-001, Invent Biotechnologies, Eden Prairie, MN). (
  • Total cell lysates were extracted by Minute™ Denaturing Total Protein Extraction Kit (SD-001, Invent Biotechnologies, Eden Prairie, MN). (
  • This device can be utilized to isolate rare cells from human blood, such as CTCs, in a label-free manner solely through the use of hydrodynamic forces. (
  • The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential of sequential ultrafiltration as an effective, simple and economical method for the identification of CHO cell growth enhancement components in yeast extract and yeastolate (primatone). (
  • The fractionation by sequential ultrafiltration (50 kDa membrane, 3 kDa membrane and 1 kDa membrane) of yeast extract (YE), yeastolate (YET), and primatone (PRI) showed different fouling and fractionation behaviour. (
  • METHODS: Exhaustive sequential extractions and composition analyses of cell wall material from various brown algae of the order Fucales were performed. (
  • Eukaroytic cells are organized by segregating essential cellular functions into discrete compartments composed of proteins and lipids. (
  • BioVision offers a comprehensive selection of Fraction-PREP TM systems for convenient fractionation of cellular compartments. (
  • Separating the cell envelope compartments enables proteins to be localized to confirm where in the cell they function. (
  • Mass spectrometry analyses have allowed the identification of several cell surface proteins classically associated with both the cell wall and other compartments. (
  • Fractionation allows the analysis of a protein of interest (or other cellular component) based on its subcellular compartmental distribution and can also generate molecular information about the state of a cell and/or tissue and how the distribution of a protein may differ between different cellular compartments, tissues or cell types, in response to treatments or ageing. (
  • The interior of every cell is highly organised, and contains many compartments, called organelles, that are dedicated to specific roles. (
  • Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets, usually organelles , from a heterogeneous population of cells. (
  • This kit provides a complete system that enables the separation of nuclear extract from the cytoplasmic fraction of mammalian cells and tissues. (
  • Label-free microfluidic separation of cells based on size is a widely employed technique. (
  • We applied this method to demonstrate viable separation of subgroups of cells with different mechanical properties from complex mixtures, including fractionation according to cancer cell type, cell cycle stage, cell viability status, and leukocyte nuclear phenotype. (
  • Percoll density-gradient separation, combined with peanut lectin agglutinin (PNA) binding and magnetic bead separation, was used to separate dispersed fish gill cells into sub-populations. (
  • It is an extracorporeal blood separation method whereby whole blood is extracted from a donor or patient, the red blood cells are separated, and the remaining blood is returned to circulation. (
  • For the separation of erythrocytes, whole blood is passed through an apparatus that isolates the red blood cells from the remaining components. (
  • In addition, blood separation on microdevices containing capillary channels has been identified as a potential blood cell fractionation method. (
  • citation needed] Other plasma and blood cell separation techniques are being explored based on magnetophoresis, electrophoresis, microchannel bends, and ultrasound standing waves. (
  • From this device, we achieved improved separation efficiency by collecting and re-separating non-selected target cells in comparison with the single-stage multi-orifice flow fractionation (SS-MOFF). (
  • CWPs were solubilized from isolated cell walls by hot SDS and dithiothreitol treatment followed by extraction either by mild alkali conditions or by enzymatic treatment with glucanases and chitinases. (
  • Herein, we present evidence that elevated levels of visfatin in the serum of SCLC patients were associated with brain metastasis, and visfain was increased in NCI-H446 cells, a SCLC cell line, during interacting with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). (
  • The BBB, which is mainly constituted of brain microvascular endothelial cells, maintains brain homeostasis [ 3 ]. (
  • In case of tumors burden, tight junctions (TJs) between the brain endothelial cells become stretched out, leading to an increase in the permeability of the BBB [ 4 ]. (
  • Our previous studies had indicated that SCLC cells disrupted the integrity of TJs between human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), resulting in SCLC cells transendothelial migration [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • 10,13-16 BK is one of several oligopeptides called kinins that are produced by sympathetic nerve endings (ie, synaptosomes), myocytes, and endothelial cells in the heart. (
  • Supporting these in vivo findings, LPS induced NF-κB activation and MnSOD expression in isolated fetal pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. (
  • Moreover, LPS exposure induces MnSOD in cultured pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PAEC) isolated from the fetus as well as the adult ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • The membrane-localized Cav-1 was significantly reduced in DM and also in high glucose-exposed coronary endothelial cells. (
  • Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1 or ERK5) is a key mediator of endothelial cell (EC) function as shown by impaired embryonic angiogenesis and vascular collapse in BMK1 knockout mice. (
  • In summary, BMK1 is a novel negative regulator of HIF1α and angiogenesis by increasing HIF1α ubiquitination and inhibiting HIF1α activity in endothelial cells. (
  • Endothelial cells (EC) play a key role in all aspects of angiogenesis. (
  • Also, because BMK1 and ERK1/2 have the same substrate recognition motif for phosphorylation, we propose that BMK1 regulates HIF activity in endothelial cells. (
  • A process with similar properties [membrane localization and NAD(P)H dependence] has also been reported in cultured endothelial cells [ 16 ]. (
  • This study positions Poldip2 as a key regulator of mitochondrial function and cell metabolism. (
  • In Euglena cells transfected with double-stranded RNA, the silencing of APX expression resulted in a significant increase in the cellular level of H 2 O 2 , indicating the physiological importance of APX to the metabolism of H 2 O 2 . (
  • Cell cytoplasm 16. (
  • Previous studies implied that the toxin is internalized by endocytosis after binding to a putative receptor on target cells and escapes from endosomes into the cytoplasm ( 7 , 16 ) where it activates heterotrimeric GTPases through deamidation. (
  • TRAF2 aggregates in the cytoplasm, as seen in Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg lymphoma cells, resulting in constitutive NF‐κB activity but failure to activate JNK. (
  • Mitochondrial integrity is impaired, leading to release into the cytoplasm of cytochrome c and initiation of pathways to cell death ( 2 , 30 ). (
  • Finally, confocal microscopy determined that CD5 is cell membrane bound, and fractionation studies revealed that the CK2/CD5/BLNK/STAT3 complex remains in the cytoplasm, whereas serine pSTAT3 is shuttled to the nucleus. (
  • We then applied mass spectrometry to demonstrate a doubling in the number of Golgi resident proteins identified, compared to the unenriched, low speed centrifuged supernatant of lysed cells. (
  • Treatment of BT-474 cells with Herceptin inhibited the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of HER3 and disrupted the basal association of HER3 with HER2 and of HER3 with p85α potentially explaining the inhibition of PI3K. (
  • In addition, Myr-Akt prevented Herceptin-induced inhibition of the cell proliferation of BT-474 cells and Herceptin-induced apoptosis of SKBR-3 cells. (
  • The results show that protein 169 inhibits the synthesis of host proteins in cells and thereby provides a broad inhibition of the host innate immune response to infection. (
  • Unlike most RNA viruses, influenza A viruses (IAV) replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. (
  • cytosol, thus increasing the ratio of p27:Cdk2 in the nucleus and inhibiting Cdk2 activity and cell proliferation. (
  • Transduction of BT-474 cells with an adenovirus-encoding active (myristoylated) Akt (Myr-Akt), but not with a β-galactosidase control adenovirus, prevented the Herceptin- or LY294002-induced down-regulation of cyclin D1 and of phosphorylated GSK-3β and prevented the accumulation of p27 in the nucleus and cytosol. (
  • The cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis was measured using mitotically synchronized REC:myc(ch1) and Rat1:myc b cells. (
  • The cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis and the absence of a G 1 block for Rat1:myc b cells led to the prediction and observation of the novel "inverse split-dose effect," i.e. , a radiation dose given in two equal halves separated by a few hours yielded a higher level of apoptosis relative to that resulting from the same total dose given all at once. (
  • Parallel split-dose experiments, but using clonogenic survival as end points, show recovery for REC:myc(ch1) cells but not for Rat1:myc b cells, reflecting the influence of split-dose, radiation-induced apoptosis. (
  • Down-regulation of TBK1 in active K-Ras-expressing cancer cells results in apoptosis and synthetic lethality ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • In this study, we found that the reduced expression of BAP1 pro6motes the survival of neuroblastoma cells, and restoring the levels of BAP1 in these cells facilitated a delay in S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle, as well as cell apoptosis. (
  • The association between BAP1 and 14-3-3 protein releases the apoptotic inducer protein Bax from 14-3-3 and promotes cell death through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. (
  • In summary, our study uncovers a new mechanism for BAP1 in the regulation of cell apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. (
  • Tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma can be caused by the upregulation of cell survival signaling and the lack of cellular apoptosis. (
  • The hallmark of apoptosis is the activation of caspases that coordinate cleavage of substrates leading to cell death. (
  • Tumor cells often increase the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members to avoid cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. (
  • Besides regulating cancer cell survival, chemotherapy-induced apoptosis is blocked in neuroblastoma through the involvement of the Bcl-2 protein family 12 . (
  • For example, depending on the developmental stage of the cells, the dosage, type, and duration of the antigen stimulus and the presence of costimulatory signals, engagement of antigen receptors can lead to either cell proliferation and differentiation or anergy and apoptosis. (
  • NF-κB signaling through IκBα degradation resulted in MnSOD upregulation and preserved cell growth, whereas NF-κB signaling through IκBβ degradation mediated apoptosis and P-selectin expression. (
  • Cells deficient in Bax were much more resistant to HA14-1-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Bax is required for this process. (
  • Preliminary studies demonstrated that HA14-1 strongly induced apoptosis in NIH3T3, HL60, and lung cancer H1299 cell lines with an IC 50 in the range of 10-20 μ m ( 5 ). (
  • Ro5-4864, an agonist of PBR, strongly protects a human lymphoblastoid cell line against tumor necrosis factor α-induced apoptosis ( 13 ). (
  • STAT3 plays a key role in cell growth, suppression of apoptosis, cell motility ( 7 ), tumorigenesis, and malignant transformation ( 8 ). (
  • Radiation therapy uses high energy x rays to kill tumor cells. (
  • Specialized radiation therapy, such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells and cause less damage to normal tissue. (
  • May act as a protease inhibitor to modulate the host immune response against tumor cells. (
  • Xenograft studies confirmed that the expression of BAP1 reduces tumor growth and progression in vivo by lowering the levels of pro-survival factors such as Bcl-2, which in turn diminish the survival potential of the tumor cells. (
  • A vital event of brain metastasis (BM) is that tumor cells migrate through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is distinct from other metastasis sites [ 2 ]. (
  • These data suggested that breakdown of the BBB is an important step for tumor cells metastasis to brain. (
  • Cell-based bioreporter assay coupled to HPLC micro-fractionation in the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of the basidiomycete fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. (
  • Cultured mammalian cells or tissues are processed by first disrupting the outer cell membrane to obtain the cytoplasmic contents and then extracting proteins from the nuclei. (
  • cells/tissues are first sensitized by buffer A before passing through the proprietary filter in a zigzag manner when high-speed centrifugal force is applied, resulting in a cell lysate containing ruptured cell membranes and intact nuclei. (
  • AE1 is specifically expressed on the surface of erythrocytes, while AE2 is widely expressed in most tissues, and is particularly abundant in parietal cells. (
  • Vangl2 is one of the central proteins controlling the establishment of planar cell polarity in multiple tissues of different species. (
  • In low nanomolar concentrations, NO (nitric oxide) functions as a transmitter in brain and other tissues, whereas near-micromolar NO concentrations are associated with toxicity and cell death. (
  • The NO concentration experienced by a cell will be determined by the relative rates of NO synthesis and breakdown but, although the mechanism of NO synthesis from L -arginine is relatively well characterized, there is no known dedicated consumption pathway for NO in the brain, although a number of enzymes have been proposed to fulfil this function in other tissues [ 10 - 14 ]. (
  • YET 3kDa represent an attractive serum substitute for its use in culturing CHO cells. (
  • These results suggest that YET has high potential as a media additive for the development of serum-free media which can promote cell growth and, in the future this work can contribute in production of therapeutic proteins markets. (
  • RMBIO excels as producing the standard cell culture media, such as fetal bovine serum, donor horse serum, and donor goat serum. (
  • This effect was observed in RN22 schwannoma cells cultured under serum-free conditions, as well as in Schwann cells, and it was mimicked by other neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3. (
  • In November 2015, Merck KGaA acquired Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC (U.S.), a developer of reagents and kits of cell-based research. (
  • The Latin America Cell Fractionation market is broadly categorized on the basis of Product into Consumables, Reagents, Beads, Disposables and Instruments. (
  • Enzymes are mostly used for chemical cell disruption and form major portion of the reagents and kits market. (
  • AKT plays a major role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival ( 3 ). (
  • Here, we show by transcriptional, proliferation, biochemical, and primary cell assays that the pathogenic CALR mutants specifically activate the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR/MPL). (
  • Here, we show that downregulation of B cell inhibitory receptors in primary human B cells led to increased tissue-like memory B cell proliferation and responsiveness against HIV. (
  • In human B cells, siRNA knockdown of 9 known and putative B cell inhibitory receptors led to enhanced B cell receptor-mediated (BCR-mediated) proliferation of tissue-like memory but not other B cell subpopulations. (
  • Furthermore, the extent of FCLR4 knockdown effects on BCR-mediated proliferation varied depending on the costimulatory ligand, suggesting that inhibitory receptors may engage specific pathways in inhibiting B cell proliferation. (
  • The kit is especially suitable for, but not limited to, high throughput fractionation of adherent cells in a 96-well plate format. (
  • With this stepwise fractionation procedure, one can obtain concentrated nuclear extracts without compromising gene regulation experiments, as is commonly seen when whole cell lysates are analyzed. (
  • Erythrocytapheresis is an apheresis procedure by which erythrocytes (red blood cells) are separated from whole blood. (
  • The procedure is commonly done using automated red blood cell collection which involves the removal of two units of red blood cells. (
  • Here, we show that lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKDH) complexes is a dynamically regulated process that is inhibited under hypoxia and in cancer cells to restrain mitochondrial respiration. (
  • A possible mechanism that may be responsible for the decreased stability of the mitochondrial genome in S. cerevisiae cells with elevated levels of Din7p is discussed. (
  • Exposure to H 2 O 2 induced cytochrome c release and decreased mitochondrial reductase activity in MLE-12 cells. (
  • This version is designed for fractionating cells grown in batches and is ideal for experiments requiring larger sample amounts. (
  • First, many experiments in the area of gene regulation are adversely affected by cellular components present in whole cell lysates. (
  • The relationship among AE1, AE2 and p16 in GC cells was characterized by molecular and cellular experiments. (
  • RN22-SCs were maintained at 37°C in DMEM/10% FCS (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). For most experiments, RN22-SCs (10,000 cells/cm 2 ) were initially cultured for 24 h in DMEM, whereas RN22-SCs expressing human APP were cultured in DMEM/10% FCS. (
  • Massively parallel reporter assays have greatly enhanced the understanding of noncoding DNA elements en masse . (
  • This strategy is a powerful tool not only for obtaining an overview of the sophisticated cell wall proteome of yeasts and filamentous fungi, but also for characterizing mechanisms of incorporation, assembly and retention of CWPs into this intricate cellular compartment and their interactions with structural wall polysaccharides. (
  • The cell membrane is broken through different mechanisms. (
  • Further work will be required to ascertain that the cell-free recombination system mimics certain elements of the mechanisms of integrative recombination and to purify the cellular components essential for recombination. (
  • The initial placement of FtsZ polymerization site is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms ( Wu and Errington, 2012 ) as are the subsequent polymer reshaping and force generation that separate the two daughter cells from each other. (
  • Although preventing SCLC metastasis to the brain is immensely important for survival, the molecular mechanisms of SCLC cells penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are largely unknown. (
  • Mechanisms linking cell-cell adhesion to the regulation of cell migration are poorly understood. (
  • However, the molecular mechanisms that control Vangl2 trafficking within a cell are largely unknown. (
  • Epithelial cell-derived GM-CSF may contribute to intrinsic defense mechanisms limiting lung injury. (
  • The Locus of Cell Mechanisms: Terra Incognita Between Cytology and Biochemistry: 12. (
  • Creating New Instruments and Research Techniques to Study Cell Mechanisms: 15. (
  • The mechanism that BAP1 induces cell death is mediated via an interaction with 14-3-3 protein. (
  • IRE1α activation confers protection against cell death through the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of death receptor 5 (DR5), whereas prolonged activation of PERK induces cell death mediated by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and DR5 under pathological ER stress ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • reduces cadherin-based cell-cell contacts and induces formation of hyperplastic cell masses. (
  • Exposure of mice to hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury, acute lung injury and death. (
  • In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. (
  • abstract = "We present a novel methodology to establish experimental models for the rational design of cell fractionation based on physical properties of cells. (
  • ABSTRACT: The challenge for oncologists treating patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is to optimize a treatment strategy using nonsurgical therapies. (
  • Antigen receptors on T and B cells recognize pathogens and foreign antigens and initiate a series of intracellular biochemical signaling events that result in complex biological responses ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The study of virus-host interactions continues to provide valuable information about the complex relationships between cells and pathogens. (
  • BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme that is associated with multiprotein complexes that regulate key cellular pathways, including cell cycle, cellular differentiation, cell death, and the DNA damage response. (
  • It has been widely reported that aberrant IFN-α/β production of pDCs triggered by self-RNA/DNA is responsible for the development or perpetuation of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematodes, psoriasis, dermatomyositis, and type I diabetes, through maturation of DCs and differentiation of autoreactive T and B cells ( 5 - 8 ). (
  • Cell Differentiation , 8 (4), 305-321. (
  • The composition of the lamina varies according to cell type and stage of differentiation. (
  • We show that treatment of neuronal cells with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against HuD blocks the induction of neurite outgrowth and decreases the levels of tau mRNAs, indicating that the ELAV-like proteins are required for neuronal differentiation. (
  • It was recently shown that overexpression of HuD in neural crest cells indeed stimulates their differentiation into mature neurons ( Wakamatsu and Weston, 1997 ). (
  • We show that treatment of PC12 cells with antisense oligonucleotide directed against HuD blocks the induction of differentiation by nerve growth factor (NGF). (
  • 2007 ). Instead, the cells are surrounded by two membranes in a unique arrangement. (
  • NADPH-dependent consumption of NO localized to cell membranes and was inhibited by proteinase K, indicating the involvement of a membrane-bound protein. (
  • Antibodies against CYPOR inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes and the amount of CYPOR in several cell types correlated with their rate of NO consumption. (
  • A simplified schematic of our three-step peptide fractionation method is also shown on the right side of the figure. (
  • CWPs retained noncovalently or by disulfide bonds are first extracted from isolated yeast or fungal cell walls by detergents and reducing agents. (
  • The patchy homologies are similar to those found earlier during the analyses of some of the junction sequences in integrated Ad12 genomes in Ad12-induced hamster tumor cell lines. (
  • Although its ligands, if any, are currently unknown, functional analyses of the ITIM-containing intracellular domain of FCRL4 indicated that FCRL4 had a profound negative regulatory effect on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling by inhibiting BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins, and activation of MAPK Erk and protein kinase B Akt pathways ( 12 ). (
  • Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily are key regulators of lung development and homeostasis, in particular by controlling alveolar/bronchial epithelial cell function. (
  • Nevertheless, hyphal growth may be more critical for the pathogenesis of Candida since hyphae adhere more strongly to mammalian cells, promote tissue penetration, and provide a mechanism to escape the attack by macrophages. (
  • Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. (
  • The major driving forces of the growth of the Cell Fractionation market in Latin America are increase in geriatric population, recent developments in biotechnology sector, growing awareness about new methods and stabilizing economy. (
  • Only the YET 3kDa retentate fraction displayed a good CHO cell growth enhancement effect. (
  • Consistently, we found that growth factors can induce AKT (S473) phosphorylation in Rictor −/− cells, and this effect is insensitive to mTOR inhibitor Torin1. (
  • In IKKε/TBK1 double-knockout cells, AKT activation by growth factors is compromised. (
  • whereas, the expression of BAP1 suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in nude mice 15 . (
  • Elongation growth in actinobacteria is localized at the cell poles. (
  • We previously described a role of RodA from Corynebacterium glutamicum in apical cell growth and morphogenesis. (
  • Deletion of rodA had drastic effects on morphology and growth, likely a result from misregulation of penicillin-binding proteins and cell wall precursor delivery. (
  • For this purpose, fast growth rates and high cell densities are two major properties to ensure efficient production rates. (
  • To elucidate the functional mechanism of NlpI, we examined how NlpI affects cell division and found that induction of NlpI inhibits nucleoid division and halts cell growth. (
  • Over-expression of nlpI in E. coli inhibits cell growth and results in the formation of ellipsoids. (
  • CALR mutants induce ligand-independent activation of JAK2/STAT/phosphatydylinositol-3′-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways via TpoR, and autonomous growth in Ba/F3 cells. (
  • thermosome) antagonize oxidative and temperature stress which I. hospitalis cells are exposed to at optimal growth conditions. (
  • for survival and growth, these cells depend on the effective uptake of small inorganic ions, sulfur, molecular hydrogen, and CO 2 . (
  • This increases the market growth of mammalian and microbial cells. (
  • Gastrin inhibited the growth of GC cells at least partially through up-regulation of AE2 expression. (
  • were able to compare such a model of the cell under normal circumstances to a model made after the cell had been stimulated with a growth factor. (
  • Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component. (
  • The centrifugal force will separate the red blood cells from other cells due to their high specific weight. (
  • 2000). Lamins B 1 and B 2 are the major B-type lamins expressed in mammalian somatic cells and these proteins are the products of separate genes (reviewed by Gant and Wilson, 1997). (
  • A total of 35 Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes, of which 23 were glycosyltransferases, were identified making this the largest protein database so far of Golgi resident glycosylation enzymes experimentally identified in cultured human cells. (
  • This phase I trial studies the best dose of radiation therapy in treating patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. (
  • To test the safety and tolerability of an alternative fractionation regimen in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), consisting of 44 Gy with concurrent chemotherapy followed by a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost to remaining parenchymal and nodal disease. (
  • 3 Evidence-based Series #7-12 Version 2: Section 1 Altered Fractionation of Radical Radiation Therapy in the Management of Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Guideline Recommendations Members of the Lung Cancer Disease Site Group A Quality Initiative of the Program in Evidence-Based Care (PEBC), Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) These guideline recommendations have been ENDORSED, which means that the recommendations are still current and relevant for decision making. (
  • DNA-binding reactions were performed using 20 fmol biotin-labeled DNA duplex (1 Êbiotin per strand) and 2 µL (6.8 µg total protein) NE-PER nuclear extract prepared from HeLa cells. (
  • Finally, lamins A and C were selectively eliminated from the NE of HeLa cells using a dominant negative mutant of lamin B 1 . (
  • We initially used maps statically to generate a database with localization and absolute copy number information for over 8700 proteins from HeLa cells, approaching comprehensive coverage. (
  • Combining spatial and abundance information yielded an unprecedented quantitative view of HeLa cell anatomy and organellar composition, at the protein level. (
  • We identified the interaction of RodA with the polar scaffold protein DivIVA, thus explaining subcellular localization of RodA to the cell poles. (
  • Lipoprotein NlpI of Escherichia coli is involved in the cell division, virulence, and bacterial interaction with eukaryotic host cells. (
  • In addition, the cell surface and transporters as part of the cell envelope are assumed to be the determinants and key molecules for the specific interaction of I. hospitalis with N. equitans . (
  • See Cell disruption for further details. (
  • Furthermore, we show that in the cochlea of MyoVI mutant mice, Vangl2 presence at the membrane is increased, and that a disruption of Gipc1 function in hair cells leads to maturation defects, including defects in hair bundle orientation and integrity. (
  • Consistent with these results, wild-type p53 and WAF1 (or p21), known to play a role in G 1 delay, was induced by radiation in REC:myc(ch1) but not in Rat1:myc b cells. (
  • On the basis of Type of Cell, the segmentation of the market is Microbial and Mammalian wherein the mammalian segment leads the market because of rising aging population. (
  • Recombination between adenovirus type 12 DNA and a hamster preinsertion sequence in a cell-free system. (
  • We have previously described a cell-free recombination system derived from hamster cell nuclear extracts in which the in vitro recombination between a hamster preinsertion sequence, the cloned 1768 base-pair p7 fragment, and adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) DNA has been demonstrated. (
  • Type I IFN production of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) triggered by TLR-signaling is an essential part of antiviral responses and autoimmune reactions. (
  • Type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) are well documented pleiotropic cytokines with antiviral activities that enable them to interfere with virus replication as well as immune modulation by the activation of APC, B, and T cells ( 1 ). (
  • Homeostatic alterations in the ER play roles in the pathogenesis of chronic human disorders, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and neurodegeneration, as well as inherited disorders including Wolfram syndrome, which is characterized by β cell death and neurodegeneration ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Analysis of the mechanism(s) of 22 Na + influx was performed in control and acid-activated (addition of 10 mmoll -1 proprionic acid) cells using a variety of Na + transport inhibitors (ouabain, phenamil, HOE-694 and bumetanide) and a V-type ATPase inhibitor (bafilomycin). (
  • We confirm the coupling of a V-type H + -ATPase with phenamil-sensitive Na + uptake activity and conclude that high-density α-MR cells function in branchial Na + uptake in freshwater fish. (
  • The global market is broadly classified into product, type of cell, end-users, and regions. (
  • It provides valuable information on the product, type of cell, and end-users, in the market. (
  • B-type lamins are expressed in all germ cells and somatic cells although different B-type lamins are expressed in each (reviewed by Vaughan et al. (
  • The C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblast cell line was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (CRL-1772). (
  • MLE-12 cells (a murine type II cell line) and primary murine type II AEC were subjected to oxidative stress by exposure to 80% oxygen and by exposure to H 2 O 2 . (
  • To compare association of proteins with chromatin in uninfected and infected cells we developed this protocol to fractionate nuclei using a salt gradient (Figure 1). (