Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Nerve Tissue ProteinsZygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... The pIIa cell divides to produce a bristle cell and a socket cell, while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial ... Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. One daughter cell, ... The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with distinct fates is dependent upon the distribution of Numb. Numb is ...
Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells. Nature Cell Biology 8: 677-687. ... 2007 High Incidence of Non-Random Template Strand Segregation and Asymmetric Fate Determination In Dividing Stem Cells and ... label-retaining cells as adult stem cells, these cells are difficult to identify unequivocally as adult stem cells. While the ... J. Cell Science 115: 2381-2388. Smith, G.H. 2005. Label-retaining epithelial cells in mouse mammary gland divide asymmetrically ...
... has also been implicated in regulation of cell fates through asymmetric cell division in the model organism C. ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 101: ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ...
This also results in asymmetric division, where Prospero localizes in only one out of the two daughter cells. After division, ... Neuroblasts differentiate from neural stem cells and are committed to the neuronal fate. The main difference between a ... and one cell that becomes the Ganglion Mother Cell (GMC), which goes on to divide into 4 differentiated cells (neurons or glia ... divides and becomes a transit amplifying cell. Transit amplifying cells are slightly more differentiated than neural stem cells ...
This asymmetric division of TRIM32 induces neuronal differentiation in daughter cells which contain high TRIM32 concentrations ... while cells with low TRIM32 concentrations retain progenitor cell fate. Proposed theories on how TRIM32 induces differentiation ... helps control the balance between differentiating and progenitor cells by localizing to a pole during progenitor cell division ... In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate daughter cells which either differentiate into specific neurons or ...
The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a ... Many of the neuroepithelial cells also divide into radial glial cells, a similar, but more fate restricted cell. Being a more ... During neuroepithelial cell division, interkinetic nuclear migration allows the cells to divide unrestricted while maintaining ... Neuroepithelial cells undergo mitosis generating more neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells or progenitor cells, the latter ...
... a type of cell-cell interaction. Specifically, during asymmetric cell division one daughter cell adopts a particular fate that ... amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells in order to reach the photoreceptors rod cells which absorb light. The rods ... Amacrine cells also produce lateral inhibition to bipolar cells and ganglion cells to perform various visual computations ... be transmitted by the rod cells in the center of the Ganglion cell receptive field to ganglion cells because horizontal cells ...
MSI2 is linked to tissue stem cells and has an influence in asymmetric cell division, germ and somatic stem cell function and ... "Regulation of myeloid leukaemia by the cell-fate determinant Musashi". Nature. 466 (7307): 765-8. doi:10.1038/nature09171. PMC ... including stem cells, and both normal and leukemic blood cells. Musashi2 also appears to be expressed in stem cells and in a ... more commonly in the most primitive cells. These are the LSK cells, which are composed by long-term hematopoietic stem cells ( ...
At a certain point, a neuroblast will undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to a neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. ... The daughter cells of a neuroblast have two decidedly different neural fates. This is accomplished by neural fate determinants ... Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one ... While each ganglion mother cell necessarily gives rise to two neurons, a neuroblast can asymmetrically divide multiple times. ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ... from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. In the ...
This asymmetric cell division usually occurs early in embryogenesis. Positive feedback can create asymmetry from homogeneity. ... These processes are cell proliferation, cell specialization, cell interaction and cell movement. Each cell in the embryo ... If a cell is in a determined state, the cell's fate cannot be reversed or transformed. In general, this means that a cell ... This technique of fate mapping is used to study cells as they differentiate into their final cell fates. Merely observing a ...
Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica. J. Biosci. 40: 921-927. ... During cell division, organelles divide synchronously before nuclear division. Cell division is aided by a phycoplast, which is ... The asymmetric division of daughter cells results in the unequal division of both cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Scientists believe ... Asymmetric cell division clearly plays an important role in the production of phenotypically diverse cells in multicellular ...
... promotes Notch signaling during the asymmetric division of Drosophila sensory organ precursors". Dev Cell. 9: 351-63. doi: ... "The Arp2/3 complex and WASp are required for apical trafficking of Delta into microvilli during cell fate specification of ... "dEHBP1 controls exocytosis and recycling of Delta during asymmetric divisions". J Cell Biol. 196: 65-83. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Cell. 133: 963-77. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.039. PMC 2494862 . PMID 18555774. Sandoval H, Yao CK, Chen K, Jaiswal M, Donti T ...
Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture Cell culture ... in which the receptor-expressing cell adopts one fate and its neighbors another. In addition to defining asymmetric axes in the ... asymmetric cell division, in which two daughter cells receive different amounts of cellular material (e.g. mRNA, proteins), 2) ... cell migration, cell-cell signalling and fertilization. Cell polarity is an example of the self-organization property that all ...
... asymmetric segregation (as needed for asymmetric cell division), differential splicing and/or translational control. The ... germ plasm organelle encapsulating the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope of the cells destined to the germline fate. The ... Granules are one of the non-living cell organelle of plant cell(the others-vacuole and nucleoplasm). It serves as small ... The granules of certain cells, such as natural killer cells, contain components which can lead to the lysis of neighboring ...
In symmetric cell division, both daughter cells are also stem cells. In asymmetric division, a stem cells produces one stem ... ESCs are not limited to a particular cell fate; rather they have the capability to differentiate into any cell type. Neural ... They undergo symmetric or asymmetric cell division into two daughter cells. ... Once activated, the Type B cells develop into Type C cells, active proliferating intermediate cells, which then divide into ...
"Rotation and asymmetry of the mitotic spindle direct asymmetric cell division in the developing central nervous system". Nature ... "Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes". Development. 118 (2): 401-415. ... Neural stem cells divide in a self-renewing manner, generating daughter cells that give rise to different types of neurons. The ... One protein, known by the name Prospero, is responsible for regulating stem cells to produce cells which produce neurons. ...
Asymmetric division[edit]. The first divisions of the progenitor cells are symmetric, which duplicates the total number of ... "Epigenetic control on cell fate choice in neural stem cells". Protein & Cell. 3 (4): 278-290. doi:10.1007/s13238-012-2916-6. ... At first, this zone contains neural stem cells, that transition to radial glial cells-progenitor cells, which divide to produce ... Then, some progenitor cells begin to divide asymmetrically, producing one postmitotic cell that migrates along the radial glial ...
... glia dedifferentiate and undergo a single asymmetric division to produce a neural progenitor cell and a new Muller glia cell. ... regulates differentiation and cell fate determination maintains Muller glial quiescence N-cadherin mediates cell-cell ... The signal goes first to the bipolar and horizontal cells (yellow layer), then to the amacrine cells and ganglion cells (purple ... "Nature Cell Biology. 12: 1101-1107. doi:10.1038/ncb2115. PMC 2972404.. *^ Wan, J; Ramachandran, R; Goldman, D (2012). "HB-EGF ...
... divisions that give rise to daughter cells with distinct developmental fates. Asymmetric cell divisions can occur because of ... this cell divides into identical cells. In humans, approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell ... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ... Kirk MM, A Ransick, SE Mcrae, DL Kirk; The relationship between cell size and cell fate in Volvox carteri. Journal of Cell ...
... is the process that produces a plant embryo from a fertilized ovule by asymmetric cell division and the ... The globular embryo can be thought of as two layers of inner cells with distinct developmental fates; the apical layer will go ... Embryogenesis involves cell growth and division, cell differentiation and programmed cellular death. The zygotic embryo is ... Following fertilization, the zygote undergoes an asymmetrical cell division that gives rise to a small apical cell, which ...
... within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. The ... The SSCs divide with their GSC partner, and their non-mitotic progeny, the somatic cyst cells (SCCs, a.k.a. cyst cells) will ... "Dpp Signaling Silences bam Transcription Directly to Establish Asymmetric Divisions of Germline Stem Cells". Current Biology. ... The GSC niche consists of necessary somatic cells-terminal filament cells, cap cells, escort cells, and other stem cells which ...
... into JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies is a means by which mammalian cells can be rejuvenated through asymmetric division. Thus, ... The fate of misfolded proteins and the process leading to the formation of aggregate inclusions, were initially studied using ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... "Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of ...
The asymmetric division of epigenetic information during these first two cleavages, and the orientation and order in which they ... factors is amplified into a feedback loop that specifies outside cells to a TE fate and inside cells to an ICM fate. In the ... Role of Cdx2 and cell polarity in cell allocation and specification of trophectoderm and inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. ... In mice, about 12 internal cells comprise the new inner cell mass and 20 - 24 cells comprise the surrounding trophectoderm. ...
... cell behaviors driving cell fate choice and morphogenesis in the early mouse embryo". Genesis. 51 (4): 219-33. doi:10.1002/dvg. ... Mitotic germ stem cells, oogonia, divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes committed to meiosis. Unlike sperm production, ... Meiosis is asymmetric producing polar bodies and oocytes with large amounts of material for embryonic development.[citation ... Germ cell Germ cell tumor Richardson BE, Lehmann R (January 2010). "Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.) ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.) ...
... is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).[2] Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. Homologous ...
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. For cancer to develop, genes regulating cell growth and differentiation must be altered; these mutations are then maintained through subsequent cell divisions and are thus present in all cancerous cells. Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. In the context of cancer, gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. The information derived from gene expression profiling often helps in predicting the patient's clinical outcome. Oncogenesis is the process by which normal cells acquire the properties of cancer cells leading to the formation of a cancer or tumor (see: tumorigenesis). It is ...
... or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae. The genes located in mitochondria and chloroplasts are very important for proper cellular function, yet the genomes replicate independently of the DNA located in the nucleus, which is typically arranged in chromosomes that only replicate one time preceding cellular division. The extranuclear genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts however replicate independently of ...
A synchronous or synchronized culture is a microbiological culture or a cell culture that contains cells that are all in the same growth stage. As numerous factors influence the cell cycle (some of them stochastic) normal cultures have cells in all stages of the cell cycle. Obtaining a culture with a unified cell-cycle stage is useful for biological research where a particular stage in the cell cycle is desired (such as the culturing of parasitized cells). Since cells are too small for certain research techniques, a synchronous culture can be treated as a single cell; the number of cells in the culture can be easily estimated, and ...
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue. Hence, it is a cluster of cells that has grouped together to form a sac (not unlike the manner in which water molecules group together, forming a bubble); however, the distinguishing aspect of a cyst is that the cells forming the "shell" of such a sac are distinctly abnormal (in both appearance and behaviour) when compared with all surrounding cells for that given location. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, sometimes a cyst may resolve on its own. When a cyst fails to resolve, it may need to be removed surgically, but that would depend upon its type and location. Cancer-related cysts are formed as a defense mechanism for the body, following the development of mutations that lead to an uncontrolled ...
Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during cellular division by inhibiting chromosome segregation during meiosis; half the resulting gametes, therefore, contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid, as gametes usually are), and lead to embryos with double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., tetraploid instead of diploid). While this would be fatal in most higher animal cells, in plant cells it is not only usually well tolerated, but also frequently results in larger, hardier, faster-growing, and in general more desirable plants than the normally diploid parents; for this reason, this type of genetic manipulation is frequently used in breeding plants commercially.. When such a tetraploid plant ...
Cell polarity factors positioned at the cell tips provide spatial cues to limit Cdr2 distribution to the cell middle. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1.[8] The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family of kinases, localizes to cell ends. In Pom1 knockout cells, Cdr2 was no longer restricted to the cell middle, but was seen diffusely through half of the cell. From this data it becomes apparent that Pom1 provides inhibitory signals that confine Cdr2 to the middle of the cell. ...
A liga foi fundada sob o nome de United States International Soccer League, após a mudança do nome da United States Interregional Soccer League (USISL). Seu primeiro compeão foi o Long Island Rough Riders, que derrotou o Minnesota Thunder na final.[3] Entre 1995 e 2010 a liga recebeu vários nomes, USISL D-3 Pro League, USL D3 Pro League, USL Pro Select League, USL Pro Soccer League e USL Second Division. Em 2010 o surgimento da nova North American Soccer League, a USL First Division ficaria com apenas três times.[4] Com isso a United States Soccer Federation (USSF) sancionou que nenhuma das duas ligas iria ser disputada em 2010 e ordenou que as duas entrassem em acordo. No dia 10 de janeiro de 2010, a USSF anunciou a extinção da USL-1 para a criação da USSF D2 Pro League.[5] No dia 8 de setembro de 2010 foi anunciada a criação da USL Pro, que seria a junção da USL First Division com a USL Second Division, iniciando em 2011.[6][7] ...
DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of cancer.[9][10] More than 60,000 new naturally occurring DNA damages arise, on average, per human cell, per day, due to endogenous cellular processes (see article DNA damage (naturally occurring)). Additional DNA damages can arise from exposure to exogenous agents. As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking.[11] In other examples, UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma,[12] helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and contributes to gastric cancer,[13] and the Aspergillus metabolite, aflatoxin, is a DNA damaging agent that is causative in liver cancer.[14] DNA damages can also be caused by endogenous (naturally occurring) agents. Macrophages and neutrophils in an inflamed ...
Odes, Edward J.; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S.; Steyn, Maryna; Throckmorton, Zach; Smilg, Jacqueline S.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Augustine, Tanya N.; Beer, Frikkie de; Hoffman, Jakobus W.; Franklin, Ryan D.; Berger, Lee R.; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Forensic and Applied; Lancashire, University of Central; Kingdom, United; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Medicine, De Busk College of Osteopathic; University, Lincoln Memorial; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; ...
L'edizione 1896-97 della First Division è stato il nono campionato di calcio inglese, che vide la vittoria finale dell'Aston Villa. Capocannoniere del torneo fu Steve Bloomer (Derby County), con 22 reti. ...
... cells in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes frequently depends on asymmetric localization of regulatory factors prior to division ... The periodicity of DNA replication, cell division, and, in Caulobacter, cell cycle-dependent morphological and behavioral ... Microbial cells are able to monitor changes in their environment, detect changes in cell density, and communicate with each ... The initially motile swarmer cell progeny sheds its flagellum and differentiates into a nonmotile stalked cell. In addition to ...
cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. pre. ; (2) y. a. cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. post. ; (3) x. b. cells ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ... suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through ... Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate. Kim Pham, Raz Shimoni, Mirren Charnley, Mandy J. ...
Stem cell divisions in Arabidopsis roots are asymmetric. Each root stem cell division gives rise to a new stem cell and a ... Role of SCHIZORIZA in asymmetric cell division, cell fate segregation and specification in Arabidopsis root development. DSpace ... This study aims to contribute a deeper understanding of asymmetric cell division and fate segregation. The SCZ target genes ... 2010, Pernas, Ryan & Dolan 2010). This makes it an intriguing factor for studying asymmetric cell division and fate ...
Tox4 modulates cell fate reprogramming. Lotte Vanheer, Juan Song, Natalie De Geest, Adrian Janiszewski, Irene Talon, Caterina ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ...
Tox4 modulates cell fate reprogramming. Lotte Vanheer, Juan Song, Natalie De Geest, Adrian Janiszewski, Irene Talon, Caterina ... Stem cells in adult tissues share two defining characteristics - cell division is self-renewing and asymmetric. In the ... Jan, Y. N. and Jan, L. Y. (2001). Asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2,772 -779. ... Lin, H. and Spradling, A. C. (1997). A novel group of pumilio mutations affects the asymmetric division of germline stem cells ...
Asymmetric division of contractile domains couples cell positioning and fate specification. *Jean-Léon Maître ... Skin stem cells, but not their progenitors, are able to form tumours owing to the ability of oncogene-targeted stem cells to ... and genetic and experimental manipulation of cell contractile components is used to analyse the formation of the inner cell ... A subset of dorsal clock neurons are identified in Drosophila as sleep-promoting cells, which participate in a feedback loop ...
J Cell Sci. 2019 Oct 24;133(5). pii: jcs235358. doi: 10.1242/jcs.235358. ... Notch signalling frequently facilitates fate determination. Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch ... A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells.. Charnley M1,2,3, Ludford- ... Contrary to prevailing models, we demonstrate that Notch signalling controls the distribution of Notch1 itself and cell fate ...
Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell ... maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem cells have been extensively studied in most malignancies, ... maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem cells have been extensively studied in most malignancies, ... molecular mechanisms and properties of the neighboring cells can influence the molecular processes behind glioma stem cell ...
During SOP division, the determinants Numb and Neuralized segregate into the pIIb daughter cell and establish a distinct cell ... fate by regulating Notch/Delta signaling. Here, we describe a Num … ... cells are a well-studied model system for asymmetric cell division. ... cells are a well-studied model system for asymmetric cell division. During SOP division, the determinants Numb and Neuralized ...
This asymmetric cell division usually occurs early in embryogenesis. Positive feedback can create asymmetry from homogeneity. ... These processes are cell proliferation, cell specialization, cell interaction and cell movement. Each cell in the embryo ... If a cell is in a determined state, the cells fate cannot be reversed or transformed. In general, this means that a cell ... This technique of fate mapping is used to study cells as they differentiate into their final cell fates. Merely observing a ...
Asymmetric Division and Segregation of Cell Fate in the Stomatal Lineage. Stomatal development serves as a model to study de ... After asymmetric cell division, POLAR-GFP is upregulated in only one of the daughter cells, which is predictive of the cell ... Those protodermal cells that did not undergo asymmetric entry division but underwent pavement cell differentiation or, ... 2009). Plant asymmetric cell division, vive la différence! Cell 137: 1189-1192. ...
Asymmetric division is an evolutionarily conserved process that generates daughter cells with different fates through the ... Top: Basic motif of asymmetric division in normal development. The apical localization of aPKC in the dividing stem cell ... Middle, Bottom: Subversion of asymmetric division during oncogenesis.. Balanced symmetric and asymmetric divisions allow ... Fearful symmetry: subversion of asymmetric division in cancer development and progression.. Bajaj J1, Zimdahl B1, Reya T2. ...
2009) Linking asymmetric cell division to the terminal differentiation program of postmitotic neurons in C. elegans. Dev Cell ... 2008) Mechanisms of asymmetric cell division: flies and worms pave the way. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:355-366. ... These three cells descend from a single progenitor, the ray precursor cell, through several rounds of asymmetric division ... 2010) Wnt signaling controls the stem cell-like asymmetric division of the epithelial seam cells during C. elegans larval ...
Notch signaling acts before cell division to promote asymmetric cleavage and cell fate of neural precursor cells ... Signaling by Notch is involved early in the precursor cell to regulate asymmetric cell division and cleavage. ... Notch signaling acts early to promote asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neural precursor cells. ... Online Cover This week features a Research Article that shows a role for Notch signaling in the asymmetric division of neural ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ... from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. In the ...
Guo, M., Jan, L. Y. and Jan, Y. N. ( 1996). Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and ... distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to daughter cells. Cell ... the IIb cell). In contrast, in the loss-of-function msi mutants, the SOP fails to undergo asymmetric cell division and instead ... Abbreviations: G, Glia; N, Neuron; Sf, shaft cell; Sh, Sheath cell; So, Socket cell; SOP, sensory organ precursor cell. ...
1997) Asymmetric cell division and cell fate in plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:842-848, pmid:9425349.. ... unevenly distributed among daughter cells upon each cell division. It is postulated that each stem cell division is asymmetric ... The most simple hypothesis is that daughter cells are endowed with different cell fates via asymmetric cell divisions (Fig. 8 ... 1994) Asymmetric distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to ...
Palmitoylation-dependent asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants correlates with tumor cell heterogeneity. ... Palmitoylation-dependent asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants correlates with tumor cell heterogeneity. ... The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ... The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ...
Cytokine receptor-Eb1 interaction couples cell polarity and fate during asymmetric cell division Cuie Chen et al. ... Cell Biology A new class of cyclin dependent kinase in Chlamydomonas is required for coupling cell size to cell division Yubing ... Asymmetric cell division is linked to cell-specific transcription by handoff of a key developmental regulator from the ... Asymmetric division triggers cell-specific gene expression through coupled capture and stabilization of a phosphatase Niels ...
Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. One ... Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ... that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. ... Several aspects of intrinsic polarity contribute to asymmetric division of NBs: 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the ...
... the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and ... Inner Cell Mass Asymmetric Division Cell Fate Decision Lineage Bias Inner Cell Mass Cell These keywords were added by machine ... Resolution of cell fate decisions revealed by single-cell gene expression analysis from zygote to blastocyst. Dev Cell 18:675- ... Ralston A, Rossant J (2008) Cdx2 acts downstream of cell polarization to cell-autonomously promote trophectoderm fate in the ...
ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing... ... Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ... Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric ... Gonczy P (2008) Mechanisms of asymmetric cell division: flies and worms pave the way. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9(5):355-366. doi: ...
Asymmetric PI3K signaling driving developmental and regenerative cell fate bifurcation. Cell Reports. 13:2203-2218. doi:10.1016 ... Cutting edge: Asymmetric memory T cell division in response to rechallenge. J. Immunol. 188:4145-4148. doi:10.4049/jimmunol. ... Cell culture. Naive WT CD4+ T cells purified by magnetic cell separation were labeled with CTV, and 5 × 105 cells were cultured ... T cell clonal selection distinguished by cell division, TCF1 expression, and anatomical localization. TCF1hi cells had a less ...
Immobilized Chemical Inducers of Differentiation (iCID) and asymmetric cell division: In living organisms, it is often the ... that determines the cell fate. My lab develops multiple approaches for controlling spatial gradients of biomolecules in cells ... and differentiation of cells during cell division (aka, asymmetric division). Specifically, we investigate the differentiation ... 2) Our lab uses genetically-encoded libraries to develop materials that control differentiation of cells (see iCID). (3) We are ...
ASYMMETRIC CELL DIVISION IN PLANTS.. Asymmetric cell divisions generate cells with different fates. ... Dynamics of the SHR-SCR Network Controlling Asymmetric Cell Division. *Arabidopsis 2010: Regulatory Networks Controlling Root ... Auxin minimum triggers the developmental switch from cell division to cell differentiation in the Arabidopsis root.. In ... Characterizing gene regulatory network dynamics controlling asymmetric cell division. *Determining Interaction Parameters of ...
  • Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. (frontiersin.org)
  • To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review article covers the current knowledge regarding normal and aberrant cellular quiescence control whilst also exploring how different molecular mechanisms and properties of the neighboring cells can influence the molecular processes behind glioma stem cell quiescence. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell quiescence is not only a dormant state but instead an effectively maintained and directed condition, while several molecular pathways permit the quick re-entry into the cell cycle ( Cheung and Rando, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The development of new molecular tools including GFP, and major advances in imaging technology including fluorescence microscopy, have made possible the mapping of the cell lineage of Caenorhabditis elegans including its embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the addition of molecular manipulation techniques, including gene and protein knock downs, knock outs and overexpression, along with live cell imaging techniques has been transformational in understanding what mechanisms are involved with cell fate determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our work reveals molecular constituents of stomatal stem cells and illuminates a common theme among stem cell populations in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • These barriers all restrict molecular exchanges between the mother cell and its bud, and thereby compartmentalize the cell already long before its division. (europa.eu)
  • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For a cell in an embryo, the secret to becoming part of the baby's body instead of the placenta is to contract more and to carry on dancing, scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have found. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Brian Kobilka , MD, professor of molecular and cellular physiology: His pioneering X-ray crystallographic studies have revealed how the binding of a hormone to the extracellular pocket on a G-protein coupled receptor is transmitted across the cell membrane to trigger a signaling cascade. (stanford.edu)
  • Here we present recent advances in our understanding of molecular controls of cell division and expansion, particularly as mediated through the dynamic functions of the plant cytoskeleton and via analysis of mutants. (springer.com)
  • Even though asymmetric cell division has long been proposed to exist in planarians, our study provides the first direct molecular evidence of its existence," says Lei. (phys.org)
  • During the past several decades, due to the development of new molecular techniques and tools, advances in optical microscopy, and availability of whole genome information and mutants in the model plant Arabidopsis and other plants, great advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in cell fate determination in plants. (doabooks.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that proteasome activity is an important regulator of CD8+ T cell fate and raise the possibility that increasing proteasome activity may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance the generation of memory lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are best characterized in two brain regions, the ventricular zone (VZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). (iospress.com)
  • Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. (jove.com)
  • Metastasis is a process in which tumor cells shed from the primary tumor intravasate blood vascular and lymphatic system, thereby, gaining access to extravasate and form a secondary niche. (jove.com)
  • The extravasation of tumor cells from the blood vascular system can be studied using endothelial cells (ECs) and tumor cells obtained from different cell lines. (jove.com)
  • However, to observe and study interactions with rare cells such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), certain changes are required to be made to the conventional flow chamber assembly. (jove.com)
  • By regulating cell growth, death, and immortalization, TGF β signaling pathways exert tumor suppressor effects in normal cells and early carcinomas. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there has been increasing emphasis on the interaction of breast cancer cells with their microenvironment, less attention has been placed on understanding the potential of cell-cell and paracrine interactions within the heterogeneous tumor environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This niche may be composed of either additional tumor cells or cells from the microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells, or both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given that different cellular subpopulations can show large differences in regenerative behavior and treatment response, both within a given tumor and across a collection of tumors, a better understanding of the relationships among the different cell subpopulations within breast cancers will be critical to the development of new and improved therapeutics. (biomedcentral.com)