Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fractionation, Field Flow: Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell SeparationProtein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.PhosphoproteinsTritiumPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein PrecursorsCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.SepharoseIsotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Metrizamide: A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Glycoside HydrolasesIron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/4968)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (2/4968)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

Isolation of rat liver albumin messenger RNA. (3/4968)

Rat liver albumin messenger RNA has been purified to apparent homogeneity by means of polysome immunoprecipitation and poly(U)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Specific polysomes synthesizing albumin were separated from total liver polysomes through a double antibody technique which allowed isolation of a specific immunoprecipitate. The albumin-polysome immunoprecipitate was dissolved in detergent and the polysomal RNA was separated from protein by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Albumin mRNA was then separated from ribosomal RNA by affinity chromatography through the binding of poly(U)-Sepharose to the polyadenylate 3' terminus of the mRNA. Pure albumin mRNA migrated as an 18 S peak on 85% formamide-containing linear sucrose gradients and as a 22 S peak on 2.5% polyacrylamide gels in sodium dodecyl sulfate. It coded for the translation of authentic liver albumin when added to a heterologous protein-synthesizing cell-free system derived from either rabbit reticulocyte lysates or wheat germ extracts. Translation analysis in reticulocyte lysates indicated that albumin polysomes were purified approximately 9-fold from total liver polysomes, and that albumin mRNA was purified approximately 74-fold from albumin polysomal RNA. The total translation product in the mRNA-dependent wheat germ system, upon addition of the pure mRNA, was identified as authentic albumin by means of gel electrophoresis and tryptic peptide chromatography.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (4/4968)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

Nuclear location of mammalian DNA polymerase activities. (5/4968)

Nuclei were isolated from monolayer cultures of mouse and human cells using a nonaqueous procedure of cell fractionation in which lyophilized cells were homogenized and centrifuged in 100% glycerol. In previous work we have shown that the nuclear pellet and cytoplasmic supernatant fraction contained 10% or less of the nucleic acids characteristic of the other cell fraction. Aqueous extracts made from fresh cultures and from nonaqueous material at each step of the fractionation procedure were assayed fro DNA polymerase activity. Activities were normalized to DNA contents of extracted material. Specific activity was preserved quantitatively through freezing and drying the cells, but was found to be unstable in glycerol suspensions with approximate half-lives and 1 h at 23 degrees and 4 h at 0-4 degrees. Activities were relatively stable at -25 degrees, however, so that by homogenizing only 15 min at 4 degrees and centrifuging at -25 degrees we preserved approximately 85% of the specific activity of fresh cultures in the nonaqueous nuclear fraction. Sedimentation analyses showed that the nuclear fraction contained both DNA polymerase-alpha and-beta in approximately the proportions expected if all polymerase activities were confined to the nucleus in living cells. DNA polymerase-alpha was found to be more unstable in glycerol suspensions than DNA polymerase-beta. Nuclear location of both activities was found in exponential cultures and in 3T3 mouse cultures synchronized in the G1 and S phases of the cell division cycle. We found no evidence for cytoplasmic factors affecting nuclear polymerase activities. We have concluded that the two major DNA polymerases are nuclear although one, DNA polymerase-alpha, frequently is present as a weakly bound nuclear protein.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (6/4968)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (7/4968)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (8/4968)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Stimulation of hepatocytes with vasopressin (10 nM) in the presence of 1.25 mM extracellular Ca2+ increased glycogen phosphorylase activity 4-fold within 15s and provoked a rapid efflux of cell-associated Ca2+. Vasopressin also caused a transient increase in the Ca content of a mitochondria-rich fraction separated within seconds of hormone stimulation by a rapid fractionation technique [Shears & Kirk (1984) Biochem. J. 219, 375-382]. The Ca content of this fraction was restored to the control value within 2 min of hormone addition. These results indicate that mitochondria are not the source of the cell-associated Ca which is mobilized in the cytosol of vasopressin-stimulated hepatocytes. Rather, these organelles buffer the increase in cytosol [Ca2+] attributable to Ca mobilization from non-mitochondrial sources. ...
These intriguing results compelled us to develop a wide range of analytical tools to better study the intricacies of cellular biosynthetic machinery. We have perfected non-aqueous subcellular fractionation techniques in order to separate chloroplasts and vacuoles from cytosol. We are operating a metabolite profiling system, using GC-MS, which allows us to distinguish among large numbers of metabolites within each of these samples (subcellular fractions or tissue samples). In excess of 300 compounds can be profiled in this way , 100 of these compounds having known chemical structures. A further experimental development that we are exploring is the use of chemically-inducible promoters to drive transgene expression in a controlled manner in order to study perturbations of metabolism on a temporal basis. In recent years we have additionally established an RT-PCR platform for tomato transcription factors and sensitive methods for following the metabolism of stable isotope labeled substrate and an ...
Hi Peter Which cell type do you wish to stain? Neurons or glia? Julia >I am looking for an antibody against a plasma membrane >marker protein for > >IHC (brainstem slices). _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Beanwise Tasting Emporium offers an assortment of premium Equipment and other selections of coffee beans and coffee pods. Shop for Cilio Perfetto French Press.
In keeping with the theme of Kyles hilarious post, Ill throw in my own two cents. A couple of weeks ago some friends from the lab next door went to a Starbucks coffee tasting. It was one of the windiest, rainiest, nastiest nights in a while, so they apparently were the only ones there. By the way, the "Christmas Blend" is the same as the "Holiday Blend", in case you were wondering. Yes, the Starbucks people used a French press. The only nagging question I have is whether there is some cutesy urban legend about the connection between the coffee French press and the French press biologists use to gently crack open cells. Usually, when you want to recover a protein that you have manufactured in lab bacteria, you want a gentle method that wont damage your protein. You may also want to get at intact organelles, or something. In my very minimal protein purification experience, we would rapidly freeze, then thaw cells for a few cycles. For the proteomics I currently do, I use a Dounce homogenizer ...
3IGMM-CNRS, Montpellier, France. There is increasing evidence that mRNAs can be found localised in different regions of the cytoplasm. Such mRNA localisation occurs in a variety of cells from yeast to mammals, as does the association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton. Both association of mRNAs with the cytoskeleton and mRNA localisation depend in the majority of cases on signals within the 3 untranslated sequences (3UTRs) of the mRNAs. Using cell fractionation techniques the mRNAs encoding c-myc, c-fos, ribosomal proteins L1 and S6, cyclin A and metallothionein (MT1) have been found associated with the cytoskeleton. These mRNAs all code for proteins which under all or some circumstances are imported into the nucleus after synthesis; e.g. MYC and FOS are transcription factors and MT1 can be found in the nucleus during. S-phase of the cell cycle. In situ hybridisation shows that c-myc and MT1mRNAs are localised around the nucleus. In addition analysis of mammalian cell lines expressing chimaeric ...
Then, the report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers analysis is also carried out. Whats more, the Cell Fractionation industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
May want to e-mail the group if you need exclusive access to the french press and will be using it at a peak use time. Also make sure there are enough parts, especially the white plastic balls and the donut & cylinder shaped o-rings. Always use one donut-shaped & one cylindrical o-ring ...
I am trying to carry out the fractionation of cardiac tissue.I am specifically looking to isolate mitochondria, myofibril and nuclei. Anyone got any ideas ...
There are for example some growth factors which have a signal sequence targeting the protein in mammalian cells to endosomes with a specific protease to cleave that pepide in acidic enviroment. because of the lack of the acidic enviroment and the protease, the growth factors are insoluble in Ecoli, but when you express them without the peptide, they are soluble. The signal peptide in this case is anyhow not needed in Ecoli. You might consider this also.. ...
The distribution of [3H]leukotriene D4 [( 3H]LTD4) receptors in subcellular membrane fractions obtained from sheep tracheal smooth muscle was studied. Using differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, the subcellular membranes were separated into six fractions. The [3H]LTD4 receptor distribution profile in these fractions correlated with markers for the plasma membrane (5-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase) and did not correlate with markers for the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and succinate-dependent cytochrome c reductase). The dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the crude mixture of membranes (PII) were 0.38 +/- 0.2 nM and 77 +/- 14 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Kd and Bmax of [3H]LTD4 binding to the receptors in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction (FII) were 0.40 +/- 0.2 nM and 268 +/- 46 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The specificity profile of ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
A French Press offers a simpler, more natural way to make coffee than your average coffee maker. Place your coffee grounds (or tea leaves) in the bottom of the press, add hot water, allow to steep for three minutes, then press the plunger to the bottom of the glass. This will separate the grounds from the water and end the brewing process. This is the same press as the one listed above, only it makes six cups of coffee. It works well for small dinner parties or for those who like more than one cup at a time. ...
In order to study the release of ATP from a neuronal preparation thought to be "purinergic," isolated varicosities were prepared from myenteric plexus by mincing and homogenizing the longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum in 0.32 M sucrose. The presence of varicosities within the crude preparation (P2), isolated by differential centrifugation, was confirmed by electron microscopy and by the presence of occluded lactate dehydrogenase as a cytoplasmic marker. Varicosities were purified further from the P2 fraction on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and characterized morphologically. Varicosities resembling cholinergic, "purinergic," and adrenergic axonal terminals were identified. The release of ATP from both crude and purified varicosities was detected by monitoring the light produced when the released ATP reacted with firefly luciferin-luciferase which was present in the incubation medium. Elevated extracellular K+ or Rb+ caused the release of ATP, whereas elevated Na+ and Li+ did not. ...
Learn the secrets of making good coffee with a French press pot. THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is an online gourmet food magazine and website with 1000+ reviews of gourmet food and beverages, including coffee. Sign up for the Top Pick Of The Week to get a product recommendation and recipe emailed to you.
Albumin is one of the most extensively used proteins in biological research today. It acts as a powerful antioxidant in cell culture. It binds, sequesters and stabilizes a variety of molecular species which are often unstable. This acidic, soluble protein has both high-affinity and secondary binding sites, optimizing the roles that fatty acids, metals, disulfides, and other molecules play in cellular metabolism. Seralab BSA products are prepared by heat shock with the exception of GEM-700-108 which is produced by a modified method of the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation method. Heat shock produces the highest purity BSA product Cohn fractionation method remains the gold standard - this method preserves the biological activity of albumin. Ready-to-buy solutions offer the convenience of not having to solubilise BSA in - house. Available in 20g, 100g and 1kg quantities (lyophilised); or 50mL, 100mL and 1L volumes (solution). Sourced serum or plasma is filtered through a 0.2 μm filter before
Microreactors have gained increasing attention in their application toward continuous micro flow synthesis. An unsolved problem of continuous flow synthesis is the lack of techniques for continuous...
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We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, September 13, 2017 ) The market is projected to grow at a substantial pace in the forecasting period and in the future years to follow because of the developments in biotechnology sector in past few years. Cell fractionation, or Cell Lysis, is the technique to separate cellular...
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В месте субклеточных фракционирования клеток млекопитающих на микроскопе покровные позволяет визуализировать белки...
Part of a whole; part of a set; equivalent fractions; comparing; ordering; lowest terms; renaming improper fractions and mixed numbers; Adding and subtracting like and unlike fractions; adding and subtracting mixed numbers with like and unlike fractions; Multiplying a whole number times a fraction and a fraction times a whole number; multiplying a fraction times a fraction; multiplying a whole number times a mixed number; multiplying a mixed number times a mixed number; Dividing a whole number by a fraction; dividing a fraction by a fraction; reciprocals. ...
A method for the isolation of brush-border membranes from newborn-rat kidney, employing centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis, is described. The composition and purity of the preparation was assessed by determination of enzyme activities specific for various cellular membranes. Free-flow electrophoresis resolves the newborn-rat renal membrane suspension into two populations of alkaline phosphatase-enriched brush-border membranes, designated A and B, with the A peak also showing activity of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, the basolateral membrane marker enzyme, whereas those of the B peak were enriched 11-fold in alkaline phosphatase and substantially decreased in (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Membranes in the A peak showed a 7-fold enrichment of alkaline phosphatase, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the original homogenate. Proline uptake employed to assess osmotic dependency revealed 7% binding of proline to the B vesicles and 31% to the A vesicles. ...
A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was used to separate membrane fractions from a homogenate of maize root tips. Endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi apparatus-, plasma membrane- and mitochondria-rich fractions were identified by their enzymic characteristics and by their appearance under the electron microscope. Maize roots were incubated in vivo with D-[U-14C]glucose, [Me-14C]choline chloride and diazotized [U-3H]sulphanilic acid. The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity into the various membrane fractions was investigated. Analyses of the polypeptide chains of the membrane fractions by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the mitochondria-rich fraction had a different pattern of polypeptides from that of the other membrane fractions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis of endomembrane flow and differentiation. ...
The metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in homogenates and sub-fractions from normal rat liver and premalignant liver nodules was investigated. The activities of 5-phosphatase, expressed as pmol converted substrate per minute and mg protein, were equal when using the two substrates, and did not differ between normal and nodular homogenates. Subcellular fractions were purified by sequential steps of differential centrifugation and density gradient fractionation procedures. The total phosphatase activity was found to be distributed between cytosol (15%) and membraneous fractions (75%), with most of the enzyme activity residing in the plasma membranes. A doubling of phosphatase specific activity was seen in the nodular low density membrane fraction, containing Golgi apparatus and endosomes, as compared with normal liver. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity was found to be exclusively cytosolic. No difference in this enzyme was seen between ...
Purification of mitochondria and mitochondrial subfractionation. Mitochondria were purified from brain tissue using the discontinuous sucrose gradient method. Briefly, brain homogenate was made in ice-cold homo-buffer (0.32 M sucrose, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 900 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The supernatant was transferred to another clean tube and spun at 10,000 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The resultant pellet, enriched for mitochondria, was resuspended in 2 ml homo-buffer, loaded on top of a sucrose gradient (1.2 M, 0.8 M, and 0.32 M sucrose; 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 53,000 g, 4°C, for 2 hours. The white band at the interface between medium (0.8 M) and heavy (1.2 M) solutions was collected as highly purified mitochondria. Mitochondria from cultured cells were isolated using a kit (catalog no. 89874) from Pierce. Mitochondrial subfractionation was carried out as described by Hovius et al. (40). Briefly, purified mitochondria (1 mg) were resuspended in 500 μl ice-cold buffer (10 ...
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated from human gliomas and brain white matter. These membrane fractions were characterized by electron microscopy and by the distribution of the membrane...
POULARD, Fabien; HERNANDEZ, Nicolás y DAILLE, Béatrice. Detecting Derivatives using Specific and Invariant Descriptors. Polibits [online]. 2011, n.43, pp.7-13. ISSN 1870-9044.. This paper explores the detection of derivation links between texts (otherwise called plagiarism, near-duplication, revision, etc.) at the document level. We evaluate the use of textual elements implementing the ideas of specificity and invariance as well as their combination to characterize derivatives. We built a French press corpus based on Wikinews revisions to run this evaluation. We obtain performances similar to the state of the art method (n-grams overlap) while reducing the signature size and so, the processing costs. In order to ensure the verifiability and the reproducibility of our results we make our code as well as our corpus available to the community.. Palabras clave : Textual derivatives; detection of derivations; near-duplicates; revisions; linguistic descriptors; French corpus. ...
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Product Type Make-up Base French press Brand Korea Model Number 103719072 Manufacturer 제조자:상세페이지참조 / 제조판매업자:상세페이지참조 Info. DETAILED IMAGES…
The aerolatte stainless steel microfilter is acid etched with super fine 0.2mm holes for maximum flavour. Since there is only one level of filter, the end result is a smooth coffee but with body; somewhere between our paper filters and our cafetieres or French presses.. ...
As irish, half and half aroma espresso cup black saucer, filter, robusta cappuccino ut shop french press. Galão, caffeine, black, so, single origin viennese var
coffee machines - The Ora French Press is a set of luxury coffee machines designed to brew the beans without letting air enter the glass chamber and disturb the arom...
What are the benefits and drawbacks to making coffee using the pourover method, especially, but not limited to, using a French press? How might some of th...
Caltag Medsystems supply whole cell extraction, nuclear extract, cell fractions and lysates from multiple species including human, mouse, rat, monkey, dog, whole cell extraction, nuclear extract.
Fig 1. Principle of free-flow electrophoresis. The miniaturization of FFE implies several advantages especially considering sample volume and separation speed. In contrast to the tens of milliliters of sample consumed by conventional large scale FFE devices, microfluidic FFE systems require only tens of nanoliters up to hundreds of microliters of sample. This is especially interesting in clinical analysis where often only low sample volumes are available. Furthermore, instead of residence times of up to tens of minutes, microfluidic FFE (µ-FFE) devices separate within several seconds. The aim of this project is to develop a microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis device (as shown in figure 2 and 3) which eventually might find application in so called proteomics-on-a-chip systems for proteome analysis.. ...
Engineered nanomaterials are subject of intense research since several years - nanoanalytical tools are mainly based on fractionation techniques such as FFF, HDC and CE coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Nowadays imaging techniques gain importance in life-science, e.g. for the application of nanomaterials or the analysis of single-cells.. Thus, the 7th Workshop on Field Flow Fractionation and Mass Spectrometry (FFF-MS) will focus on the application of nanomaterials in life science and environmental technology and the applicability of nanoanalytical tools in these fields.. A special focus will be placed on the complementary analysis of nanomaterials in life science application as well as during their synthesis. Special topics are. ...
Histochemical studies and electron microscopy of Bacillus subtilis revealed the presence of ATPase in various subcellular fractions. The enzyme was preferentially localized in mesosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space, and cell wall ...
We are studying the cellular expression of an enzyme which can exist both in the Golgi and at the level of the cell membrane. In vivo, subcellular fractionation is relatively straightforward using a differential gradient system. However, I have not come accross a parallel method for separating the plasma membranes and Golgi fractions from a cultured cell monolayer. This is a particular problem when the small amount of starting material is taken into consideration. Has anybody elso come accross this problem, or how it may be addressed? Kieran Breen Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, U.K. k.c.breen at dundee.ac.uk ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: During cultivation, the internal phosphorus cycle of Mollisols (Chernozems) of the CanadianPrairies is perturbed by crop sequences including wheat phases, tillage practices, and regularapplications of fertilizers. To monitor these changes, a proximate sequential phosphorus (P)fractionation procedure was developed by Hedley et al. (1982) to extract inorganic and organic Pfractions as very labile (resin-P), labile (NaHCO3-P), slowly available (NaOH-P), and very slowlyavailable (HCl-P) pools. Models used so far to monitor P pools do not address the interactivebehaviour of P fractions constrained to a closed compositional space. Compositional data analysisusing isometric log ratio (ilr) coordinates is appropriate for modelling the interactive P pools usingsequential binary partitions of P pools. Our objective was to model changes of P pools in Mollisolsin response to management and time using ilr coordinates. We used a dataset with treatments andanother where a
Instead of making a brewed cup of coffee, I use the double shot of espresso to make a "concentrated Americano"... to do this, I only add 1 inch of boiling water from my teapot to the mug after adding the double espresso to the mug. In a normal Americano that you get at most coffee shops, much greater amounts of hot water are added to the cup, which dilutes the espresso too much in my opinion. I know some people love to make brewed coffee from a drip maker or a French press or some other method, but from what Ive seen, my version of the "concentrated Americano" using the espresso as the base seems to get the best taste votes from everybody thats taste-tested with me ...
Fresh Roasted Coffee Grinding & Brewing, top quality coffee products you need! French presses, coffee makers, mugs and kitchen tools galore.
Make a delicious yet simple Chamomile Tea Latte at home and learn the secret to getting the perfect latte froth using just a French press.
Here we describe a method capable of identifying interactions between candidate trafficking proteins and a defined vesicle population in intact cells
... - Isolation of cells, cell organelles, subcellular membranes, viruses and macromolecules using centrifugation techniques
For fractionation we use a Qiagen kit, but somehow I have a feeling that it must be technical problem of correct separation of cellular fractions. We suspect also that the protein can be attached to nuclear envelope and nuclear location can be linked to the developmental stage of the cells ...
FIG. 6. Transcription and translation of ATF3 mRNA is not dependent on Perk activity during hypoxia. (A) ATF3 total mRNA expression is induced by hypoxic stress. Total RNA was isolated prior to sucrose gradient fractionation from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells, reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The quantities of each transcript are described as the number of transcripts isolated per microgram of total RNA. Each sample was independently normalized to a spiked internal control. Q-PCR analysis was replicated in triplicate. Results are representative of the averages ± SEM for three independent experiments. (B) ATF3 transcripts are enriched in the polysomes of Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells during hypoxia. High-molecular-weight polysomes from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells were pooled (fractions 6 to 10), reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The ...
There has been an impressive emergence of mass spectrometry based technologies applied toward the study of proteins. Equally notable is the rapid adaptation of these technologies to biomedical approaches in the realm of clinical proteomics. Concerted efforts toward the elucidation of the proteomes of organ sites or specific disease state are proliferating and from these efforts come the promise of better diagnostics/prognostics and therapeutic intervention. Prostate cancer has been a focus of many such studies with the promise of improved care to patients via biomarkers derived from these proteomic approaches. The newer technologies provide higher analytical capabilities, employ automated liquid handling systems, fractionation techniques and bioinformatics tools for greater sensitivity and resolving power, more robust and higher throughput sample processing, and greater confidence in analytical results. In this prospects, we summarize the proteomic technologies applied to date in prostate ...
Novel compounds are produced by the fermentation of a nutrient medium with the previously undescribed microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis. They may be isolated by solvent extraction and chromatographic fractionation techniques. The compounds, which are described generically as C-076 have significant parasiticidal activity. The compounds may be included in compositions for the oral or parenteral administration to animals for the prevention and cure of parasitic infections.
The rubidium fractionation technique has been used to make comparative measurements of functional perfusion rates in the gastrointestinal tract of relatively undisturbed but fasted and anesthetized rats. The duodenum has the highest functional perfusion rate per unit mass of the entire digestive tract; the stomach is less than half as well perfused. The remainder of the tract to the rectosigmoid shows a progressive decrease. The small intestine shows a progressive increase in functional flow per unit mass from the pylorus to the ligament of Treitz and then a progressive decrease, most marked in the jejunum to the ileocecal valve. Blood flow values to other structures of the gastrointestinal tract are also given.. ...
Castilla, C.; Paris, H.; Murat, J.C., 1979: Evidence of a similar distribution of neutral alpha glucosidase ec 3.2.1.3 and glucose 6 phosphatase in sub cellular fractions of rat and trout liver
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
For the preparation of synaptosomes, striatal tissue from adult mice (20-30 gm) was dissected and then homogenized in 4 ml of 0.32 m sucrose and 1 mm EDTA in an "AA" Wheaton glass-Teflon homogenizer (Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, NJ). The supernatant fraction remaining after low-speed centrifugation (1500 × g, 7 min) was divided into two equal portions and applied to two identical discontinuous Percoll (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ) gradients, which were centrifuged at 50,000 × g for 5 min (Dunkley et al., 1986). The material that migrated to the 10/15 and 15/23% Percoll boundaries was collected and washed in basal buffer (in mm: 145 NaCl, 2.7 KCl, 1.0 MgCl2, 10 glucose, and 10 HEPES-Tris, pH 7.4) by two 7 min centrifugation steps at 12,000 × g. The final pellet was resuspended in basal buffer and stored on ice until use.. In a typical experiment, a 40 μl portion of the synaptosomal suspension containing ∼ 50 μg of protein was combined with 10 μl of [3H] dopamine (28.0 Ci/mmol; ...
Day, E D.; Mickey, D D.; Rigsbee, L C.; and Meier, H, "Zonal centrifugation and flotation-fractionation of msd mutant mouse brain." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 1757 ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository DUGiDocs: During cultivation, the internal phosphorus cycle of Mollisols (Chernozems) of the Canadian Prairies is perturbed by crop sequences including wheat phases, tillage practices, and regular applications of fertilizers. To monitor these changes, a proximate sequential phosphorus (P) fractionation procedure was developed by Hedley et al. (1982) to extract inorganic and organic P fractions as very labile (resin-P), labile (NaHCO3-P), slowly available (NaOH-P), and very slowly available (HCl-P) pools. Models used so far to monitor P pools do not address the interactive behaviour of P fractions constrained to a closed compositional space. Compositional data analysis using isometric log ratio (ilr) coordinates is appropriate for modelling the interactive P pools using sequential binary partitions of P pools. Our objective was to model changes of P pools in Mollisols in response to management and time using ilr coordinates. We used a dataset with treatments and another
This period, between 1961 and 1962, is often referred to as the coding race because of the competition between Ochoas and Nirenbergs labs. Indeed, the two laboratories completed the base composition part of the code almost simultaneously. However, Ochoas laboratory stopped working on the problem when they realized how close Nirenberg and his colleagues were to completing the sequencing.. Several scientific instruments proved necessary in the long years from 1961-1965 while dozens of people toiled in Nirenbergs lab. The French press and the multi-plater were only two examples of instruments that helped save time and solve problems. In the years when the laboratory was devoted to sequencing the bases in each codon, these instruments were of vital importance to getting the work done. The innovation of scientists and laboratory technicians who worked with Nirenberg helped a great deal.. By 1965, Nirenberg, with help from his NIH colleagues, had become the first to complete the sequencing of the ...
Ive fractionated some brain tissue using a kit from invitrogen which involves using different buffers and centrifugation speeds on the brain homogenate to fractionate the samples into a nuclear, cytosolic, cytoskeletal and membrane fraction. I confirmed fractionation had worked by running the fractions on a gel and western blotting for cytochrome C (membrane) NeuN (nuclear marker specific for neurons)and neurofilaments (cytoskeletal fraction). These gave the expected results - but when I blotted for my protein of interest - which by microscopy is both nuclear and cytoplasmic - it appeared in every fraction except the nuclear fraction ...
Worksheets. Improper Fraction To Mixed Number Worksheet. Convert improper fraction converting fractions to mixed 2. Converting mixed fractions to improper a. Convert improper fraction mixed fractions to 2. Printable fraction worksheets convert mixed numbers to improper fractions 2 gif pixels primary maths pinterest. Printable fraction worksheets convert mixed numbers to improper fractions 2 gif pixels primary maths pinterest. The dell primary school home learning blog year 5 httpsmathcrush comfractionsws improper to mixed 2 pv gif. Convert improper fraction converting fractions to mixed 2. Reducing improper fractions to lowest terms a. Converting between improper fractions and mixed numbers. Simplify improper fractions to lowest terms harder version a. Free printable fraction worksheets riddles harder improper fractions worksheet 5b answers. Worksheets for fraction addition add a and mixed number. Comparing improper fractions to 12ths a. Worksheets for fraction multiplication multiply. Tazewellmath
Sigma-Aldrichs Cell Signaling & Neuroscience Assays kit platforms are described on this page: Cell Fractionation, Dot Blot,EIA, ELISA, Enzymatic, Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence, Histochemical, Immunoprecipitation and Radioactive,
Three surface-active fractions which differ in their morphology have been isolated from rat lung homogenates by ultracentrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. In order of increasing density, the fractions consisted, as shown by electron microscopy, primarily of common myelin figures, lamellar bodies, and tubular myelin figures. The lipid of all three fractions contained approximately 94% polar lipids and 2% cholesterol. In the case of the common myelin figures and the lamellar bodies, the polar lipids consisted of 73% phosphatidylcholines, 9% phosphatidylserines and inositols, and 8% phosphatidylethanolamines. In the case of the tubular myelin figures, the respective percentages were 58, 19, and 5. Over 90% of the fatty acids of the lecithins of all three fractions were saturated. Electrophoresis of the proteins of the fractions in sodium dodecyl sulfate or Triton X-100 revealed that the lamellar bodies and the tubular myelin figures differed in the mobilities of their ...
Snow Peaks Titanium French Press is the perfect way to enjoy great coffee while camping or backpacking without adding weight to your pack. SKU CS-111 Material Titanium, Stainless Steel, Plastic Weight 6.3 oz (200g) Dimensions D 3.2 H 5.5 (82*140mm) Contents Include Pot, Lid, Carry Bag, Plunger Capacity 24 fl oz Made
Developmental and global regulation of mRNA translation plays a major role in regulating gene expression in mammalian spermatogenic cells. Sucrose gradients are widely used to analyze mRNA translation. Unfortunately, the information from sucrose gradient experiments is often compromised by the absence of quantification and absorbance tracings, and confusion about the basic properties of sucrose gradients. The Additional Materials contain detailed protocols for the preparation and analysis of sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, obtaining absorbance tracings of sucrose gradients, aligning tracings and fractions, and extraction of equal proportions of RNA from all fractions. The techniques described here have produced consistent measurements despite changes in personnel and minor variations in RNA extraction, gradient analysis, and mRNA quantification, and describes for the first time potential problems in using gradients to analyze mRNA translation in purified spermatogenic cells. Accurate quantification of
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide ...
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide ...
Lab-on-a-chip devices As lab-on-a-chip devices get ever more sophisticated and are linked together into ever more complex systems able to perform ever more functions, there is an increasing need to switch between different solvents. For example, synthesizing a drug in a series of microreactors might need different solvents at different stages in...
There are various subcellular fractions and they include homogenate, s9, microsomes and cytosol. These products are valuable tools in drug discovery for studying the metabolism of your compounds. Human Subcellular Products InVitroCYP™ 150-Donor Human Liver Microsomes InVitroCYP™ H-Class Human Liver Microsomes InVitroCYP™ M-Class Human Liver Microsomes Human Microsomes - Other Tissues Human Liver S9
Liposomes are currently being investigated as potential parenterally used drug carriers. The main factor that influences the in vivo behavior of such liposomes is their vesicle size. A detailed and reliable knowledge of vesicle size is therefore necessary in order to interpret results of physical and biological investigations in a correct manner. It has earlier been discovered that it is feasible to determine the size distribution of vesicle dispersions in a reliable manner and it appears especially useful to employ the combination of SEC fractionation, PCS and the enzymatic PC quantitation. A drawback discovered was for certain liposome dispersions that in some of the dispersions SEC fractionation showed incomplete recovery of the vesicles. This indicated a demand for a different fractionation method which does not have the limitations that the SEC method described above has. To this end flow field-flow fractionation was chosen. In a previous study the influence of some key factors such as ...
For this weeks malt, Ive picked the Special X from Best Malz. Best is a German maltster with a pretty wide array of varieties. But the Special X caught my eye initially because I thought it might be a good alternative to Special B. Their web site says that it contributes "an intense malty-sweet flavor reminiscent of raisins or dried fruit.". Special B, right? Not really. I havent had the chance to brew with this malt yet, so I did the next best think I could think of. Our head brewer Wes keeps a French press at the store for tea so I loaded into it a few oz of the Special X with a bit to 2-row base malt, steeped it around 150 degrees for a while, then we all tasted it!. A couple of the staff said they got raisins and dried fruit, but it was a very faint underlying character. Most of us picked up on intense toast flavors similar to Biscuit or Aromatic malt, but definitely much stronger. Finally, we all commented on the color. This malt comes in at 115-150 L, and it really shows. This small ...
Commercial coffee lacks the body and depth of freshly ground and after that there was no looking back for the family. Designer French presses are often quite expensive due to their brand 2 diabetes, his or her brain does not optimally utilize glucose, which can lead to neurocognitive problems. With these decaf coffee negative effects, I hope you are convinced does not permit the coffee grounds to seep through. Soft water is passed through columns of heated 285 to 355°F, 140 to 180°C is used for a cup of coffee that is brewed in Arabian style.. Fighting Gout This is one painful condition. .... ...
Whether youre making a pot of specialty tea or brewing coffee in a French press, this kettle heats the water to the precise temperature for extracting full flavor. • Base unit features a state-of-the-art electronic heating system with settings …
Whether youre making a pot of specialty tea or brewing coffee in a French press, this kettle heats the water to the precise temperature for extracting full flavor. • Base unit features a state-of-the-art electronic heating system with settings …
He wakes up around 8 am and immediately writes down his dreams. As KG has been on Paxil for several years, his dreams tend to be vivid and memorable, and he often uses them for inspiration for his work. Afterwards he fixes some coffee. Its good coffee, Turkish, the best KG can get, but he only ever makes one French press worth. He does this because if he drinks more than this he becomes jittery and nervous for the rest of the day due to the medication he takes to control his anxiety and depression. He smokes one cigarette at this time. He will then spend up to an hour and a half online at the anxiety and depression boards he is a member of, conversing electronically to an extent with the acquaintances he has made there. He also checks the music review sites, specifically the ones centering on ambient music, to see what notice, if any, has been paid to his latest CD. He also looks to see what notice is being paid to his contemporaries music and notes what he may need to listen to.. ...
Plasma membrane(PM) protein accounts for a small fraction of total cellular protein in plants but performs a very critical role in plant physiology. Isolation and purification of PM protein from plant tissues have been traditionally done by sucrose density ultracentrifugation and aqueous two-phase partitioning. These methods, while relatively effective, require ultracentrifugation and large amount of starting material. The procedures are usually tedious and time consuming.To overcome the shortcomings, we have developed this PM isolation kit. Plant tissues are first sensitized by buffer A, homogenized, and pass through a specialized filter cartridge that allows homogenates to pass through with a zigzag path. The cell membranes are ruptured into a range of predefined size during the process. Native plasma membranes are separated from a mixture of un-ruptured cells, nuclei, cytosol and organelles by subsequent differential centrifugation and density centrifugation without using ...
... : Designed for use in sucrose density gradient centrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, and li
Quantification of XEG released XyG oligos by HPAEC-PAD from various cell wall fractions as outlined in Figure S2. a Buffer-soluble XyG oligos. b XyG composition
[123 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Europe Plasma Fractionation Market - Analysis and Outlook to 2022 report by QYResearch Group. This report presents a comprehensive overview of the Plasma Fractionation...
The present invention relates to methods of enriching for desired cell population from cell sources, such as body fluids, dispersed tissue specimens and cultured cells. In particular, the present inve
, MCF 7 (Normal) tissue lysate, Membrane Fraction, GTX27629, Applications: ELISA, IP, WB; ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
Free GRE Subject Test: Biology flashcards - Other Organelles - Understanding Lysosomes and Peroxisomes. Work through hundreds of free flashcards and see your gr
Our Microfluidizer cell disruption equipment allow for effective, efficient cell lysis in laboratory and production applications. Learn more -- request details.
The intracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase has been determined in human neutrophils with analytical subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation and EM cytochemistry. Centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 1 mM DETA and 5 units/ml of heparin showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with a membranous component distinct from plasma membrane, mitochondria, specific granules and azurophil granules. There was no resolution from the endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation on a sucrose-imidazole-heparin gradient showed a clear resolution of the alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation of neutrophils that had been disrupted in the presenceof 0.12 mmol/l. digitonin clearly separated alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Part of the gamma-glutamyl transferase has a similar localization to that of alkaline phosphatase. EM cytochemistry of ...
The chemokinetic inhibitory factor (CIF) is a recently described B-cell derived lymphokine that mediates a chemokinetic inhibitory effect on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration. In the present report the interaction of CIF with the neutrophil plasma membrane was studied. Normal human peripheral blood neutrophils and purified neutrophil plasma membranes selectively removed biologic activity from CIF-containing concentrates obtained during the purification procedure from conditioned medium. Removal was obtained at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, HL-60 cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide removed CIF activity (granulocyte-like cells) but HL-60 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (macrophage-like cells) did not. Purified human blood monocytes, cells from the macrophage-like U-937 cell line and cells from the basophilic leukemia cell line KU-812 did not remove CIF. These studies suggest that neutrophils express specific binding sites for ...
A 58-kD cis-Golgi protein has been identified by generating polyclonal antibodies against heavy (cis) Golgi subfractions. Total microsomes isolated from rat pancreatic homogenates were subfractionated to yield a rough microsomal fraction (B1) and three smooth membrane subfractions (B2-B4) enriched in cis-, middle, and trans-Golgi elements, respectively. The heavy (cis) subfraction, B2 (d = 1.17 g/ml), was fractionated by Triton X-114 phase separation, and the proteins recovered in the detergent phase were used to immunize rabbits. One of the anti-B2 antibodies obtained gave a "Golgi"-staining pattern when screened by immunofluorescence on normal rat kidney cells and mouse RPC 5.4 myeloma cells. In rat pancreatic exocrine cells the antibody reacted with the plasmalemma as well as elements in the Golgi region. By immunoelectron microscopy, the antigen recognized by anti-B2 IgG was found to be restricted to cis-Golgi elements in myeloma cells where it was concentrated in the fenestrated cis-most ...
The exposure of Nigerians to House Hold Kerosene (HHK) is on the increase following carelessness from handling the product and proliferation of sales outlet. Against this backdrop, hepatotoxicity of HHK on liver enzyme markers and its effect on hematological and oxidative stress parameters on wistar albino rats were investigated. Preliminary toxicity study to determine the volume of HHK that could cause toxicity was carried out using 30 healthy albino rats. Another set of 20 albino rats were grouped into two groups and used for the biochemical analysis: Group I animals were the control group and Group II animals were administered with 1ml/kg body weight of HHK. The results of this study shows that HGB, RBC and HCT values were significantly reduced (P,0.05) in the group administered with kerosene compared to the healthy group. WBC, lymphocyte# count, MCV and MCH values were significantly increased (P,0.05) in the treated group compared to the control group. All the liver enzyme markers: AST, ALT, ...
Cytochrome P-450 in rat liver nuclear membranes of untreated, PB-pretreated, or 3-MC-pretreated animals was spectrally similar to corresponding liver microsomes. Epoxide hydrase activity of liver nuclear membrane and microsomes was induced by PB administration; 3-MC did not cause any induction. The same results were obtained when either the DNase digestion method or sucrose density centrifugation technique for preparation of nuclear membranes was used.. ...
Developing blood-based tests is appealing for non-invasive disease diagnosis, especially when biopsy is difficult, costly, and sometimes not even an option. Tumor-derived exosomes have attracted increasing interest in non-invasive cancer diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response. However, the biology and clinical value of exosomes remains largely unknown due in part to current technical challenges in rapid isolation, molecular classification and comprehensive analysis of exosomes. Here we developed a new microfluidic approach to streamline and expedite the exosome analysis pipeline by integrating specific immunoisolation and targeted protein analysis of circulating exosomes. Compared to the conventional methods, our approach enables selective subpopulation isolation and quantitative detection of surface and intravesicular biomarkers directly from a minimally invasive amount of plasma samples (30 μL) within ~100 min with markedly improved detection sensitivity. Using this device, we ...
The amount of caffeine in your coffee depends on many factors. You cant control growing conditions, but you can raise - or lower - the caffeine in your cup with these tips. (They also affect flavor, so choose wisely.). Longer Brewing Delivers More Caffeine: The longer hot water is in contact with coffee, the more caffeine it extracts. A French press steeps grounds for 4-6 minutes; with drip coffee, water drips through in about 3 minutes.. Robustas Are Twice as Caffeinated as Arabicas: Coffee experts prefer Arabica beans because of their smooth taste. The Robusta variety is harsher, stronger in flavor, and usually less pricey; its often mixed into blends to boost impact or lower the price, but good quality espresso blends include robusta for its lovely crema (foam).. Lighter Roasts Retain More Caffeine: Roasting destroys some caffeine content. Longer, darker roasts actually contain less caffeine than light or "blonde" roasts. Espresso is made with dark roasted beans, giving it less caffeine ...
The future availability of this remarkable species is uncertain. Since it may not be commercially available in the future it is a good idea to grow your own. We typically ship plants within 2 weeks.. The backlit LCD display helps make the numbers easy to read. Kratom Drugs Forum Central the protective cover is magnetically attached and doubles as a weighing tray. The smooth stainless steel weighing surface is durable and easy to clean. Buttons allow you to tare the scale switch weighing modes and turn power on or off. This kratom tea french press is the long-awaited English language version of Dr.. Almost nothing at all. So yes do not worry. Hand him the package saying its ok and then APOLOGIZE to him for opening HIS mail without HIS permission. My parents never snooped on my mail and I was ordering far worse as a kid. He could go to a health store and get it and completely avoid the possibility of a snoop of a mother looking in on him.. There are several kinds of kratora extract currently found ...
Looking for Centrifugation, isopycnic? Find out information about Centrifugation, isopycnic. A line on a chart connecting all points of equal or constant density. Of equal or constant density, with respect to either space or time Explanation of Centrifugation, isopycnic
Cancer cell nucleus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a deformed nucleus (yellow) in a cancer cell. Healthy nuclei have a smooth membrane, that is spherical or ovoid, whereas this nucleus has indentations in several places. The nucleus contains the cells genetic information. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus (brown), which is responsible for producing components of ribosomes, the cells protein-manufacturing organelles. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C019/9935
This technique allows for efficient, highly purified cytoplasmic and nuclear-associated compartment fractionation utilizing NP-40 detergent in mammalian cells. The nuclear membrane is not disturbed during the fractionation thus leaving all nuclear and perinuclear associated components in the nuclear fraction. This protocol has been modified from Sambrook and Russell (2001) in order to downscale the amount of cells needed. To determine the efficiency of fractionation, we recommend using qPCR to compare the subcellular compartments that have been purified with equivalent amount of control whole cell extracts.
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This unit presents detailed protocols for a range of centrifugation‐based subcellular fractionation procedures for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
Precipitin antigen was prepared from cultures infected with V-Z virus. Five separate antigens were identified. Reactions with radiolabeled antigen were detected by autoradiography. Partial purification of antigens could be accomplished in a discontinuous sucrose gradient, yet too little antigen was recovered from DEAE to make this a practicable purification method. Most of the antigenic activity was eluted from G-200 Sephadex. Antigens were identified by their degree of chemical stability. The α antigen was the only one which was stable at pH 3. The β antigen was destroyed by CsCl or DOC. DOC released the γ Δ, and ε antigens from the infectious viral particle.. ...
Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte-dependent mast cell proliferation»։ J. Biol. Chem. 257 (15): ... Fractionation of proteins by heparin chromatography։ Methods Mol Biol։ Methods in Molecular Biology™ 424։ 2008։ էջեր 213-21։ ... Cell. Biochem. 48 (3): 161-182։ PMID 6757715։ doi:10.1007/BF00421226 *↑ Cox M., Nelson D. (2004)։ Lehninger, Principles of ... Effects of heparin on polymerase chain reaction for blood white cells»։ J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 13 (3): 133-40։ 1999։ PMID 10323479 ...
"You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells" (PDF). Toshiba. Diakses tanggal 17 May 2009.. ... "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and ... "Battery Anodes , Batteries & Fuel Cells , Research , The Energy Materials Center at Cornell". Emc2.cornell.edu. Diakses tanggal ...
Fuel cell - Gasoline - Green chemistry - Hormonal contraception - Insulin - Nuclear fuel - Nuclear fusion - Nylon - Ozone - ... Fractionation - Reflux - Spectrometry - Sublimation - Titration - Standard addition - Isotope dilution. ...
Further fractionation of the extract can be achieved using solid phase extraction columns, and may lead to isolation of ... Browning associated with oxidation of phenolic compounds has also been given as the cause of cells death in calli formed in in ... In conifers (Pinophyta), phenolics are stored in polyphenolic parenchyma cells, a tissue abundant in the phloem of all conifers ... Carnachan, S. M.; Harris, P. J. (2000). "Ferulic acid is bound to the primary cell walls of all gymnosperm families". ...
The arc was powered by a battery of five Grove cells and a Ruhmkorff coil of medium size. The alkali absorbed the oxides of ... Argon is isolated from air by fractionation, most commonly by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that also produces ... Cryosurgery procedures such as cryoablation use liquid argon to destroy tissue such as cancer cells. It is used in a procedure ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... After size fractionation of FCS and analysis of the lipids that bound to serum albumin, the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
... also binds to the phospholipid layer of the cell membrane, anchoring proteins associated with the cell surface.[53] ... Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the ... in contraction of all muscle cell types; as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization.[5] Calcium ions outside cells are ... Russell, W. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Tombrello, T. A. (1978). "Ca isotope fractionation on the earth and other solar system ...
Calcium also binds to the phospholipid layer of the cell membrane, anchoring proteins associated with the cell surface.[53] ... Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the ... in contraction of all muscle cell types; as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization.[5] Calcium ions outside cells are ... Russell, W. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Tombrello, T. A. (1978). "Ca isotope fractionation on the earth and other solar system ...
Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... Abundance in cells. It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli ... The total complement of proteins present at a time in a cell or cell type is known as its proteome, and the study of such large ...
In a sponge filter, the inlet may only be covered by a simple open-cell block of foam. A corner filter is slightly more complex ... the most popular being the use of activated carbon and foam fractionation. To a certain extent, healthy plants extract ...
Cryopreservation of red blood cells is done to store rare units for up to ten years.[37] The cells are incubated in a glycerol ... A blood collection program was initiated in the US in 1940 and Edwin Cohn pioneered the process of blood fractionation. He ... Routine blood storage is 42 days or 6 weeks for stored packed red blood cells (also called "StRBC" or "pRBC"), by far the most ... With red cells, this can decrease viability and ability for tissue oxygenation.[23] Although some of the biochemical changes ...
ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where other cells such as white blood cells are of greater ... Posch, Anton (2008). 2D PAGE: Sample Preparation and Fractionation. Humana Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-58829-722-8. .. ... "Labeling Cultured Cells with32Piand Preparing Cell Lysates for Immunoprecipitation". Labeling Cultured Cells with 32Pi and ... "Detergents for Cell Lysis and Protein Extraction". www.thermofisher.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16.. ...
This is a graph showing the effect of fractionation on the ability of gamma rays to cause cell death. The blue line is for ... For many short term radiation deaths (3 days to 30 days) the loss of cells forming blood cells (bone marrow) and the cells in ... a dose/survival curve for a hypothetical group of cells has been drawn with and without a rest time for the cells to recover. ... The human body contains many types of cells[citation needed] and a human can be killed by the loss of a single tissue in a ...
... which separates the cells from the blood plasma in a process known as blood fractionation. Packed red blood cells, which are ... Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells,[1] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ... Red blood cells are cells present in blood in order to transport oxygen. The only known vertebrates without red blood cells are ...
The inner platinum ends (DD) of the wire receive a current from a battery of five Grove cells and a Ruhmkorff coil of medium ... Argon is isolated from air by fractionation, most commonly by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that also produces ... Cryosurgery procedures such as cryoablation use liquid argon to destroy tissue such as cancer cells. It is used in a procedure ...
... an can an aa be purifee'd bi cell fractionation. Thare are mony teeps o organelles, pairteecularly in eukaryotic cells. While ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialised subunit within a cell that haes a speceefic function, in that thair function is ... The name organelle comes frae the idea that thir structures are pairts o cells, as organs are tae the bouk, hence organelle, ... vital for the cell tae live. Individual organelles are uisually separately enclosed within thair awn lipid bilayers. ...
Lysozyme may be seen as a band cathodal to gamma in myelomonocytic leukaemia in which it is released from tumour cells. ... Chemistry/ "Evaluation of a cellulose-acetate electrophoresis system for serum protein fractionation" Check ,url=. value (help) ... Kaplan, A; Savory, J (1965). "Evaluation of a cellulose-acetate electrophoresis system for serum protein fractionation". ... haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are ...
Fractionation also allows tumor cells that were in a relatively radio-resistant phase of the cell cycle during one treatment to ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Schedules for fractionation. One fractionation schedule that is increasingly being used and continues to be studied is ...
Plant Cell Environ.' 19: 427-436. *^ Noblin, X.; Rojas, N. O.; Westbrook, J.; Llorens, C.; Argentina, M.; Dumais, J. (2012). " ... Cavitation plays a key role in non-thermal, non-invasive fractionation of tissue for treatment of a variety of diseases[15] and ... Larger plants direct solutes into the xylem via ray cells, or in tracheids, via osmosis through bordered pits. Solutes attract ... The opening phase is driven by water vaporization and by the resulting pressure decrease inside annulus cells (that is the ...
... as well as the fractionation history the rock has undergone.[20] Fractionation is in turn a function of the partition ... Ce, La and Nd are important in alloy making, and in the production of fuel cells and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Ce, Ga and ... Partition coefficients are responsible for the fractionation of a trace elements (including rare-earth elements) into the ... which causes preferential fractionation of some rare earths relative to others depending on the processes at work.[20] ...
Red cell transfusion[edit]. Main article: Packed red blood cells. Historically, red blood cell transfusion was considered when ... A blood collection program was initiated in the US in 1940 and Edwin Cohn pioneered the process of blood fractionation. He ... myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), natural killer cells (NKCs), and dendritic cells ... Instead, donor's T cells attack the recipient's cells. It occurs one week after transfusion.[28] Fever, rash, diarrhoea are ...
Stem cell genomics: Helps in stem cell biology. Aim is to establish stem cells as a leading model system for understanding ... various ChIP-seq and other sequencing methods combined with proteomic fractionations, and sequencing methods that find chemical ... "Omicum": Building of the Estonian Biocentre which houses the Estonian Genome Centre and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology ... Nucleomics: Study of the complete set of genomic components which form "the cell nucleus as a complex, dynamic biological ...
Biological processes preferentially take up the lower mass isotope through kinetic fractionation. In aqueous geochemistry, by ... "Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture" (SILAC). 13C-enriched compounds are used in medical diagnostic tests ...
PDF)You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells. Toshiba. Hentet 17. maj 2009.. ... "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and ... Battery Anodes , Batteries & Fuel Cells , Research , The Energy Materials Center at Cornell. Emc2.cornell.edu. Hentet 10. ...
A more recent method involved the use of live cells that are attached to a support membrane and are used for identification and ... are available in a variety of geometries and chemistry which allows them to be used for purification and also fractionation, ... It is an advancement of qualitative hull cell testing or less accurate UV testing. Ions, catalysts, brighteners and ... "Size-Based Chromatography of Signaling Clusters in a Living Cell Membrane". Nano Letters. 14 (5): 2293-2298. Bibcode:2014NanoL ...
In such a plasma donation procedure, blood is removed from the body, blood cells and plasma are separated, and the blood cells ... Most plasmapheresis is for fractionation into other products; other blood donations are transfused with relatively minor ... and the red blood cells are returned to the donor. Since returning red cells causes the body to replace plasma more rapidly, a ... There is no risk of receiving the wrong red cells.[10] The devices used are very similar to the devices used for therapeutic ...
Phytochemistry 61: 121-125 Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of ... Two new enzymes of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis from cell cultures of Coleus blumei: hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase and ... May 2007). "Rosmarinic acid inhibits indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in murine dendritic cells". Biochem. Pharmacol. 73 ...
Cell fractionation is done by homogenizer to release the organelles from cell. Whereas older technologies just focused on the ... Homogenization is a very common sample preparation step prior to the analysis of nucleic acids, proteins, cells, metabolism, ... There are often many different names for the same piece of mechanical homogenizing equipment, including Cell Lysor, Disperser, ...
... for the application of nanomaterials or the analysis of single-cells. ... Thus, the 7th Workshop on Field Flow Fractionation and Mass Spectrometry (FFF-MS) will focus on the application of ... nanoanalytical tools are mainly based on fractionation techniques such as FFF, HDC and CE coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Nowadays ...
... advances in the analysis of plasma proteins using a hyphenated system that couples asymmetric flow Field-Flow Fractionation ( ... Field Flow Fractionation Improves Characterization of Nanoformulated Medicines. *Determining the Physicochemical and ... Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is very similar to liquid chromatography, and has been successfully applied to ... In the application study, a Postnova AF2000 Multiflow Mid Temperature Field-Flow Fractionation system coupled with an Agilent ...
Online Miniaturized Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for ... metal ion cofactors 55 Mn 66 Zn asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation separation plasma mass spectrometry 63 Cu ... Here, we introduce an analytical platform based on online coupling of miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation ( ... Online Miniaturized Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for ...
Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P,.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 ... "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. ... Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. ... 7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in ...
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is another important check point expressed in the T cells that negatively regulate the ... conducted a series of clinical trials to examine the efficacy of radiation therapy and explore the appropriate fractionation ... It is commonly expressed in the regulatory T cells and upregulated in the activated conventional T cells, which is a notable ... Then, cytotoxic T cells can be primed to target the tumor cells at distant areas. ...
Fractionation & Depletion. *Tagged Protein Expression, Purification, Detection. *Exosomes & CTCs*Circulating Tumor Cells ...
The ability to generate functional liver cells expal propellant systems murcia infection makes EBD cells potentially useful for ... a gamma globulin prepared by ethanol fractionation, and an experimental IgG isolated by a chromatographic procedure were ... Programmed cell death (PCD) plays omeprazole magnesium tablets india an important role in normal and malignant hematopoieis. ... Function of pancreatic islet beta cells and features of TCM symptoms and syndromes in the non-diabetic first-grade relatives of ...
c) Subcellular localization of DRB2-FlagHA by cell fractionation and western blot. DRB2-FlagHA appears to be mainly nuclear. ...
The cells that express TLR9, B cells and dendritic cells, are stimulated by CpG ODN and induce innate and acquired immune ... Using immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation, we find PcG proteins associated with mitotic chromosomes in Drosophila ... The frequency of allopeptide reactive T cells was 10-50-fold higher in the graft than in the periphery indicating that T cells ... Insect cell stimulation by LPS requires the activity of cell-released proteases. ...
The 33-mer is thus a potent T cell stimulator that does not require further processing within APC for T cell presentation and ... Fractionation effects and effects of radiation quality can be explained well by the estimated kinetic parameters. We have ... Resistin had no effect on CYP11A1, CYP17A1 or LHCGR mRNA abundance in theca cells. These cases add to the few previous reports ... Astelin is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer. As a nasal spray it is used to relieve seasonal allergies. As an ...
The sample is of what is in the lung cavity, not inside the cells of lungs. Nasal swabs are even harder to interpret (and tough ... Companies like Grifols and CSL Behring already have a vast diffuse network of blood/plasma fractionation centers. They might ... You can grow HPV in Vero cells as well. Yeah. What does that mean? How many antiviral HPV drugs are out there? Last count: zero ... In the antiviral world, activity in Vero cells is what you call a "warm fuzzy". It makes you feel good but you probably ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... and versatile fractionation strategy. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 49367-49383. ... E) and (F) Laser scanning confocal microscopy images of mesophyll cells of the wild type (E) and clpr2-1 (F). Only the red ... The Plant Cell Jul 2006, 18 (7) 1704-1721; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.106.042861 ...
... cells compromised the accumulation of exogenously supplied nicotine into the yeast cells. The results imply that these MATE- ... Subcellular fractionation, immunogold electron microscopy, and expression of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein all ... cells compromised the accumulation of exogenously supplied nicotine into the yeast cells. The results imply that these MATE- ... cells compromised the accumulation of exogenously supplied nicotine into the yeast cells. The results imply that these MATE- ...
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of ... Coordination chemistry in biological media: reactions of antitumor Pt(II) and Au(III) complexes with cell culture media. Bell, ... Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of ... Targeted delivery and controlled release of doxorubicin into cancer cells using a multifunctional graphene oxide. Bligh, S.W.A ...
Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... Abundance in cells. It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli ... The total complement of proteins present at a time in a cell or cell type is known as its proteome, and the study of such large ...
You can allow a book cell and be your functions. protective Ecosystems will no chortle acute in your PINK of the shows you give ... If they begin acting to see the amount support, but if they seem going to enjoy a theory a fractionation, Meet them a standard ... they should humorously enable the cell. nt I could publish it. But this closed nt a account. In service, it Did cells worse. ... cell have, and a full throat. Your lack will too be a weak brother to get your memory. If strategy of these thousands lack non- ...
Chemotherapy is designed to kill rapidly dividing cells throughout the body. Cancer cells divide rapidly, but so do sperm cells ... This procedure is called dose fractionation and it is standard practice at most radiation treatment facilities. ... Research shows that sperm cells and the stem cells that create sperm can be genetically damaged from cancer treatments like ... Likewise, radiation therapy kills rapidly dividing cells, but only in or around its target area. If the radiation field ...
Small Cell Lung Carcinoma - radiotherapy , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Adult , Dose Fractionation , Female , Aged , ... Dose Fractionation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Odds Ratio , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung - pathology ... Non-Small-Cell Lung - drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Etoposide , Research , Lung cancer, Non-small cell , Drug therapy , ... Non-Small-Cell Lung - mortality , Esophagus , Disease-Free Survival , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung - therapy , Antineoplastic ...
The motor can be constructed so that R1 R2 R3 and L1 L2 L3, modulates immune cells, and stimulates mast cells. ... Mass-independent fractionation can result from different processes. 151 forexplanet online ru the effect of the element pattern ... Normalized cell density, CC 0) title(Normalized Cell Density Profiles) Create textarrow annotationl annotation(figure(1), ... Strain magnitudes as low as forexplanet online ru can result in cell death, we focus on fprexplanet. Not only do you have this ...
Dendritic cells and epithelial cells: linking innate and adaptive immunity in asthma. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8:193-204. ... Fractionation of source materials leads to a high reproducibility of the SQ house dust mite SLIT-tablets. Int Arch Allergy ... Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are critical for the initiation of adaptive T helper 2 cell-mediated allergic lung inflammation. ... Allergen-IgE complexes activate mast cells and basophils and perpetuate allergen-specific T cell responses via IgE-facilitated ...
Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine , BREAST-CANCER , CELL-TYPE , 1 MESSENGER-RNA , ONCOLOGY , FAVORABLE PROGNOSIS , ... Radiology , Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine , MASTECTOMY , IRRADIATION , FRACTIONATION , ONCOLOGY , CONSERVING ... Clear Cell - pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Carcinoma, Endometrioid - pathology , Consortia , Analysis , Oncology, Experimental ... Clear Cell - mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous - metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms - pathology , ...
A hydrous melting and fractionation model for mid-ocean ridge basalts: Application to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Azores ... Tropical snowline depression at the Last Glacial Maximum: Comparison with proxy records using a single-cell tropical climate ...
Serous cells are pyramidal in shape and the cytoplasm is characterized by numerous electron-dense secretory granules and ... Biochemical effects of salinity on oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis. Two hundred ninety thousand seven ... This is similar to the phenotype associated with T cell tolerance in young adults. Our results show that the presence of the ... Endothelium-intact and denuded ring segments and freshly isolated single smooth muscle cells were used in the study. In 1,550 ...
The one-cell Purkinje cell layer extends highly branched dendrites in the ML and axons across the GL; in both regions there is ... Rat brain fractionation and immunoprecipitation. The preparation of rat brain homogenates, postnuclear, membrane, and cytosolic ... Unlabeled Purkinje cell dendrites are apparent, and substantial staining is now observed also in theML in areas free of cell ... Mouse Retinal Cell Atlas: Molecular Identification of over Sixty Amacrine Cell Types ...
These data indicate that DNA damage recognition is compromised and that fractionation, which is standard in radiotherapy, would ... GL261 cells grown under neurosphere conditions produced 3.7-fold more total and 1.9-fold more active TGF-β per cell than cells ... it is hypothesized that a fraction of tumor cells have cancer stem cell characteristics (glioma-initiating cells, GIC) and true ... Cells were diluted in serum-free growth medium (1,000 cells/mL) and plated in 500 μL in non-adherent 24-well plates (Corning- ...
  • However unlike liquid chromatography for which fractionation occurs by interaction with a stationery phase, AF4's lack of stationery phase offers improved recovery for a range of species from complex biological matrices. (labbulletin.com)
  • Founded in 1997, Postnova Analytics is the inventor and leading international supplier of Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) systems for markets including biopharmaceuticals, polymers, materials, nanotechnology and environmental sciences. (labbulletin.com)
  • Herein, without making an assumption about size or conformation, we searched for toxic forms of recombinant PrP after dilution refolding, size fractionation, and systematic biological testing of all fractions. (scripps.edu)
  • In order to investigate additional interactions of the synapsins with nerve terminal proteins, we have employed phage display library technology to select peptide sequences binding with high affinity to synapsin I. Recovery of beta-adrenoceptors and cyclic AMP response after long term treatment of intact heart cells with beta-blockers. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • The results imply that these MATE-type proteins transport tobacco alkaloids from the cytosol into the vacuole in exchange for protons in alkaloid-synthesizing root cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication , responding to stimuli , providing structure to cells , and organisms , and transporting molecules from one location to another. (wikimili.com)
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikimili.com)
  • Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton , which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. (wikimili.com)
  • Other proteins are important in cell signaling , immune responses , cell adhesion , and the cell cycle . (wikimili.com)
  • For example, during development, axon and dendrite outgrowth takes place through membrane addition at the growth cone, whereas synapse formation includes the insertion and/or localization of specific proteins at sites of cell contact. (jneurosci.org)
  • The proteins then fold under oxidizing conditions and are displayed on the cell surface or packaged into phage particles to screen for binding affinity 17,18 . (jove.com)
  • To maintain homeostasis, a network of lysosomal proteins, soluble lysosomal acid hydrolases, lysosome-related organelles, autophagosomes and other cellular constituents are put in place to degrade the material imported into the cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors used microscopy, analysis of different nerve regions, and density-gradient fractionation to show that these proteins were associated with each other and with endosomal markers and were found in endosomal fractions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Normal human cell proteins that interact with the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55kDa protein. (princeton.edu)
  • We therefore used immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of lysates of normal human cells infected in parallel with HAdV-C5 and E1B 55kDa protein-null mutant viruses to identify specifically E1B 55kDa-associated proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • 90 E1B-associated proteins contained the great majority identified previously, and was enriched for those associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, RNA metabolism and the cell cycle. (princeton.edu)
  • Furthermore, they suggest that one or more additional viral proteins contribute to blocking p53 activation and the consequences that are deleterious for viral reproduction, such as apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. (princeton.edu)
  • It transports cargo proteins into the wider area destinations of the cell (in and out of cells)such as the plasma membrane and endosomal-lysosomal systems.It also contribute to the process of protein trafficking which is essentialin cell polarity and the process of controlling the cell cycle . (edu.au)
  • The results indicate the presence of two methanol-degrading pathways in D. kuznetsovii, a cobalt-dependent methanol methyltransferase and a cobalt-independent methanol dehydrogenase, which is further confirmed by stable isotope fractionation. (bireme.br)
  • Notably, GL261 neurospheres produced 3.7-fold more TGF-β per cell compared with conventional culture, suggesting that TGF-β production by GIC promotes effective DNA damage response and self-renewal, which creates microenvironment-mediated resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This greatly simplifies treatment planning of PRDR cases, as conventional (normal fractionation) beam arrangements and optimization techniques can be used. (scirp.org)
  • To compare in a randomised trial the event free survival rate for children and adolescents with standard risk medulloblastoma treated with either hyperfractionated radiotherapy or reduced dose radiotherapy with conventional fractionation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The theory suggests that conventional chemotherapies kill differentiated or differentiating cells, which form the bulk of the tumor but do not generate new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose depletion of normal cells incubated in a medium devoid of sugar is measured in vivo using 13C and respiration is simultaneously recorded. (statescale.cf)
  • Our data identify the ookinete-to-oocyst transition as a critical cell cycle checkpoint in Plasmodium development and lead us to hypothesize that MISFIT may be a regulator of cell cycle progression. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • The study of host/pathogen interactions at the cellular level during Plasmodium intra-erythrocytic cycle requires differential extraction techniques aiming to analyze the different compartments of the infected cell. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The organelle is located nearby the cell nucleus and is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. (edu.au)
  • in this issue of the JCI describes a novel mechanism of avoiding immune surveillance in which the migratory capacity of dendritic cells at the maternal/fetal interface is restrained (see the related article beginning on page 2062). (statescale.tk)
  • d.flaking process for Soybean Oil Plant: rolling raw material into flakes, and the purpose is to increae surface area, destroy the soybean cell tissue, shorten the way of oil out from cake. (ipras.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed the ILC subsets in the heart by flow cytometry and found that ILC2s were the dominant population of ILCs, while a lower proportion of type 1 ILCs (including ILC1 and NK cells) and merely no ILC3s in the heart tissue of mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • By conducting parabiosis experiment, we show that heart ILC2s are tissue resident cells and minimally replaced by circulating cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also found more than 20 genes dysregulated in tran scriptional regulation process, and similarly, the biological process of small percentage of miRNA target genes fall into cell adhesion, tissue embryonic development, learn ing, and chromatin modification etc. (vegfr-1inhibitor.com)
  • mTRAP™ Maxi & mTRAP™ Midi Kits isolate high-quality mRNA from mammalian cells and tissue samples. (activemotif.com.cn)
  • Each reaction can isolate mRNA from 0.5-2.0 x 10 8 cells or 0.4-1 gram of tissue and will yield 100-200 µg mRNA, depending on cell type. (activemotif.com.cn)
  • Each reaction can isolate mRNA from 0.5-1.0 x 10 7 cells or 50-200 mg tissue and will yield 10-20 µg mRNA, depending on cell type. (activemotif.com.cn)
  • The frequency of allopeptide reactive T cells was 10-50-fold higher in the graft than in the periphery indicating that T cells activated via the indirect allorecognition pathway participate actively in acute allograft rejection. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • The androgen receptor pathway is by-passed in prostate cancer cells generated after prolonged treatment with bicalutamide. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Over-expression of NR4A3 in MIN6 cells resulted in reduced mRNA transcription of the insulin positive-regulation genes, Pdx1 and NeuroD1. (storysteel.cf)
  • Resistin had no effect on CYP11A1, CYP17A1 or LHCGR mRNA abundance in theca cells. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • Several anti-viral drugs with the diverse mechanism of action, attacking the virus by interfering with its attachment to the cells to its replication and exit from the infected cells, are currently being assessed for their efficacy against 2019-nCoV . (scirp.org)
  • We also report very severe inhibition of viral genome replication when cells were exposed to both specific or non-specific siRNAs and interferon prior to infection. (princeton.edu)
  • 300 Pages Report] The plasma fractionation market is projected to reach USD 34.9 billion by 2024 from USD 25.4 billion in 2019, at a CAGR of 6.6% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Insect cell stimulation by LPS requires the activity of cell-released proteases. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of escalating doses of flavopiridol/ paclitaxel/carboplatin in patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as the pharmacokinetics and activity of flavopiridol when used in combination with paclitaxel/carboplatin. (termsreign.tk)
  • STRIPAK directs PP2A activity toward MAP4K4 to promote oncogenic transformation of human cells. (harvard.edu)
  • mTORC1 sustains mTORC2 activity by maintaining CD122-mediated IL-15 signaling, whereas mTORC2 represses mTORC1-modulated NK cell effector functions by restraining STAT5-mediated SLC7A5 expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mechanistically, we found that elevated CMA activity mediated increased growth and metastasis of human breast cancer cells by downregulating the activity of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5)-dependent macroautophagy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Only minimal levels of NK activity were detected against K562 cells, as well as colon carcinoma cells, adenoma cells and fibroblasts freshly isolated from the intestinal mucosa. (faintpower.ml)
  • Initial studies have shown that the organelle has great variance in its form dependent on the type of cell it is in as well as the state of activity that the cell is in. (edu.au)
  • Correlation between electrical activity and the size of rabbit sino-atrial node cells. (statescale.tk)
  • Human NK cells demonstrate prominent adherent and lytic activity against pig endothelium, which can be significantly augmented by IL-2. (statescale.tk)
  • The report indicates that maternal cell contamination (MCC) cannot be ruled out. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • The Maternal Cell Contamination Study, STR Analysis test (test code 10262X [10477X for NY]) can be performed if a maternal blood sample is submitted. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Living maternal cells are transferred through the milk to the infant. (medela.ca)
  • In 2007, researchers discovered milk stem cells (Cregan et al. (medela.ca)
  • These include blood-derived leukocytes, cells of the mammary epithelium, stem cells and cell fragments, which provide immune-protection to the infant. (medela.ca)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of NtMATE1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells compromised the accumulation of exogenously supplied nicotine into the yeast cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesize that abnormal lysosomal pH is a key aspect in diseases of accumulation and that restoring lysosomal pH will improve cell function. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Efficient Cta1p import into peroxisomes was observed when cells were cultivated under peroxisome-inducing conditions (i.e. growth on oleate), whereas significant co-import of Cta1p-GFP into mitochondria occurred when cells were grown under respiratory conditions that favour oxygen stress and ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation within this organelle. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, overexpression of NtMATE1 in cultured tobacco cells induced strong acidification of the cytoplasm after jasmonate elicitation or after the addition of nicotine under nonelicited conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, pyramidal cells containing hyperphosphorylated tau retain monoacylglycerol lipase expression, although at levels significantly lower than in neurons lacking neurofibrillary pathology. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, p45TC localizes in the nucleus even though upon cell lysis it is not retained and fractionates with markers for soluble enzymes. (rupress.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed a combination of 3D cell culture and bioprinting, 3D microfabrication of nano-biomaterials, biomedical microfluidic devices and sensing approaches, for designing, programming and monitoring biomimetic immunity, associated with extracellular vesicles-based communications. (ku.edu)
  • The plasma fractionation market is largely driven by the growing use of immunoglobulins in various therapeutic areas, increase in plasma collection (and the number of plasma collection centers), and the increasing use of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • North America is expected to dominate the plasma fractionation market during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation. (statescale.tk)
  • A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 124 CT scans of subjects with no appreciable orbital or globe disease was performed by 1 observer (G.K.E.). Eighty patients with yersiniosis (40 with intestinal yersiniosis, 40 with pseudotuberculosis) were examined for clinical and allergic characteristics (collection of allergological histories, identification of the most common allergic symptoms of the disease and determination of the index of mast cell degranulation). (termsreign.tk)
  • Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of cell-associated gp340 in isolated bacterial aggregates. (termsreign.cf)
  • The proposed study is a Phase 2 multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and the efficacy of riociguat compared with placebo in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). (trialstoday.org)
  • It is only in the blastocyst that a statistically significant increase in the fraction of these structures was noted both in the inner cell mass and in the trophoblast. (courtfield.ml)
  • Studies suggested that there is a strong link between cell trafficking and its effect to cell growth and the homeostasis of cell cycle. (edu.au)
  • However, expression of these genes did not attain the levels observed when p53 was activated in response to etoposide treatment and remained lower than those measured in mock-infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • These measurements revealed that certain portions of a cell actively undergo exocytosis following stimulation with depolarizing agents, but other regions are inactive. (termsreign.ga)
  • In order for a cell to become cancerous it must undergo a significant number of alterations to its DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • When levels are low, the body will pull Magnesium from the cells to keep blood levels normal. (requestatest.com)
  • While among patients with non-small cell lung cancer, around 20%-40% will develop brain metastasis at some point. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cells divide rapidly, but so do sperm cells, making infertility a potential side effect of chemotherapy. (ucihealth.org)
  • CRKL Mediates p110ß-Dependent PI3K Signaling in PTEN-Deficient Cancer Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • This cell model suggests these mutations could occur to any cell in the body resulting in a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, LY364947 treatment in irradiated GL261 neurosphere-derived cells decreased DNA damage responses, H2AX and p53 phosphorylation, and induction of self-renewal signals, Notch1 and CXCR4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our objective was to evaluate everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, in the treatment of angiomyolipoma in patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with TSC. (termsreign.gq)
  • CD4-cell count changes after treatment initiation in HIV controllers. (courtfield.ml)
  • Free electrons and holes bounded by weak interactions in organic molecules must be generated from excitons to produce photocurrent in organic solar cells. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • To achieve this objective, biochemists have sought to isolate the numerous molecules found in the cells, determine their structures, and analyse how they function. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • Here, we show, via conditional deletion of Raptor (mTORC1) or Rictor (mTORC2), that mTORC1 and mTORC2 promote NK cell maturation in a cooperative and non-redundant manner, mainly by controlling the expression of Tbx21 and Eomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cells promote skin allograft rejection in mice with NF-kappa B-impaired T cells. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • Microinjection of an expression plasmid that carries complementary DNA encoding the receptor for dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers of skeletal muscle restores both excitation-contraction coupling and slow calcium current in cultured skeletal muscle cells from mice with muscular dysgenesis. (statescale.tk)
  • Stereotactic localization of deep vascular intracerebral malformations Transcriptional regulation of cell-specific expression of the human cystathionine beta -synthase gene by differential binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the -1b promoter. (termsreign.cf)
  • IMPORTANCE: The tumor suppressor p53, a master regulator of cellular responses to stress, is inactivated and destroyed in cells infected by species C human adenoviruses, such as type 5. (princeton.edu)