Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Female parents, human or animal.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The reproductive organs of plants.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. One daughter cell, ... A ganglion mother cell (GMC) is the cell derived from the division of a neuroblast in the Drosophila central nervous system. ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ...
Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... or siRNA-TCF4 resulted in high suppression of asymmetric cell division. Another mutation in asymmetric cell divisions which are ...
At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis, in non-mammals, that divide only once to give rise to two ... a model system for studying programmed cell death, Notch/Numb signaling, and sequential specification of ganglion mother cell ...
Type I neuroblasts give rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell (GMC), which undergoes a terminal division to generate ... This also results in asymmetric division, where Prospero localizes in only one out of the two daughter cells. After division, ... The switch from pluripotent neuroblast to differentiated cell fate is facilitated by the proteins Prospero, Numb, and Miranda. ... A Model for Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 61: 183-210. doi:10.1007/978-3-319- ...
... their cells have different fates. In the mouse, primordial germ cells arise from a layer of cells in the inner cell mass of the ... Cell division with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells that is the same size as the original zygote, is called ... this is termed the neural crest or ganglion ridge, and from it the spinal and cranial nerve ganglia and the ganglia of the ... The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an animal pole (future ectoderm). It is covered with protective envelopes, with ...
Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... or siRNA-TCF4 resulted in high suppression of asymmetric cell division. Another mutation in asymmetric cell divisions which are ...
... mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. In ... basally located ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will differentiate into neurons or glia. The apical-basal polarity of the ... Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. One ... Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or ...
A hybrid fly cell model to test the separation of chromosomes of different origin. Neural stem cell (NB) - ganglion mother cell ... J. Cell Biol. 219, e201910084 (2020).. *Roubinet, C., White, I. J. & Baum, B. Asymmetric nuclear division in neural stem cells ... However, the consequences of cell fusion on cell cycle progression, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, cell fate, and ... Cell-cell fusion. Cell-cell fusion is a highly regulated process that occurs in normal physiological conditions. Examples ...
The ganglion mother cell will divide once more to generate a pair of differentiated neurons or glia cells, whereas the ... which is required for the asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants, the proper orientation of the mitotic spindle and ... Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells. Stem cells possess the unique ability to generate a large spectrum of different cell types ... An asymmetric cell division generates two different daughter cells. In general, one daughter cell has a restricted ...
Further, this temporal window generates two ganglion mother cells that give rise to four neurons, which can be identified by ... neural progenitors generate an enormous number of distinct types of neuron and glial cells by asymmetric division. Intrinsic ... are re-used in other cell types or tissues to specify different cell fates, showing that cellular context shapes the response ... In early embryos, the precise positioning of cell fates requires minimizing variability between nuclei, which is achieved by a ...
... controlling cell divisions, cell polarity, convergent cell extension, directed cell migration, and therefore coordinating ... axial differences in cell fate, including the specification of cell lineages, cell proliferation, posterior growth elongation, ... Thus, the phenotype of the animal and its shell is determined by the genotype of the mother [110,111,114]. Spatial distribution ... Rozhnov, S.V. Symmetry of echinoderms: From initial bilaterally-asymmetric metamerism to pentaradiality. Paleontol. J. 2014, 6 ...
Chen et al., (2016). The ins (ide) and outs (ide) of asymmetric stem cell division. Current opinion in cell biology 43, 1-6. ... and so influence subsequent cell divisions / cell fate decisions.. Other organisms use different mechanisms to generate ... the interface between mother and developing embryo. The internal cells becomes the inner cell mass, which differentiate to form ... The coordination of such motile systems involves neurons, ganglia, and brains. There is also a need to establish barriers ...
... in both those that havent mated and new mothers. The cells for aggression are close to the centre of the hypothalamus, while ... When we come to examine even the simplest nervous systems such as the ganglia of the sea slug aplysia we find that it is the ... The view that a male brain is functionally more asymmetric than a female brain is long-standing. Androgens have been claimed to ... The division of labor between the sexes in such a society probably was quite marked, as it is in existing hunter-gatherer ...
asymmetric neuroblast division resulting in ganglion mother cell formation. GO:0055060. 2. 0.010. ... negative regulation of terminal cell fate specification open tracheal system. GO:0035155. 2. 0.021. ... regulation of planar cell polarity pathway involved in axis elongation. GO:2000040. 2. 0.030. ... regulation of cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis. GO:2000495. 2. 0.016. ...
... cilia grow asynchronously in sister cells resulting from a mitotic division and that the sister cell receiving the older mother ... A not-so-simple twist of fate. Developmental cell Long, A. F., Stearns, T. 2021; 56 (4): 402-4 Abstract. Multiciliated cells ... Previously, it was reported that gamma-tubulin is present at the centrosome of cervical ganglion cells undergoing axonal growth ... or by grossly asymmetric segregation of extra centrioles in mitosis. However, cells with extra centrioles display heterogenous ...
Upon cell division, MAPK signaling is inhibited in the daughter cell born from the side of the mother cell in contact with ... Ephrin signaling establishes asymmetric cell fates in an endomesoderm lineage of the Ciona embryo ... The motor ganglion (MG) controls the swimming behavior of the tadpole. It is situated at the base of the tail in the trunk ( ... DBM results in four A11.120-like daughter cells from those two A10.60-like mother cells. Another round of cell division results ...
... and to Project the mothers( of sales and cells) of the use of high today in their clusters and in gross networks in their ... In &, asymmetric high-performance environment articles present rushed with a small paper of each one. beyond, the X-rays are ... view the Dead 2: Deader or Alive allows converted! change one with Fate, or identify your linear release. When a week has on ... At the family of irregular divisions we would Even have up in the curious paper inundation, where a configuration ...
... induced pluripotent stem cells A localized Wnt signal orients asymmetric stem cell division in vitro Disparate individual fates ... cancer progression Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells ... for understanding cell fate decisions Cell fate inclination within 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos revealed by single-cell RNA ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
cells controls cell fate asymmetric cell division. Medical Information Search ... a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... Ganglion mother ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate T cell precursors undergo asymmetric cell division ... Asymmetric cell division. An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in ...
... ganglion mother cells is achieved by a mechanism that integrates information created by the asymmetric distribution of a cell- ... ganglion mother cells). We show that svp mRNA is already expressed in the neuroblasts before this division. After mitosis, Svp ... fate determinant upon mitosis (Prospero) and a transcriptional repressor present in both cells (Seven-up). Strikingly, although ... In the ganglion mother cell, svp is repressed by Prospero, a transcription factor asymmetrically localised to this cell during ...
In Drosophila, neuroblasts undergo typical asymmetric divisions to produce a progeny neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. At ... segregated to the daughter cell during asymmetric cell division, and essential for daughter cells to adopt distinct fates. In ... NBs divide asymmetrically and are often used as a model to investigate stem cell biology and asymmetric cell division. Most NBs ... Mutations in ANKLE2, a ZIKA virus target, disrupt an asymmetric cell division pathway in Drosophila neuroblasts to cause ...
... undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC). There are ... On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. ... The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up ... The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators ...
... induced pluripotent stem cells A localized Wnt signal orients asymmetric stem cell division in vitro Disparate individual fates ... cancer progression Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells ... for understanding cell fate decisions Cell fate inclination within 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos revealed by single-cell RNA ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
Biochemical analysis of ++Prospero protein during asymmetric cell division: cortical Prospero is highly phosphorylated relative ... Cell fate commitment during mammalian sex determination. * Cell identity mediates the response of Arabidopsis roots to abiotic ... Differential effects of unfolded protein response pathways on axon injury-induced death of retinal ganglion cells. ... Multiparity leads to obesity and inflammation in mothers and obesity in male offspring. ...
... each divide asymmetrically to produce a larger neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell (GMC). The asymmetric localisation ... The asymmetric localisation of cell fate determinants during NB division is tightly coordinated with changes in the cell cycle ... Asymmetric cell divisions generate cell fate diversity during both invertebrate and vertebrate development. Drosophila neural ... DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila. Nat. Cell Biol. ...
A motor protein called Klp10A ensures that germline stem cells in male fruit flies divide to produce two sibling cells that are ... The larger cell is destined to become the neural stem cell whereas the smaller cell becomes a ganglion mother cell. In contrast ... Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However ... The larger cell remains attached to the hub cell, adopting stem cell fate, whereas the smaller sibling often dies. (C) Neural ...
neuroblast division in subpallium GO:0021848 * asymmetric neuroblast division resulting in ganglion mother cell formation ... Label: skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division Synonyms: skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric ... skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division involved in skeletal muscle regeneration ... T cell differentiation involved in immune response GO:0002292 * endocardial cushion cell fate commitment ...
Here are the minisymposia sessions that will be presented at Cell Bio Virtual 2020. ... 11:45 am M8 Contact Inhibition in Mother Cells Shifts an Activator-Inhibitor Balance to Direct Newborn Cells to Quiescence . Y ... Cytoskeleton and Cell Complexity Expand Track(s): Cellular Dynamics: Compartmentalization, Trafficking, Cytoskeleton, Division ... 11:45 am M2 Zebrafish NADPH oxidase 2 regulates retinal ganglion cell guidance downstream of slit2/robo2. A. Terzi, H. Roeder, ...
The important cells that was the earlier ASP.NET MVC 1.0 Website Programming: was and designed used with a digital vesicle, a ... bright and insufficient divisions. between them. A odd The micromod ASP.NET MVC 1.0 Website Programming: Problem of rise is ... The Persian mothers owing accused the persons of the Greeks, Babylonians, and treasures, Alexander had women;. single ... resembling their asymmetric freelancers, they designed to features from the credit. movies conducted Among the Gently Mad: ...
We investigated programmed cell death in the dorsomedial (DM) amplifying type II lineages that contribute neurons to the ... Programmed cell death occurred during both larval and pupal stages. During larval development, approximately one-quarter of the ... A significant number of the adult-specific neurons generated in these DM lineages were eliminated by programmed cell death. ... Moreover, blockage of apoptotic cell death specifically in these lineages led to prominent innervation defects of DM-derived ...
Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of ... Acts instructively to control the cell fate determination of CNS multipotent progenitor cells, resulting in astroglial ... Essential for the asymmetric development of membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells (By similarity). O08679.1 ... 062145 0.79 semaphorin-4F precursor Sema4f Rattus norvegicus Has growth cone collapse activity against retinal ganglion-cell ...
Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells. Jason Q Boone, ... Circuit Balances Continual Self-Renewal and Rapid Restriction of Developmental Potential during Asymmetric Stem Cell Division. ... Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes. A H Brand, N Perrimon.& ... Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development. Bruno C Bello ...
Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells ... klumpfuss distinguishes stem cells from progenitor cells during asymmetric neuroblast division. . Development ... Several previous studies have shown that imINPs are not fully committed to their cell fate and can revert back to the NB fate ... Unlike ganglion mother cells (GMCs) generated from type I NBs, which divide only once and produce two neurons (Hartenstein et ...
Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes. HN - 2012 BX - Asymmetric Stem Cell Division MH - ... Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate. HN - 2012 MH - Lingual Nerve ... Nacre is the iridescent substance better known as mother-of-pearl that is secreted by MOLLUSCS. AN - NACRE PROTEIN, ZEBRAFISH ... HN - 2012 BX - Solid-Phase Synthesis MH - Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block UI - D059387 MN - E3.155.86.711.299.500 MN - E4.525. ...
Molecular control of asymmetric cell division. Tuesday, 12 February - Dr Bruce Graham. Dept. of Computing Science & Mathematics ... From neural stem cell to unique neuron: controlling cell fate and cell number in the developing nervous system ... Title: Perspective for in-vivo characterization of basal ganglia loops. Title: Wednesday, 10 February - A/Professor Kai-Hsiang ... your mother eats: Effects of maternal diet on fetal hypothalamic circuitry development ...
HeLa cells were seeded at 4 x 105 cells per well in a six-well plate. Cells were infected at an MOI of 500 in 50 mM Tris, pH ... I watched him come down to the dock and attack my mother. There would what is my purpose massive street processions, panicked ... Basal ganglia location is typical. Collazos J: Opportunistic infections of head bayer CNS in patients with AIDS: diagnosis and ... The Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries has even taken to handing out prototype ropes with lower breaking strengths to ...
... a mINP undergoes 3-6 divisions generating one mINP and one ganglion mother cell (GMC) that in turn divides into two terminally ... A stem cell may lose its stem cell fate by undergoing a symmetric division to yield two daughter cells that are both committed ... These data provide insight into how defects in asymmetric cell division can contribute to the acquisition of tumorigenic traits ... to self-renew while generating daughter cells named Ganglion Mother Cells (GMCs). GMCs then usually divide once to produce two ...
It is well known that growth and divisions of stem cells are mainly repressed by niche cells, but can also be activated by ... PMID- 24110255 TI - Retinal ganglion cells electrophysiology: the effect of cell morphology on impulse waveform. AB - There are ... stimulation has been shown to modulate embryonic stem cell differentiation towards a neuronal fate. The goal of this study was ... In order to reduce noise picked up during the recording, wavelet based denoising is applied using Daubechies mother wavelet. ...
... retinal ganglion cells in hamsters." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1990;300:583-592. AbstractWebsite. Intracellular ... "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission.". 2008. Abstract ... Lalah JO, Wandiga SO. "The Persistence and Fate of Malathion Residues in Stored Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Maize (Zea mays) ... We conclude that policy makers should aim to reduce asymmetric information within the value chain without raising food prices ...
This could end result from conversion of the conventional asymmetric division to a symmetric division. Dehydration can even ... However, in the early embryo, some of the developmental fates are established by interactions among the many cells. We ... It can also contain the desire to mother or father a baby who embodies a genetic connection to them blood pressure keeps ... Between the muscle layers the numerous ganglia of Auerbach’s plexus are Chapter 14 Gastrointestinal tract 226 membranes) ...
... induced pluripotent stem cells A localized Wnt signal orients asymmetric stem cell division in vitro Disparate individual fates ... cancer progression Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells ... for understanding cell fate decisions Cell fate inclination within 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos revealed by single-cell RNA ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
... induced pluripotent stem cells A localized Wnt signal orients asymmetric stem cell division in vitro Disparate individual fates ... cancer progression Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells ... for understanding cell fate decisions Cell fate inclination within 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos revealed by single-cell RNA ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
Fate mapping. A fate map is used to determine the origin of a cell lineage, e.g., a germ layer. The following table provides an ... Peripheral nervous system neurons (in cranial, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia) and glia (satellite cells and Schwann cells) ... Does not express MHC class I on the surface of its cell and is, therefore, less susceptible to the mothers immune cells attack ... Division of the zygote into the morula (16-cell mass) and then the blastocyst ...
Single-zygote analysis of protein quantitation reveals high robustness of cell polarisation and asymmetric division to ... Axon-like projections direct the self-renewal versus differentation cell fate decision in Follicle Stem Cells of the Drosophila ... A Novel Model of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death and Regeneration in Zebrafish. Kevin Emmerich, Johns Hopkins University School of ... Embryo to mother signal to clean up molecular garbage-transgenerational proteostasis adjustment via exopher production. ...
... present in the cytoplasm of cells of all the plasma cell neoplasms examined (but not in nor- mal plasma cells nor in the cells ... The fate of the methyl groups is under investigation. Sulfontum Compounds. In an effort to deter- mine if the energy associated ... Baker represents the Division as one of two Divisional Councilors on the American Chemical Society Council. Dr. Harold F. Blum ... Since sympathetic ganglia contain considerable NE, the effects of depleting the amine were studied. After gangli- onic NE has ...
Left-right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis ... LARMOR LECTURE - The statistical physics of stem cell biology: Dicing with fate ... Learning in infancy: mother-child interaction and executive function from 1 to 2 years old ... Linking physical gut remodelling to stem cell divisions in Drosophila. *Linking scales in the sea ice system ...
  • One has the potential to renew stem cell identity and continue to divide in an asymmetric manner, whereas the other cell will differentiate along a specific lineage. (stembook.org)
  • The ganglion mother cell will divide once more to generate a pair of differentiated neurons or glia cells, whereas the neuroblast will continue to divide in an asymmetric fashion. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Other proteins present in the neuroblast mediate the asymmetric localization of Numb and Prospero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ("niche") are examples of mechanisms used to specify cell polarity and direct asymmetric divisions. (stembook.org)
  • however, some studies suggest that extrinsic signals from the overlying epithelium also facilitate proper spatio-temporal localization of cell fate determinants (Lee et al. (stembook.org)
  • These data indicate that embryonic NBs respond to signals from the adjacent epithelium to specify correct spindle orientation and localization of cortical cell fate determinants. (stembook.org)
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • In particular, this protein complex controls the polarization of neural stem cells, which is required for the asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants, the proper orientation of the mitotic spindle and the unequal size of the two daughter cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The cell biology of these events has been most studied in three animal models: the mouse, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, asymmetric cell division plays an important role in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (stembook.org)
  • We developed a cell-cell fusion assay, where a 532nm pulsed laser was used to induce a small lesion at the interface between Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts (NBs)) with differentiating ganglion mother cells (GMCs) in the intact fly larval brain. (nature.com)
  • To that aim we study the transciptomes of different types of stem cells in Drosophila by next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and compare them to transcriptomes of differentiated cells derived from these stem cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Drosophila neural stem cells called neuroblasts divide asymmetrically to generate another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell (GMC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroblast repeatedly undergoes this asymmetric cell division while the GMC continues on to produce a pair of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two proteins play an important role in setting up this cell fate asymmetry in the neuroblast, Prospero and Numb. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are both synthesized in the neuroblast and segregate into only the GMC during divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that NB-GMC hybrid cells keep the neuroblast chromatin separate from the GMC chromatin and align them independently at the metaphase plate. (nature.com)
  • These hybrid cells usually contain two neuroblast- and two GMC-derived centrosomes, which form spindles that are positioned next to each other during metaphase, thereby congressing the neuroblast- and GMC-derived chromatin at the metaphase plate. (nature.com)
  • The mitotic spindle must be oriented correctly to ensure that the proper cell fate determinants are distributed appropriately to the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, factors within the dividing mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. (stembook.org)
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (stembook.org)
  • 2. The mitotic spindle is aligned along the apical-basal axis to ensure accurate segregation of these cell fate determinants to the appropriate daughter cell. (stembook.org)
  • The basal complexes, which will segregate to the GMC, asymmetrically localize three major cell fate determinants: Prospero, Brat, and Numb, which inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation (Bowman et al. (stembook.org)
  • 2006). NBs that are still in contact with epithelial cells as they divide always produce GMCs opposite the site of epithelial-NB contact. (stembook.org)
  • Here we will discuss multiple factors and mechanisms that imbue cells with polarity to facilitate an asymmetric outcome to stem cell divisions, assuring self-renewal and maintenance of the stem cell pool. (stembook.org)
  • In a second approach, we investigate which genes are responsible for maintenance of the stem cell fate or for initiation of the differentiation process. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb is a suppressor of Notch, therefore the asymmetric segregation of Numb to the basal cortex biases the response of the daughter cells to Notch signaling, resulting in two distinct cell fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the consequences of cell fusion on cell cycle progression, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, cell fate, and other basic cell biological processes are incompletely understood. (nature.com)
  • The NB and GMC chromatin can initiate segregation autonomously suggesting that the dual spindles in the hybrid cell can operate independently. (nature.com)
  • In the embryo, NBs divide perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium to generate another (apical) NB and a smaller, basally located ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will differentiate into neurons or glia. (stembook.org)
  • Because this latter mechanism does not depend on interactions of cells with each other or with their environment, it must rely on intrinsic asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. (stembook.org)
  • This way we were able to generate hybrid cells in vivo between molecularly distinct cell types and ask how these epigenetically distinct chromosomes will be recognized, separated, and segregated in hybrid cells. (nature.com)
  • In order for asymmetric division to take place the mother cell must be polarized, and the mitotic spindle must be aligned with the axis of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 . Asymmetric positioning of the anaphase spindle results in daughter cells that will not only assume different fates but also differ in size. (stembook.org)
  • In addition to the microtubules making up the interphase array and the mitotic spindle, many animal cells make a specialized microtubule structure, the primary cilium. (stanford.edu)
  • Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. (stembook.org)
  • This property of stem cells is mainly due to their ability to divide asymmetrically. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (stembook.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity, and consequently the potential for asymmetric divisions, is often linked to excessive stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. (stembook.org)
  • Neural stem cell (NB) - ganglion mother cell (GMC) hybrids align the respective chromosomes independently, supported by NB- or GMC-derived centrosomes and their spindles. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, the other daughter cell retains its stem cell character and its ability to divide asymmetrically. (uni-koeln.de)
  • By this mechanism the stem cell population in the organism is maintained and can serve as a continuous source for the generation of differentiated cell types. (uni-koeln.de)
  • More recently, we have started to investigate the contribution of regulators of chromatin structure to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We found that the evolutionarily conserved Tip60 chromatin remodeling complex is required for stem cell maintenance in neural and intestinal stem cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • By using the DamID technique to map contacts between the Tip60 complex and DNA, we have identified target genes of the Tip60 complex that are currently being investigated with respect to their function in stem cell maintenance. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Bazooka marks the apical pole and Miranda the basal pole of the asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We have shown that the evolutionarily conserved Par-3/Par-6/aPKC complex has a key function in the molecular control of asymmetric cell divisions. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We are working to determine the molecular mechanisms of centrosome duplication and to understand how centrosome duplication is controlled so that it happens once and only once per cell cycle. (stanford.edu)
  • In the second mechanism, the prospective daughter cells are inherently different at the time of division of the mother cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research concerns the mechanism and regulation of cell division, the organization of signaling pathways within cells, and cell biology of fungal pathogens. (stanford.edu)
  • An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically to produce two different cell types provides the cellular diversity found in every multicellular organism. (stembook.org)
  • The apical-basal polarity of the mother NB is inherited from its placement within the neuroepithelium and is coupled to differential distribution of cellular components. (stembook.org)
  • In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The establishment of this polarity initiates the polarized distribution of a group of proteins present in the zygote called the PARD proteins (partitioning defective), which are a conserved group of proteins that function in establishing cell polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some epithelial cells in the trachea, oviduct and brain produce hundreds of motile cilia on their surface, each with a centriole at their base. (stanford.edu)
  • 2006 ). NBs are neural stem/progenitor cells that are specified during embryogenesis and divide to generate the larval neurons. (stembook.org)
  • During larval and pupal stages, NB divisions resume to generate adult neurons. (stembook.org)
  • FGF/MAPK attenuation by a localized EphrinAb signal specifies posterior neuronal subtypes, which in turn relay a Delta2/Notch signal that specifies anterior fates. (biologists.com)
  • This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is also an important factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells possess the unique ability to generate a large spectrum of different cell types despite retaining an undifferentiated phenotype themselves. (uni-koeln.de)
  • During development, asymmetric divisions provide the basis for establishment of the body axis and cell fate determination in a range of processes. (stembook.org)
  • When we come to examine even the simplest nervous systems such as the ganglia of the sea slug aplysia we find that it is the 'silent' analogue cells with continuous potential changes which act as the organizing centres for behavior, with the pulse coded cells merely acting as long distance relays. (dhushara.com)
  • The motor ganglion (MG) controls the rhythmic swimming behavior of the Ciona intestinalis tadpole. (biologists.com)
  • Following this first asymmetric division, the AB daughter cell divides symmetrically, giving rise to ABa and ABp, while the P1 daughter cell undergoes another asymmetric cell division to produce P2 and EMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, one daughter cell has a restricted developmental potential and will give rise to terminally differentiated cell types after one or more additional cell divisions. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We have shown that duplication of the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center of animal cells, is dependent on the cell cycle kinase cdk2, and on cell cycle-specific proteolysis. (stanford.edu)
  • The consequences of abrogated chromosome separation in either hybrid cells or zygotes should be studied through acute microtubule and nuclear envelope manipulations. (nature.com)
  • This division is also dependent on the distribution of the PAR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase-locking can mark out populations of cells sharing a common 'experience' or process from other randomly related stimuli. (dhushara.com)
  • The central question behind our work is how the centrosome and primary cilium control cell function and influence development, and how defects in these structures cause a remarkable range of human disease, ranging from cancer, polycystic kidney disease, and obesity, to neurocognitive defects including mental retardation, schizophrenia, and dyslexia. (stanford.edu)
  • 2) Nuclear envelopes separate NB and GMC chromatin in the hybrid cell as it has been previously shown that fly neuroblasts undergo semi-closed mitosis 9,10 . (nature.com)
  • In addition to this, we found that NB-GMC hybrid cells contain independent nuclear envelopes, differing in size, which appeared to merge during late metaphase or early anaphase. (nature.com)
  • How is the separation of the NB and GMC chromatin in the hybrid cell achieved? (nature.com)
  • Our initial hypotheses were: (1) the identification of NB and GMC chromatin in the hybrid cell based on the differences in kinetochore composition or size. (nature.com)
  • When the sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell, the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Cell cycle control of centrosome duplication. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell-cell fusion is a highly regulated process that occurs in normal physiological conditions. (nature.com)
  • Although the first nervous system to be studied, the giant axon potential of the squid, does have an apparently discrete response, it is in fact a pulse coded analogue signal which is being transferred, whose rate of discharge is proportional to the continuous depolarization at the cell body. (dhushara.com)
  • Most importantly, the mother centriole (the older of the two in the pair) nucleates the formation of a primary cilium in most cells in the body. (stanford.edu)
  • First seen by cell biologists in the 1950's, the primary cilium was ignored for many years until a combination of human and model organism genetics revealed that it is a critical sensory organelle with functions in many important processes. (stanford.edu)
  • These screens led to the identification of several interaction partners whose function in the asymmetric division of stem cells is currently under investigation. (uni-koeln.de)
  • In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are studying both the primary cilium and multi-ciliated cells for clues into ciliary structure and function, and centriole formation. (stanford.edu)