Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/4968)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (2/4968)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

Isolation of rat liver albumin messenger RNA. (3/4968)

Rat liver albumin messenger RNA has been purified to apparent homogeneity by means of polysome immunoprecipitation and poly(U)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Specific polysomes synthesizing albumin were separated from total liver polysomes through a double antibody technique which allowed isolation of a specific immunoprecipitate. The albumin-polysome immunoprecipitate was dissolved in detergent and the polysomal RNA was separated from protein by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Albumin mRNA was then separated from ribosomal RNA by affinity chromatography through the binding of poly(U)-Sepharose to the polyadenylate 3' terminus of the mRNA. Pure albumin mRNA migrated as an 18 S peak on 85% formamide-containing linear sucrose gradients and as a 22 S peak on 2.5% polyacrylamide gels in sodium dodecyl sulfate. It coded for the translation of authentic liver albumin when added to a heterologous protein-synthesizing cell-free system derived from either rabbit reticulocyte lysates or wheat germ extracts. Translation analysis in reticulocyte lysates indicated that albumin polysomes were purified approximately 9-fold from total liver polysomes, and that albumin mRNA was purified approximately 74-fold from albumin polysomal RNA. The total translation product in the mRNA-dependent wheat germ system, upon addition of the pure mRNA, was identified as authentic albumin by means of gel electrophoresis and tryptic peptide chromatography.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (4/4968)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

Nuclear location of mammalian DNA polymerase activities. (5/4968)

Nuclei were isolated from monolayer cultures of mouse and human cells using a nonaqueous procedure of cell fractionation in which lyophilized cells were homogenized and centrifuged in 100% glycerol. In previous work we have shown that the nuclear pellet and cytoplasmic supernatant fraction contained 10% or less of the nucleic acids characteristic of the other cell fraction. Aqueous extracts made from fresh cultures and from nonaqueous material at each step of the fractionation procedure were assayed fro DNA polymerase activity. Activities were normalized to DNA contents of extracted material. Specific activity was preserved quantitatively through freezing and drying the cells, but was found to be unstable in glycerol suspensions with approximate half-lives and 1 h at 23 degrees and 4 h at 0-4 degrees. Activities were relatively stable at -25 degrees, however, so that by homogenizing only 15 min at 4 degrees and centrifuging at -25 degrees we preserved approximately 85% of the specific activity of fresh cultures in the nonaqueous nuclear fraction. Sedimentation analyses showed that the nuclear fraction contained both DNA polymerase-alpha and-beta in approximately the proportions expected if all polymerase activities were confined to the nucleus in living cells. DNA polymerase-alpha was found to be more unstable in glycerol suspensions than DNA polymerase-beta. Nuclear location of both activities was found in exponential cultures and in 3T3 mouse cultures synchronized in the G1 and S phases of the cell division cycle. We found no evidence for cytoplasmic factors affecting nuclear polymerase activities. We have concluded that the two major DNA polymerases are nuclear although one, DNA polymerase-alpha, frequently is present as a weakly bound nuclear protein.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (6/4968)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (7/4968)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (8/4968)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

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Stimulation of hepatocytes with vasopressin (10 nM) in the presence of 1.25 mM extracellular Ca2+ increased glycogen phosphorylase activity 4-fold within 15s and provoked a rapid efflux of cell-associated Ca2+. Vasopressin also caused a transient increase in the Ca content of a mitochondria-rich fraction separated within seconds of hormone stimulation by a rapid fractionation technique [Shears & Kirk (1984) Biochem. J. 219, 375-382]. The Ca content of this fraction was restored to the control value within 2 min of hormone addition. These results indicate that mitochondria are not the source of the cell-associated Ca which is mobilized in the cytosol of vasopressin-stimulated hepatocytes. Rather, these organelles buffer the increase in cytosol [Ca2+] attributable to Ca mobilization from non-mitochondrial sources. ...
InstaCuppa Travel French Press FAQ Is your Travel French press vacuum insulated?Yes. Double walled stainless steel build of our travel mug ensures vacuum insulation and better temperature retention. How long can the beverages be hot or cold?Your freshly brewed coffee can stay hot for up to 6 hours and cold for up to 12
These intriguing results compelled us to develop a wide range of analytical tools to better study the intricacies of cellular biosynthetic machinery. We have perfected non-aqueous subcellular fractionation techniques in order to separate chloroplasts and vacuoles from cytosol. We are operating a metabolite profiling system, using GC-MS, which allows us to distinguish among large numbers of metabolites within each of these samples (subcellular fractions or tissue samples). In excess of 300 compounds can be profiled in this way , 100 of these compounds having known chemical structures. A further experimental development that we are exploring is the use of chemically-inducible promoters to drive transgene expression in a controlled manner in order to study perturbations of metabolism on a temporal basis. In recent years we have additionally established an RT-PCR platform for tomato transcription factors and sensitive methods for following the metabolism of stable isotope labeled substrate and an ...
Hi Peter Which cell type do you wish to stain? Neurons or glia? Julia >I am looking for an antibody against a plasma membrane >marker protein for > >IHC (brainstem slices). _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] ...
The Pour Over vs French Press debate is one that will probably always exist. With so many brewing techniques, it can be difficult to gauge which brewing method is best for you. So, if you want to know the differences, which brew method tastes better and which one is healthiest, read on!
Beanwise Tasting Emporium offers an assortment of premium Equipment and other selections of coffee beans and coffee pods. Shop for Cilio Perfetto French Press.
In keeping with the theme of Kyles hilarious post, Ill throw in my own two cents. A couple of weeks ago some friends from the lab next door went to a Starbucks coffee tasting. It was one of the windiest, rainiest, nastiest nights in a while, so they apparently were the only ones there. By the way, the Christmas Blend is the same as the Holiday Blend, in case you were wondering. Yes, the Starbucks people used a French press. The only nagging question I have is whether there is some cutesy urban legend about the connection between the coffee French press and the French press biologists use to gently crack open cells. Usually, when you want to recover a protein that you have manufactured in lab bacteria, you want a gentle method that wont damage your protein. You may also want to get at intact organelles, or something. In my very minimal protein purification experience, we would rapidly freeze, then thaw cells for a few cycles. For the proteomics I currently do, I use a Dounce homogenizer ...
Here we present protocols for detergent-free homogenization of cultured mammalian cells based on nitrogen cavitation and subsequent...
3IGMM-CNRS, Montpellier, France. There is increasing evidence that mRNAs can be found localised in different regions of the cytoplasm. Such mRNA localisation occurs in a variety of cells from yeast to mammals, as does the association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton. Both association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton and mRNA localisation depend in the majority of cases on signals within the 3 untranslated sequences (3UTRs) of the mRNAs. Using cell fractionation techniques the mRNAs encoding c-myc, c-fos, ribosomal proteins L1 and S6, cyclin A and metallothionein (MT1) have been found associated with the cytoskeleton. These mRNAs all code for proteins which under all or some circumstances are imported into the nucleus after synthesis; e.g. MYC and FOS are transcription factors and MT1 can be found in the nucleus during. S-phase of the cell cycle. In situ hybridisation shows that c-myc and MT1mRNAs are localised around the nucleus. In addition analysis of mammalian cell lines expressing chimaeric ...
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Then, the report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers analysis is also carried out. Whats more, the Cell Fractionation industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
I am trying to carry out the fractionation of cardiac tissue.I am specifically looking to isolate mitochondria, myofibril and nuclei. Anyone got any ideas ...
There are for example some growth factors which have a signal sequence targeting the protein in mammalian cells to endosomes with a specific protease to cleave that pepide in acidic enviroment. because of the lack of the acidic enviroment and the protease, the growth factors are insoluble in Ecoli, but when you express them without the peptide, they are soluble. The signal peptide in this case is anyhow not needed in Ecoli. You might consider this also.. ...
The distribution of [3H]leukotriene D4 [( 3H]LTD4) receptors in subcellular membrane fractions obtained from sheep tracheal smooth muscle was studied. Using differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, the subcellular membranes were separated into six fractions. The [3H]LTD4 receptor distribution profile in these fractions correlated with markers for the plasma membrane (5-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase) and did not correlate with markers for the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and succinate-dependent cytochrome c reductase). The dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the crude mixture of membranes (PII) were 0.38 +/- 0.2 nM and 77 +/- 14 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Kd and Bmax of [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction (FII) were 0.40 +/- 0.2 nM and 268 +/- 46 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The specificity profile of ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
The BRAZIL French Press coffee maker, designed in the early 80s, was BODUMs first French Press, and quickly became a symbol of what BODUM stands for today: functional design at an affordable price. The BRAZIL features a shatterproof SAN (BPA-Free) plastic beaker and BODUMs signature safety and aroma seal to keep coffee fresh and warm longer. The base, lid and handle are made of heat-resistant polypropylene for added durability ...
This protocol describes a method for purifying exosomes using sucrose gradient centrifugation of crude exosome pellets prepared by differential ultracentrifugation. Exosomes isolated by differential ultracentrifugation alone contain both exosomes and aggregated protein and nucleic acid contaminan...
In order to study the release of ATP from a neuronal preparation thought to be purinergic, isolated varicosities were prepared from myenteric plexus by mincing and homogenizing the longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum in 0.32 M sucrose. The presence of varicosities within the crude preparation (P2), isolated by differential centrifugation, was confirmed by electron microscopy and by the presence of occluded lactate dehydrogenase as a cytoplasmic marker. Varicosities were purified further from the P2 fraction on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and characterized morphologically. Varicosities resembling cholinergic, purinergic, and adrenergic axonal terminals were identified. The release of ATP from both crude and purified varicosities was detected by monitoring the light produced when the released ATP reacted with firefly luciferin-luciferase which was present in the incubation medium. Elevated extracellular K+ or Rb+ caused the release of ATP, whereas elevated Na+ and Li+ did not. ...
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Albumin is one of the most extensively used proteins in biological research today. It acts as a powerful antioxidant in cell culture. It binds, sequesters and stabilizes a variety of molecular species which are often unstable. This acidic, soluble protein has both high-affinity and secondary binding sites, optimizing the roles that fatty acids, metals, disulfides, and other molecules play in cellular metabolism. Seralab BSA products are prepared by heat shock with the exception of GEM-700-108 which is produced by a modified method of the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation method. Heat shock produces the highest purity BSA product Cohn fractionation method remains the gold standard - this method preserves the biological activity of albumin. Ready-to-buy solutions offer the convenience of not having to solubilise BSA in - house. Available in 20g, 100g and 1kg quantities (lyophilised); or 50mL, 100mL and 1L volumes (solution). Sourced serum or plasma is filtered through a 0.2 μm filter before
Microreactors have gained increasing attention in their application toward continuous micro flow synthesis. An unsolved problem of continuous flow synthesis is the lack of techniques for continuous...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High-Affinity Transport of L-Glutamine by a Plasma Membrane Preparation from Rat Brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Testing against regional requirements using fractionation techniques to separate contaminants by compound type, carbon range or specific compounds.
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We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, September 13, 2017 ) The market is projected to grow at a substantial pace in the forecasting period and in the future years to follow because of the developments in biotechnology sector in past few years. Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular...
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В месте субклеточных фракционирования клеток млекопитающих на микроскопе покровные позволяет визуализировать белки...
Part of a whole; part of a set; equivalent fractions; comparing; ordering; lowest terms; renaming improper fractions and mixed numbers; Adding and subtracting like and unlike fractions; adding and subtracting mixed numbers with like and unlike fractions; Multiplying a whole number times a fraction and a fraction times a whole number; multiplying a fraction times a fraction; multiplying a whole number times a mixed number; multiplying a mixed number times a mixed number; Dividing a whole number by a fraction; dividing a fraction by a fraction; reciprocals. ...
A method for the isolation of brush-border membranes from newborn-rat kidney, employing centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis, is described. The composition and purity of the preparation was assessed by determination of enzyme activities specific for various cellular membranes. Free-flow electrophoresis resolves the newborn-rat renal membrane suspension into two populations of alkaline phosphatase-enriched brush-border membranes, designated A and B, with the A peak also showing activity of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, the basolateral membrane marker enzyme, whereas those of the B peak were enriched 11-fold in alkaline phosphatase and substantially decreased in (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Membranes in the A peak showed a 7-fold enrichment of alkaline phosphatase, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the original homogenate. Proline uptake employed to assess osmotic dependency revealed 7% binding of proline to the B vesicles and 31% to the A vesicles. ...
A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was used to separate membrane fractions from a homogenate of maize root tips. Endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi apparatus-, plasma membrane- and mitochondria-rich fractions were identified by their enzymic characteristics and by their appearance under the electron microscope. Maize roots were incubated in vivo with D-[U-14C]glucose, [Me-14C]choline chloride and diazotized [U-3H]sulphanilic acid. The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity into the various membrane fractions was investigated. Analyses of the polypeptide chains of the membrane fractions by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the mitochondria-rich fraction had a different pattern of polypeptides from that of the other membrane fractions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis of endomembrane flow and differentiation. ...
The metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in homogenates and sub-fractions from normal rat liver and premalignant liver nodules was investigated. The activities of 5-phosphatase, expressed as pmol converted substrate per minute and mg protein, were equal when using the two substrates, and did not differ between normal and nodular homogenates. Subcellular fractions were purified by sequential steps of differential centrifugation and density gradient fractionation procedures. The total phosphatase activity was found to be distributed between cytosol (15%) and membraneous fractions (75%), with most of the enzyme activity residing in the plasma membranes. A doubling of phosphatase specific activity was seen in the nodular low density membrane fraction, containing Golgi apparatus and endosomes, as compared with normal liver. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity was found to be exclusively cytosolic. No difference in this enzyme was seen between ...
Purification of mitochondria and mitochondrial subfractionation. Mitochondria were purified from brain tissue using the discontinuous sucrose gradient method. Briefly, brain homogenate was made in ice-cold homo-buffer (0.32 M sucrose, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 900 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The supernatant was transferred to another clean tube and spun at 10,000 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The resultant pellet, enriched for mitochondria, was resuspended in 2 ml homo-buffer, loaded on top of a sucrose gradient (1.2 M, 0.8 M, and 0.32 M sucrose; 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 53,000 g, 4°C, for 2 hours. The white band at the interface between medium (0.8 M) and heavy (1.2 M) solutions was collected as highly purified mitochondria. Mitochondria from cultured cells were isolated using a kit (catalog no. 89874) from Pierce. Mitochondrial subfractionation was carried out as described by Hovius et al. (40). Briefly, purified mitochondria (1 mg) were resuspended in 500 μl ice-cold buffer (10 ...
Next, in a saucepan, heat milk but be careful not to scald it. Simmer and swirl to prevent the formation of a protein skin on top. If you have a milk frother, you can use it for this step and create a nice, foamy frothed milk. Using a French press is another method. Hot milk is pumped with air and a good froth is produced by the French press, but If you hate extra washing up its not a necessity! ...
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated from human gliomas and brain white matter. These membrane fractions were characterized by electron microscopy and by the distribution of the membrane...
Ns by differential centrifugation. B and C. Immunoblot analysis of soluble/ insoluble fractions separated by differential centrifugation. FKIPS DCARD stable
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10mm Tris, 2mm EDTA, pH 7.5 For 25 mL, the use of (a) 250uL 1M Tris + (b) 500uL of 0.1 M EDTA. Cell Fractionation Protocol sugar with 20mm Tris buffer, 0.5 M EDTA, and 0.1 M NaCl To 2 mL, the use of (a) 40uL 1M Tris + (b) 10ul of 0.1 M EDTA + (c) 200ul 1M NaCl + (D) 1.2g sucrose + (e) water 1.75mL Also make sugar without sugar 20ml buffer (to thin […]. ...
POULARD, Fabien; HERNANDEZ, Nicolás y DAILLE, Béatrice. Detecting Derivatives using Specific and Invariant Descriptors. Polibits [online]. 2011, n.43, pp.7-13. ISSN 1870-9044.. This paper explores the detection of derivation links between texts (otherwise called plagiarism, near-duplication, revision, etc.) at the document level. We evaluate the use of textual elements implementing the ideas of specificity and invariance as well as their combination to characterize derivatives. We built a French press corpus based on Wikinews revisions to run this evaluation. We obtain performances similar to the state of the art method (n-grams overlap) while reducing the signature size and so, the processing costs. In order to ensure the verifiability and the reproducibility of our results we make our code as well as our corpus available to the community.. Palabras clave : Textual derivatives; detection of derivations; near-duplicates; revisions; linguistic descriptors; French corpus. ...
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There have been reports in the French press that ibuprofen might increase the risks with COVID-19. The advice from Public Health England is that there is no evidence that ibuprofen increases the risk of catching COVID-19 or making it worse.. There are some patients who are generally advised to be very cautious or avoid ibuprofen, and this advice remains the same e.g. people with kidney problems and heart problems, people who have had stomach ulcers etc.. ...
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Specialized tube for rapid PBMC isolation by density gradient centrifugation. Manufactured under cGMP and can be used for IVD applications.
In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and were also identified through the use of cell fractionation. A few large organelles probably originated from endosymbiont bacteria: ...
Caltag Medsystems supply whole cell extraction, nuclear extract, cell fractions and lysates from multiple species including human, mouse, rat, monkey, dog, whole cell extraction, nuclear extract.
Cell disruption Media for cell separation by density: Percoll Ficoll Alberts, B; Johnson, A (2002). "Fractionation of Cells". ... It is the formation of homogenous mass of cells (cell homogenate or cell suspension). It involves grinding of cells in a ... In cell biology, cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions ... This step may not be necessary depending on the source of the cells. Animal tissue however is likely to yield connective tissue ...
The flux of CO2(aq) into and out of a cell is roughly proportional to the cell surface area, and the cell carbon biomass varies ... These cells are part of the characteristic kranz leaf anatomy, which spatially separates photosynthetic cell-types in a ... and variations in cell growth and geometry. The isotopic fractionations of different photosynthetic pathways are uniquely ... "Effect of Phytoplankton Cell Geometry on Carbon Isotopic Fractionation". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 62 (1): 69-77. ...
"Fractionation of Cells". Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4072-9. Frei, Mark. " ... fractionation of subcellular organelles, fractionation of membrane vesicles, fractionation of macromolecules and macromolecular ... In biological research, cell fractionation typically includes the isolation of cellular components while retaining the ... Through low-speed centrifugation, cell debris may be removed, leaving a supernatant preserving the contents of the cell. ...
In cell fractionation, cell components are separated by difference in mass. A typical protocol to isolate a pure chemical agent ... The process of blood fractionation involves separation of blood into its main components. Blood fractionation refers generally ... blood cells). These separated components can be analyzed and often further separated. Fractionation is also used for culinary ... Fractionation Laboratory Handbook for Fractionation of Natural Extracts., by Peter J. Houghton and Amala Raman, publisher: ...
Howell, K. E.; Devaney, E.; Gruenberg, J. (1989). "Subcellular fractionation of tissue culture cells". Trends in Biochemical ... and motor-dependent fusion in vitro between apical and basolateral endocytic vesicles from MDCK cells". Cell. 62 (4): 719-731. ... His research in the fields of cell biology and biochemistry has significantly contributed to a better understanding of the ... Gruenberg, J.; Howell, K. E. (1988). "Fusion in the endocytic pathway reconstituted in a cell-free system using immuno-isolated ...
Other stages included cell fractionation into smaller bodies. Flemming named this degenerative process "chromatolysis" to ... It is an induced response of the cell usually triggered by axotomy, ischemia, toxicity to the cell, cell exhaustion, virus ... The cells exhibited decreased numbers of Nissl bodies throughout the cell, especially at the peripheral cytoplasm were the ... The cytoskeleton maintains the nuclear components of a cell and the size of the cell body in neurons. The increase in protein ...
Its cytosolic localization was demonstrated by cell fractionation experiments. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115488 - ... Expression studies in COS-7 cells confirmed that this gene encodes a functional sialidase. ... Cell Res. 17 (4): 357-362. doi:10.1038/cr.2007.27. PMID 17426694. Chavas LM, Tringali C, Fusi P, et al. (2005). "Crystal ...
"Effect of Phytoplankton Cell Geometry on Carbon Isotopic Fractionation". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 62 (1): 69-77. ... Organisms using RuBisCOs with high values of VC / KC, and low values of Sc/o have localized RuBisCO to areas within the cell ... Isotope geochemistry Fractionation of carbon isotopes in oxygenic photosynthesis Isotopes of carbon Isotopic signature Farquhar ... Farquhar, G. D.; Hubick, K. T.; Condon, A. G.; Richards, R. A. (1989), "Carbon Isotope Fractionation and Plant Water-Use ...
Cell fractionation is done by homogenizer to release the organelles from cell. Whereas older technologies just focused on the ... Homogenization (chemistry) French pressure cell press Cell disruption Ultrasonic homogenizer "Homogenizers for Mixing, ... There are often many different names for the same piece of mechanical homogenizing equipment, including Cell Lysor, Disperser, ... Homogenization is a very common sample preparation step prior to the analysis of nucleic acids, proteins, cells, metabolism, ...
Dose fractionation Dose-response relationship Chronic radiation syndrome "Cell Survival Curves" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute ... A cell survival curve is a curve used in radiobiology. It depicts the relationship between the fraction of cells retaining ... Cell survival fractions are exponential functions with a dose-dependent term in the exponent due to the Poisson statistics ... The linear quadratic model is now most often used to describe the cell survival curve, assuming that there are two mechanisms ...
... especially animal cells. Cell disruption, and cell unroofing - Methods for releasing molecules from cells. Cell fractionation ... Meristemic cell - Undifferentiated plants cells analogous to animal stem cells. Stem cell - Undifferentiated cells found in ... Cell type - Distinct morphological or functional form of cell. When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it ... Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. Cell division - The process of one parent cell separating into two or ...
In erythrocytapheresis, centrifugation is the most commonly used red blood cell fractionation method. This is because the ... The centrifugal force will separate the red blood cells from other cells due to their high specific weight. These cells can ... This includes either two standard units of red blood cells or one unit plus of red blood cells and another of either plasma or ... After removal of the affected cells, the patient can then be transfused with a dose of normal red blood cells. ...
Through biochemical fractionation of cell extracts and quantitative mass spectrometry, Sun, et al. identified cGAS as the DNA- ... and T cells. In many tumor cells, the DNA damage response is constitutively active, leading to the accumulation of cytoplasmic ... Cell. 176 (6): 1432-1446.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.049. PMC 6697112. PMID 30827685. Volkman HE, Cambier S, Gray EE, ... "Cell intrinsic immunity spreads to bystander cells via the intercellular transfer of cGAMP". Nature. 503 (7477): 530-4. Bibcode ...
... and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. They ... While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with cell compartment, a space often bound by one or ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell, that has a specific function. The name organelle ... Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some ...
Cell-fractionation and electron microscopy studies first indicated the possibility of DNA-membrane connections. There are now ... 1/cell volume in liter) x 103. Cell volume in liter ( 2 x 10−15) was determined by assuming volume of the E. coli cell to be 2 ... coli cells: analogous measurements in insect and human cells". Cell. 21 (3): 773-83. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(80)90440-7. PMID ... coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells". Cell. 153 (4): 882-95. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.006. PMC 3670778. ...
His work on cell fractionation provided an insight into the function of cell structures. He specialized in subcellular ... of the cell fractionation procedure) had come from membranous fractions that were known to be cell organelles. In 1955, de Duve ... So they tried the more laborious procedure of cell fractionation to detect the enzyme activity. This was the moment of ... Later, prokaryotic cells were incorporated to form more organelles. De Duve proposed that peroxisomes, which allowed cells to ...
... and cell composition. The study of cells is performed using several microscopy techniques, cell culture, and cell fractionation ... Direct cell-cell contact is when a receptor on a cell binds a molecule that is attached to the membrane of another cell. ... Cell signaling or cell communication is important for cell regulation and for cells to process information from the environment ... Biology portal Science portal The American Society for Cell Biology Cell biophysics Cell disruption Cell physiology Cellular ...
After he developed cell fractionation method, it became possible to identify and isolate cell organelles. He was the first to ... Novikoff had successfully developed a technique of cell fractionation. Using this he had separated cell fractions and ... Novikoff, PM; Novikoff, AB (1972). "Peroxisomes in absorptive cells of mammalian small intestine". The Journal of Cell Biology ... His works in cell biology are best summed up in a textbook he wrote with his student Eric Holtzman, Cells and Organelles, first ...
In 1930 he developed the technique of cell fractionation, by which he discovered the agent of the Rous sarcoma, components of ... The process consists of grinding up cells to break the membrane and release the cell's contents. He then filtered out the cell ... In 1930, he discovered the process of cell fractionation, which was groundbreaking in his time. ... He discovered that mitochondria are the "power houses" of all cells. He also discovered cytoplasmic granules full of RNA and ...
Effect of Phytoplankton Cell Geometry on Carbon Isotopic Fractionation, Vol. 62, Iss. pp. 69-77. Durbin, E.G. (1977), "Studies ... The Influence of Cell Size on Growth Rate, and Carbon, Nitrogen, Chlorophyll a and Silica Content". Journal of Phycology, 13: ... Although a drop of lake water may contain 1 million bacteria cells and 10 million viruses, only since 2012 has there been a ... There is a positive correlation between the surface area and the chlorophyll concentration of diatom cells. Several Native ...
Different techniques including freeze-fracturing and cell fractionation may be used to overcome the problems of artifacts. A ... Stacking of cells on top of each other gives a dark look, and in this breast tissue it may mimic microcalcifications. Pap ... Inflammatory and tumor cells are most susceptible to crush artifacts. Cellulose contamination, in H&E stain and polarized light ... Staining can cause the appearance of solid chemical deposits that may be seen as structures inside the cell. ...
Split flow thin-cell fractionation (SPLITT) is a special preparative FFF technique, using gravity for separation of µm-sized ... Field-flow fractionation, abbreviated FFF, is a separation technique which does not have a stationary phase. It is similar to ... Separation in Field flow fractionation takes place in a channel. It is composed of a top and bottom block which are separated ... As mentioned above, in field-flow fractionation the field can be hydraulic (with a cross flow through a semi-permeable membrane ...
Bioelectrochemical reactor Concentration cell Electrochemical cell Electrochemical engineering Equilibrium fractionation ... electrochemical isotope separation electrochemical isotope cell ACS radioelectrochemistry electroplating isotope effects JES ... Transient kinetic isotope fractionation Rock, Peter A. (1975). "The Electrochemical Determination of Equilibrium Constants for ... electrochemical pumping isotope effects electrochemical isotope fractionation ...
... which produce blood cells), and the loss of other cells in the wall of the intestines, that is fatal. Fractionation effects are ... so caution should be used in using results for a cancer cell line to make predictions for healthy cells if the cancer cell line ... The human body contains many types of cells, and the human can be killed by the loss of a single type of cell in a vital organ ... surviving fraction have been drawn for a hypothetical group of cells with and without a rest time for the cells to recover. ...
"Chemical and enzymatic fractionation of cell walls from Fucales: Insights into the structure of the extracellular matrix of ... As this apical cell divides, the new cells that it produces develop into all the tissues of the alga. Branchings and other ... There are no known species that exist as single cells or as colonies of cells, and the brown algae are the only major group of ... The cell wall consists of two layers; the inner layer bears the strength, and consists of cellulose; the outer wall layer is ...
Subcellular fractionation of metal-accumulating lysosomes from hepatopancreas. In: Cell Biol Toxicol. 4:97-109 Dallinger R., ... In: Mol Cell Biochem. 85: 135-145 Gruber C., Stürzenbaum S., Gehrig P., Sack R., Hunziker P., Berger B., Dallinger R. (2000) ( ... In: Cell Biol. Toxicol. 4:81-96 Dallinger R., Prosi F., 1988: Heavy metals in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber Latreille ... In: Cell Mol Biology 46: 331-346 Egg M., Höckner M., Chabicovsky M., Brandstätter A., Schuler D., Dallinger R. (2009) ...
His interest in Rockefeller stemmed from the fact that many of the advances, in electron microscopy, cell fractionation, and ... this cell, which Steinman named the dendritic cell, would later be found "to be the sentinel cells of the immune system." In ... J. Cell Biol. 86:304-314. With C. F. Nathan and H. W. Murray. The macrophage as an effector cell. N. Engl. J. Med. 303:622-626 ... The enzymatic iodination of the red cell membrane. J. Cell Biol. 55:390-405. With R. M. Steinman. The interaction of soluble ...
At the end of the separation cell, the separated sample is split up at the fractionation tubes and collected in microtiter ... cells, subcellular compartments (like organelles, ribosomes, etc.), Separation size range from ions to complete cells Sample ... Until the 1980s, it was a standardized technology for the separation of cells and organelles, and FFE was even tested in space ... The front plate also contains the inlets for the separation buffers and the sample, the outlets for the fractionation tubes and ...
... cell fractionation and advancements in staining and fixation). James Fetzer, ch 3 "The paradoxes of Hempelian explanation", in ... the molecular biology research program cracked a genetic code in the early 1960s and then converged with cell biology as cell ... Discovering Cell Mechanisms: The Creation of Modern Cell Biology (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006). Bechtel, William ... cell biology arose and established existence of cell organelles besides the nucleus. Launched in the late 1930s, ...
The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of ... The first relied exclusively on cell fractionation, and was developed in collaboration with Philip Siekevitz, Lewis Joel Greene ... Tartakoff, Alan M (November 2002). "George Emil Palade: charismatic virtuoso of cell biology". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... was a Romanian cell biologist. Described as "the most influential cell biologist ever", in 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize ...
... can also be used as a source of hydrogen for acid fuel cells if the unreacted ammonia can be removed. Ruthenium and ... Millar, T. J. (2003). "Deuterium Fractionation in Interstellar Clouds". Space Science Reviews. 106 (1): 73-86. Bibcode:2003SSRv ...
In earlier work using cell fractionation to investigate the content of animal cells, Albert Claude found a pool of particles ...
For example, a hot particle embedded in an organ (such as lung) results in a very high dose in the cells directly adjacent to ... DNA repair Dose fractionation Nuclear power debate#Health effects on population near nuclear power plants and workers Radiology ... January 2012). "Evidence for formation of DNA repair centers and dose-response nonlinearity in human cells". Proceedings of the ... such as DNA repair and programmed cell death, that would protect it against carcinogenesis due to low-dose exposures of ...
The fractionation of 34S (δ34S) is particularly useful since it is the most abundant of the rare sulfur isotopes, allowing the ... That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ... These fractionations are then reported relative to Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT), the agreed upon standard for the field. The ... The science is based on the preferential fractionation of lighter or heavier isotopes, which results in enriched and depleted ...
2013). "Synthetic nanoparticles functionalized with biomimetic leukocyte membranes possess cell-like functions". Nature ... "Combinational multidomain mesoporous chips and a method for fractionation, stabilization, and storage of biomolecules", ... "Particles for cell targeting", published 2013 US patent 8568877, Ferrari M, Liu X, Chiappini C, Fakhoury JR, "Porous and non- ... "Particle compositions with a pre-selected cell internalization mode", published 2012 US patent 7993271, Liu J, Ferrari M, ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... After size fractionation of FCS and analysis of the lipids that bound to serum albumin, the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was ... "Prominent Cell Biologist Dies". In Memoriam: Alan Hall, Pioneer in Rho GTPases and Chair of Cell Biology at Sloan-Kettering "At ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ...
see Isotope analysis section) Cells are preserved in the rock record because their cell walls are made of proteins which ... Stable isotope fractionation is a useful way of characterising organic carbon and inorganic carbon. These numbers are reported ... These cell-sized prokaryote fossils are seen in the Barberton fossil record in rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. The Barberton ... The cell wall structure can be preserved, but the original composition changes over time and becomes mineralised. There are six ...
... cell or population response). A commonly used dose-response curve is the EC50 curve, the half maximal effective concentration, ... Certain safety factor Hormesis Pharmacodynamics Spatial epidemiology Weber-Fechner law Dose fractionation Crump, K. S.; Hoel, D ...
Place cells are also found in the hippocampus. The parietal cortex encodes spatial information using an egocentric frame of ... Within the literature, it is suggested that further research into the fractionation of STM and WM be explored. However, much of ... Brun, V. H.; Otnaess, M. K.; Molden, S.; Steffenach, H.; Witter, M. P.; Moser, M.; Moser, E. I. (2002). "Place cells and place ... Participants are presented with a series of matrix patterns that have half their cells colored and the other half blank. The ...
... can be produced using two methods: The wet fractionation method; and The dry fractionation method. The wet ... also aids digestibility as it is attributed to the nonavailability to amylases of starch granules enclosed in intact cell wall ... Dry fractionation is a more sustainable method of processing as it does not require the use of water and energy is not required ... The dry fractionation method is used to produce pea protein concentrates. It involves dry milling technology; a traditional ...
Xi J, Wang X, Li S, Zhou X, Yue L, Fan J, Hao D (November 2006). "Polyethylene glycol fractionation improved detection of low- ... There are typically several related small-chain genes in the nucleus of plant cells, and the small chains are imported to the ... Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell JE (2000). "Molecular Cell Biology" (4th ed.). New York: W. H ... Cooper GM (2000). "10.The Chloroplast Genome". The Cell: A Molecular Approach (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C: ASM Press. ISBN 978-0 ...
Water molecules are also subject to Rayleigh fractionation as atmospheric water moves from the equator poleward which results ... An example of the production cycle is a 90-minute irradiation of 2 milliliters of 18O-enriched water in a titanium cell, ... the temperature of ice formation can be calculated as equilibrium fractionation between phases of water that is known for ... and ions leached from the target cell and sputtered from the Havar foil. Willi Dansgaard - a paleoclimatologist Isotopes of ...
Fractionation also allows tumor cells that were in a relatively radio-resistant phase of the cell cycle during one treatment to ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
Isotopes of carbon Isotope fractionation "Exact Masses of the Elements and Isotopic Abundances". Francey, R. J.; ... One important application is in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). 13C-enriched compounds are used ... Biological processes preferentially take up the lower mass isotope through kinetic fractionation. In aqueous geochemistry, by ...
1990). Lithium and Cell Physiology. New York, NY: Springer New York. pp. 25-46. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-3324-4. ISBN 978-1-4612- ... Nuclear weapons manufacture and other nuclear physics applications are a major source of artificial lithium fractionation, with ... A typical lithium-ion battery can generate approximately 3 volts per cell, compared with 2.1 volts for lead-acid and 1.5 volts ... "You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells" (PDF). Toshiba. Archived (PDF) from the original ...
Its target channels can be found in cardiac tissue, neurons and smooth muscle cells. In cardiac cells, their role more ... 2002). Bioassay guided fractionation and chromatography identified stromatoxin as the functional component. The full sequence ... Cell Physiol., 291 (2): 348-356, doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00086.2006, PMID 16571867. Shiau, Y.S.; Huang, P.T.; Liou, H.H.; Liaw, Y.C ... Wang, D.; Schreurs, B.G. (2006), "Characteristics of IA currents in adult rabbit cerebellar Purkinje cells", Brain Res., 1096 ( ...
Excreted toxins would seem most advantageous to the individual cell in their ability to keep predators and/or parasitic and ... Most commonly, the presence of a phycotoxin is verified by bioassay-guided fractionation. The sample must be fractionated, or ... Post-ingestion toxins, also known as suicide toxins, are not beneficial to individual cells because unlike terrestrial plants, ... These toxins are located at the cell surface and are typically classified as glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polypeptides. These ...
The group focuses on "G protein coupled receptors," a major class of proteins in human cells, on which many molecules can act. ... Assay Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR) - used by Eurofins for the analysis of ...
Myocardial cells are exposed to different environments. Normal cells may be exposed to hyperkalaemia; abnormal cells may be ... "Primary ventricular fibrillation is associated with increased paced right ventricular electrogram fractionation". Circulation. ... When myocardial cell are exposed to hyperkalemia, the maximum diastolic potential is depolarized as a result of the alteration ... For example, with a healed myocardial infarction, abnormal cells can be exposed to an abnormal environment such as with a ...
In August 2017, the business announced it would acquire Calimmune and its stem cell therapy platform. Completed in 2018, ... In 1952, operation commenced plasma fractionation. Thereafter the range of antivenoms increased, including those against other ... CSL's product areas include blood plasma derivatives, vaccines, antivenom, and cell culture reagents used in various medical ... Sequirus Commonwealth Serum Laboratories "CSL Behring Acquires Biotech Company Calimmune and its Proprietary Stem Cell Gene ...
IFR 53 Epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne and parasitic diseases JE 2533 Extracellular matrix and cell dynamics ( ... CNRS UMR 6089 Fractionation of Agricultural Resources and Environment (FARE) UMR INRA 614-A Research Unit of the Vine and Wine ... INSERM UMR-S 926 Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pre-and postconditioning myocardial EA 3801 Cell ... Research Institute Federations interactions Cells Micro-Environment. ...
Potential Regulatory Role of Human-Carboxylesterase-1 Glycosylation in Liver Cancer Cell Growth. Y., K. Paik; J., E. Graham; M ... "Biomarker discovery from the plasma proteome using multidimensional fractionation proteomics". Current Opinion in Chemical ... Aging Cell. 8 (4): 473-483. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00495.x. ISSN 1474-9726. PMID 19489741. S2CID 593237. Na, Keun; Jeong ... CA and started his postdoc carrier with John Taylor on molecular cell biology of human apolipoprotein E gene which is involved ...
Many organisms reduce small amounts of sulfates in order to synthesize sulfur-containing cell components; this is known as ... Sulfur mass-independent fractionation in subsurface fracture waters indicates a long-standing sulfur cycle in Precambrian rocks ...
Bovine serum albumin, or BSA, is commonly used in immunodiagnostic procedures, clinical chemistry reagents, cell culture media ... Blood plasma fractionation Bovine serum albumin Chromatography in blood processing Human serum albumin Lactalbumin Ovalbumin ...
Altered Fractionation of Radical Radiation Therapy in the Management of Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ... "Altered Fractionation of Radical Radiation Therapy in the Management of Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer" Current ...
cell-fractionation-v19. Posted on January 29, 2016 , Leave a comment cell-fractionation-v19 ...
Cell Fractionation, Cell Line, Cell Nucleus, Cells, Cultured, Cytoplasm, Humans, Protease Inhibitors, Protein-Serine-Threonine ... Cytoplasmic compartment, Hippo pathway, Hypotonic buffer, Nuclear compartment, Subcellular fractionation, ...
The cell theory states that a) New cells come from preexisting cells b) All cells are descended from ancient cells ) Cells ... 1. power c) Cell fractionation d) Scanning electron. 1.. The golgi complex functions to a) Modify proteins b) Process proteins ... Cell fractionation d) Scanning electron microscopy e) Phase contrast 3. Detailed information about the shape and external ... Label the diagrams of the animal and plant cells? How is the structure of each organelle related to its function? ...
IntroductionHandling the BLOCK-iT™ Fluorescent OligoMaterialsUsing the BLOCK-iT™ Fluorescent Oligo for Cationic Lipid-Mediated Transfection Using the BLOCK-iT™ Fluorescent Oligo for Electroporation Detecting Fluorescence Signal
Our goal is to facilitate the use of single cell/nuclei sequencing technologies for all researchers. ... The Single Cell Core Facility for Flemingsberg campus (SICOF) is a state of the art core facility, offering services to the ... fractionations ... Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology * Molecular Medicine and ...
Cell lysate fractionation. Request a detailed protocol S. solfataricus P2 cells were grown in Brock medium, 0.1% NZ-amine, 0.2 ... cells from plasmid p988. Cells were resuspended in N(300) and disrupted using a using a French Pressure cell at 16,000 psi. The ... Cells were disrupted by threefold passage through a French pressure cell (Thermo Scientific) at 16,000 psi. Cell debris was ... All samples were immediately chilled on ice, cells were harvested by centrifugation and stored at −80°C. Cells were then ...
... is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell ... Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood ... The separation is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 10(6) times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap ... which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. ... however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited ...
Comparison of altered fractionation schedule with concurrent chemo-radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck ... Comparison of altered fractionation schedule with concurrent chemo-radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. ... Acute toxicity, Altered fractionation, Concurrent chemo-radiation, Radiotherapy, Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck ... Accelerated fractionation compared to conventional fractionation improves loco regional control in radiotherapy of advanced ...
Nonaqueous fractionation of HeLa cells in glycols.. A further modification of Behrens method of nonaqueous cell fractionation ... Nonaqueous fractionation of HeLa cells in glycols. Gurney, T., Collard, M.W. Anal. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed] ... The chief reason for use of the glycol method instead of other methods of cell fractionation is that easily solubilized ... HeLa cells were frozen in melting Freon-12 ( CCl2F2 ), dried under vacuum at -30 degrees C, sonicated in hexylene glycol at -35 ...
... and cell adhesion. In contrast, cells treated with Casodex display loss of cell adhesion, but sustained mitochondrial ... Overexpression of Bcl-2 in LNCaP cells attenuates the induction of cell death by TNF-α but not Casodex, suggesting that ... of the cells by 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. In cells treated with TNF-α, this is accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial ... non-metastatic LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with 0-100 μ M Casodex or 0-10 ng/ml TNF-α induces cell death in 20-60% ...
Inactivation and partition of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type III, during ethanol fractionation of plasma. Transfusion ... Bauer T, Jilg W. Hepatitis B surface antigen-specific T and B cell memory in individuals who had lost protective antibodies ... antigen-specific B and T cell proliferation (160). Although direct measurement of immune memory is not yet possible, these data ... hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients, and patients undergoing chemotherapy) (145--147). Modified dosing regimens, ...
Its used to diagnose anemia, sickle cell disease, and other hemoglobin disorders. Learn more. ... Hemoglobin is a protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a test that measures ... Other names: Hb electrophoresis, hemoglobin evaluation, hemoglobinopathy evaluation, hemoglobin fractionation, Hb ELP, sickle ... Sickle cell trait. In this condition, you have one sickle cell gene and one normal gene. Most people with sickle cell trait do ...
Tumor cells have less ability than healthy cells for DNA repair. Thus, between fractionation doses, healthy cells have a ... With each subsequent mitosis, the cumulative effects of unrepaired DNA result in apoptosis (cell death) of these tumor cells. ... Genetic Profiling Identifies High-Risk Tumors in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma * Mohs Surgery Saves Costs and May Improve ... The ratio of HLA-DR and VNN2+ expression on CD14+ myeloid derived suppressor cells can distinguish glioblastoma from radiation ...
Remove constraint Keyword: Cell Fractionation. Cell Fractionation. Item Type *Journal article2 ...
Nisin-controlled expression, cell fractionation and protein extraction. Nisin-controlled expression was carried out as ... c Western immunoblot analysis localization of VP2-RCK protein in recombinant r-L. lactis-OptiVP2-RCK cells. The cell surface ... Cell wall fractions were prepared for further analysis as previously described [44, 45], Briefly, For cell wall preparations, ... cell lines, with the highest invasion level obtained in MA104 cells. However, just as importantly, only a 46 amino acid region ...
The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and survival is controlled by calcium signals that are commonly transmitted at the ... Fractionation of RBL-2H3 cells Cells grown overconfluent in tissue culture flasks (∼7 × 107 cells) were loaded with fura2FF/AM ... Cells RBL-2H3 cells were cultured as described previously (Csordas et al., 1999). Cells were transfected with cDNA by means of ... 4 A, bottom). In control cells, the first [Ca2+]c rise was similar to those in the OMM-ER linker cells; however, the second [Ca ...
Fractionation of spruce budworm testes cells by velocity sedimentation. 1978. Ennis, T.J. Forest Pest Management Institute, ...
Inactivation and partition of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type III, during ethanol fractionation of plasma. Transfusion ... Evaluation of a human diploid cell strain rabies vaccine: final report of a three year study of pre-exposure immunization. J ... Laboratory studies have shown that the margin of safety based on the removal of HIV infectivity by the fractionation process is ... Rubella vaccine is prepared in human diploid cell cultures and has rarely been reported to be associated with allergic ...
"The so-called fractionation of radiation is thought to help preferentially kill tumor cells and minimize chronic tissue damage ... The higher-dose fractionation group was also associated with a lower rate of distant metastases, at 5%, compared with 11% for ... "This fractionation schedule appears to be acceptable for patients across all risk groups," Abu-Gheida observed. ... Grades 2 and 3 late genitourinary (GU) toxicity was higher with the higher fractionation dose, at 14.6%, compared with 8.2% for ...
SINEUPs function in an array of cell lines and can be efficiently directed toward N-terminally tagged proteins. Their ... SINEUPs function in an array of cell lines and can be efficiently directed towards N-terminally tagged proteins. Their ... synthetic SINEUPs targeting endogenous Parkinsons disease-associated DJ-1 and proved to be active in different neuronal cell ... Cellular Fractionation. For fractionation experiments, GFP/SINEUP-GFP were transfected in 10 cm plates at 1:6 ratio using ...
Cells were gated on CD11b and CX3CR1. The bottom plot shows cells after percoll fractionation. Debris and Dead cells were gated ... Cells were gated on CD11b and CX3CR1. The bottom plot shows cells after percoll fractionation. Debris and Dead cells were gated ... Cell Separation (MojoSort™) - Quality tested. Recommended Usage 10 µl of antibody cocktail for 1 X 106 cells in 100 µl of ... Cell Biology, Immunology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience Cell Markers Molecular Family Cytokine/Chemokine Receptors, GPCR Gene ID ...
... immunostaining and cell fractionation analyses have demonstrated strong nuclear localisation of TNRC6A in some cancer cell ... Gagnon Keith T, Li L, Chu Y, Janowski Bethany A, Corey David R. RNAi Factors Are Present and Active in Human Cell Nuclei. Cell ... Human Impα1ΔIBB (hImpα1ΔIBB) was expressed in BL21(DE3) (NEB) cells in LB media at 25°C for 5 hours after induction with IPTG, ... Specific and potent RNAi in the nucleus of human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12(2):133-7. pmid:15643423 * View Article ...
We have performed growth tests, membrane localization following cell fractionation, and glycerol accumulation measurements as ... We have performed growth tests, membrane localization following cell fractionation, and glycerol accumulation measurements as ... We have performed growth tests, membrane localization following cell fractionation, and glycerol accumulation measurements as ... We have performed growth tests, membrane localization following cell fractionation, and glycerol accumulation measurements as ...
Cell fractionation kit was obtained from Fermentas (USA). Kitfor TUNEL assay kit wasobtained from Invitrogen(Carlsbad, CA, USA ... Media for cell culture (DMEM and Hams F12) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) were obtained from Gibco, Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, ... This property enables pACYC184 to co-exist in cells with ColE1 plasmid vectors, including all the ones mentioned above ... pACYC184 is a medium-copy-number cloning vector (~ 20 copies/cell) with Cmr and Tetrselectable markers. It carries the origin ...
AE2 expression and pHi were measured after knockdown or forced expression of AE1 or p16 in GC cells. The effect of AE2 on GC ... AE1/p16 expression promoted AE2 degradation in GC cells. Gastrin is a potential candidate drug for targeted therapies for AE1- ... The relationship among AE1, AE2 and p16 in GC cells was characterized by molecular and cellular experiments. ... Gastrin inhibited the growth of GC cells at least partially through up-regulation of AE2 expression. ...
... released from cancer cells in an accelerated manner compared to normal cells. The Vn96 peptide was herein employed to recover a ... Reflecting their cells of origin, cancer EVs displayed discrete differences from those of normal phenotype. GELFrEE LC/MS ... The protein data sets provide valuable information from material shed by cultured cells. It is probable that a vast amount of ... Pathway analysis of the Vn96-affinity proteome unequivocally distinguished EVs from tumorigenic cell lines (SKBR3 and MCF-7) ...
... cell lysis buffers, and reagents for solubilizing proteins from bacteria, yeast, and insect cultures, as well as plant and ... Subcellular Fractionation, Enrichment, and Depletion Reagents. Subcellular fractionation and protein enrichment enable the ... A variety of reagents and enzymes for cell lysis and protein extraction provide an array of options tailored for specific cell ... CelLytic™ M, Cell Lysis Reagent, Suitable for Mammalian cell lysis and protein solubilization. ...
Discover our Blood fractionation workstations for the automated processing of whole blood into separate components of plasma, ... For the automated processing of whole blood into separate components of plasma, buffy layer or red blood cells for downstream ... High-Throughput, End-to-End Cell Free DNA Analysis Workflow from Plasma ... buffy coat and red blood cells. The blood components can be reformatted into nearly any consumable for downstream storage or ...
  • A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyper-fractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: First report of RTOG 9003. (
  • SINEUPs function in an array of cell lines and can be efficiently directed toward N-terminally tagged proteins. (
  • Isolation and purification of proteins requires disruption of cells or tissue samples and extraction of the relevant protein fraction. (
  • Radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) buffer is used for rapid cell lysis and solubilization of proteins from both adherent and suspension cultured mammalian cells. (
  • CelLytic™ lysis reagents are specifically formulated to lyse and extract cellular proteins under non-denaturing conditions based on the cell or tissue type and target protein localization. (
  • Subcellular fractionation and protein enrichment enable the identification and study of proteins in proteomics research. (
  • Transactivator (TAT) proteins are known to have cell-penetrating properties. (
  • The transactivator (TAT) domain (11 amino acids, YGRKKRRQRRR) of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) TAT protein can efficiently deliver proteins into cells and appears to not be limited by the size of the fusion protein [ 26 ]. (
  • As shown in Figure 1, proteins that serve as markers for cellular fractionation, such as nuclear marker RNA pol II and cytoplasmic marker alpha Tubulin, were only detected in their respective cellular fractions and in whole-cell extracts. (
  • To evaluate the efficiency of cellular fractionation, 20 μg of nuclear (Nu), cytoplasmic (Cy) and whole-cell (WC) extracts, along with nuclear pellet collected during nuclear extraction using the Nuclear Extract Kit were analyzed by Western blot using antibodies against various specific proteins. (
  • Magnetic Beads are superparamagnetic, non-aggregating iron oxide particles (or microspheres ) for capturing or purifying targets such as proteins, antigens, antibodies, DNA/RNA, cells, and more. (
  • These proteins are rich in antibodies and clotting factors and can be separated through a process called fractionation. (
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients and can form new tumors. (
  • 1 Casodex, an antiandrogen used in prostate cancer therapy, is designed to reduce tumor size by interfering with normal androgen receptor (AR)-mediated processes that ensure prostate cell survival and by triggering tumor cells to undergo apoptosis. (
  • The so-called fractionation of radiation is thought to help preferentially kill tumor cells and minimize chronic tissue damage," Kishan explained. (
  • In MDA-MB-231 cells, BTK-C expression confers modest increases in proliferation and glucose uptake rates compared to BTK-A. Conclusion: Palmitoylation affects localization and regulation of BTK-C in epithelial tumor cells where it functions as an important survival factor. (
  • Materials and Methods: Site-directed mutagenesis, acylation assays and expression studies in cancer cell lines were used to determine the effects that the BTK-C first exon sequence has on kinase activity, subcellular localization and cell physiology. (
  • Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS . (
  • RIPA buffer enables efficient cell lysis and protein solubilization while avoiding protein degradation and interference with immunoreactivity and biological activity. (
  • Learn about methods and technologies for efficient cell lysis, protein extraction and fractionation, and targeted inhibition of unwanted protease and phosphatase activity. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in a) Chromosomes ) Chromatin c) Mitochondria d) a, b, c e) a and b 5. (
  • The membranes that partition the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (endomembrane system) include a) Golgi complex b) Lysosomes c) Endoplasmic reticulum d) Transport vesicles e) All of the above 1. (
  • An outline -- Preparation of escherichia coli samples for 2-D gel analysis -- Preparing 2-D protein extracts from yeast -- 2-D protein extracts from drosophila melanogaster -- Preparing 2-D protein extracts from caenorhabditis elegans -- Eukaryotic cell labeling and preparation for 2-D -- Differential detergent fractionation of eukaryotic cells. (
  • Accelerated fractionation compared to conventional fractionation improves loco regional control in radiotherapy of advanced head and neck cancers: results of the EORTC 22851 randomized trial. (
  • Concurrent radiotherapy and chemo therapy with cisplatin in inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (
  • Aim: This retrospective review was conducted to compare outcomes using different fractionation schedules for early stage glottic cancer treated with radiotherapy between 1991 and 2003. (
  • Proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells co-cultured in vitro reciprocally influence growth patterns, protein expression, chromatin features and cell survival. (
  • Consistent with this notion, we found that PLU-1 is present in the chromatin fraction in biochemical cell fractionation experiments using both somatic and meiotic cells. (
  • 14. Yating Qin, Hui Peng, Xiwen He, Wenyou Li* , Yukui Zhang, Highly Effective Drug Delivery and Cell Imaging Using Fluorescent Double-Imprinted Nanoparticles by Targeting Recognition of the Epitope of Membrane Protein, Analytical Chemistry , 2019, 91: 12696-12703. (
  • We have performed growth tests, membrane localization following cell fractionation, and glycerol accumulation measurements as well as an investigation of the osmotic stress response. (
  • CytoBuster™ protein extraction reagent is available for lysis and protein extraction from insect and mammalian cells. (
  • Fractionation of nucleic acids from mammalian cells in culture by polylysine-Kieselguhr column chromatography. (
  • A variety of reagents and enzymes for cell lysis and protein extraction provide an array of options tailored for specific cell types and application needs. (
  • It is used as a non-ionic detergent for cell lysis and for nuclei isolation & cell fractionation. (
  • Traditionally, B cells have been believed to be the lymphocytes responsible for antibody production via maturation into plasma cells (ie, humoral immunity), and T cells have been believed to be the lymphocytes responsible for killing other cells or organisms (ie, cellular immunity). (
  • The relationship among AE1, AE2 and p16 in GC cells was characterized by molecular and cellular experiments. (
  • To demonstrate the efficiency of cellular fractionation using the Nuclear Extract Kit, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and whole-cell extracts were prepared from HeLa cell samples. (
  • Multiple and different cellular activities have already been related to the PP-InsPs, but an over-arching hypothesis sights them as performing as an user interface between energy fat burning capacity and cell-signaling [3,5,6]. (
  • Our work unveils a crucial role for TFIIIA in transcriptional regulation of a cellular RIG-I agonist and shows that GTF3A genetic defects lead to impaired cell-intrinsic anti-HSV-1 responses and can predispose to HSE. (
  • Exploration of mutations and analysis of cellular changes related to lymphocyte defects and immune dysregulation has fueled the development of novel treatment options for some primary T-cell disorders that might otherwise by fatal. (
  • Active cell death, or apoptosis, plays a central role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and proper disposal of damaged or excess cells, including the epithelial cells of the prostate after castration or administration of antiandrogens. (
  • Nonrandom association of acrocentric chromosomes in human epithelial cells. (
  • Conventional therapy appropriate for the immunologically healthy host is administered, although patients with T-cell defects characteristically have more prolonged and severe clinical courses. (
  • Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Fractionation to Study Hippo Effectors. (
  • The Nuclear Extract Kit isolates high-quality nuclear, cytoplasmic or whole-cell extract from mammalian cell or tissue samples. (
  • The Nuclear Extract Kit works with fresh or frozen cell and tissue samples and yields protein amounts of approximately 0.5 to 1 mg from cytoplasmic extract (at 1-2 mg/ml concentration), 150 to 250 μg from nuclear extract (at 3-5 mg/ml concentration), 1.2 to 2.4 mg from whole cell extract (at 4-8 mg/ml concentration) from 8.8 x 10 6 cells. (
  • To demonstrate the quality of the materials and protocol of the Nuclear Extract Kit, nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts were prepared from HeLa cell samples that were either unstimulated or stimulated with TNF-α for 30 minutes. (
  • NFκB activation was assayed with the TransAM ® NFκB p50 Kit using increasing amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts isolated from unstimulated and stimulated HeLa cells using the Nuclear Extract Kit. (
  • Active Motif also offers a number of ready-to-use nuclear, cytoplasmic and whole-cell extracts . (
  • Aim of the study was to compare the response of altered fractionation schedule with concurrent chemo-radiation in patients with primary and the nodal disease. (
  • Using cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrated that Nrf2 and Keap1 were both detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus. (
  • Because activated NFκB translocates into the nucleus, only nuclear extract from stimulated cells should contain activated NFκB. (
  • Interactions between human fibroblastsand HeLa cells in vitro. (
  • Cytogenetical changes during early stages of developmentof methotrexate resistance in HeLa cells. (
  • We confirmed that the TAT-S3 probe localized in the mitochondria, without permeabilization, and fluoresced in H 2 O 2 -treated HeLa cells and zebrafish embryos. (
  • De Souza CEA, Andrade Pires AR, Cardoso CR, Carlos RM, Cadena SMSC, Acco A (2020) Antineoplastic activity of a novel ruthenium complex against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. (
  • The cell theory states that a) New cells come from preexisting cells b) All cells are descended from ancient cells ) Cells divide d) Cells contain genetic material e) None of the above 15. (
  • Genetic experiments using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from wild type or Nrf2 knockout mice revealed that the cells lacking Nrf2 exhibited markedly increased production of ROS and sensitivity to Cd cytotoxicity. (
  • Vectors carry genetic instructions to specific cells. (
  • These genetic instructions remain in the target cells, but never actually become a part of a person's own DNA. (
  • Our goal is to facilitate the use of single cell/nuclei sequencing technologies for all researchers. (
  • Overexpression of Bcl-2 in LNCaP cells attenuates the induction of cell death by TNF- α but not Casodex, suggesting that mitochondria depolarization is not required for the induction of cell death by Casodex. (
  • The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and survival is controlled by calcium signals that are commonly transmitted at the close associations between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • However, the physical linkage of the ER-mitochondria interface and its relevance for cell function remains elusive. (
  • Interestingly, confocal immunocytochemistry and cell fractionation studies indicate that Sab is associated with mitochondria, where it co-localizes with a fraction of active JNK. (
  • We report on a new integrated platform for automated harvesting of whole unclarified cell-culture broths, followed by in-line tandem affinity-capture, pH neutralization and size-exclusion chromatography of recombinant antibodies expressed transiently in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293T-cells at the 1-L scale. (
  • The system consists of two bench-top chromatography instruments connected to a central unit with eight disposable filtration devices used for loading and filtering the cell cultures. (
  • This product was prepared from normal serum by delipidation, salt fractionation, ion exchange chromatography followed by pepsin digestion and extensive dialysis against the buffer stated above. (
  • For the automated processing of whole blood into separate components of plasma, buffy layer or red blood cells for downstream analysis or biobanking. (
  • The JANUS ® G3 Blood iQ ™ Workstation fully automates the process of separating centrifuged whole blood into components of plasma, buffy coat and red blood cells. (
  • The Expert Committee recommended adoption of guidelines for DNA vaccines and rotavirus vaccines, and advised that recommendations should be adopted for whole-cell, pertussis vaccine, human plasma for fractionation and rabies vaccine. (
  • Fresh whole blood has long been thought of as the criterion standard for transfusion, but the advent of whole blood fractionation techniques subsequent to World War II provided a means of more efficient use of the various components (i.e., packed red blood cells [PRBCs], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], individual factor concentrates, platelet concentrates, cryoprecipitate). (
  • Developing countries thus have to create their own sustainable supplies of blood-derived products using blood plasma collected by their own establishments and from their own populations, even if fractionation is done in developed countries. (
  • Plasma is yellow in color and is the liquid portion of the blood in which blood cells are suspended. (
  • However, the plasma is separated from the red blood cells and the red cells are returned to the donor. (
  • WHO also supported Somalia in the establishment of a national blood centre and Egypt in initiating mechanisms for the use of plasma for fractionation. (
  • Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation. (
  • In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). (
  • The complete blood count (CBC) is a group of tests that evaluate your overall health that is made up of a group of cells within your blood, including red blood cells (RBC's), white blood cells (WBC's), platelets (PLTs). (
  • The ability of a microscope to reveal fine detail is known as a) Magnification b) Resolving power c) Cell fractionation d) Scanning electron microscopy e) Phase contrast 3. (
  • These compounds showed immunosuppressant effect in the T-cell proliferation assay with IC 50 values between 31.2 to 2.7 μg/mL, while the IC 50 values for ROS inhibition, representing anti-inflammatory effect, were in the range of 25.6 to 2.0 μg/mL. (
  • For example, rice bran oil refining machine, palm oil refining/refinery machine, palm oil fractionation machinery, soybean oil refining machine, sunflower oil refining machine, cotton oil refining/winterization machinery, corn oil refinery machine/winterization line, peanut oil refinery machine and others crude cooking oil refinery line. (
  • d.flaking process for Soybean Oil Plant: rolling raw material into flakes, and the purpose is to increae surface area, destroy the soybean cell tissue, shorten the way of oil out from cake. (
  • In 2015, the single cell field was revolutionized by the introduction of droplet sequencing, in other words the encapsulation of cells and reagents into small droplets for library preparation. (
  • PopCulture ® reagents enable protein extraction from cells directly in the culture medium with no centrifugation required. (
  • A single cell suspension from C57BL/6 mouse brain was prepared using Trypsin digestion and 70/37/30% percoll gradient to isolate CX3CR1 + microglia using the MojoSort™ Mouse CX3CR1 Selection Kit. (
  • Tissue enzymatic digestion, followed by percoll fractionation, is recommended. (
  • The team has abundant experience with single cell technologies since the inception of SICOF in 2016 as an in-house facility for the Integrated Cardio Metabolic Institute (ICMC). (
  • Extracts prepared using the Nuclear Extract Kit can be used with Active Motif's TransAM ® Kits , or in other procedures that require cell extracts, like gelshift assays, Western blots, DNA footprinting, as a starting point for protein purification for binding or activity assays or or other analysis techniques. (
  • 1997. In vitro genotoxic effects of hard metal particles assessed by alkaline single cell gel and elution assays. (
  • The immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity of compounds 1 - 7 were evaluated by observing their effects on T-cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and normal cell growth in MTT assays, respectively. (
  • Grades 2 and 3 late genitourinary (GU) toxicity was higher with the higher fractionation dose, at 14.6%, compared with 8.2% for the lower fractionation dose, but there were no differences in grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity between the two schedules. (
  • Conclusion: The two RT fractionation schedules showed equal efficacy in terms of symptoms relief, radiological response of the primary thoracic tumor, respiratory functions and toxicity. (
  • In this study, we revealed that p16 binds not only AE1 but also AE2, and that the formation of the AE1/p16 complex accounted for the enhanced degradation of AE2 in poorly differentiated GC cells. (
  • Once cells are enriched in the upper compartment, they can be exhausted by closing the outlet of the lower compartment and opening the outlet of the upper compartment. (
  • The MedH Flow Cytometry core facility for single cell sorting (FACS). (
  • Although we do offer single cell sorting support, we would like to refer you in the first place to the MedH Flow Cytometry Core Facility , which is cheaper and has more dedicated support for your flow cytometry and single cell sorts. (
  • For the patients in the clinical trials, naïve T-cell levels were measured using flow cytometry at 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. (
  • Establishment and characterization of a B-cell line from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis of VEGF-A in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. (
  • PURPOSE: Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a progressive corneal disease that impacts the structure and stiffness of the Descemet's membrane (DM), the substratum for corneal endothelial cells (CECs). (
  • METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of AA, TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß3 on the deposition, ultrastructure, stiffness, and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by primary bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). (
  • Antiandrogens such as Casodex (Bicalutamide) are designed to treat advance stage prostate cancer by interfering with androgen receptor-mediated cell survival and by initiating cell death. (
  • Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that Casodex induces cell death by a pathway that is independent of changes in ΔΨ m and Bcl-2 actions and results in an extended lag phase of cell survival that may promote the induction of an invasive phenotype after treatment. (
  • We previously identified an isoform of the PH domaincontaining kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), in an RNAi kinome screen as a critical survival factor for breast cancer cells ( 6 ). (
  • Opinions are embraced and defended, but transfusion of red blood cells has not reliably demonstrated increased survival, other than in 2 specific populations, as follows: (1) those with active hemorrhage, and (2) those with active cardiac ischemia. (
  • Using a metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell model, we show that GsdmD knockout (GsdmD-/-) mice form significantly fewer cancer foci in lungs, exhibit markedly decreased lung cancer metastasis, and show a significant â ¼50% increase in median survival rate. (
  • Cell-cell interactions, stromal cells, drug resistance, in vitro evaluation of anticancer agents, mechanisms of invasion and metastasis. (
  • Fibroblasts against cancer cells in vitro. (
  • Interactions between human lymphoblastoid cells and human fibroblast feeder layers in vitro. (
  • In vitro studies based on MCF-7 cell proliferation and induction of vitellogenin in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes. (
  • 2012) reported on human skin penetration of cobalt nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin suggesting that Co applied as NPs is able to penetrate the human skin in an in-vitro diffusion cell system. (
  • During current study, compound 1 was found to exhibit significant immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro in T-cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assay, respectively. (
  • In cells treated with TNF- α , this is accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and cell adhesion. (
  • Metabolic Labeling and Membrane Fractionation for Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures. (
  • Cells are filtered by a membrane with determined pore size. (
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (
  • The separation is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 10(6) times more abundant WBCs. (
  • Treatment of androgen sensitive, non-metastatic LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with 0-100 μ M Casodex or 0-10 ng/ml TNF- α induces cell death in 20-60% of the cells by 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • An increasingly attractive strategy is to primarily enrich extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cancer cells in an accelerated manner compared to normal cells. (
  • Teaming Up for Trouble: Cancer Cells, Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Signaling and the Epigenetic Corruption of Stromal Naïve Fibroblasts. (
  • The BTK-C isoform identified in breast and prostate cancer cells ( 7 ) is similar to the original BTK isoform, which we refer to as BTK-A for clarity, but contains an alternative first exon encoding parts of a 34 amino acid amino-terminal extension ( 6 ). (
  • Viral infection of embryonic day 7 chick retinal ganglion cells with mutated NgR demonstrates that the NgR C-terminal domain is required for inhibitory signaling but not ligand binding. (
  • Insect PopCulture ® reagent lyses insect cells directly in serum-free medium and is ideal for expression screening of many small samples. (
  • Bovine serum albumin is broadly used as an additive to cell culture media, especially serum-free media. (
  • Arm A was altered fractionation schedule where in patients received 6 fractions per week to a total dose of 6600 cGy in 33 fractions. (
  • In MEF cells with wild type Nrf2 and mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells, Cd increased the Nrf2 protein level but not the Nrf2 mRNA level dose-dependently. (
  • Par exemple, seuls 6,1 % des répondants étaient capables de décrire le principe ALARA et 98,2 % ignoraient qu'il n'existait pas de seuil en dessous duquel une dose est sans danger, selon les recommandations internationales. (
  • In this manuscript, we report for the first time the microbial transformation of a synthetic anabolic steroidal drug, oxymetholone, by fungal cell cultures. (
  • This course introduces cell growth and fractionation techniques, and topics include fermentation theory and application and cell harvesting. (
  • The core biopsy revealed a spindle cells malignant tumor, negative for pan cytokeratine and most of immuno-histochemical (IH) markers, suggesting sarcoma, but requiring study of surgical specimen to exclude Metaplastic Carcinoma. (
  • 10 µl of antibody cocktail for 1 X 10 6 cells in 100 µl of buffer. (
  • The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells. (
  • While both TNF- α and Casodex-induced release of cytochrome c in LNCaP cell is predominantely associated with the translocation and cleavage of Bax, our data also suggest that Casodex induces cell death by acting on components downstream of decline of ΔΨ m and upstream of cytochrome c release. (
  • The revised recommendations, therefore, provide specifications for rabies vaccines produced in cell cultures or purified from embryonated eggs since these vaccines are safe and have dramatically decreased the number of human deaths throughout the world, most notably in countries where canine rabies is endemic. (
  • The main function of Fps1p seems to be the efflux of glycerol in the adaptation of the yeast cell to lower external osmolarity. (
  • Lyticase enzyme: enzymatically cleaves yeast cell wall β-glucan layers allowing for access to cell contents. (
  • Oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) pathways have been implicated in endothelial cell loss and endothelial to mesenchymal transition of CECs in FECD. (
  • 7 The death receptor-mediated pathway is activated upon ligand binding of cell surface death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), initiating ligand-induced receptor trimerization and the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). (
  • Based on previous studies in bacterial cells, base excision repair (BER) has been established as the major pathway for the removal of this lesion [ 8 ]. (