Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Inability to achieve and maintain an erection (ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION) due to defects in the arterial blood flow to the PENIS, defect in venous occlusive function allowing blood drainage (leakage) from the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis), or both.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

A portrait of AKT kinases: human cancer and animal models depict a family with strong individualities. (1/461)

More than a decade after their discovery, the three AKT kinase family members have emerged as central players in the signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, proliferation, survival and various aspects of intermediary metabolism. The mechanisms of activation of AKT kinases have been defined in relatively precise terms and new substrates are currently being validated in vivo. However, it is presently unclear whether AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3 are functionally redundant or whether each one performs specific functional role(s). In this review, we will summarize the signaling properties and highlight the specificities of AKT kinases that have emerged from the study of human cancer and animal models. While AKT kinases are an attractive target for pharmacological intervention, knowledge of the precise individual roles of AKT family members will improve the design of highly specific AKT-based therapeutics having reduced toxicity and improved efficacy.  (+info)

Effect of ethanol on cell growth of budding yeast: genes that are important for cell growth in the presence of ethanol. (2/461)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in the fermentation of various kinds of alcoholic beverages. But the effect of ethanol on the cell growth of this yeast is poorly understood. This study shows that the addition of ethanol causes a cell-cycle delay associated with a transient dispersion of F-actin cytoskeleton, resulting in an increase in cell size. We found that the tyrosine kinase Swe1, the negative regulator of Cdc28-Clb kinase, is related to the regulation of cell growth in the presence of ethanol. Indeed, the increase in cell size due to ethanol was partially abolished in the SWE1-deleted cells, and the amount of Swe1 protein increased transiently in the presence of ethanol. These results indicated that Swe1 is involved in cell size control in the presence of ethanol, and that a signal produced by ethanol causes a transient up-regulation of Swe1. Further we investigated comprehensively the ethanol-sensitive strains in the complete set of 4847 non-essential gene deletions and identified at least 256 genes that are important for cell growth in the presence of ethanol.  (+info)

Overexpression of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase or inhibition of sphingosine kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum results in a selective increase in sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs. (3/461)

The efficacy of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin is often limited due to resistance of the tumors to the drug, and increasing the potency of cisplatin without increasing its concentration could prove beneficial. A previously characterized Dictyostelium discoideum mutant with increased resistance to cisplatin was defective in the gene encoding sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) lyase, which catalyzes the breakdown of S-1-P, an important regulatory molecule in cell function and development and in the regulation of cell fate. We hypothesized that the increased resistance to cisplatin was due to an elevation of S-1-P and predicted that lowering levels of S-1-P should increase sensitivity to the drug. We generated three strains that stably overexpress different levels of the S-1-P lyase. The overexpressor strains have reduced growth rate and, confirming the hypothesis, showed an expression-dependent increase in sensitivity to cisplatin. Consistently, treating the cells with D-erythro-N,N,-dimethylsphingosine, a known inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, increased the sensitivity of mutant and parent cells to cisplatin, while addition of exogenous S-1-P or 8-Br-cyclic AMP made the cells more resistant to cisplatin. The increased sensitivity of the overexpressors to cisplatin was also observed with the cisplatin analog carboplatin. In contrast, the response to doxorubicin, 5-flurouracil, or etoposide was unaffected, indicating that the involvement of the sphingolipid metabolic pathway in modulating the response to cisplatin is not part of a global genotoxic stress response. The augmented sensitivity to cisplatin appears to be the result of an intracellular signaling function of S-1-P, because D. discoideum does not appear to have endothelial differentiation growth (EDG/S1P) receptors. Overall, the results show that modulation of the sphingolipid pathway at multiple points can result in increased sensitivity to cisplatin and has the potential for increasing the clinical usefulness of this important drug.  (+info)

Dynamic balancing of the dual nature of HIF-1alpha for cell survival. (4/461)

In hypoxic cells, HIF-1alpha escapes from oxygen-dependent proteolysis and binds to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) for transcriptional activation of target genes involved in angiogenesis and glycolysis. We recently demonstrated that the G(1) checkpoint gene p21(cip1)is activated by HIF-1alpha with a novel mechanism that involves the HIF-1alpha PAS domains to displace Myc binding from p21(cip1) promoter. This HIF-1alpha-Myc pathway may account for up- and down-regulation of other hypoxia-responsive genes that lack the HRE. Moreover, the role of HIF-1alpha in cell cycle control indicates a dual, yet seemingly conflicting, nature of HIF-1alpha: promoting cell growth and arrest in concomitance. We speculate that a dynamic balance between the two processes is achieved by a "stop-and-go" strategy to maintain cell growth and survival. Tumor cells may adopt such scheme to evade the killing by chemotherapeutic agents.  (+info)

Coordination of cell growth and cell division: a mathematical modeling study. (5/461)

Although there is general agreement that cell growth and division are functionally coordinated, the mechanisms that link the two processes are poorly understood. In this study, we have developed a mathematical model based on current biological concepts of the signaling transduction pathways involved in cell growth, which predicts that cell growth rate is proportional to cell surface area at birth. To investigate the relationship between growth control and cell division, we then applied our mathematical model to three classic experiments measuring cycle time versus cell birth size in fission yeast and Xenopus laevis, and the cell cycle delay in mammalian cells after serum withdrawal. When coupled to a cell cycle exhibiting 'sizer' and 'timer' phases, we show that a simple model in which growth rate is proportional to the cell surface area immediately after division reproduces the experimental observations including the relationship between cycle time and birth size in fission yeast and Xenopus laevis. The model also accounts for the cell cycle delay seen in restriction point experiments performed in HeLa cells.  (+info)

Cytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of growing colonies of human embryonic stem cells. (6/461)

The morphology of human embryonic stem (ES) cells changes with their colonial growth. For a better understanding of the growth of ES cell colonies in culture, we determined their cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics focusing on images of living cells under a phase contrast microscope. During the initial growth stages, the colonies exhibited a mosaic appearance with discernible cell-cell borders. PAS staining coupled with amylase digestion demonstrated that the bright granules and dark deposits in the cytoplasm contained glycogen. Ultrastructurally they were glycogen accumulations, and clustered open spaces associated with various amounts of glycogen. Although intercellularly heterogeneous, these structures were detectable throughout colony growth. As the colonies grew, compaction towards the centre emerged and increased, accompanied by heterogeneous increases in coarse particles with or without a halo. TUNEL showed these particles to consist at least in part of apoptotic cells/bodies. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that most apoptotic cells had been phagocytosed by intact ES cells. Spontaneous differentiation was detected occasionally in the periphery of the colonies. The presence of PAS-positive fibrous structures not susceptible to amylase digestion and laminin-immunoreactivity indicated the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the peripheral differentiated areas. These findings made it possible to determine the growth stage of human ES cell colonies.  (+info)

The mechanics of surface expansion anisotropy in Medicago truncatula root hairs. (7/461)

Wall expansion in tip-growing cells shows variations according to position and direction. In Medicago truncatula root hairs, wall expansion exhibits a strong meridional gradient with a maximum near the pole of the cell. Root hair cells also show a striking expansion anisotropy, i.e. over most of the dome surface the rate of circumferential wall expansion exceeds the rate of meridional expansion. Concomitant measurements of expansion rates and wall stresses reveal that the extensibility of the cell wall must vary abruptly along the meridian of the cell to maintain the gradient of wall expansion. To determine the mechanical basis of expansion anisotropy, we compared measurements of wall expansion with expansion patterns predicted from wall structural models that were either fully isotropic, transversely isotropic, or fully anisotropic. Our results indicate that a model based on a transversely isotropic wall structure can provide a good fit of the data although a fully anisotropic model offers the best fit overall. We discuss how such mechanical properties could be controlled at the microstructural level.  (+info)

Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic instruct polarized growth of cell extensions in the Drosophila trachea. (8/461)

The migration of cellular extensions is guided by signals from tissues with which they contact. Many axon guidance molecules regulate growth cone migration by directly regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Secreted morphogens control global patterns of cell fate decisions during organogenesis through transcriptional regulation, and constitute another class of guidance molecules. We have investigated the guidance roles of the morphogens Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic during directed outgrowth of cytoplasmic extensions in the Drosophila trachea. A subset of tracheal terminal cells adheres to the internal surface of the epidermis and elongates cytoplasmic processes called terminal branches. Hedgehog promotes terminal branch spreading and its extension over the posterior compartment of the epidermis. Decapentaplegic, which is expressed at the onset of terminal branching, restricts dorsal extension of the terminal branch and ensures its monopolar growth. Orthogonal expression of Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic in the epidermis instructs monopolar extension of the terminal branch along the posterior compartment, thereby matching the pattern of airway growth with that of the epidermis.  (+info)

It is pretty obvious from this behaviour that simply putting water around a tissue creates a system with several interacting factors. The growth rate could be affected not only by \(P\) but also by \(m\), \(L\), \(\Pi\), or \(P_{th}\). In an effort to simplify this system, scientists have sought single cells that could be surrounded by water. From a practical point of view this allows \(P\) and \(m\) to be the main factors controlling growth and minimises the effect of \(L\), as shown in Figure 7.27.
Cell expansion is a fundamental procedure in many cell culture applications. Watch this video to learn how to expand your cells in various vessels and different options for scale-up. You will discover how to make cell expansion more efficient, while also reducing the stress on your cells.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Growth is an irreversible increase in size and or dry mass. The basis of growth is cell division by mitosis, cell differentiation and cell enlargement. Growth in plant and animal
Global Cell Expansion Market - World Cell Expansion Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2020 - Cell Expansion Industry Research, Outlook, Application, Product, Share, Growth, Key Opportunities, Dynamics, Analysis, Cell Expansion Report - Grand View Research Inc
Cell, Knowledge, Lead, Tissues, Water, Mouse, Cellulose, Cell Division, Cell Enlargement, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cotyledon, Cotyledons, Cytokinins, Germination, Growth, Permits, Seedlings, Seeds, Senescence
Global Cell Expansion Market: Overview Cell expansion is the process of producing daughter cells, which fundamentally occur from a single cell. Cell expansion is useful in therapeutics as a drug screening tool and also for core research reason. Request Free Sample Report @ Global Cell Expansion Market: Growth Factors The prominent factors contributing to the global cell expansion…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular genetic analysis of the internodal growth of arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Takahashi, Taku. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - In higher plants, the process by which cells expand by elongation is critical for the highly polarized growth of organs. Numerous physiological studies have revealed a series of events during cell enlargement. Briefly, the first step of cell elongation is the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, in which cytoskeletal elements may play an important role. Subsequently, cell elongation is driven by water uptake in combination with cell-wall loosening. This step is accompanied by deposition of new cell-wall materials and a large increase in vacuole volume. In most cases, the process of cell elongation is regulated by phytohormones or other external stimuli. However, the molecular components that play a direct and critical role in the process of cell elongation have not been clearly ...
Enlargement Strategy Papers. 2019 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2018 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2016 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2015 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2014 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2013 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2012 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2011 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2010 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2009 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2008 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2007 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2006 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2005 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2004 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2003 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2002 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2001 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 2000 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 1999 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). 1998 Enlargement Strategy Paper (English). ...
Get contacts, product information, financial key figures and news about HBK Dethleffsen GmbH. Updated on 2021-09-24 01:46:44 UTC.
Phosphorus is present in every living cell, both plant and animal. It is required by all plants for growth. No other nutrient can be substituted for it. Phosphorus plays a role in all major metabolic processes in the plant including photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division and cell enlargement.. Phosphorus is critical for early root development and hence must be applied prior to or at planting for annual crops. Importantly it must be applied in the region where the seed will germinate as Phosphorus does not readily move in the soil. The root system must come into contact with Phosphorous for adsorption to occur.. ...
One problem with the strategy of using dominant-negative mutations is the potential for influencing other, unrelated regulatory proteins. Although RSG does not interact with those known plant bZIP proteins that we have tested, we cannot completely rule out the possibility that the morphological changes of 35S:RSGbZIP-transformed plants could reflect the cross-inhibition of other transcriptional factors. Identifying the target gene of RSG would provide the most direct evidence that RSG regulates the endogenous amount of GAs. Our results using the dominant-negative form of RSG suggest that RSG might regulate one of the genes that encode enzymes for biosynthesis of GA. Substantial progress has been made in isolating the genes encoding the enzymes of the GA biosynthetic pathway (Hedden and Kamiya, 1997). We found GA18 to be effective in promoting cell elongation in 35S:RSGbZIP plants (data not shown). GA18 is not biologically active by itself but becomes active by sequential conversion to GA1 by a ...
Pik3ip1 silencing-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is dependent on PI3K activity.NRCMs were transfected with siNegative and siPik3ip1 for 24 h and subsequently
Nuclear size scales with cell size across a wide range of cell types. The mechanism by which this scaling is maintained in growing cells remains unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of nuclear size homeostasis in the simple eukaryote fission yeast, by monitoring the recovery of aberrant nuclear volume to cell volume (N/C) ratios following perturbation. We demonstrate that both high and low N/C ratios correct rapidly, maintaining nuclear size homeostasis. We assess the kinetics of nuclear and cellular growth and of N/C ratio correction and demonstrate that nuclear and cellular growth rates are not directly coupled. We propose that the mechanism underlying nuclear size homeostasis, involves multiple limiting factors implicated in processes including nucleocytoplasmic transport, lipid biogenesis and RNA processing. We speculate that these link cellular size increases to changes in nuclear contents, which in turn lead to changes in nuclear membrane surface area. Our study reveals that there is ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in glucose have larger average size than cells grown in ethanol. Besides, yeast must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size in order to enter S phase at Start. This control is of outmost physiological relevance, since it allows us to coordinate cell growth with cell cycle progression and it is responsible for cell size homeostasis. The cell sizer mechanism requires the overcoming of two sequential thresholds, involving Cln3 and Far1, and Clb5,6 and Sic1, respectively. When both thresholds are non-functional, carbon source modulation of cell size at Start is completely abolished. Since inactivation of extracellular glucose sensing through deletion of either the GPR1 or the GPA2 gene causes a marked, but partial, reduction in the ability to modulate cell size and protein content at Start, it is proposed that both extracellular and intracellular glucose signalling is required for properly setting the cell sizer in glucose media.. ...
Organic killer (NK) cells are good antitumor effector cells, but the generation of enough NK cell numbers for adoptive immunotherapy remains difficult. which was better than with NK cells turned on with IL-2 alone. Intriguingly, adoptively moved NK cells taken care of their improved creation of TNF- and IFN upon restimulation, although they quickly dropped their capability to degranulate and mediate growth cytotoxicity after the transfer. In bottom line, a process was 51-30-9 IC50 developed by us for NK cell enlargement that outcomes in excellent cell produces. The extended NK cells possess powerful antitumor 51-30-9 IC50 activity and and could end up being used at high amounts for adoptive immunotherapy in the center. in a way that is applicable in the treatment centers are essential absolutely. Many protocols used to time put into action interleukin (IL)-2 including mass media for NK cell account activation and enlargement. Although IL-2-including moderate can activate NK cells before their ...
Primary crusher; Secondary crusher; Tertiary crusher; Primary crusher has the ability to receive the crushing material (a material that has to be crushed) directly from the source i.e., quarry thats why these types of crusher are fixed from where the material is taken. Primary crusher is only for the breaking of large stones into pieces (this mean primary crusher is not for the aggregate size material.). ...
Cell Expansion Market by Product (Reagent, Media, Flow Cytometer, Centrifuge, Bioreactor), Cell Type (human, animal), Application (Regenerative Medicine &...
The term myocardial hypertrophy, say the working group, lacks precision. In cell biology the term hypertrophy describes growth via cell enlargement as opposed to growth by cell division, where hyperplasia is the correct term. Currently in cardiology the term hypertrophy is commonly applied to the situation in the whole heart where myocardial enlargement is accompanied by both hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In addition the term hypertrophy does not take account of the fact that non myocytes in the heart are not passive bystanders and also change in number when the heart remodels. Additionally there may be an invasion of inflammatory cells into the heart, and angiogenesis may occur.. The advantage of the term cardiac remodelling is that it simply defines reorganisation of the different cardiac tissue components, and can be used to describe an increase, or decrease in the size of the left ventricle, as well as a change to the cellular components, explained the first author of the paper, Ralph ...
0027]In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise removing the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly from a sterile package before detachably-attaching the support backing of the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly to the cell expansion machine. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise causing a fluid flow through at least a portion of the fluid conveyance system including into a rotatable bioreactor of the fluid conveyance system. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise rotating the rotatable bioreactor after detachably-attaching the support backing to the cell expansion machine. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise detaching the support backing of the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly from the cell expansion machine, and then attaching a second detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly to the cell expansion machine. ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is independently related to insulin action and adipokine levels.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fat cells were prepared from abdominal subcutaneous biopsies obtained from 49 type 2 diabetic and 83 non-diabetic subjects and from omental biopsies obtained from 37 non-diabetic subjects. Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. Insulin sensitivity in vivo was assessed with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps. Fasting blood samples were collected and adipokines and NEFA were measured.. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between subcutaneous fat cell size and insulin sensitivity assessed as M-value during clamp and as insulin action on glucose uptake in fat cells in vitro. This was seen in non-diabetic subjects after including age, sex and BMI in the analyses. No such relationship was found in type 2 diabetic ...
North Tyneside has had a strong and effective Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) for a number of years. In developing our Multi-Agency Safeguarding Arrangements (MASA), we have started from a position of strength and have sought to build on this. Whilst we believe our MASA plan is innovative and will deliver a step-change in our partnership arrangements, we are mindful to ensure there is a degree of continuity in the way we work together.. Our vision and guiding principles. Our vision is that children live in safe, healthy and resilient family networks. This is underpinned by the three pledges to children and young people in North Tyneside:. ...
RodZ interacts with MreB and both factors are required to maintain the rod shape of Escherichia coli. The assembly of MreB into filaments regulates the subcellular arrangement of a group of enzymes that synthesizes the peptidoglycan (PG) layer. Howev
definition of MIH, what does MIH mean?, meaning of MIH, Murine Imaging and Histology, MIH stands for Murine Imaging and Histology
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cuttingFor instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the . Rod mills are less common than ball mills for grinding minerals.. ...
Cell size trajectories for successive mother and daughter cells.Data is collected during the simulations with three different periods of forced CLN2 expression:
Hi, I have a table with 4 cells. I would like to make each cell of equal height and width. I have set the properties for the cells for the specific size. However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width or the lenght that I want them to stay. How can I properly control this through CSS? Thanks
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During longitudinal development of the long bone cartilage, periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, which adds cells to the columnar region, is followed by chondrocyte hypertrophy, which reduces cells in the columnar region. Therefore, the length of the columnar chondrocyte region is determined by three parameters: the pace of periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, the pace of chondrocyte hypertrophy and the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Fig. 7). As upregulated Ihh signaling promotes periarticular chondrocyte differentiation and increases the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Kobayashi et al., 2005b), the proliferating columnar chondrocyte region would be increased if chondrocyte hypertrophy were not altered. Our observation that the columnar chondrocyte region was shorter in the PTHrP-/-;Ptch1c/-; Col2a1-Cre double mutant than in the PTHrP-/- single mutant (Fig. 2B, Fig. 3A) demonstrates that Hh signaling also acts to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy in the absence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lycopene inhibits urotensin-II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. AU - Chao, Hung Hsing. AU - Sung, Li-Chin. AU - Chen, Cheng Hsien. AU - Liu, Ju Chi. AU - Chen, Jin Jer. AU - Cheng, Tzu-Hurng. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - This study investigated how lycopene affected urotensin-II- (U-II-) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the possible implicated mechanisms. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to U-II (1 nM) either exclusively or following 6 h of lycopene pretreatment (1-10 μM). The lycopene (3-10 μM) pretreatment significantly inhibited the U-II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the production of U-II-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced the level of NAD(P)H oxidase-4 expression. Lycopene further inhibited the U-II-induced phosphorylation of the redox-sensitive extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Moreover, lycopene treatment prevented the increase in the phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinase Akt and ...
How cells coordinate growth and division is key for size homeostasis. Phosphorylation by G1-CDK of Whi5/Rb inhibitors of SBF/E2F transcription factors triggers irreversible S-phase entry in yeast and metazoans, but why this occurs at a given cell size is not fully understood. We show that the yeast Rim15-Igo1,2 pathway, orthologous to Gwl-Arpp19/ENSA, is up-regulated in early G1 and helps promoting START by preventing PP2ACdc55 to dephosphorylate Whi5. RIM15 overexpression lowers cell size while IGO1,2 deletion delays START in cells with low CDK activity. Deletion of WHI5, CDC55 and ectopic CLN2 expression suppress the START delay of igo1,2 cells. Rim15 activity increases after cells switch from fermentation to respiration, where Igo1,2 contribute to chromosome maintenance. Interestingly Cln3-Cdk1 also inhibits Rim15 activity, which enables homeostatic control of Whi5 phosphorylation and cell cycle entry. We propose that Rim15/Gwl regulation of PP2A plays a hitherto unappreciated role in cell ...
Both cell proliferation and cell size control are fundamental biological processes that must be carefully orchestrated, and dysregulation of either can lead to diseases such as cancer. In contrast to our understanding of the mechanisms that control cell proliferation, less is known about the mechanisms that control cell size and, particularly, the mechanisms by which cell proliferation and cell size are coordinately regulated. Recently, we identified a novel protein named FIP200, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Abbi et al., 2002). In this study, we showed that FIP200 can also regulate cell size through interaction with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and activation of S6K. These results identify FIP200 as a regulator that plays roles in both cell proliferation and cell size control.. Most other proteins known to play roles in both cell proliferation and cell size usually regulate these two cellular processes in a similar manner. For example, PTEN can inhibit cell ...
Hypertrophy - What is element hypertrophy? Hypertropphy. Just means that something is increased in size. For example lots of weight lifting leads to muscle hypertrophy.
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Im working with a document I was given. There are currently 4 columns with cells of a certain size. When I try to insert a new column, it comes in
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
Giant cell fibroma • Gigantiform cementoma • Gingiva • Gingival and periodontal pockets • Gingival cyst of the adult • Gingival ... cyst of the newborn • Gingival enlargement • Gingival fibers • Gingival sulcus • Gingivectomy • Gingivitis • Giovanni Battista ... Dental pulp stem cells • Dental radiography • Dental restoration • Dental restorative materials • Dental sealant • Dental spa ... Acinic cell carcinoma • Acrodont • Adalbert J. Volck • Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor • Adhesive Dentistry • Aetna • Agar • ...
... characteristics of the tumor cell, and (3) virological characteristics. The demonstration of peripheral nerve enlargement along ... primitive reticular cells, and occasional plasma cells, as well as macrophage and plasma cells. The T cells are involved in the ... without stimulation by cell-mediated immunity, the humoral immunity conferred by the B-cell lines from the Bursa of Fabricius ... Pleomorphic lymphoid cells in nerves and tumors; and (9) T-cell lymphomas. In addition to gross pathology and histology, other ...
Liver cell death and severe lactic acidosis may be present as well. Caudate lobe enlargement is often present. The majority of ... liver enlargement, enlargement of the spleen, fluid accumulation within the peritoneal cavity, elevated liver enzymes, and ... It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites, and liver enlargement. The formation of a blood clot within ... myeloproliferative disease of red blood cells). People who have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) appear to be ...
... the cells that defend the body from foreign invaders) count. Neutropaenia a reduced neutrophil (the white blood cells that kill ... Breast enlargement (in either sex). This is a complication of hyperprolactinaemia. Galactorrhoea (expulsion of milk from the ... which allows cells to utilise sugars for energy. This in turn forces the body to burn fats for energy and fats require ... a part of blood cells that is used to carry oxygen. In most people this is an indication of impaired liver function) Abdominal ...
Development proceeds by cell division until maturity; further growth occurs via cell enlargement only. Most eutelic organisms ... Eutelic organisms have a fixed number of somatic cells when they reach maturity, the exact number being constant for any one ... ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. "How many cells are there in an organism?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-10. ... including the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans whose male individuals have 1033 cells), tardigrades, larvacea and ...
This is caused by bilirubin (one of the end products of red blood cell destruction). Enlargement of the newborn's liver and ... Red blood cells lacking Rh/RhAG proteins have structural abnormalities (such as stomatocytosis) and cell membrane defects that ... All Rh antibodies except D display dosage (antibody reacts more strongly with red cells homozygous for an antigen than cells ... or breaking down of red blood cells Erythroblastosis refers to the making of immature red blood cells Fetalis refers to the ...
In the testes, testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells. The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells, which ... Enlargement of sebaceous glands. This might cause acne, subcutaneous fat in face decreases. Pubic hair extends to thighs and up ... testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing hormone ( ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639. Wang C, Liu Y, Cao JM (2014). "G protein-coupled ...
... the lymphocytes inside of the node trigger a response which can cause proliferation or cell enlargement. This is also referred ... It is known, however, that a stimulation of the B cell compartment and by abnormal cell growth of secondary follicles are key ... It is caused by a stimulation of the B cell compartment and by abnormal cell growth of secondary follicles. This typically ... white and platelet cells found in the blood. If the patient has low blood cell counts, this can be an indication of lymphoma. ...
Splenomegaly can make anemia worse, and it can reduce the life of transfused red blood cells. Severe enlargement of the spleen ... Thalassemia is often accompanied by the destruction of a large number of red blood cells and the task of removing these cells ... If he has microcytosis (mean cell hemoglobin < 27 pg or mean red cell volume < 80 fl), the woman is tested. When both are ... 2011). "T cell-depleted hla-haploidentical stem cell transplantation in thalassemia young patients". Pediatric Reports. 3 ( ...
These enlargements appear to begin as early as their last instar as larvae. The lateral oviducts of healthy, adult female moths ... areone or two cell layers; those of infected female moths have four to eight layers instead. These enlargements may increase ... Both viruses can replicate in cell cultures, though only HzNV-2 can replicate in an insect host. The genomes of HzNV-2 and HzNV ... Hink WF, Ignoffo CM (May 1970). "Establishment of a new cell line (IMC-HZ-1) from ovaries of cotton bollworm moths, Heliothis ...
T cells against infected B lymphocytes, resulting in enlarged, atypical lymphocytes (Downey cells). When the infection is acute ... Spleen enlargement is common in the second and third weeks, although this may not be apparent on physical examination. Rarely ... They are more likely to have liver enlargement and jaundice. People over 40 years of age are more likely to develop serious ... There may also be some enlargement of the liver. Jaundice occurs only occasionally. It generally gets better on its own in ...
Sorrosa, J. M.; M. Satoh; Y. Shiraiwa (2005). "Low temperature stimulates cell enlargement and intracellular calcification of ... Prymnesiophyceae)". Plant and Cell Physiology. 40 (7): 762-766. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a029603. DeBose, J. L.; S. C. ... During massive blooms (which can cover over 100,000 square kilometers), E. huxleyi cell concentrations can outnumber those of ... Plant Cell Physiology. 45 (10): 1434-1441. doi:10.1093/pcp/pch164. PMID 15564527. Retrieved 2008-03-21. Read, B.; J. Kegel; MJ ...
Meanwhile, enlargement of heart cells will reduce the T1 signal. Using T1 signal, Extracellular volume (ECV) is useful to ... One of the major routes to decrease the production of these excess light chains is to kill the abnormal cells that are ... Chemotherapeutic agents such as melphalan or bortezomib can be used to kill off the abnormal cell line that is producing the ... These chains are created by an abnormal expansion of plasma cells. Over time, these light chains deposit into the interstitial ...
Image shows open-cell brain terrain and closed-cell brain terrain, which is more common. Open-cell brain terrain is thought to ... Note: this is an enlargement of the previous CTX image. Lineated valley fill, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Close ... Closed-cell brain terrain, as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. This type of surface is common on lobate debris aprons, ... Open- and closed-cell brain terrain, as seen by HiRISE, under HiWish program. Wide CTX view showing mesa and buttes with lobate ...
... the degree of host nucleus displacement and the degree of host cell enlargement. DNA studies should help to clarify this area ... straight gametocytes that normally occur in anucleate cells and are almost as long as the host cell (H. enucleator) Gametocytes ... Once the vector bites a new host, the sporozoites enter the blood stream and invade endothelial cells of blood vessels within ... Within the endothelial cells, the sporozoites undergo asexual reproduction becoming schizonts. These in turn produce numerous ...
Hyperplasia is the enlargement of a plant tissue due to excessive increase in the number of plant cells produced. Hyperplasia ... Localized swellings or enlargement of epidermal cells due to excessive accumulation of water or fungal structures is termed ... Hypertrophy is excessive growth due to the enlargement of individual cells. This condition also results in the overdevelopment ... Hyperplasia and hypertrophy could result in the enlargement of leaves and fruits, and the enlargement of stems and roots. ...
Ultrasound or computerized tomography may show hydrops (enlargement) of the gallbladder. Urinalysis may show white blood cells ... Systemic vasculitides may be classified according to the type of cells involved in the proliferation, as well as the specific ... high white-blood-cell count, high band count, high CRP concentrations, male sex, and age less than one year. Coronary artery ... and proliferation of cells associated with inflammation in the inner layer of the vascular wall. Other diseases involving ...
Waste rock removal: Rock extracted from the mine was removed from tailings piles and disposed of in a compacted cell. In ... This plan was implemented, removing the need for the dam enlargement. ...
... leading to cell enlargement. This enlargement is made possible by the sliding of polymers, increasing the cell wall's surface ... Treating living cells with acid induces acidification of the cell wall by activating an ATPase in the cell wall's plasma ... The stretching of the cell wall, or the reduction of stress, occurs as a result of cell expansion and rearrangement. Cell ... as it opposes the pressure of the cell's primary cell wall; this also allows for stretching of the cell wall. ...
Studies show elevated levels of leukocytes, or white blood cells, which is referred to as eosinophilia. It is mainly found in ... In addition, it causes spleen and liver enlargement, which is called hepatosplenomegaly. ... If there are abnormally high levels of white blood cells, then a physical examination will most likely find an enlarged spleen ... Relative eosinophilia is different from absolute because relative refers to an increase in percentage of white blood cells (i.e ...
Vegetative cells are capable of enlargement and may also produce resting spores. However, samples from Puget Sound, WA display ... The D. brightwellii cell has a high length to diameter ratio. The cell wall is silicified, as is characteristic of all diatoms ... Oceanic currents and surface winds prevent D. brightwellii cells from sinking beneath the euphotic zone. Cells range in size ... This hard, porous covering is known as the frustule and causes the cell to be more dense than the surrounding water. ...
... cells may also colonize diatoms during instances of vegetative cell enlargement. Cyanobacteria in the genus Richelia ... Richelia's trichomes are made up of two cell types: Heterocyst and Vegetative. The heterocyst is a terminal single cell within ... Within diatoms that are dead or dying, some Richelia cells have enlarged and rounded vegetative cells, some begin to ... Also hypothesized is that Richelia cells may be affiliated with auxospore cells, or may enter diatoms during sexual ...
... medium-sized cells with prominent nucleoli (15-18 µm) and, large cells (50-100 µm). The cells are generally packed into nodules ... Most present with slow, painless testicular enlargement, which may involve both testes. Spermatocytic tumors are diagnosed ... Cells undergoing mitosis are common, as are cells undergoing apoptosis. Intratubular growth of spermatocytic tumor can be seen ... Histologically, spermatocytic tumors consist of three cell populations: small cells with a large nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio ( ...
Granular Cell Tumour is also a tumour arising from neural cells, though it was incorrectly thought to arise from muscle cells ... enlargement of the tongue) (1, 4). Venous Varix, like varicose vein, usually appear in older people on the lower lip as a blue- ... c) Giant Cell Epulis also known as Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma, are like Fibrous Epulis and occur at the anterior ... The cells terminally differentiate as they migrate to the surface from the stratum basale where the progenitor cells are ...
The swelling is due to enlargement of the inner core of medulla cells. A recessive autosomal gene spf for sparse fur. As well ... which in addition to creating pigment-producing cells, develop into a variety of neurological cell types. White cats with one ... The deafness is due to a reduction in the population and survival of melanoblast stem cells, ...
Enlargement of the spleen and low red blood cells (anemia) may also occur. It typically worsens gradually over years. Risk ... "smudge cells" or "basket cells" can also indicate the presence of the disease (smudge cells are due to cancer cells lacking in ... These B-cells are abnormal: they are monoclonal, i.e. produced by a single ancestral B-cell, and have some of the same cell ... The T cells had been modified to express genes that would allow the cells to proliferate in the body and destroy B cells ...
Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, bud formation, and root initiation. They also promote the ... They affect cell elongation by altering cell wall plasticity. They stimulate cambium, a subtype of meristem cells, to divide, ... Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth ... Ethylene affects cell growth and cell shape; when a growing shoot or root hits an obstacle while underground, ethylene ...
... sinusoidal endothelial cells, and phagocytic Kupffer cells. Hepatic stellate cells are nonparenchymal cells found in the ... It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and liver enlargement. Many diseases of the liver are ... Histology, the study of microscopic anatomy, shows two major types of liver cell: parenchymal cells and nonparenchymal cells. ... Nonparenchymal cells constitute 40% of the total number of liver cells but only 6.5% of its volume. The liver sinusoids are ...
Mikulicz's cells: Vesicular cells found in the diseased tissue in cases of rhinoscleroma and containing Klebsiella ... Mikulicz's disease: Benign lymphocytic infiltration and enlargement of the lacrimal and salivary glands. It has often been ...
It works in two ways, first by disrupting cell membranes and mitochondria resulting cell death, and then by inducing antibody- ... rapid enlargement), B (bleeding), E (erythema), and U (ulceration). AKs are usually diagnosed clinically, but because they are ... Clinical practice guide : basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (and related lesions) : a guide to clinical management ... These cells have been observed to proliferate into the dermis as buds and duct-like structures. Lichenoid: Demonstrate a band- ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Early in the spring of the second year following egg-laying, the larvae, about 30 mm long, pupate in the tunnel enlargement ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ...
... s promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
The removal of cells for biopsy, using a needle Clinical features[edit]. Clinical features can be found in the subhyoid portion ... Soft tissue swelling occurs, along with airway obstruction and trouble swallowing, due to the rapid enlargement of the cyst.[2] ... Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the ... Infection can sometimes cause the transient appearance of a mass or enlargement of the cyst, at times with periodic recurrences ...
Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... In any case, common side effects of antiandrogens in men include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, feminization, hot ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... cells in culture". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 31 (5): 845-52. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(88)90295-6. PMID 2462135.. ...
These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... Palatine tonsil enlargement can affect speech, making it hypernasal and giving it the sound of velopharyngeal incompetence ( ... The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ... "Tonsils Make T-Cells, Too, Ohio State Study Shows". Ohio State University. Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center. ...
When the bladder is fully distended the superficial cells become squamous (flat) and the stratification of the cuboidal cells ... Elderly males with prostate gland enlargement may benefit from sitting down while in healthy males, no difference is found in ... Benign prostatic hyperplasia, an enlargement of the prostate that can cause urinary frequency, urgency, retention, and the ... transitional epithelium which contains a superficial layer of dome-like cells and multiple layers of stratified cuboidal cells ...
This enlargement of the cleft is caused by contraction of capillary endothelial cells, often by substances such as histamine ... which is important in cell-cell recognition and cell signaling, is more developed. The organization of the endocardial ... This method is especially useful in cell-to-cell propagation of infectious cytosolic protein aggregates. In one study, protein ... Hofmann, J., Denner, P., Naussbaum- Krammer, C., Kuhn, P., Suhre, M., Scheibel, T., ... Vorberg, I. (2013). Cell-to-cell ...
... looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a ... "Urinating Standing versus Sitting: Position Is of Influence in Men with Prostate Enlargement. A Systematic Review and Meta- ... Multiple white cells seen in the urine of a person with a urinary tract infection using a microscopy. ... Multiple bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria, here shown as black and bean-shaped) shown between white blood cells in urinary ...
Cell. Endocrinol. 370 (1-2): 138-48. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2013.02.016. PMC 3767392. PMID 23499866.. ... In addition to her absence of breast development and areolar enlargement, the patient also appeared to show minimal widening of ... the testes show Leydig cell hyperplasia, which is due to the increased levels of LH and intratesticular testosterone.[14] ... axis would account for the elevated estradiol and gonadotropin levels in the siblings and for the ovarian enlargement and cyst ...
Endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. ... and does not alter the host erythrocyte's shape or size or cause enlargement. Elongated trophozoites stretching across the ... Within the red blood cells some merozoites develop into trophozoites, which in turn mature into schizonts that rupture to ... The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of ...
T-cells and B-cells) and antigen presenting cells. These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign ... parotid gland enlargement, disease outside the glands and infiltration of glands by lymphocytes.[11] Anti-Ro antibodies are ... the cell line was contaminated and displaced by HeLa cells, and has now been identified as actually HeLa cells.[54] ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ...
Cell division stops at the end of embryonic development and further growth is only by cell enlargement.[3] ... Gastrotrichs develop to a particular number of cells; further growth comes only from an increase in cell size. As is typical ... Some gastrotrichs also possess light sensitive cells in the brain that work as primitive ocelli (eye spots).[2] ... Gastrotrichs are eutelic: each species has a genetically fixed number of cells as adults. ...
ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ... Nelson's syndrome, the rapid enlargement of the ACTH producing pituitary after the removal of both adrenal glands ... ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of ... Small cell carcinoma, a common cause of ACTH secreted ectopically. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diseases in the production ...
... lo Prostate Cancer Cell Population Harbors Self-Renewing Long-Term Tumor-Propagating Cells that Resist Castration". Cell Stem ... A meta-analysis on the effects of voiding position during urination in males with prostate enlargement showed that sitting was ... LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR), but PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated ... Prostate cancer cells are generally devoid of zinc. This allows prostate cancer cells to save energy not making citrate, and ...
Therefore, red blood cells have a pivotal role in maintaining the health of the periodontium, meaning haematological disorders ... Taylor, Barbara Anne (1 February 2003). "Management of drug-induced gingival enlargement". Australian Prescriber. 26 (1): 11-3 ... Damage to epithelial cells releases cytokines which attract leukocytes to assist with the inflammatory response. The balance ... Leukocytes and Neutrophils are the main cells that phagocytose bacteria found in the gingival crevice or pocket. They migrate ...
T cell or pre-B cell Large and heterogeneous (varied) cells ALL - L3 B cell Large and varied cells with vacuoles Mature B-cell ... Testicular enlargement. *Mediastinal mass. CauseEdit. In ALL, lymphoid cell development stops at the lymphoblast (arrow), which ... The cancerous cell in ALL is the lymphoblast. Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells, ... Hyperdiploid cells are defined as cells with more than 50 chromosomes, while hypodiploid is defined as cells with less than 44 ...
Likewise, most fruit used in plant reproduction comes from the enlargement of parts of the flower. This fruit is frequently a ... These give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is also described using an alternative terminology wherein the ...
... which is known to produce breast enlargement) caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland ... "Cell. Signal. 19 (9): 1956-63. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.05.003. PMC 2681182. PMID 17572069.. ... Cell. Endocrinol. 347 (1-2): 55-60. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.020. PMID 21669251. S2CID 33174706.. ... "J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 8): 1281-3. doi:10.1242/jcs.00963. PMID 15020666.. ...
Phagocytic coelomocytes, somewhat similar in function to the white blood cells of vertebrates, are formed within the haemal ... enlargements of the respiratory tree that float freely in the coelom) to entangle potential predators. When startled, these ... "Mechanically adaptive intracortical implants improve the proximity of neuronal cell bodies". Journal of Neural Engineering. 8 ...
Dendritic cell apoptosis - immune system cells called dendritic cells present antigens to active lymphocytes. Dendritic cells ... Pancytopenia, rashes, swollen lymph nodes and enlargement of the liver and spleen are commonly seen in such individuals. ... The roles of specialized immunoregulatory cell types, such as regulatory T cells, NKT cells, γδ T-cells in the pathogenesis of ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
Liver enlargement and spleen enlargement can be found, but are not always associated with liver or spleen abscesses.[4][5] ... Production of bacterial toxins such as lipopolysaccharide leads to secretion of cytokines by white blood cells which then both ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cells (notably neutrophils). Platelet count can be low or high. Liver and kidney ...
... as the haemopoetic cells are forced to migrate to other areas, particularly the liver and spleen. This causes an enlargement of ... which is a reduction in the number of all blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells ... mature red blood cells in adults do not have a cell nucleus, and the presence of nucleated red blood cells suggests that ... Sometimes unusual activity of the red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets is seen.The liver is often moderately ...
96 Because the somatic tissue of the housefly consists of long-lived postmitotic cells, it can be used as an informative model ... A virus that causes enlargement of the salivary glands, salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), is spread among houseflies ...
The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna, similar to the ... These cementoblasts develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in the connective tissue of the dental follicle or sac.[3] ... Cementum is secreted by cells called cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and is thickest at the root apex. ... The acellular layer of cementum is living tissue that does not incorporate cells into its structure and usually predominates on ...
Ian Wong and co-workers have shown that migrating cells can form fractals by clustering and branching. [77] Nerve cells ... Creation of digital photographic enlargements. *Fractal in soil mechanics. *Computer and video game design ... As a consequence nerve cells often are found to form into fractal patterns.[78] These processes are crucial in cell physiology ... The current understanding is that fractals are ubiquitous in cell biology, from proteins, to organelles, to whole cells. ...
On the other hand, smooth muscle cells from the tunica media layer of the artery moved into the tunica intima, where the ... leading to enlargement. ... These cells initially invade the subarachnoid space from the ... The vasospasm is thought to be secondary to the apoptosis of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils that become ... This causes the fibrosis of the arterial wall, with reduction of number of smooth muscle cells, abnormal collagen synthesis, ...
Chemokines are produced by activated CD8+ T cells that attract additional inflammatory cells, thereby promoting continued ... Gingival enlargement. *Gingival cyst of the adult. *Gingival cyst of the newborn ... The inflammatory infiltrate in oral LP is primarily composed of CD8+ T cells. A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated ... Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)[edit]. SCC can present as erythematous or white patches, ulcers, or exophytic masses. The ...
It can never amount, by implication, to an enlargement of any power expressly given. It can never be the legitimate source of ... This provision has also been used to challenge prison conditions such as extremely unsanitary cells, overcrowding, insufficient ...
A noninvasive neoplasm that arises from the thyroid follicular cells (cells that normally make thyroid hormone), showing a ... mobile thyroid gland nodule or enlargement. Depending on the size, additional symptoms of hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, or ...
Discal Cell (dc) - well defined in most species.. BlattodeaEdit. Species of Blattodea (cockroaches) have a forewing, are also ... Humeral vein - The hindwing of most butterflies has the humeral vein, except Lycaenidae There is the enlargement of the humeral ... During the fourth instar, cells from the epithelium of this trachea become greatly enlarged extend into the cavity of the wing ... The development of tracheoles, each coiled within a single cell of the epithelium of a trachea, and the subsequent opening of ...
Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of Arabidopsis.. Donnelly PM1, Bonetta D, Tsukaya H, Dengler RE, Dengler ... Our results indicate that cell cycling related to leaf morphogenesis, tissue-specific patterns of cell proliferation, and cell ... Cell cycling plays an important role in plant development, including: (1) organ morphogenesis, (2) cell proliferation within ... Tissue layers differ in pattern of proliferative cell divisions: cell cycling of palisade mesophyll precursors is prolonged in ...
... Shintaro Yoshihara,1,2 Muneo Nakaya,2 and ... B. Burkhardt, "Paediatric lymphoblastic T-cell leukaemia and lymphoma: one or two diseases?" British Journal of Haematology, ... E. Coustan-Smith, J. T. Sandlund, S. L. Perkins et al., "Minimal disseminated disease in childhood T-cell lymphoblastic ... "Non-Hodgkins lymphoma in childhood presenting as thyroid enlargement," Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 152-154, 1987. ...
... cell proliferation within tissues, and (3) cell differentiation. In this study we use a cyclin::beta-glucuronidase reporter ... Cell cycling plays an important role in plant development, including: (1) organ morphogenesis, (2) ... construct to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of cell cycling at ea … ... Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of Arabidopsis Dev Biol. 1999 Nov 15;215(2):407-19. doi: 10.1006/dbio. ...
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Electrophysiology, lateral-line hair-cell recordings.. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed from hair cells of the ... To investigate how enlarged ribbons altered hair-cell function, we performed whole-cell recordings from lateral-line hair cells ... B, I-V curves of whole-cell ICa in WT (black) and ribeye b-EGFP (gray) hair cells (5-8 dpf) (n = 13 WT and n = 10 ribeye b-EGFP ... 2006) Hair cell ribbon synapses. Cell Tissue Res 326:347-359. doi:10.1007/s00441-006-0276-3 pmid:16944206. ...
Fat cell enlargement is an independent marker of insulin resistance and hyperleptinaemia.. Lundgren, M ... Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. Insulin sensitivity in ... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Fat cell enlargement is associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals ... AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is ...
... enlargement by cell growth, get bigger by cell growth, unnecessary complexity in English->English dictionary. Search nearly 14 ... abnormal enlargement of a part or organ; excessive growth, affect with hypertrophy; be affected with hypertrophy, ... Biology) cell which creates gametes, cell that produces reproductive cells, cell producing male or female cells, malaria ... enlargement by cell growth, get bigger by cell growth, unnecessary complexity. abnormal enlargement of parts of the body ( ...
1988). Cell-type-specific glycoconjugates of collecting duct cells during maturation of the rat kidney. Cell Tiss. Res 253, 305 ... I. Uncoupling the roles of cell-cell and cell-substratum contact in establishing plasma membrane polarity in multicellular ... galectin-3 exerts its effect on MDCK cells in a three-dimensional environment through modulation of both cell-cell and cell- ... Galectin-3 expression and effects on cyst enlargement and tubulogenesis in kidney epithelial MDCK cells cultured in three- ...
Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of cardiac muscle cell proliferation in the neonate.. R T Dowell, R E ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ...
Lymph node enlargement was initially identified in 20 of the total 55 patients during the follow-up; 9 patients were finally ... Note that lymph node enlargements (except metastatic recurrence) are often detected during the follow-up period after CRT. The ... It is important to accurately distinguish between benign lymph node enlargement and recurrent lymph nodes to avoid unnecessary ... purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of lymph node enlargement after CRT. In this retrospective ...
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... effect of inhibiting fat cell hypertrophy, cell enlargement. This means reduced inches. The study was conducted to identify the ... Trehalose Sugar Inhibits Fat Cell Enlargement and Progression of Type 2 Diabetes ... Understand better the inner working of your cells and the role glycomics plays in keeping your cells healthy. ... Metabolic syndrome is triggered when abdominal fat cells become hypertrophic, and induce insulin resistance which leads to type ...
Cell-bound molecules include Intracellular Adhesion Molecules (ICAMs), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules (VCAMs), E selectin, ... Pro-cell intra-cavity therapeutic agent delivery device. US5713860 *. Jun 5, 1995. Feb 3, 1998. Localmed, Inc.. Intravascular ... The induction of arteriogenesis includes an actual structural enlargement of the vessel involved (i.e. as opposed to a more ... Saunders M. et al., "Release of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor by Human Cultured Airway Smooth Muscle Cells: ...
Immune mediated cancer cell destruction, systems and methods. US9561066. Jun 1, 2012. Feb 7, 2017. Virender K. Sharma. Method ... Thus, the urethral enlargement is a smooth, symmetrically placed cavity. This will produce a more laminar flow of the urine ... The body reacts to this procedure by creating a new epithelial layer of cells, within a matter of a few weeks, to cover the ... Device and method for destruction of cancer cells. US8940035. Nov 3, 2010. Jan 27, 2015. Elmedical Ltd.. System and method for ...
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3T3 cells starved to quiescence in low serum concentration can be stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis and one cell division ... It was recently demonstrated that growth in cell size can be dissociated from DNA synthesis and mitosis. ... 3T3 cells starved to quiescence in low serum concentration can be stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis and one cell division ... stimulate quiescent cells to enter S phase but instead stimulates growth in cell size in the small fraction of dividing cells. ...
Potential for tumor cell mobilization [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. *Splenic enlargement [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] ... Potential For Tumor Cell Mobilization. When Mozobil is used in combination with G-CSF for HSC mobilization. tumor cells may be ... Once in the marrow, stem cell CXCR4 can act to help anchor these cells to the marrow matrix, either directly via SDF-1α or ... Data on the fold increase in peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (cells/mcL) by apheresis day were evaluated in two placebo- ...
... measurement of pulmonary artery enlargement, as determined by a ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the ... ... CAR T cell therapy: On the cusp of an immunotherapy revolution?. Sep 20, 2019 ... Pulmonary artery enlargement predicts exacerbation in COPD. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, computed ... "Pulmonary artery enlargement (a PA:A ratio of >1), as detected by CT, was associated with severe exacerbations of COPD," Wells ...
Find out about breast enlargement (breast augmentation), including how much breast implants cost, how to choose a qualified and ... You should be aware of an association between breast implants and an uncommon type of immune system cell cancer. Its called ... Having a breast enlargement is a big decision. Its major surgery, the results are not guaranteed and there are some risks to ... How much breast enlargement costs. In the UK, breast implant surgery costs around £3,500 to £8,000. This does not usually ...
List of causes of Bilateral parotid gland enlargement and Dacryoadenitis, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, ... AND High white cell count (2 matches). *AND IBS-like diarrhea (2 matches) ... Enlargement *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a Symptom. *REMOVE Bilateral parotid gland enlargement ... Bilateral parotid gland enlargement OR Dacryoadenitis - Causes of Any Symptom Bilateral parotid gland enlargement:*Causes: ...
Causes of Bacterial causes of parotid enlargement, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much ... AND Red blood cell symptoms (1 match). *AND Stool color (1 match) ... Enlargement *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a ... Bacterial causes of parotid enlargement: Remove a symptom Results: Causes of Bacterial causes of parotid enlargement 1. E-coli ... Bacterial causes of parotid enlargement. Bacterial causes of parotid enlargement:*Causes: Bacterial causes of parotid ...
Yepes, J. F., DeRossi, S. S., & Pinto, A. (2003). B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. The Penn dental journal, ... Yepes, J. F. ; DeRossi, Scott S. ; Pinto, A. / B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. In: The Penn dental journal. ... title = "B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement.",. author = "Yepes, {J. F.} and DeRossi, {Scott S.} and A. Pinto", ... Yepes JF, DeRossi SS, Pinto A. B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. The Penn dental journal. 2003 Jan 1;103. ...
... growth and differentiation of infected plant cells involve extreme cell enlargement. This cell enlargement is predominantly ... cell division activity and production of new sets of meristematic cells are balanced with the exit of the same number of cells ... Bacteroid Endoreduplication and Cell Enlargement Are Specific for Galegoid Legumes.. Microscopic observations have shown that ... In the infected cells, both partners differentiate progressively along the 12-15 cell layers of the infection zone (or zone II ...
Hematologic Malignancies Associated with Primary Mediastinal Germ-Cell Tumors Annals of Internal Medicine; 102 (5): 603-609 ... Enlargement and Displacement of the Mediastinum1. Ann Intern Med. ;1:28-32. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-1-1-28 ... Enlargement and Displacement of the Mediastinum1 R. H. MCDONALD, M.D. ... Performance of Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography for Mediastinal Staging in Patients with Non-Small-Cell ...
Mus musculusProgressive ventricular enlargement is one of the most reproducible and recognizable structural abnormalities in ... Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research ... The mechanisms of ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia is unknown. We identified that progressive ventricular enlargement ... Ventricular enlargement was also caused by Crispr/cas9-mediated deletion of the Drd1 seed site for miR-674-3p/miR-382-3p. This ...
Cell enlargement. The size of cells are typically 5-10µm in diameter. However, cell enlargement has been observed in vivo, ... Dendritic cells function as major antigen-presenting cells and also initiate cell-mediated immunity. T-cell response by ... and ste3aΔ pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. DNA analysis shows that these enlarged cells are ... Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity. PLoS Pathog 2. Karkowska-Kuleta, J, Rapala-Kozik ...
Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. As ... enlargement Drug induced enlargement Enlargement associated with systemic diseases or conditions Neoplastic enlargement False ... Gingival enlargement has a multitude of causes. The most common is chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, when the gingivae ... This type of gingival enlargement is sometimes termed "drug induced gingival enlargement" or "drug influenced gingival ...
No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest ... Moreover, the choroid plexus provides a point of entry for immune cells into the brain, thereby linking the peripheral and ... Zhou, G., Hotta, J., Lehtinen, M. et al. Enlargement of choroid plexus in complex regional pain syndrome. Sci Rep 5, 14329 ( ... Enlargement of choroid plexus in complex regional pain syndrome. Sci. Rep. 5, 14329; doi: 10.1038/srep14329 (2015). ...
... prospective clinical study was to determine if foraminal enlargement instrumentation during endodontic treatment is associated ... CONCLUSIONS: The foraminal enlargement and nonenlargement techniques resulted in the same postoperative pain and necessity for ... This may suggest that the use of foraminal enlargement should be performed for endodontic treatment previsibility without ... Postoperative pain after foraminal enlargement in anterior teeth with necrosis and apical periodontitis: a prospective and ...
Enlargement of the prostate gland can result from the proliferation or enlargement of epithelial cell (cells that line the ... White blood cells in the urine, or in the seminal fluid, meanwhile, would indicate an infection of the bladder or urinary tract ... Ultrasound will be used as a visual aid for guiding a fine-needle to the prostrate in order to draw fluid and/or cell tissue ... The enlargement can be symmetrical or asymmetrical, painful or nonpainful. Normal prostate size varies with age, body size, ...
  • Having a breast enlargement is a big decision. (
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  • Is There a Certain Hormone That Stimulates Womens' Breast Enlargement? (
  • The most important hormone causing breast enlargement is estrogen, which is released by the ovaries. (
  • Therefore, the main scientific theory explaining excessive breast enlargement is that breast tissue in some women is hypersensitive to estrogen. (
  • The important point here is that breast enlargement for the majority of potential breast reduction patients is due to increases in hormone-sensitive breast fat and fibrous tissue and is not due to increased body fat that happens to be in the breast and that can be expected to shrink with weight loss. (
  • Breast enlargement may continue even after a teenage girl reaches her adult height. (
  • Dramatic and often painful massive breast enlargement during the hormone stimulation of adolescence is called gigantomastia. (
  • Some women experience permanent breast enlargement that does not respond to weight loss. (
  • Hormones taken as medication can cause breast enlargement or can reduce the degree of breast tissue shrinkage that normally occurs during menopause. (
  • Both birth control pills (taken for contraception or to regulate the menstrual cycle) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms can cause breast enlargement. (
  • Ague-cake - A form of enlargement of the spleen, resulting from the action of malaria on the system. (
  • Child leukemia often leads to spleen and liver enlargement. (
  • We investigated changes in spleen size during stem cell mobilization. (
  • Hypersplenism is characterized by enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), defects in the blood cells, and an abnormally high turnover of blood cells. (
  • In HS, the absence of a specific protein in the red blood cell membrane leads to the formation of relatively fragile cells that are easily damaged when they pass through the spleen. (
  • The cell destruction does not occur elsewhere in the body and ends when the spleen is removed. (
  • It is similar to HS in that it is characterized by red blood cells with defective membranes that are destroyed by the spleen. (
  • Patients may suffer discomfort due to a very enlarged spleen caused by leukemia cells growing in the spleen. (
  • and enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). (
  • It causes a sudden, painful enlargement of the spleen. (
  • The spleen may have to be removed due to complications of sickle cell disease in an operation known as a splenectomy. (
  • Some sickle cell patients will sustain enough damage to their spleen that it becomes shrunken and ceases to function at all. (
  • The most common metabolic abnormality associated with NSCLC is hypercalcemia, which usually occurs with squamous cell carcinoma and results from secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rP) by the tumor. (
  • Proliferating trichilemmal cyst with nodal enlargement mimicking metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Cell cycling plays an important role in plant development, including: (1) organ morphogenesis, (2) cell proliferation within tissues, and (3) cell differentiation. (
  • Cell divisions directly related to formation of stomates and of vascular tissue from their respective precursors occur throughout the period of leaf extension, so that differing tissue patterns reflect superposition of cycling related to cell differentiation on more general tissue proliferation. (
  • Our results indicate that cell cycling related to leaf morphogenesis, tissue-specific patterns of cell proliferation, and cell differentiation occurs concurrently during leaf development and suggest that unique regulatory pathways may operate at each level. (
  • Despite complexities of fruit growth and development, there are some overall consistencies in patterns of cell division and enlargement, as well as tissue differentiation and fruit enlargement (Figure 11.3). (
  • Here we demonstrate that differentiation of bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Medicago and related legumes from the galegoid clade shows remarkable similarity to host cell differentiation. (
  • Differentiation of infected cells occurs synchronously and the mature nodule contains symbiotic cells with a homogenous population of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids ( 2 ). (
  • These postmitotic cells are unable to divide and enter the nodule differentiation program. (
  • The dynamics of cells and cellular organelles are considered in the context of growth and differentiation, made possible particularly by advances in molecular genetics and the visualization of organelles using molecular probes. (
  • There is now a much clearer understanding of these basic plant processes of cell division, cell enlargement and differentiation. (
  • Each chapter provides a current and conceptual view in the context of the cell cycle (6 chapters), cell enlargement (5 chapters) or cell differentiation (9 chapters). (
  • B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. (
  • Gingival enlargement is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums). (
  • Gingival enlargement can be caused by a number of factors, including inflammatory conditions and the side effects of certain medications. (
  • These are not precise descriptions of gingival enlargement because these terms are strictly histologic diagnoses, and such diagnoses require microscopic analysis of a tissue sample. (
  • As these identifications cannot be performed with a clinical examination and evaluation of the tissue, the term gingival enlargement is more properly applied. (
  • Gingival enlargement has been classified according to cause into 5 general groups: Inflammatory enlargement Drug induced enlargement Enlargement associated with systemic diseases or conditions Neoplastic enlargement False enlargement. (
  • Gingival enlargement has a multitude of causes. (
  • The most common is chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, when the gingivae are soft and discolored. (
  • Gingivitis and gingival enlargement are often seen in mouth breathers, as a result of irritation brought on by surface dehydration, but the manner in which it is caused has not been demonstrated. (
  • The accumulation and retention of plaque is the chief cause of inflammatory gingival enlargement. (
  • Gingival enlargement may also be associated with the administration of three different classes of drugs, all producing a similar response: Gingival overgrowth is a common side effect of phenytoin, termed "Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth" (PIGO). (
  • Many systemic diseases can develop oral manifestations that may include gingival enlargement, some that are related to conditions and others that are related to disease: Conditioned enlargement pregnancy puberty vitamin C deficiency nonspecific, such as a pyogenic granuloma Systemic disease causing enlargement leukemia granulolomatous diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, or orofacial granulomatosis. (
  • Situations in which the chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement include significant fibrotic components that do not respond to and undergo shrinkage when exposed to scaling and root planing are treated with surgical removal of the excess tissue, most often with a procedure known as gingivectomy. (
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  • However, tissue layers are established by a more diffuse distribution of cycling cells that does not directly involve the marginal zone. (
  • Tissue layers differ in pattern of proliferative cell divisions: cell cycling of palisade mesophyll precursors is prolonged in comparison to that of pavement cells of the adjacent epidermal layers, and cells exit the cycle at different characteristic sizes. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is independently related to insulin action and adipokine levels. (
  • Stem cells, or unspecialised cells that can produce tissue, are currently used to help patients with damage to their bodies, reports the Dailystar. (
  • Anything other than natural tissue is always a big risk, but with stem cells can effectively just improve on nature using all the original materials, the researchers noted. (
  • Since a polarised expression and secretion of galectin-3 was observed in monolayer-cultured MDCK cells, an understanding of the secretion and distribution of this lectin in a three-dimensional in vitro model would help to uncover its role(s) in the interplay between cell-surface adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components occurring during cell aggregation and polarisation in tissue formation. (
  • Furthermore, the extent to which cells grow in size prior to mitosis is dependent on the serum concentration in the tissue culture medium (44). (
  • Some investigators assert that underlying inflammation is necessary for the development of drug-induced enlargement, while others purport that the existing enlargement induced by the drug effect compounds plaque retention, thus furthering the tissue response. (
  • neoplasm benign neoplasms, such as fibromas, papillomas and giant cell granulomas malignant neoplasms, such as a carcinoma or malignant melanoma false gingival enlargements, such as when there is an underlying bony or dental tissue lesion Drug Induced gingival overgrowth: Fibrotic type: Elevated CTGF (a.k.a. (
  • This makes tissue cells divide and multiply - a well known process called cytokinesis. (
  • When you gradually increase the longitudinal force on the shaft of the penis, the body's natural reaction to this force is multiplication of tissue cells and gradual expansion of the penile tissue. (
  • The needle is used to collect cells or tissue samples of the prostate. (
  • Penis extenders are an interesting form of penis enlargement as it works with the penis tissue, physics and mitosis. (
  • Sept. 19, 2007 -- Gynecomastia , the enlargement of breast tissue in men, can be an embarrassing condition, but it is surprisingly common and usually benign. (
  • In the context of tissue studies means the study of the appearance of healthy cells, cancerous cells, and affected organs. (
  • Orderly cell death characterized by slow dissolving and reuse of cell parts by neighboring tissue. (
  • This suggests that there is considerable oxidative stress on the tissue and glands which are close to the cell phone when in use," he says. (
  • This field of research reflects longstanding concerns about the impact of cell phone use, specifically the effects of radiofrequency non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on human tissue located close to the ear, say the researchers. (
  • A test in which tissue samples are removed from the bladder (with a needle or during surgery) and checked under a microscope to see if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. (
  • Estrogen triggers growth in breast tissue by attaching to cells at points called estrogen receptors. (
  • In the mammary epithelium, the bulk of the tissue is composed of three cell lineages, namely the basal/myoepithelial, luminal epithelial estrogen receptor positive and luminal epithelial estrogen receptor negative cells. (
  • Possible clinical implications of prostate capsule thickness and glandular epithelial cell density in benign prostate hyperplasia. (
  • These suggest the existence of a novel functional cell type within the gland, that the basal/myoepithelial cells are key regulators of paracrine signalling and that there is a complex network of differentially expressed transcription factors controlling mammary epithelial cell fate. (
  • These data will form the basis for understanding not only cell fate determination and cellular homeostasis in the normal mammary epithelium but also the contribution of different mammary epithelial cell types to the etiology and molecular pathology of breast disease. (
  • Men, you will soon be able to get your penises enlarged using your own stem cells. (
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  • Mozobil ® (plerixafor) injection is indicated in combination with granulocyte -colony stimulating factor (G- CSF ) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM). (
  • Lately, many researchers are centering in these myeloma stem cells and their involvement in myeloma relapse and initiation. (
  • Can Youthful Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Wharton's Jelly Bring a Breath of Fresh Air for COPD? (
  • The urgently needed new approaches for the treatment of COPD include stem cell therapies among which transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) emerges as a promising therapeutic strategy because of the unique properties of these cells. (
  • Plant Stem Cells. (
  • Genetic Reprogramming of Plant Cells In Vitro via Dedifferentiation or Pre-existing Stem Cells. (
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for autologous or allogeneic transplants. (
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  • Stanislav S ZakharenkoSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusProgressive ventricular enlargement is one of the most reproducible and recognizable structural abnormalities in schizophrenia, and is associated with more severe symptoms and poorer clinical outcome. (
  • Due to the multiplicity of sites where it can arise, there are no symptoms or signs specifically attributable to extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. (
  • What are signs and symptoms of mantle cell lymphoma? (
  • What are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia? (
  • Symptoms of sickle cell anemia usually show up at a young age. (
  • These types of sickle cell disease are more rare and usually don't have severe symptoms. (
  • Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of cardiac muscle cell proliferation in the neonate. (
  • [ 8 ] If any basal cells are identified in a pure cribriform proliferation of neoplastic cells on H&E-stained sections or by 34betaE12 immunostain (see "Ancillary Studies"), caution is advised, and a diagnosis of high-grade PIN should be given. (
  • Exciting research has confirmed that the naturally-derived functional saccharide trehalose has the effect of inhibiting fat cell hypertrophy, cell enlargement. (
  • In a study focused on the already-proven effect trehalose had in evoking lower insulin secretion, it was identified that trehalose inhibits the hypertrophy of fat cells. (
  • Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. (
  • Improved manifestation of ALDH1 enzyme is usually an set up real estate of control cells from Millimeter, lung tumor, severe myeloid leukemia, breasts and human brain malignancies [9, 15, 16-20]. (
  • the change causes an overproduction of cyclin D1, a protein that stimulates tumor cell division and growth. (
  • MDCK cells were cultured within type I collagen or Matrigel to obtain multicellular cysts, and tubule formation was induced in collagen gels with hepatocyte growth factor. (
  • The results suggest that galectin-3 exerts its effect on MDCK cells in a three-dimensional environment through modulation of both cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesions, and the interplay between these adhesions is important in the growth of multicellular aggregates and extensions occurring during normal kidney tubulogenesis. (
  • It was recently demonstrated that growth in cell size can be dissociated from DNA synthesis and mitosis. (
  • 3T3 cells starved to quiescence in low serum concentration can be stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis and one cell division without growing in size (unbalanced growth) (42-44). (
  • We report here that in cells stimulated to undergo unbalanced growth, the cell nucleus undergoes balanced growth, i.e., nearly doubles in size prior to mitosis. (
  • The reduced ability to grow in cell size under unbalanced growth conditions is thus mainly ascribable to the cytoplasm. (
  • This data suggests that some macromolecular factor or factors in serum are required for growth in cell size prior to mitosis. (
  • We report in this study that epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone exerts a small but significant stimulatory influence on DNA synthesis and mitosis but does not affect cellular enlargement. (
  • In contrast, insulin added at supraphysiological concentrations does not stimulate quiescent cells to enter S phase but instead stimulates growth in cell size in the small fraction of dividing cells. (
  • Furthermore, cells stimulated to proliferate by EGF could be induced to undergo balanced growth when insulin was added concomitantly. (
  • Finally, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates quiescent sparse 3T3 cells to undergo DNA synthesis and mitosis. (
  • However, PDGF alone could not induce a complete balanced growth, i.e., a doubling in cell size prior to mitosis. (
  • Growth at this time is mainly the result of cell division. (
  • In many commercial fruit (e.g. apple, kiwifruit, tomato and peach), cell division may cease a few weeks after anthesis, and fruit growth slows down, reflected as an inflection in the growth curve, and signalling an end to the first sigmoid phase. (
  • This second phase in fruit growth is mainly accomplished by cell expansion in longitudinal, radial and tangential planes. (
  • Longitudinal growth, where cells enlarge parallel to the long axis of the fruit, will often be a big factor for development of elongated fruit such as cucumber and marrow. (
  • Increases in cell volume during fruit growth can be considerable. (
  • In contrast to this general pattern where cell division ceases after a few weeks, pericarp cells of avocado fruit continue to divide over the whole growth period so that cells in mature fruit are still relatively small. (
  • The bacteria within the nodule cells gain the ability to fix nitrogen gas by means of their nitrogenase enzyme complex and supply the host plant with the reduced nitrogen for plant growth. (
  • New research shows that avocados contain active compounds effective at inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cells. (
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  • The book is targeted at plant cell biologists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists and biochemists, developmental biologists and those interested in plant growth and development. (
  • Cell Division and Cell Growth. (
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  • How Plant Hormones and Their Interactions Affect Cell Growth. (
  • This auxin effect was partly explained in the early 1970s by the discovery of "acid growth": Plant cells grow faster and their walls become more extensible at acidic pH. (
  • Auxin was hypothesized to stimulate growth, in part, by inducing plant cells to acidify their extracellular space. (
  • This is not to say that wall structure is irrelevant for control of growth, but rather that growing cells can evidently regulate specific "loosening" processes that result in wall stress relaxation. (
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  • It works by interfering with the activity of estrogen on the breast cells, thus stopping the growth. (
  • The cause of MCL is unknown, although around 85% of patients have a genetic abnormality known as a translocation, resulting in the overproduction of cyclin D1, a protein that drives cell growth. (
  • Cancer is the result of the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in the body. (
  • an initially benign growth that forms in the colon from the innermost layer of mucin-producing epithelial cells. (
  • In these cases, continuity with usual adenocarcinoma, in which the cells had a moderate amount of cytoplasm, and substantiation of basal cell absence by a 34betaE12 immunostain were instrumental in diagnosing malignant neoplasm. (
  • From a morphologic and immunophenotypic perspective, the malignant cells of CLL are identical to those of nodal-based small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and these 2 malignancies are thought to represent different manifestations of the same disease. (
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  • Association between Sickle Cell Anemia and Pulp Necrosis. (
  • The latter is very rarely done - though in 2015, a Florida urologist reported that he had successfully reduced the penile size of a young man whose penis was the size and shape of an American football (as a result of complications of sickle cell anaemia). (
  • A Mississippi State University researcher is developing new miniature models to better understand the factors that lead to heart disease and sickle cell anemia. (
  • Sickle cell anemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD), is a genetic disease of the red blood cells (RBCs). (
  • If you have only one copy of the gene, you are said to have sickle cell trait. (
  • What are the types of sickle cell disease? (
  • The four main types of sickle cell anemia are caused by different mutations in these genes. (
  • Hemoglobin SS disease is the most common type of sickle cell disease. (
  • Hemoglobin SC disease is the second most common type of sickle cell disease. (
  • Sickle beta-zero thalassemia is the fourth type of sickle cell disease. (
  • People who only inherit a mutated gene (hemoglobin S) from one parent are said to have sickle cell trait. (
  • Who is at risk for sickle cell anemia? (
  • Children are only at risk for sickle cell disease if both parents carry sickle cell trait. (
  • What complications can arise from sickle cell anemia? (
  • SCD can cause severe complications, which appear when the sickle cells block vessels in different areas of the body. (
  • Painful or damaging blockages are called sickle cell crises. (
  • The following are types of complications that can result from sickle cell anemia. (
  • Sickle cells are easily broken. (
  • Sickle cells live for a maximum of 10 to 20 days. (
  • Swollen hands and feet are often the first sign of sickle cell anemia in babies. (
  • Splenic sequestration is a blockage of the splenic vessels by sickle cells. (
  • This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). (
  • Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. (
  • Parotid gland enlargement is commonly due to the development of BLEC within the parotid gland. (
  • The recirculating neoplastic lymphocytes, which make up more than 90% of the peripheral blood white cell count, infiltrate and enlarge the lymph nodes and visceral organs. (
  • 3) Take Prostate Supplements - There are several supplements that have been found effective in the treatment of benign prostate enlargement: Saw palmetto berries have the ability to affect hormones in reducing enlargement, increasing urine flow and preventing frequent urination during the night. (
  • She went up to the second top 5 sex pills floor and slammed the first door with her small fist very firmly, as best testosterone supplements if scientific penis enlargement she had gone home for a long time. (
  • Enlargement occurs when abnormal levels of testosterone concentrate in prostate cells. (
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  • Metabolic syndrome is triggered when abdominal fat cells become hypertrophic, and induce insulin resistance which leads to type 2 diabetes. (
  • Nod factors induce cell divisions in the root cortex and successive divisions lead to the formation of the nodule primordium. (
  • Expansins alone can induce cell walls to extend, but in living cells they probably act in concert with a variety of enzymes that cut and restructure the wall. (
  • Previous work has shown that hair-cell ribbon size is correlated with differences in postsynaptic activity. (
  • To selectively assess the impact of ribbon size on synapse function, we examined hair cells in transgenic zebrafish that have enlarged ribbons, without postsynaptic alterations. (
  • Together, our work indicates that hair-cell ribbon size influences the spontaneous spiking and the precise encoding of stimulus onset in afferent neurons. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies support that hair-cell ribbon size corresponds with functional sensitivity differences in afferent neurons and, in the case of inner hair cells of the cochlea, vulnerability to damage from noise trauma. (
  • These observations suggest that varying ribbon size alone can influence sensory encoding, and give further insight into how hair cells transduce signals that cover a wide dynamic range of stimuli. (
  • Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. (
  • Negative correlations were found between subcutaneous fat cell size and insulin sensitivity assessed as M-value during clamp and as insulin action on glucose uptake in fat cells in vitro. (
  • In both groups, subcutaneous fat cell size correlated positively and independently with plasma levels of leptin but not to any of the other assessed adipokines. (
  • In non-diabetic subjects, omental fat cell size was independently and negatively correlated with insulin action in subcutaneous, but not omental, fat cells in vitro. (
  • This was not seen in type 2 diabetic subjects, suggesting that after development of type 2 diabetes other factors, not related to fat cell size, become more important for the modulation of insulin resistance. (
  • Cells in various regions of a fruit often enlarge at different rates and in different planes, so that many mature fruit show strong gradients in cell size from their surface to the centre. (
  • In apple fruit, cells closest to the core are smallest, with cell size increasing towards the fruit surface. (
  • Conversely in many berries, such as cucumber, kiwifruit and grape, the smallest cells are found in outer regions of the pericarp, with size increasing progressively towards inner regions. (
  • This finding reveals a positive correlation in prokaryotes between DNA content and cell size, similar to that in eukaryotes. (
  • In contrast, bacteroids in determinate nodules of the nongalegoid legumes lotus and bean are comparable to free-living bacteria in their genomic DNA content, cell size, and viability. (
  • In contrast, cell division activity in the indeterminate nodules is maintained and forms an apical meristem (nodule zone I). Because the size of the meristem is constant, cell division activity and production of new sets of meristematic cells are balanced with the exit of the same number of cells from the mitotic cell cycle. (
  • Following sequestration in cerebral capillaries, damage to endothelium is caused by changes in cryptococcal capsule structure and cell size. (
  • Normal prostate size varies with age, body size, castration status, and breed, so determination of the enlargement is subjective. (
  • In summary, rapamycin/RAD001 are highly effective therapies for this neuronal model of TSC, with benefit apparently attributable to effects on mTORC1 and Akt signaling and, consequently, cell size and myelination. (
  • 9. Particle Size Enlargement. (
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  • When root or sepal cells, or undifferentiated suspension cells, were treated with DSB inducers, they displayed increased cell size and DNA ploidy. (
  • In this study, we found that Arabidopsis cells treated with DSB inducers displayed increased cell size and DNA ploidy without a concomitant change in chromosome number. (
  • The size of the red blood cell is reduced because less beta protein is made. (
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  • If you smoke quit because that increases the size of the red bloos cells. (
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that enlarges rapidly and disseminates early in the course of illness. (
  • As with pulmonary small cell carcinoma, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. (
  • The pathology of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. (
  • Pryor JG, Simon RA, Bourne PA, Spaulding BO, Scott GA, Xu H. Merkel cell carcinoma expresses K homology domain-containing protein overexpressed in cancer similar to other high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. (
  • Patterns of relapse in extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: retrospective analysis of outcomes from two cancer centres. (
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: imaging features with radiologic-pathologic correlation. (
  • Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience. (
  • Small cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus successfully treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy: A case report. (
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: multimodality treatment results. (
  • Naidoo J, Teo MY, Deady S, Comber H, Calvert P. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation? (
  • De Caluwé A, Bowering G, Nichol A, Hsu F. The incidence of symptomatic brain metastases from extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma: Is there a role for prophylactic cranial irradiation in a clinically relevant population cohort? (
  • Yazici O, Ozdemir NY, Sendur MA, Aksoy S, Zengin N. Current approaches for prophylactic cranial irradiation in extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. (
  • Atrophy is separated from minimal prostatic carcinoma by the presence of basal cells, cytoplasmic volume loss, and, typically, a lesser degree of nuclear atypia. (
  • If there are more than a few atypical small acini, and these exhibit a degree of stromal separation from the high-grade PIN, and if these small glands lack basal cells, a diagnosis of carcinoma should be considered Image 12. (
  • Basically there are three large groups: the B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell tumors. (
  • Are there any side effects to male enhancement what is enlargement of the thyroid gland called pills that work. (
  • Plant factors present in nodules of galegoid legumes but absent from nodules of nongalegoid legumes block bacterial cell division and trigger endoreduplication cycles, thereby forcing the endosymbionts toward a terminally differentiated state. (
  • M. J. Tindall, S. L. Porter, P. K. Maini, G. Gaglia and J. P. Armitage, Overview of mathematical approaches used to model bacterial chemotaxis i: The single cell ,, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology , 70 (2008), 1525. (
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-lineage neoplasm of prefollicular center cells that is usually associated with circulating neoplastic small lymphocytes. (
  • White blood cells in the urine, or in the seminal fluid, meanwhile, would indicate an infection of the bladder or urinary tract. (
  • Results indicate how many red blood cells are carrying oxygen. (
  • a condition when blood is deficient in one of three ways: 1) not enough red blood cells , 2) hemoglobin , or 3) total volume of blood. (
  • Hemoglobin is a substance in the red blood cells that enables the blood to transport oxygen through the body. (
  • Anemia happens when there is a decreased number of circulating red blood cells in the body. (
  • It often results when other diseases interfere with the body's ability to produce healthy red blood cells or abnormally increase red blood cell breakdown or loss. (
  • The body needs red blood cells to survive. (
  • Some diseases and conditions can result in a low level of red blood cells. (
  • As a result, the red blood cells are diluted. (
  • The biggest cause of cancer deaths in children, leukemia cancer , which is a cancer of tissues that leads to blood cell abnormality, can damage the chromosomes or genes. (
  • It is mainly caused by a lack of white blood cells , specifically mature granuloctyes. (
  • While it produces an elevated white blood cell count, these cells don't defend against infection. (
  • an enlargement of infected red blood cells. (
  • Can a penis enlarger clauge up blood cells. (
  • Its functions include: playing a role in the immune system, filtering foreign substances from the blood, removing worn-out blood cells from the blood, regulating blood flow to the liver, and sometimes storing blood cells. (
  • The storage of blood cells is called sequestration. (
  • but due to the complications associated with splenectomy (low blood cell counts, fatigue , frequent infections, and easy bleeding or bruising), physicians are now more often recommending chemotherapy. (
  • A lack of adequate numbers of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. (
  • Her husband s fat scientific penis enlargement body was wearing this carefully preserved and ironed coat, Ye Fu Duo Kea Feodortovna seemed to have seen something pfizer viagra on his body that he hadn t found before, and could not help but suddenly kiss his shaved cialis high blood pressure but stubble still piercing face, and even kissed him on his tie. (
  • The other organs most commonly affected are the skin, the lungs, and the blood vessels, but occasionally the heart, brain, and even the cells of the immune system can be affected, causing additional medical problems. (
  • Rheumatoid arthritis may also be associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as thyroid gland problems, salivary gland inflammation (causing dry eyes and dry mouth, known as "sicca syndrome"), and increased destruction of certain types of blood cells. (
  • There is also increased destruction of particular white blood cells by the immune system. (
  • These white blood cells are important in fighting infection. (
  • The marrow replacement leads to a gradual loss of other cell lines, which manifests clinically as malaise (anemia), hemorrhage (thrombocytopenia), and infection (loss of competent white blood cells). (
  • Scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard have found that a set of genetic mutations in blood cells that arises during aging may be a major new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Before starting the treatment, blood samples will be taken in order to check that you have enough blood cells, tests to check your liver function, serum albumin (a protein in the blood) and kidney function. (
  • Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. (
  • This includes red and white blood cells, germs, or too much protein. (
  • Collecting and checking urine for white blood cells and bacteria. (
  • Your body sends out white blood cells to destroy the thyroid gland. (
  • Rouleaux is a medical term for a condition wherein the blood cells clump together forming what looks like stacks of coins. (
  • No photos were taken of the blood cells at this time. (
  • So, when Patricia looked at my blood, she observed that the red blood cells were sort of sticking together. (
  • There in full and living color on the computer screen was the most beautiful picture of healthy blood cells that she had ever seen. (
  • If you looked in the dictionary under 'perfect blood cells' there would be a picture of my blood at that moment! (
  • I'm a 51 year old female in very good health however my red blood cells have been termed 'enlarged' by my doctor since 1999. (
  • I have to take a drug on a daily basis to keep the red blood cells in check and also have frequent phlebotmies(like giving blood at a donor center) I was told that this diseases can mimick many other and the only way to know for sure is through the biopsy. (
  • I have abnormally enlarged red blood cells as well. (
  • of common progenitor cells, hematopoietic control cells, and Leukemic control cells and can be linked with poorer success in different scientific datasets. (
  • Both bone pain and joint pain are due to the deposition of leukemic cells beneath the layer of the bone surface or within the joint. (
  • Spreading of the leukemic cells outside of bone marrow is called extramedullary spread . (
  • Leukemic cells can also extend to the gums, thus leading to pain and bleeding. (
  • Leukemic infiltration of the tonsils and salivary glands can lead to their enlargement. (
  • Palatal enlargement secondary to leukemic infiltration is rare. (
  • In this study, the cellular distribution and secretion of galectin-3 were examined in MDCK cells cultured within a gel matrix. (
  • PDGF also exerts a limited but significant effect on cellular enlargement. (
  • Adaptive response is thought to be related to various cellular functions such as homeostasis and enlargement of dynamic range by background compensation. (
  • Key cellular communication machinery is more regionally constrained within the cell than previously thought. (
  • And although these results don't uncover a conclusive "cause and effect" relationship between cellular phone use and cancer, they add to the building evidence that cell phone use may be harmful in the long term, and point to a new direction for further research. (
  • Understanding the molecular control of cell lineages and fate determination in complex tissues is key to not only understanding the developmental biology and cellular homeostasis of such tissues but also for our understanding and interpretation of the molecular pathology of diseases such as cancer. (