Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCaenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Picolinic AcidsCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. One daughter cell, ... A ganglion mother cell (GMC) is the cell derived from the division of a neuroblast in the Drosophila central nervous system. ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ...
At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one ... a model system for studying programmed cell death, Notch/Numb signaling, and sequential specification of ganglion mother cell ...
... and one cell that becomes the Ganglion Mother Cell (GMC), which goes on to divide into 4 differentiated cells (neurons or glia ... This also results in asymmetric division, where Prospero localizes in only one out of the two daughter cells. After division, ... Neuroblasts differentiate from neural stem cells and are committed to the neuronal fate. The main difference between a ... A neuroblast, a daughter cell of a transit amplifying cell, is initially a neural stem cell that has reached the "point of no ...
Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... or siRNA-TCF4 resulted in high suppression of asymmetric cell division. Another mutation in asymmetric cell divisions which are ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ...
The fertilized egg cell is known as the zygote. Cell division with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells that is ... their cells have different fates. Before gastrulation, the cells of the trophoblast become differentiated into two strata: The ... this is termed the neural crest or ganglion ridge, and from it the spinal and cranial nerve ganglia and the ganglia of the ... The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm) and a "vegetal pole" (future ...
... their cells have different fates. In the mouse, primordial germ cells arise from a layer of cells in the inner cell mass of the ... Cell division with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells that is the same size as the original zygote, is called ... this is termed the neural crest or ganglion ridge, and from it the spinal and cranial nerve ganglia and the ganglia of the ... The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm) and a "vegetal pole" (future ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem ...
... s (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. JHs regulate development, reproduction, diapause, and polyphenisms. In insects, JH (formerly called neotenin) refers to a group of hormones, which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. Because of their rigid exoskeleton, insects grow in their development by successively shedding their exoskeleton (a process known as molting). Juvenile hormones are secreted by a pair of endocrine glands behind the brain called the corpora allata. JHs are also important for the production of eggs in female insects. JH was discovered in 1965 and the first molecular structure of a final six was solved in 1967. Most insect species contain only juvenile growth hormone (JH) III. To date JH 0, JH I, and JH II have been identified only in the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). The form JHB3 (JH III bisepoxide) appears to be the most important JH in the Diptera, or flies. Certain species ...
... , historically known as the paper factor, is the methyl ester of todomatuic acid, both of which are sesquiterpenes (C15) found in the wood of true firs of the genus Abies. They occur naturally as part of a mixture of sesquiterpenes based upon the bisabolane scaffold. Sesquiterpenes of this family are known as insect juvenile hormone analogues (IJHA) because of their ability to mimic juvenile activity in order to stifle insect reproduction and growth. These compounds play important roles in conifers as the second line of defense against insect induced trauma and fungal pathogens. In 1965, Karel Sláma and Carroll Williams made a surprising discovery: paper towels made from the wood of the balsam fir (Abies balsamea, Fig. 1) released vapors that elicited a potent effect on hemipteran bugs of the Pyrrhocoridae family. They named this substance "the paper factor." It was thought to contain a mixture of JH-mimicking sesquiterpenes, but it wasn't until 1966 that (+)-juvabione was first ...
... (GHBP) is a soluble carrier protein for growth hormone (GH). The function of GHBP is still unknown. Current research suggests that the protein is associated with regulation of the GH supply in the circulatory system as well as GH receptor function. In humans, GHBP is formed by post-translational modification after the complete transcription and translation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene into the cell-surface receptor protein. The gene that codes for GHR (and inherently GHBP) is on Chromosome 5. A precursor messenger RNA (mRNA) from the complete gene first is transcribed and then spliced to encode the full receptor protein. This mature mRNA is composed of exons. Exons are peptide encoding regions of DNA genes that remain in the transcript after splicing and during the maturation of mRNA. The mRNA transcript encodes for a receptor protein that is made up of three distinct parts: an ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem ...
Starting in 2014, pyriproxifen was put into Brazilian water supplies to fight the proliferation of mosquito larvae.[14] This is in line with the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) for larvicides.[15] In January 2016, the Brazilian Association for Collective Health (Abrasco; Portuguese: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva) criticized the introduction of pyriproxyfen in Brazil. Abrasco demanded the "immediate suspension of [use of] pyriproxyfen and all growth inhibitors ... in drinking water." The organization is opposed to the use of growth inhibitors in the context of an ongoing outbreak of fetal malformation.[16]. On February 3, the rumor that pyriproxyfen, not the Zika virus, is the cause of the 2015-2016 microcephaly outbreak in Brazil was raised in a report of the Argentinean organization Physicians in the Crop-Sprayed Villages (PCST).[17] It attracted wide media coverage.[18][19] The statement from Abrasco was cited in the PCST report; ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem ...
... is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).[2] Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells ...
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. For cancer to develop, genes regulating cell growth and differentiation must be altered; these mutations are then maintained through subsequent cell divisions and are thus present in all cancerous cells. Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. In the context of cancer, gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. The information derived from gene expression profiling often helps in predicting the patient's clinical outcome. Oncogenesis is the process by which normal cells acquire the properties of cancer ...
A synchronous or synchronized culture is a microbiological culture or a cell culture that contains cells that are all in the same growth stage. As numerous factors influence the cell cycle (some of them stochastic) normal cultures have cells in all stages of the cell cycle. Obtaining a culture with a unified cell-cycle stage is useful for biological research where a particular stage in the cell cycle is desired (such as the culturing of parasitized cells). Since cells are too small for certain research techniques, a synchronous culture can be treated as a ...
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue. Hence, it is a cluster of cells that has grouped together to form a sac (not unlike the manner in which water molecules group together, forming a bubble); however, the distinguishing aspect of a cyst is that the cells forming the "shell" of such a sac are distinctly abnormal (in both appearance and behaviour) when compared with all surrounding cells for that given location. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, sometimes a cyst may resolve on its own. When a cyst fails to resolve, it may need to be removed surgically, but that would depend upon its type and location. Cancer-related cysts are formed as a defense mechanism for the body, following the development of mutations that lead ...
DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of cancer.[9][10] More than 60,000 new naturally occurring DNA damages arise, on average, per human cell, per day, due to endogenous cellular processes (see article DNA damage (naturally occurring)). Additional DNA damages can arise from exposure to exogenous agents. As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking.[11] In other examples, UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma,[12] helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and contributes to gastric cancer,[13] and the Aspergillus metabolite, aflatoxin, is a DNA damaging agent that is causative in liver cancer.[14] DNA damages can also be caused by endogenous (naturally occurring) agents. ...
Odes, Edward J.; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S.; Steyn, Maryna; Throckmorton, Zach; Smilg, Jacqueline S.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Augustine, Tanya N.; Beer, Frikkie de; Hoffman, Jakobus W.; Franklin, Ryan D.; Berger, Lee R.; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Forensic and Applied; Lancashire, University of Central; Kingdom, United; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Medicine, De Busk College of Osteopathic; University, Lincoln Memorial; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; ...
Olig2 RPCs are highly reminiscent of Drosophila ganglion mother cells, where asymmetric inheritance of fate determinants ... The process of asymmetric cell division, in which a dividing mother cell segregates cell-fate determinants asymmetrically into ... 2002) Asymmetric Numb distribution is critical for asymmetric cell division of mouse cerebral cortical stem cells and ... such terminal divisions can be asymmetric if the two daughter cells adopt different neuronal fates (Dx/Dy divisions) (Cayouette ...
... asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants in the mother cell can give rise to daughter cells that adopt different cell ... undergo asymmetric cell division, giving rise to one daughter cell that will retain stem cell identity and one daughter cell, a ... generating another neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will produce mature neurons. Cell fate determinants ... The role of cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Cell adhesion between niche cells and stem cells has ...
... generating a ganglion mother cell and another neuroblast in each division. Before division, the mitotic spindle rotates by 90° ... 1995). In these cells, Par-3 controls spindle orientation and asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants (Etemad- ... directed cell migration, and asymmetric cell division. Epithelial cells, for example, possess apical and basolateral plasma ... asymmetric cell division. Introduction. Polarity is a common feature of many different cell types and is the prerequisite for ...
In neuroblasts, asymmetric cell division produces a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell, which goes on to differentiate into ... A cell undergoing asymmetric division gives rise to two daughter cells with differing cell fates, size and contents. ... Dysfunction of asymmetric cell division may lead to cell overgrowth, which has been associated with tumorigenesis and cancer. ... Wangs lab has uncovered the essential role arl2 plays in asymmetric cell division. Neuroblasts with loss of arl2 function show ...
... in which all divisions are asymmetric, generating another neuroblast progenitor and a ganglion mother cell. Neuroblast ACD ... symmetric cell division, SCD) resulting in two daughter cells with similar fate, or asymmetrically (asymmetric cell division, ... Regulation of cell fate and stem cell behavior in the epidermis. Cell division not only generates daughter cells, but through ... Another important remaining question is whether asymmetric divisions regulate cell fate decisions of stem or progenitor cell ...
1 C): the NB and its ganglion mother cell (GMC) daughters. NBs divide asymmetrically, and the NB daughter retains stem cell ... Patterns of cell division and expression of asymmetric cell fate determinants in postembryonic neuroblast lineages of ... Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division: recent advances and implications for stem cell biology. Neuron. 51:13-20. ... Our data reveal two new aspects of asymmetric division in this stem cell model. First, cells can adjust the canonical ...
Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. One daughter cell, ... A ganglion mother cell (GMC) is the cell derived from the division of a neuroblast in the Drosophila central nervous system. ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ...
... some of the ganglion mother cells (GMC-1) which are intermediate neural precursor cells, typically undergo asymmetric division ... signaling plays a central role before asymmetric division and in the fate of Drosophila melanogaster neural precursor cells. It ... In this process, Numb only locates in one daughter cell, as it inhibits Notch signaling, causes a different fate between Numb- ... results offer a noticeable progress in understanding the mechanism of asymmetric cleavage and different fate of daughter cells ...
Miranda directs Prospero to a daughter cell during Drosophila asymmetric divisions ... neural stem cells called neuroblasts divide asymmetrically to produce another multipotent neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell ... Intrinsic mechanisms like the asymmetric transmission of cell-fate determinants during cell division, and extrinsic cell- ... The C. elegans MELK ortholog PIG-1 regulates cell size asymmetry and daughter cell fate in asymmetric neuroblast divisions. ...
... that are segregated into the ganglion mother cell (GMC) following divisions. Apical proteins and their regulators also control ... Asymmetric division of neuroblasts generates a self-renewing neuroblast and a different daughter cell that undergoes ... Currently, several cell fate determinants such as Brat, Numb and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex with its cofactors ... In plants and yeasts, TBCB is essential for cell division. In flies, dTBCB is expressed throughout cell cycle, and during ...
... where Prospero protein acts as a determinant of ganglion mother cell fate (Irion, 2006). To be localized, an mRNA must contain ... Localized mRNAs can also function as determinants during asymmetric cell divisions. For example, the asymmetric inheritance of ... side of Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts and is inherited by only the smaller daughter cell of this asymmetric cell division, ... Asymmetric localization of mRNAs is a common mechanism for targeting proteins to the regions of the cell where they are ...
We had shown earlier that two such developmental processes are (a) the asymmetric cell division of ganglion mother cells (GMCs ... The clone includes a proneural cluster (arrow). Many cells have adopted the SOP fate in the absence of Dl and Ser function ( ... During GMC asymmetric division the daughter cells rely on Dl/Notch signalling to turn on Hey expression in one of the two ... Unequal segregation of neuralized biases notch activation during asymmetric cell division * R Le Borgne ...
Type I NBs (most NBs in the Drosophila CNS), generate daughter cells known as ganglion mother cells (GMCs). GMCs usually divide ... Temporal regulation of daughter cell divisions or apoptosis. Notch signaling in GMCs gives rise to binary cell fate decisions ... 2005). Induction of tumor growth by altered stem-cell asymmetric division in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat. Genet. 37, 1125-1129 ... ganglion, horizontal and amacrine cells) and mid-late (rod, bipolar cells) cell types, respectively (Elliott et al., 2008; ...
At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one ... a model system for studying programmed cell death, Notch/Numb signaling, and sequential specification of ganglion mother cell ...
... mis-migration of neurons and symmetric division of ganglion mother cells (GMC) of the RP2/sib lineage. We also show that the ... which then prevents Notch signaling from specifying a sib fate. This causes both cells to adopt an RP2 fate. Furthermore, loss ... In this paper, we report that Hem regulates the asymmetric division of neural precursor cells. We find that a well-studied Hem/ ... basis for the loss of asymmetric division is due to non-localization of Inscuteable and Numb in GMC-1. A non-asymmetric Numb ...
... embryonic central nervous system are nonstochastic and require inscuteable-mediated asymmetry of ganglion mother cells ... Binary sibling neuronal cell fate decisions in the Drosophila ... Asymmetric cell division in developing tissues takes place ... pros and insc RNAs during the NB cell cycle in order to establish whether the asymmetric NB cell divisions include asymmetric ... They must have inscuteable-mediated asymmetry for ganglion mother cells.. Author: Yang, Xiaohang, Chia, William, Tear, Guy, ...
Ceron, J., Gonzalez, C. and Tejedor, F. J. (2001). Patterns of cell division and expression of asymmetric cell fate ... ganglion mother cells (GMCs, yellow), medulla neurons (orange), lamina furrow and R axons (R1-6 terminate in the lamina, while ... These cells undergo asymmetric cell division in which one cell is maintained as a multipotent progenitor cell, while the other ... NE cells of the OOA proliferate by symmetric cell division. NE cells differentiate into medulla NBs and lamina precursor cells ...
asymmetric neuroblast division resulting in ganglion mother cell formation. GO:0055060. 2. 0.014. ... cell cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment. GO:0045168. 210. 0.094. ... negative regulation of terminal cell fate specification open tracheal system. GO:0035155. 2. 0.023. ... regulation of planar cell polarity pathway involved in axis elongation. GO:2000040. 2. 0.022. ...
This protocol details a streamlined method used to conduct live cell imaging in the context of an intact larval brain. Live ... NBs undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division (ACD) to produce two unequally fated cells: a self-renewing stem cell ... Doe, C. Q. Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system. ... Live cell imaging approaches are invaluable for the study of asymmetric neural stem cell divisions as well as other neurogenic ...
Each asymmetric neuroblast division generates a smaller progenitor, termed a ganglion mother cell (GMC), which usually divides ... Progression from extrinsic to intrinsic signaling in cell fate specification: a view from the nervous system. Cell 96,211 -224. ... Doe, C. Q. and Bowerman, B. (2001). Asymmetric cell division: fly neuroblast meets worm zygote. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13,68 - ... Jan, Y. N. and Jan, L. Y. (2001). Asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system.. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2,772 -779. ...
... mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. In ... basally located ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will differentiate into neurons or glia. The apical-basal polarity of the ... Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. One ... Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or ...
... divide asymmetrically to generate a new NB and an intermediate progenitor called ganglion mother cell (GMC) which divides only ... During the asymmetric division of NBs, the homeodomain transcription factor PROSPERO is segregated into the GMC where it plays ... in addition to its known role as cell fate determinant in GMCs, provides a transient signal to ensure a precise timing for cell ... once to generate two postmitotic cells called ganglion cells (GCs) that subsequently differentiate into neurons. ...
Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis ... In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic ... We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a ... and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a ...
With each division, the NB renews itself and generates a GMC, which divides via asymmetric cell division to generate two ... called a ganglion mother cell (GMC) (Figure 1A). Each GMC, in turn, divides terminally to form two neurons, each of which ... The fate of the CNS midline progenitors in Drosophila as revealed by a new method for single cell labelling ... Each NB divides repeatedly via asymmetric cell division to renew itself and to generate a secondary precursor cell, ...
Establishing a functional circuit involves multiple coordinated steps ranging from neural cell fate specification to proper... ... one neuroblast repeatedly undergoes asymmetric division, giving rise to a new neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell, which ... Below we review how cell-cell interactions and stochastic mechanisms specify R7 and R8 cell fates, as these cells have the best ... Current models suggest that cell fate specification of Drosophila photoreceptor cells involves a series of cell-cell ...
  • This cell contains a different set of genetic instructions (resulting in an alternative pattern of gene expression) and is characterized by a reduced proliferative capacity and more restricted developmental potential than its parent. (jci.org)
  • Zebrafish DeltaNp63 is a Direct Target of Bmp Signaling and Encodes a Transcriptional Repressor Blocking Neural Specification in the Ventral Ectoderm Developmental Cell. (jove.com)
  • We suggest using genome editing to mark homologous neural cells in the fly D. melanogaster , the beetle Tribolium castaneum , and the Mediterranean field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to investigate developmental differences leading to brain diversification. (springer.com)
  • However, the precise identity of cell(s) expressing these proteins and the functional contribution of small heat shock proteins in such developmental context remain to be determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In collaboration with colleagues at Stanford, I am working to develop induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of genetic disorders associated with developmental disability. (stanford.edu)
  • From spiral cleavage to bilateral symmetry: the developmental cell lineage of the annelid brain. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • By differentiating iPSCs to different cell types and stages, we can gain insights into developmental and disease driving molecular networks. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our analysis of labial function reveals a novel cell autonomous role of this Hox gene in shaping the lineage architecture of the brain during postembryonic development. (biologists.org)
  • In this biobytes podcast, Duke-NUS' very own Assoc Prof Wang Hongyan discusses her recent publication in Journal of Cell Biology that reports the role of ADP ribosylation factor like 2 ( arl2 ) and mini spindles ( msps ) genes in asymmetric cell division. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
  • In cells of a colon polyp, loss of APC function disables the destruction complex, leading to βcat accumulation, formation of βcat-TCF complexes, and activation of Wnt target genes such as the oncogene c-myc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Through microarray analysis, we uncovered the distinct molecular signatures that define and distinguish ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs during the critical period of axonal outgrowth and decussation, with more than 300 genes differentially expressed within these two cell populations. (eneuro.org)
  • Overexpression of multiple narcotic resistance genes in endothelial cells from patients with refractory epilepsy. (kavalerist.ru)
  • Together, our findings identify a key regulatory function of SoxF genes in muscle stem cells via direct transcriptional control and interaction with canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. (scicrunch.org)
  • The genetic analysis of the alpha Tub67C gene demonstrates that it is required for nuclear division in the oocyte and early embryo. (sdbonline.org)
  • During early development of the vertebrate embryo, neural fate is induced in the ectoderm by the underlying notochord. (embopress.org)
  • In amniotes, the cells of the morula are at first closely aggregated, but soon they become arranged into an outer or peripheral layer, the trophoblast , which does not contribute to the formation of the embryo proper, and an inner cell mass , from which the embryo is developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishing a functional circuit involves multiple coordinated steps ranging from neural cell fate specification to proper matching between pre- and post-synaptic partners. (springer.com)
  • The increasing availability of transcriptomic technologies within the last decade has facilitated high-throughput identification of gene expression differences that define distinct cell types as well as the molecular pathways that drive their specification. (eneuro.org)
  • Understanding genetic control of satellite cell formation, maintenance, and acquisition of their stem cell properties is on-going, and we have identified SOXF (SOX7, SOX17, SOX18) transcriptional factors as being induced during satellite cell specification. (scicrunch.org)
  • Both embryonic and larval NBs are polarized cells exhibiting strict division patterns crucial for their roles as stem cells. (rupress.org)
  • and soon after larval hatching, its cells start to proliferate and separate into an outer optic anlagen (OOA) and an inner optic anlagen (IOA) ( Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega, 1990 ). (biologists.org)
  • This protocol details a streamlined method used to conduct live cell imaging in the context of an intact larval brain. (jove.com)
  • About 100 neural stem cells are located near the surface of each of the two larval brain lobes, making this model system particularly useful for live imaging microscopy studies. (jove.com)
  • In the larval central brain, two types of NBs may be distinguished by their number, position, transcription factor expression, and cell lineage ( Figure 1A ) 4-6 . (jove.com)
  • Early reports revealing live NB cell divisions involve some degree of manual dissociation of the larval brain. (jove.com)
  • In this work, we review several approaches widely used to visualize stem cell divisions, and we address the relative advantages and disadvantages of those techniques that employ dissociated versus intact brain tissues. (jove.com)
  • During mammalian cerebral cortex development, neuroepithelial (NE) cells first undergo symmetric divisions to expand the pool of proliferating progenitor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In cultured mammalian cells, APC localizes to the cell cortex near the ends of microtubules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During this presentation, I will outline the history of this particular EM technique and describe different methodologies and key applications in cell biology with a particular emphasis on visualization of actin filament networks at the cell cortex. (u-psud.fr)
  • GABAARα2 is decreased in the axon initial segment of pyramidal cells in specific areas of the prefrontal cortex in autism. (ventricular.org)
  • Through human postmortem tissue analysis, we previously found a significant decrease in the number of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuron subtype, the chandelier (Ch) cell, in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with autism. (ventricular.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against the GABAA receptor subunit α2 (GABAARα2) - the subunit most prevalent in the Pyr cell AIS - revealed a significantly decreased percent area of GABAARα2 protein labeling in the Pyr cell AIS in supragranular layers of prefrontal cortex areas BA9 and BA47 in autism. (ventricular.org)
  • Downregulated GABAARα2 protein in the Pyr cell AIS may result from decreased GABA synthesis in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with autism, and thereby contribute to an excitation/inhibition imbalance. (ventricular.org)
  • RO4929097 is a γ secretase inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, inhibiting cellular processing of Aβ40 and Notch with EC50 of 14 nM and 5 nM, respectively. (selleckchem.com)
  • Our analysis suggests that one important role of DSL protein ubi by Mib1 is their release from cis-inhibitory interactions with Notch, enabling them to trans-activate Notch on adjacent cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • During signalling, the ligands must be endocytosed in the signal-sending cell to activate Notch in the signal-receiving one. (elifesciences.org)
  • Suppressing Notch signaling allows the daughter cells to react to the same signal in different ways, allowing them to have different neural fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • E, F) Examples of asymmetries between daughter cells that were introduced by asymmetric inheritance of differently aged centrioles and ciliary membrane (E), and Par3 and Notch signaling components (F). (embopress.org)
  • Embryonic development starts with the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum) by a sperm cell, (spermatozoon). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we present a method for purifying the sparse population of ipsilaterally projecting RGCs in mouse retina from their contralaterally projecting counterparts during embryonic development through rapid retrograde labeling followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (eneuro.org)
  • Stem cells are the building blocks of development and allow the maintenance and regeneration of tissues throughout the lifetime of an individual. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, adult stem cell populations are essential for both normal tissue homeostasis and repair of tissues after wounding or environmental insult. (biologists.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division in developing tissues takes place often and produces cell diversity. (readabstracts.com)
  • This ensures that tissues and organ systems develop to the correct size and contain the correct cell types for proper function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During vertebrate development, a wide variety of cell types and tissues emerge from a single fertilized oocyte. (embopress.org)
  • Few subjects in biomedical science have captured the imagination of both the scientific community and the public as has the use of stem cells for the repair of damaged tissues. (jci.org)
  • The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult easily accessible somatic tissues was introduced ten years ago. (thermofisher.com)
  • Stem cells play critical roles in the development of organisms, as well as in the maintenance and repair of organs and tissues throughout adulthood. (thermofisher.com)