Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Mice, Inbred C57BLMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Chamaecyparis: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.HLA-B14 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*14 allele family.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.HLA-DR Serological Subtypes: HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.HLA-DP Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 18.104.22.168.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Babesia bovis: A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cryptomeria: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.
Linear epitopes are formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids in a protein, while conformational epitopes are composed of ... of epitopes can also help elucidate the mechanism of binding for an antibody and facilitate the prediction of B cell epitopes ... As a result, mAb epitopes on these types of targets are often conformational, making them difficult to map. Epitope mapping has ... Epitope mapping is also crucial to developing vaccines against prevalent viral diseases such as Dengue virus. Epitope mapping ...
... and then later with T cell receptors through amino acids that are continuous in a line. These are known as linear epitopes. ... Antigen Linear epitope Epitope mapping, finding (on an antigen protein) the epitope(s) for a specific antibody Goldsby, Richard ... A conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in direct contact with ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only paratope of the receptor that comes in contact with the epitope. ...
A linear epitope is formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids from the antigen. T cell epitopes are presented on the ... an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. MHC ... A database of B-cell epitopes SYFPEITHI - First online database of T cell epitopes IEDB - Database of T and B cell epitopes ... T cell epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules are typically peptides between 8 and 11 amino acids in length, whereas MHC ...
Kohsaka H, Yamamoto K, Fujii H, Miura H, Miyasaka N, Nishioka K, Miyamoto T (May 1990). "Fine epitope mapping of the human SS-B ... Rauh AJ, Hornig H, Lührmann R (December 1988). "At least three distinct B cell epitopes reside in the C-terminal half of La ... Chambers JC, Kenan D, Martin BJ, Keene JD (December 1988). "Genomic structure and amino acid sequence domains of the human La ... Sturgess AD, Peterson MG, McNeilage LJ, Whittingham S, Coppel RL (May 1988). "Characteristics and epitope mapping of a cloned ...
... antibody epitope mapping, the identification of peptide substrates, the identification of cell-binding peptides and vaccine ... bacterial display systems are used to express known epitopes and the cells act as a vaccine delivery system. Under similar ... A disadvantage of using fimbriae is that there is a relatively small insert size limit of 10-30 amino acids. Once the ... Antibody epitope mapping is used to find the specificity of an antibody. The epitope (antibody binding site of antigens) is ...
There are also tools which are used for T and B cell epitope mapping, proteasomal cleavage site prediction, and TAP- peptide ... has initiated an endeavor for systematic mapping of B and T cell epitopes of category A-C pathogens. These pathogens include ... According to the Codex alimentarius, a protein is potentially allergenic if it possesses an identity of ≥6 contiguous amino ... Mehr R, Segel L, Sharp A, Globerson A (October 1994). "Colonization of the thymus by T cell progenitors: models for cell-cell ...
Cell. 53 (6): 937-47. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(88)90469-2. PMID 2454748. Retrieved 2010-03-06. Orlando V (March 2000). "Mapping ... particularly as the cross-links are likely to involve lysine e-amino groups in the N-terminals, disrupting the epitopes. This ... This is because antibodies have to be generated for each TF, or, alternatively, transgenic model organisms expressing epitope- ... XChIP is for mapping target sites of transcription factors and other chromatin associated proteins; NChIP is for mapping target ...
2011). "Polyclonal B cell responses to conserved neutralization epitopes in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals". Journal of ... 2009). "Development of a novel peptide microarray for large-scale epitope mapping of food allergens". Journal of Allergy and ... Amino acids are immobilized within toner particles, and the peptides are printed onto the chip surface in consecutive, ... to map an antibody epitope or to find key residues for protein binding. Practical applications are seromarker discovery, ...
"Comprehensive mapping of HLA-A0201-restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes on PDC-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 36 (5): ... epitope mapping of antibodies to PDC-E2 in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... Braun S, Berg C, Buck S, Gregor M, Klein R (Feb 2010). "Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by ...
These maps can show how changes in amino acids can alter the binding of an antibody to virus particle and help to analyze the ... reassortment of the viral genome that occurs when a single host cells is infected with two viral cells. As the viral cells go ... "Proximal glycans outside of the epitopes regulate the presentation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 helper epitopes". Journal of ... In individuals who express a protective HLA B*27 allele, the first mutation that occurs in the Gag epitope KK10 is at position ...
Prediction of Conformational B-cell epitope in a sequence from its amino acid sequence. DesiRM: Designing of Complementary and ... of an antigen with additional information such as B and T-cell epitopes, MHC binding, function, gene-expression and post ... The salient features of Hmrbase are hormone-receptor pair-related information, mapping of peptide stretches on the protein ... Ansari, HR; Raghava, Gajendra PS (2010). "Identification of conformational B-cell Epitopes in an antigen from its primary ...
"Vasostatin-1 antigenic epitope mapping for induction of cellular and humoral immune responses to chromogranin A autoantigen in ... molecule have a higher degree of amino acid homology and methods where the antibodies are directed against specific epitopes ... enterochromaffin-like cells and beta cells of the pancreas. It is present in islet beta cell secretory granules. Chromogranin A ... Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, ...
Its epitope straddles β-strands A and G of ED3 as does the epitope of 1A1D-2. The structures at 2.0 Å resolution have enabled ... NS2B3-b protease complex is a proteolytic core consisting of the last 40 amino acids of NS2B and the first 180 amino acids of ... virus replication and protection from cell death require ER stress (PERK) pathway activation". Cell Death and Disease. 7 (e2127 ... Some of the epitopes are partially or totally inaccessible in the known structure of the mature virion. The corresponding ...
The MHC I:peptide complex is then inserted via endoplasmic reticulum into the external plasma membrane of the cell. The epitope ... "Have we cut ourselves too short in mapping CTL epitopes?". Trends in Immunology. 27 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1016/j.it.2005.11.001. ... MHC class I molecules bind peptides that are predominantly 8-10 amino acid in length (Parham 87), but the binding of longer ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ...
Dammerman M, Yen SH, Shafit-Zagardo B (1990). "Sequence of a human MAP-2 region sharing epitopes with Alzheimer neurofibrillary ... Kosik KS, Orecchio LD, Bakalis S, Duffy L, Neve RL (1988). "Partial sequence of MAP2 in the region of a shared epitope with ... Obar RA, Dingus J, Bayley H, Vallee RB (1990). "The RII subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase binds to a common amino- ... Snásel J, Pichová I (1997). "The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease". Folia Biol. (Praha). 42 (5): 227-30. doi: ...
El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2017). In silico prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins. In: Y. Zhou, E ... Y. and Honavar, V. (2014). Building Classifier Ensembles for B-Cell Epitope Prediction. In: De, R.K. and Tomar, N. (Ed). ... Koul, N. and Honavar, V. (2010). Learning in the Presence of Ontology Mapping Errors. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM ... Yan, C., Terribilini, M., Wu, F., Jernigan, R.L., Dobbs, D. and Honavar, V. (2006) Identifying amino acid residues involved in ...
... p38 MAP kinase activation by CD3 negative cells (Lamina proxima mononuclear cells) and CD83 on dendritic cells Maiuri L, Ciacci ... containing 4 epitopes was 68 amino acids in length. Triticeae glutelins presented by DQ2 is some coeliacs. In wheat, the low ... "Antagonists and non-toxic variants of the dominant wheat gliadin T cell epitope in coeliac disease". Gut. 55 (4): 485-91. doi: ... These cells cause B-cells that recognize gliadin to proliferate. The B-cells mature into plasma cells producing anti-gliadin ...
The authors modeled influenza's hemagglutinin as four epitopes, each consisting of three amino acids. They showed that under ... These sites are referred to as epitope sites. Phylogenetic analysis of H3N2 influenza has shown that putative epitope sites of ... Phylodynamic approaches have mapped the geographic movement of the human influenza virus and quantified the epidemic spread of ... Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or ...
The mRNA from human erythroblasts is ~1.4 kilobases long and the transcription start site in erythroid cells has been mapped to ... which carries the Ge3 epitope and gamma Ls(a) which carries both the Ge2 and Ge3 epitopes. This antigen is also known as the Rs ... Glycophorin C (GPC) is a single polypeptide chain of 128 amino acids and is encoded by a gene on the long arm of chromosome 2 ( ... The abnormally shaped cells are known as elliptocytes or cameloid cells. The basis for this phenotype was first reported by ...
"Identification of human autoantibodies to the DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 complex and mapping of an autoimmune epitope to a potential ... distinct gene segments in germ-line DNA to produce the unique protein domains of immune cells, B cells and T cells, that will ... A common conserved motif is typically found to be a target of SUMO modification, ΨKXE (where Ψ is a bulky, hydrophobic amino ... "one of the autoimmune epitopes in XRCC4 coincides with a sequence that is a nexus for radiation-induced regulatory events", it ...
MHC class I occurs on all nucleated cells and also in platelets-in essence all cells but red blood cells. It presents epitopes ... On the cell's surface, the epitope can contact its cognate region on immunologic structures recognizing that epitope. That ... MHC Sequencing Consortium (1999). "Complete sequence and gene map of a human major histocompatibility complex". Nature. 401 ( ... The genetically encoded and expressed sequence of amino acids, the sequence of residues, of the peptide-binding groove's floor ...
They account for 1-2% of total protein in unstressed cells. However, when cells are heated, the fraction of heat shock proteins ... Amino acids that are directly involved in the interaction with ATP are Leu34, Asn37, Asp79, Asn92, Lys98, Gly121, and Phe124. ... Fontana J, Fulton D, Chen Y, Fairchild TA, McCabe TJ, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Sessa WC (May 2002). "Domain mapping studies reveal ... The decapeptide EP6 (380-389)is a major immunogenic epitope of HSP90 followed by EP1 (1-12) and EP8 (488-498). Knowledge of ...
Nyambi, P. N.; Gorny, M. K.; Bastiani, L.; van der Groen, G.; Williams, C.; Zolla-Pazner, S. (1998-11-01). "Mapping of epitopes ... This discovery led her to develop methods to generate anti-HIV human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the blood cells of HIV- ... isolated a mAb with strong neutralizing potency targeting a complex epitope composed of V2 and V3. Her lab also described how ... antibodies to V2 and V3 could bind and neutralize viruses from all over the globe, despite extreme variations in amino acid ...
J Med Vet Mycol 32: 77]. Its T cell epitope was mapped to a 15-amino acid peptide (P10). Peptide 10 not only stimulates the in ... Glycobiology 6: 507]. Besides carrying B cell epitopes the gp43 also mediates cellular immune reactions [Rodrigues & Travassos ... SYNTHESIS AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF A BRANCHED PEPTIDE CONSTRUCTION CARRYING THE T CELL EPITOPE OF Paracoccidioides ... lysyl branched-multiple tetrapeptide M10 composed of a total of 56 amino acid residues and reaching a molecular weight of more ...
Amino acid sequence of β-lactamase from E. cloacae. The first amino acid of each synthetic peptide used for epitope mapping is ... β-Lactamase was found to contain four CD4+ T-cell epitopes. For two of these epitopes, we identified single amino acid changes ... Determination of CD4+ T-Cell Epitopes. CD4+ T-cell peptide epitope determinants were identified using community donor blood as ... T-cell epitopes using an in vitro assay (19). Subsequently, several CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the β-lactamase sequence were ...
Here, we develop a vaccine formulation based on two chimeric antigens containing epitopes of OmpT, Cah and Hes proteins against ... epitope mapping, ELISA) to predict and identify linear B-cell epitopes, respectively (Fig. 1). Previous studies have also ... Validation of epitopes by ELISA assay. Seventeen short peptides from 15 to 24 amino acids (Table 1) containing linear B-cell ... In silico prediction of B-cell and T-cell epitopes. Prediction of B-cell epitopes was done using several tools available at the ...
Use of Interferon-γ Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay to Characterize Novel T-cell Epitopes of Human Papillomavirus… ... Opuni, K. F., et al. Mass spectrometric epitope mapping. Mass Spectrom Rev. (2016). ... Conti-Tronconi, B. M., et al. Alpha-bungarotoxin and the competing antibody WF6 interact with different amino acids within the ... Chen, C. W., Wu, M. S., Huang, Y. J., Cheng, C. A., Chang, C. Y. Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat ...
Epitope Mapping Using Cell-surface Display. Mapping using cell-surface display was performed as described elsewhere (28). ... 3 and 4). In general, the epitopes were from 5 to 10 amino acids long (range from 4 to 12 amino acids; Fig. 5). The epitopes ... Epitope context and structure. Epitopes identified by the peptide microarray approach and reported in Fig. 4 were mapped onto ... Two alternative epitope mapping approaches identified similar, although not necessarily identical, epitopes. These results show ...
Electron crystallography and a projection map of P66 crystals at 2.2 nm resolution revealed tetragonal unit cell symmetry with ... The membrane-spanning architecture of P13 was determined by epitope mapping and computer-based structural predictions which ... Amino Acid, Species Specificity National Category Cell and Molecular Biology Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12966 (URN) ... The predicted surface-exposed domains are the most heterogeneous regions and contain probable epitopes of P13. The membrane- ...
We next investigated the epitopes of CLDN-5 recognized by the anti-CLDN-5 mAbs by swapping amino acids 26-78 in ECL1 and amino ... Epitope mapping of the generated anti-CLDN-5 antibodies. (A) Schematic illustration of the human CLDN-5/CLDN-1 chimeric ... L cells, HT-1080 cells, MDCKII cells, and Phoenix-A cells were maintained in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) ... P3U1 mouse myeloma cells, MDCKII cells, Phoenix-A packaging cells, and Caco-2 and T84 human intestinal cells were purchased ...
... protein was then replaced with corresponding amino acids from canine or murine MET to map the epitope. hMET mutants were then ... Cell lines. A549, U87MG, H596, SNU5, MS1, MDCK, and 4MBr-5 cells were purchased from ATCC. EBC1 cells were purchased from the ... In particular, the MET mAb KTN0073 and KTN0074 bind the Sema/PSI domain, at overlapping but distinct epitopes, preventing HGF ... Epitope mapping of anti-MET antibodies. A, all anti-MET antibodies shared overlapping MET binding epitope. Competition with ...
N-terminal: Epitope mapping corr. to amino acid residues 4-10 of human Aβ-peptide. High affinity to the N-terminal of human ... Does not cross-react with JNK/SAPK or p38 MAP kinase.. -. ERK1/2 p44/42 phos Thr202/Tyr204 (E10). Cell Signaling. monoclonal. ... recognizes epitopes within the N-terminal G1-IGD-G2 region of Aggrecan, that has been identified as a cluster 1 isoform. -. ... immunogen = epitope corresp. to aa 916-1215 mapping at the C-terminus of HDAC6 of human origin. detects HDAC6, 160 kDa. -. ...
Our mapping studies had identified T cell epitopes to the level of a reactive 18-mer peptide. In more than a half of cases, we ... T cell mapping. 18-mer peptides overlapping by 10 amino acids were synthesized (Sigma-Genosys or MRC Human Immunology Unit, ... M of the T cell response, and (C) T cell breadth and (D) entropy of the epitope targeted by the T cell response. T cell data ... The mean of these scores was used as the epitope entropy. Rules were defined to predict the location of 9-mer T cell epitopes ...
Epitope mapping of cyclin E monoclonal antibodies.By deletion analysis all cyclin E monoclonal antibodies used were found to ... SAP 155 N (amino acid residues 1 through 493) fused to GST and SAP 155 N fused to histone H1 were used as substrates for ... immunoprecipitates from ML-1 cell lysates using a number of cyclin E monoclonal antibodies that recognize different epitopes ( ... Tissue culture cell lines.C33A, 293, and SW13 cells were grown as monolayers and ML-1 cells were grown as suspension cultures ...
MHC-I-restricted epitopes are typically 8 to 10 amino acids in length and have position-specific amino acids that engage ... T cell responses differ in epitope breadth and promiscuity. (A) CD8+ T cell responses to SIVgag were epitope-mapped using flow ... T cell epitope recognition.. Results. Distinct CD8+ T Cell Epitope Targeting with RhCMV/SIV Vectors. We previously demonstrated ... T Cell Epitope Targeting. To comprehensively compare the epitope targeting profiles of SIVgag-specific CD8+ T cell responses ...
... conformational epitopes. Based on hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) studies, VHHS recognized overlapping epitopes ... Ricin toxins enzymatic A subunit (RTA) is a 267 amino acid RNA N-glycosidase that depurinates a conserved adenine residue of ... B CELL EPITOPE MAPPING OF RIVAX, A CANDIDATE RICIN VACCINE ANTIGEN. dc.contributor.advisor. Middaugh, Russell C. ... Protection against ricin is antibody mediated and hence generating a comprehensive B cell epitope map of ricin toxin would not ...
Identification of the A-chain 1-13 epitope. (A) Preliminary epitope mapping. Peptides, 15-mers shifted by three amino acids, ... and human T cells (21) after immunization. Nonetheless, T cell epitopes containing vicinal disulfide bonds have not been ... T cell clones from a donor at high risk for T1D recognize the A1-13 epitope. (A) Isolation of T cell clones. T cell clones were ... T cell responses to A1-13 were not a result of injecting insulin, because CD4+ T cells that recognized the A1-13 epitope were ...
Linear epitopes are formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids in a protein, while conformational epitopes are composed of ... of epitopes can also help elucidate the mechanism of binding for an antibody and facilitate the prediction of B cell epitopes ... As a result, mAb epitopes on these types of targets are often conformational, making them difficult to map. Epitope mapping has ... Epitope mapping is also crucial to developing vaccines against prevalent viral diseases such as Dengue virus. Epitope mapping ...
These neutralizing antibodies mapped to epitopes in two peptides, each comprising 20 amino acids. Thus, this region of the ... B) To measure S protein in SARS CoV-infected Vero cells, whole-cell lysates were prepared from Vero cells infected with SARS ... D) Neutralizing epitope mapping of anti-S-II MAbs. A series of the truncated S-II peptides were expressed in E. coli with a His ... Localization of neutralizing epitopes and the receptor binding site within the amino-terminal 330 amino acids of the murine ...
Minimum optimal epitopes were mapped using amino- or carboxyl-truncated peptides in the IFN-γ ELISpot assay. ... The epitope for each HAV-specific T cell response was mapped down to a single 18-mer peptide by IFN-γ ELISPOT and confirmed by ... The T cell response in 4X0395 was mapped to 34 class II epitopes and 7 class I epitopes (Tables 1 and 2). ... 4 A). CD8+ T cells that recognized two Patr-B0501 restricted epitopes (pX812 and 2B902) and one C0601 restricted epitope (3D ...
Epitope mapping using ORFeome display and a peptide membrane revealed a 14-amino acid peptide as the potential mAb-3F8 epitope ... However, its function in cell surface seems not to be host cell adhesion-related. Western and dot blot assays further ... Epitopes / immunology * Food Microbiology * Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase / genetics * Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase / ... Localization studies indicated that FBA is present in every fraction of Listeria cells, including supernatant and the cell wall ...
The functional epitopes were mapped using virus neutralization escape variants to amino acid residues S309, K312, and G333 in E ... Of these, 86% were male; 57% reported ever using illicit drugs; median CD4 cell count before ART initiation was 374 cells/mm(3 ... Several mAbs protected against EBOV disease in animals, including one mAb that targeted an epitope under evolutionary selection ... Work was conducted at residential or commercial facilities using both open-cell (low density) and closed-cell (high density) ...
... secretion by NK cells upon activation. The ADCC epitopes were mapped using the matrix of overlapping peptides. Indian LTNPs ... Five of 10 LTNP responders targeted epitopes in the V3 region (amino acids 288-330) of Env-C. Additionally, three Tat regions ... Five of 10 LTNP responders targeted epitopes in the V3 region (amino acids 288-330) of Env-C. Additionally, three Tat regions ... The assay measured CD107a expression on NK cells as a marker of antibody-dependent NK cell activation and IFN- ...
Epitope mapping was restricted to vaccinees who had a detectable CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell response at V15 as measured by ICS and ... T-cell responses in all groups (P , 0.001 for CD4+ T cells), inducing a median of four Gag epitopes in responders. Six to 9 ... Design of HIV Gag peptide matrices.One hundred twenty-two 15-mer peptides overlapping by 11 amino acids spanning HIV-1 HXBc2 ... 4C and D) T cells. The dominant CD4+ T-cell subsets were those expressing three or more markers (darker shades in the heat map ...
... and in baculovirus-infected insect cells (BvTri a 37) as well as detection of natur ... Characterization of purified Tri a 37 expressed in E.coli cells (EcTri a 37) ... Both proteins showed comparable IgE-reactivity and the epitope mapping revealed the presence of sequential IgE epitopes in the ... and may be explained by the high content of positively charged amino acids (Figure 1A). Under non-reducing conditions, BvTri a ...
T cell epitope / Molecular mimicry / Immune response / HLA. Research Abstract. 1.Mapping of B cell epitope of mitochondrial ... The common essential amino acids of this epitope for these T cell clones … More were E,D and K at positions 170,172 and 173, ... The epitopes are mapped in the regions around lipoic acid-bound lysine in the outer and innner lypoil domains. Each Asp of the ... B cell epitope overlaps with the human T cell epitope of the PDC-E2 antigen indicate that the T cells reactive to this epitope ...
Using fragmented S genes as immunogens, we also mapped a neutralizing epitope in the region of N-terminal 400 to 600 amino ... We used ADS-MVA to infect several mammalian cells: 293 cells, HeLa cells, and Vero cells (data not shown). In contrast to the ... Despite this mechanism, however, there might be other neutralizing epitopes outside the dominant epitope in the ACE2-binding ... These findings indicate that a neutralizing epitope region was determined by amino acids between 400 to 600 amino acids ...
The B-cell epitopes have been mapped in the carboxy-terminal region of the N protein (3, 26). The N protein is also involved in ... Localization of a T-cell epitope within the nucleocapsid protein of avian coronavirus. Immunology74:8-13. ... or greater identity at the amino acid sequence level (10). During IBV infections in chickens, the IBV N protein is expressed at ... Localization of linear B-cell epitopes on infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein. Vet. Microbiol.75:11-16. ...
PeptideSequenceConformational epitopeProteinsAntigenType-specific epitopesImmuneMajor epitopeDiscontinuousRecombinantReactivityMoleculeAcids on the surfaceRecognitionAssayRecognizeCytotoxicDistinctGlycoproteinSingle aminoSpecificitySurfaceMammalian cellsEpithelial cellsBindImmuneepitope.orgLess immunogenicParatopePathogenesisVaccinesClones
- Its T cell epitope was mapped to a 15-amino acid peptide (P10). (scielo.br)
- Peptide 10 not only stimulates the in vitro lymphoproliferation of primed lymph node cells from sensitized or infected mice, but its immunization with CFA in mice followed by an intra-tracheal challenge with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis is protective, significantly reducing the number of colony-forming units in the lung and abolishing dissemination to the liver and spleen [Taborda et al. (scielo.br)
- These results show that ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays can be used for linear epitope mapping. (mcponline.org)
- immunogen = The C-terminal actin fragment (C11 peptide, Ser-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ile-Val -His-Arg-Lys-Cys-Phe) attached to Multiple Antigen Peptide (MAP) backbone). (alzforum.org)
- Although rare, by combining non-adjacent peptide sequences from different parts of the target protein and enforcing conformational rigidity onto this combined peptide (such as by using CLIPS scaffolds), discontinuous epitopes have been mapped on CD20. (wikipedia.org)
- The genome sequence of the SARS CoV predicts an S protein of 1,255 amino acids (aa) (GenBank accession no. 29836496 ) with 23 potential N-linked glycosylation sites ( 11 , 15 ), and the N terminus of the S protein contains a signal peptide that is presumably removed in the mature virion ( 11 , 15 ). (asm.org)
- Class II HLA molecules present peptide antigen to CD4 + T cells, which underlines the role of CD4 + T cells in the pathogenesis of T1D. (rupress.org)
- Epitope mapping using ORFeome display and a peptide membrane revealed a 14-amino acid peptide as the potential mAb-3F8 epitope. (nih.gov)
- Five overlapping peptide were synthesized for epitope mapping. (nih.gov)
- The minimal T cell of these six T cell clones were all mapped to the same region of the PDC-E2 peptide 163-176 (GDLLAEIETDKATI). (nii.ac.jp)
- One T cell clone cross-reacted to exogenous Ags such as E.coli PDC-E2 peptide which has an EXDK sequence. (nii.ac.jp)
- We found that frequency of the T cells reactive to the human PDC-E2 163-176 peptide is significantly increased in the peripheral blood of patients with PBC as compared to healthy subjects. (nii.ac.jp)
- Moreover, RGXG motif was found in three clones generated from two patients.These results indicate that the T cells may recognize the ligand (the human PDC-E2 163-176 peptide/HLA-DR53 complex) using the limited motif in the CDR3 region and that the design of CDR3-specific immunotherapy wouled be possible using these motifs. (nii.ac.jp)
- Conclusion: Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and EpiSearch. (utmb.edu)
- Human GPI-primed CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were co-cultured with each synthetic peptide and the cytokine production was measured by ELISA to identify the major epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We identified a mimetic epitope associated with LDL (-), the P2C7 circular peptide, that activates macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
- Random phage display libraries bring together the genetic and amino acid peptide sequence and can be screened with antibody and the resulting peptide DNA sequenced to confirm the amino acid sequence of a specific eptiope. (openrepository.com)
- Sarkes DA, Dorsey BL, Finch AS, Stratis-Cullum DN (2015) Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display Technology. (omicsonline.org)
- As compared with yeast and phage display, bacterial display is ideal because of the fast doubling time of bacteria, about 20 minutes for Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) [ 7 ] versus about 2 hours for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( S. cerevisiae ) [ 8 , 9 ], and direct amplification of the bound bacterial cells containing plasmid DNA encoding the displayed peptide responsible for binding, without elution and reinfection. (omicsonline.org)
- Disclosed herein is a reductionistic system incorporating known participants of MHC class II antigen processing in solution to generate peptide pools from antigens, including those for which no immunodominant epitope has yet been identified, that are highly enriched for proteolytic fragments containing their immunodominant epitopes. (freepatentsonline.com)
- DM Peptide-Editing Function Leads to Immunodominance in CD4 T Cell Responses In Vivo," J. Immunology, 175:6473-6480 (2005). (freepatentsonline.com)
- A detailed analysis of binding epitopes in these SCR by peptide spot arrays identified several linear binding regions within the sequences of SCR8-11 and SCR19-20. (jimmunol.org)
- Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Synthetic peptide vaccines have numerous advantages including the inclusion of only defined epitopes to generate relevant immune responses rather than a broad response that may exacerbate infectivity and disease ( 4 , 23 , 29 , 48 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We evaluated the amino acid sequence of β-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae for the presence of human T-cell epitopes using a cell-based proliferation assay using samples from 65 community donors. (aacrjournals.org)
- A conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in direct contact with a receptor of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- The precise positions of an epitope on the H77 reference strain can be readily obtained using the Sequence Locator Tool . (lanl.gov)
- Author location The amino acid positions of the epitope boundaries and the reference sequence are listed as given in the primary publication. (lanl.gov)
- Epitope The amino acid sequence of the epitope of interest as defined in the reference, based on the reference strain used in the study defining the epitope. (lanl.gov)
- If the sequences were numbered inaccurately by the primary authors, or if we made a mistake in this process, we may have misrepresented the binding site's amino acid sequence. (lanl.gov)
- The model predicts eight surface-exposed loops, which exhibit an extensive variation in length and amino acid sequence and which are interspaced with nine more conserved predominantly transmembrane regions (referred to as interspacing regions in the text below). (asm.org)
- Sequence alignment of 52 papillomavirus L1 proteins from different host species demonstrates that there is considerable homology with the exception of 5 hypervariable regions, each ranging from 10 to 30 amino acids in length and located within a surface-exposed loop. (biomedcentral.com)
- The determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the virion-derived VP1 by the method of Edman degradation revealed that the second ATG codon is the initiation site for translation. (hu-berlin.de)
- Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The aim of the current study was to perform a test of the efficacy of a modified phage display screening, characterization of selected phages and an automated algorithm, EpiSearch, in locating an important conformational epitope. (utmb.edu)
- Our data suggest that this conformational epitope represents an important danger-associated molecular pattern of LDL (-) that triggers proinflammatory responses. (bvsalud.org)
- To investigate the molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain-swapping approach to generate a series of L1 proteins composed of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) L1 backbone containing different regions of HPV16 L1. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results suggest that non-contiguous loop regions of L1 display critical components of a type-specific, conformational epitope. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we develop a vaccine formulation based on two chimeric antigens containing epitopes of OmpT, Cah and Hes proteins against STEC strains. (nature.com)
- Epitope mapping of complex target antigens, such as membrane proteins or multi-subunit proteins, is often challenging because of the difficulty in expressing and purifying these types of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Such targets may include the Rb-related pocket proteins p107 and p130, which physically associate with cyclin E in a cell-cycle-dependent manner ( 7 , 13 , 15 , 39 , 40 , 63 , 78 ). (asm.org)
- To identify novel cyclin E-cdk2 targets, we have characterized a number of cyclin E-associated proteins that are detected in anti-cyclin E immunoprecipitates of cell lysates. (asm.org)
- Both proteins showed comparable IgE-reactivity and the epitope mapping revealed the presence of sequential IgE epitopes in the N-terminal basic thionin domain (peptide1:KSCCRSTLGRNCYNLCRARGAQKLCAGVCR) and in the C-terminal acidic extension domain (peptide3:KGFPKLALESNSDEPDTIEYCNLGCRSSVC, peptide4:CNLGCRSSVCDYMVNAAADDEEMKLYVEN). (nih.gov)
- Proteins are composed of repeating nitrogen-containing subunits called amino acids that in nature do not exist as straight chains called primary structure, but as folded whorls with complex loops. (wikipedia.org)
- The T cell databases include tables, maps, and associated references of HCV-specific T cell epitopes arranged sequentially according to the location of the proteins in the HCV genome. (lanl.gov)
- Although epitopes are usually thought to be derived from nonself proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also classified as epitopes. (thefullwiki.org)
- Intensive research is currently taking place to design reliable tools that will predict epitopes on proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
- Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
- To date, 11 different subtypes of PspC proteins have been identified and, based on their different anchorages in the bacterial cell wall, divided into two subgroups ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The C-terminal choline-binding domain attaches the classical PspC proteins noncovalently to a cell wall via an interaction with the phosphorylcholine of lipoteichoic and teichoic acids. (jimmunol.org)
- Members of the second subgroup, representing atypical or PspC-like proteins (subtypes 7-11) such as Hic (PspC11.4), are anchored in a sortase-dependent manner to the peptidoglycan of the cell wall by an LPXTG motif. (jimmunol.org)
- Secreted and surface-exposed cell wall proteins are major antigens recognized by the protective immune response against TB and immunization with whole-culture filtrate, a rich source of these extracellular proteins, can protect mice and guinea pigs to some extent against subsequent challenge with the tubercle bacillus ( 1 , 14 , 15 ). (asm.org)
- A major portion of the secreted proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and BCG culture filtrate is formed by the Ag85 complex, a 30- to 32-kDa family of three proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) ( 38 ) which all possess a mycoloyltransferase enzyme activity required for the biogenesis of cord factor ( 4 ), a dominant structure necessary for maintaining cell wall integrity ( 19 , 29 ). (asm.org)
- Finer epitope mapping, using GST-L1 fusion proteins, mapped the 16A epitope to the L1 variable regions I and possibly II within the N-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
- The prediction of the VP1-ORF showed the existence of 2 in-frame ATG codons which should result in the synthesis of VP1 proteins of 384 or 388 amino acids. (hu-berlin.de)
- Elimination of B-cell epitopes is a promising approach to the production of less immunogenic proteins for therapeutic purposes. (pnas.org)
- Identifiseringen av en antigen epitop av immunsystemet åpner for forståelsen av den beskyttende mekanisme av nøytraliserende antistoffer som kan fremme utvikling av vaksiner og peptid narkotika. (jove.com)
- Sometimes referred to as shotgun mutagenesis, this approach utilizes an mutation library of the entire target antigen, with each clone containing a unique amino acid mutation (typically alanine). (wikipedia.org)
- MHV, a group II CoV ( 5 , 6 ), recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules as another group of CoV receptors. (asm.org)
- Proinsulin is the major product of β cells and, with the possible exception of rare self-antigen-expressing cells in lymphoid tissues ( 5 ), is the only known T1D autoantigen that is expressed exclusively in β cells. (rupress.org)
- 1.Mapping of B cell epitope of mitochondrial antigen. (nii.ac.jp)
- 2.Cloning of T cell specific for mitochondrial antigen epitope mapping. (nii.ac.jp)
- These results together with the evidence that the immunodominant B cell epitope overlaps with the human T cell epitope of the PDC-E2 antigen indicate that the T cells reactive to this epitope are closely associated with the pathogenesis of PBC.The Vbeta-and the Jbeta-gene usages were diverse among the T cell clones (Vbeta11-Lbeta1.4, Vbeta8-Jb1.2, Vbeta12-Jb2.1, Vbeta10-Jbeta1.5 and Vbeta20-Jbeta2.1). (nii.ac.jp)
- T cell epitopes are presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell , where they are bound to MHC molecules. (thefullwiki.org)
- Two autoMACS® programs designed for isolation of target cells with low frequency were evaluated and adapted to bacterial biopanning, using protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as the model system. (omicsonline.org)
- Ag85 complex induces strong T-cell proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in most healthy individuals infected with M. tuberculosis and/or Mycobacterium leprae ( 24 ) and in BCG-vaccinated mice ( 16 ), making it a promising candidate as a protective antigen. (asm.org)
- BL22 [anti-CD22-(Fv)-PEtargets CD22 expressed on most B cell malignancies ( 7 ), and SS1P anti-mesothelin-(Fv)-PE38 targets the mesothelin antigen expressed on mesotheliomas and on ovarian, lung, pancreatic, and gastric cancers ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Besides carrying B cell epitopes the gp43 also mediates cellular immune reactions [Rodrigues & Travassos 1994. (scielo.br)
- Because immune control of acute HAV replication usually coincides with the peak in serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT), it has been postulated that resolution of infection depends on a CD8 + T cell response that is cytotoxic for infected hepatocytes ( Martin and Lemon, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
- Because this innate response can regulate the pace and quality of developing cellular immune responses, we characterized the kinetics and function of virus-specific T cells in these animals. (rupress.org)
- Analysis of the immune responses induced by various immunization regimens demonstrated a strong allele-specific response at the T cell level in both inbred and outbred mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- Determinant spreading refers to the development of immune responses against endogenous epitopes as a result of tissue damage [ 14 ] and plays an active role in ongoing disease pathology [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- These data show that, by its up-regulation early after entry to cells, Acr2 gives away the presence of MTB to the immune response. (jimmunol.org)
- Site directed mutagenesis is also a powerful tool in epitope mapping and can be used to evaluate the role of single amino acids in immune complex formation. (openrepository.com)
- Vaccination with naked plasmid DNA encoding Ag85A and Ag85B can stimulate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and confer significant protection to C57BL/6 (B6) mice challenged by the aerosol or intravenous route with live M. tuberculosis H37Rv ( 17 , 20 ). (asm.org)
- Not only do the papillomavirus loop sequences display potentially virus-neutralizing B cell epitopes, but the manner in which they are presented to the host immune system makes them highly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our working hypothesis is that aberrantly expressed Golgi complex autoantigens may be released into the immune system when cells undergo lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Some of the resulting virions differ at immunologically relevant epitopes, thereby eluding existing immune mechanisms, and allowing for further dissemination throughout the host's tissue ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The development of immune responses capable of recognizing conserved epitopes expressed on virus and viral-infected cells is critical to the control of virus replication and therefore clinical disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Human GPI325-339 was identified as a major epitope in GPI-induced arthritis, and proved to have the potential to induce polyarthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we further explored the epitopes of GPI-specific CD4 + T cells and identified human GPI (hGPI) 325-339 as a major epitope. (biomedcentral.com)
- To this end, I first produced and characterized RiVax (a safer version which is structurally identical to RTA) for its structural integrity since our main emphasis lies in identifying discontinuous/ conformational epitopes. (ku.edu)
- Such discontinuous amino acids that come together in three-dimensional conformation and interact with the receptor's paratope are called conformational epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigiantin-positive sera with low titer autoantibodies recognized epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal fragments that are proximal to the Golgi membrane, whereas higher titer sera exhibited strong reactivity to amino-terminal and central domains that are likely to extend from the Golgi membrane into the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, while cells lacking a functional Rb molecule apparently no longer require the activity of D-type cyclin-cdk complexes ( 41 , 43 , 66 ), cyclin E-cdk2 activity remains indispensable ( 51 ). (asm.org)
- The success of heterologous regimens depended on the degree of homology of the N-terminal p33 portion of the MSP1 42 , likely due to the fact that most T cell epitopes reside in this part of the molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
- The finding that the epitopes are clustered enabled us to determine the precise location of most of the epitopes by mutating large hydrophilic amino acids on the surface of PE38 to alanine or glycine and showing that specific mAb binding to the selected epitope was abolished or greatly decreased ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
- T cells that recognize the proximal A-chain of human insulin were identified recently in the pancreatic lymph nodes of subjects who had T1D. (rupress.org)
- To our knowledge, there is only one report of human CD4 + T cells that recognize an epitope formed by posttranslational modification. (rupress.org)
- T cell epitopes are categorized into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and helper T lymphocytes (T-helper). (lanl.gov)
- Recent studies utilize multiple functions attributed to T cells to define responses, and the simple distinctions of cytotoxic T-cell and helper T-cells have become blurred as more is learned about the range of responses triggered in CD4 and CD8 positive T-cells responding to antigenic stimulus. (lanl.gov)
- The electronegative low-density lipoprotein, LDL (-), is an endogenously modified LDL subfraction with cytotoxic and proinflammatory actions on endothelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. (bvsalud.org)
- It can be adapted for the delineation of both helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells. (openrepository.com)
- Inactivated whole-virus preparations are useful against some diseases, but these vaccines generally do not generate a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response necessary to clear lentiviral-infected cells and are not effective against lentivirus variants ( 15 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In particular, the MET mAb KTN0073 and KTN0074 bind the Sema/PSI domain, at overlapping but distinct epitopes, preventing HGF interaction with MET and triggering receptor ubiquitination and degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Based on hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) studies, VHHS recognized overlapping epitopes with four spatially distinct contact regions i.e. they were grouped into four subclusters (namely 3.1 to 3.4) within cluster III region. (ku.edu)
- C) The FB screen assays 3 distinct subsets of megakaryo/erythroid cells, YS-derived primitive RBCs, FL-derived definitive RBCs, and platelets, by 3-color FACS analysis and cell size (on logarithmic scale). (bloodjournal.org)
- Structurally, the Golgi complex is localized in the perinuclear region of most mammalian cells and is characterized by stacks of membrane-bound cisternae, as well as by functionally distinct trans -Golgi and cis -Golgi networks [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- To investigate the specificity of proinsulin-specific T cells in T1D, we isolated human CD4 + T cell clones to proinsulin from the blood of a donor who had T1D. (rupress.org)
- Here, we sought to define the specificity of proinsulin-specific CD4 + T cells in T1D. (rupress.org)
- During the analysis of the fine specificity of CTL clones directed to the HA 210-219 epitope, we found that one clone 40-2 also recognized the myeloma cell line P3x63-Ag8. (rupress.org)
- A critical issue for the first generation is the nonspecific binding of the toxin part to normal cells, which not only compromises the specificity of immunotoxins but also causes severe systemic side effects. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Given that the crystallography model predicts the hypervariable regions to be displayed as surface-exposed loops [ 25 ]and that the loops are highly immunogenic, it is quite likely that the loop epitopes are the determinants of type-specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, its function in cell surface seems not to be host cell adhesion-related. (nih.gov)
- Factor H attached to the surface of pneumococci via PspC significantly enhanced pneumococcal adherence to host epithelial and endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- In conclusion, the acquisition of factor H by pneumococci via PspC occurs via two contact sites located in SCR8-11 and SCR19-20, and factor H attached to the surface of the pneumococcus promotes adhesion to both host epithelial and endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Cyclin E-cdk2 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression from G 1 into S phase in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
- These findings provide evidence that pre-mRNA splicing may be linked to the cell cycle machinery in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
- In mammalian cells 8 cdks and over 10 cyclins have so far been identified. (asm.org)
- LEE-mediated adherence causes the formation of the "attaching and effacing" lesion and loss of microvilli of the intestinal epithelial cells 8 . (nature.com)
- Specifically, RSV G CCD contains a CX3C chemokine motif that facilitates binding to the human chemokine receptor CX3CR1, a critical step for RSV infection in human airway epithelial cells ( 10 - 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease 1 characterised by inflammatory damage to the biliary epithelial cells lining the small intrahepatic bile ducts. (bmj.com)
- Therefore, in order to develop a successful vaccine, it is of high priority to identify new bNAbs that bind to epitopes that may be more amenable to immunogen design. (sciencemag.org)
- Unexpectedly, 97.7% of B cell culture supernatants that neutralized HIV-1 JR-CSF and 46.5% that neutralized HIV-1 SF-162 did not bind to monomeric gp120 JR-CSF or gp41 HxB2 , and only 2% of cultures with neutralization activity could neutralize both viruses (fig. S1). (sciencemag.org)
- These findings suggest that the E1 subunit as part of the native BCOADC complex is an immunogen, and that determinant spreading is involved in the pathogenesis of AMA production. (hindawi.com)
- Although such features may reflect the pathogenesis of AMA, the potential significance of anti-E1 autoimmunity has been largely overlooked [ 11 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The clones recognized a naturally processed, HLA DR4-restricted epitope within the first 13 amino acids of the A-chain (A1-13) of human insulin. (rupress.org)
- CD4 + T cell clones that recognized this epitope were isolated from an HLA DR4 + child with autoantibodies to insulin, and therefore, at risk for T1D, but not from two healthy HLA DR4 + donors. (rupress.org)
- 17 proinsulin-specific CD4 + T cell clones were isolated from the blood of a donor who had established T1D ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
- The common essential amino acids of this epitope for these T cell clones … More were E,D and K at positions 170,172 and 173, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
- By contrast, in the third complementarity determining region (CDR3), G was frequently found and GXG or GXS motif was identified in all T cell clones. (nii.ac.jp)