Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.ReadingWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.PolysaccharidesInflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Impotence, Vasculogenic: Inability to achieve and maintain an erection (ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION) due to defects in the arterial blood flow to the PENIS, defect in venous occlusive function allowing blood drainage (leakage) from the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis), or both.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.

A portrait of AKT kinases: human cancer and animal models depict a family with strong individualities. (1/461)

More than a decade after their discovery, the three AKT kinase family members have emerged as central players in the signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, proliferation, survival and various aspects of intermediary metabolism. The mechanisms of activation of AKT kinases have been defined in relatively precise terms and new substrates are currently being validated in vivo. However, it is presently unclear whether AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3 are functionally redundant or whether each one performs specific functional role(s). In this review, we will summarize the signaling properties and highlight the specificities of AKT kinases that have emerged from the study of human cancer and animal models. While AKT kinases are an attractive target for pharmacological intervention, knowledge of the precise individual roles of AKT family members will improve the design of highly specific AKT-based therapeutics having reduced toxicity and improved efficacy.  (+info)

Effect of ethanol on cell growth of budding yeast: genes that are important for cell growth in the presence of ethanol. (2/461)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in the fermentation of various kinds of alcoholic beverages. But the effect of ethanol on the cell growth of this yeast is poorly understood. This study shows that the addition of ethanol causes a cell-cycle delay associated with a transient dispersion of F-actin cytoskeleton, resulting in an increase in cell size. We found that the tyrosine kinase Swe1, the negative regulator of Cdc28-Clb kinase, is related to the regulation of cell growth in the presence of ethanol. Indeed, the increase in cell size due to ethanol was partially abolished in the SWE1-deleted cells, and the amount of Swe1 protein increased transiently in the presence of ethanol. These results indicated that Swe1 is involved in cell size control in the presence of ethanol, and that a signal produced by ethanol causes a transient up-regulation of Swe1. Further we investigated comprehensively the ethanol-sensitive strains in the complete set of 4847 non-essential gene deletions and identified at least 256 genes that are important for cell growth in the presence of ethanol.  (+info)

Overexpression of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase or inhibition of sphingosine kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum results in a selective increase in sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs. (3/461)

The efficacy of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin is often limited due to resistance of the tumors to the drug, and increasing the potency of cisplatin without increasing its concentration could prove beneficial. A previously characterized Dictyostelium discoideum mutant with increased resistance to cisplatin was defective in the gene encoding sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) lyase, which catalyzes the breakdown of S-1-P, an important regulatory molecule in cell function and development and in the regulation of cell fate. We hypothesized that the increased resistance to cisplatin was due to an elevation of S-1-P and predicted that lowering levels of S-1-P should increase sensitivity to the drug. We generated three strains that stably overexpress different levels of the S-1-P lyase. The overexpressor strains have reduced growth rate and, confirming the hypothesis, showed an expression-dependent increase in sensitivity to cisplatin. Consistently, treating the cells with D-erythro-N,N,-dimethylsphingosine, a known inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, increased the sensitivity of mutant and parent cells to cisplatin, while addition of exogenous S-1-P or 8-Br-cyclic AMP made the cells more resistant to cisplatin. The increased sensitivity of the overexpressors to cisplatin was also observed with the cisplatin analog carboplatin. In contrast, the response to doxorubicin, 5-flurouracil, or etoposide was unaffected, indicating that the involvement of the sphingolipid metabolic pathway in modulating the response to cisplatin is not part of a global genotoxic stress response. The augmented sensitivity to cisplatin appears to be the result of an intracellular signaling function of S-1-P, because D. discoideum does not appear to have endothelial differentiation growth (EDG/S1P) receptors. Overall, the results show that modulation of the sphingolipid pathway at multiple points can result in increased sensitivity to cisplatin and has the potential for increasing the clinical usefulness of this important drug.  (+info)

Dynamic balancing of the dual nature of HIF-1alpha for cell survival. (4/461)

In hypoxic cells, HIF-1alpha escapes from oxygen-dependent proteolysis and binds to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) for transcriptional activation of target genes involved in angiogenesis and glycolysis. We recently demonstrated that the G(1) checkpoint gene p21(cip1)is activated by HIF-1alpha with a novel mechanism that involves the HIF-1alpha PAS domains to displace Myc binding from p21(cip1) promoter. This HIF-1alpha-Myc pathway may account for up- and down-regulation of other hypoxia-responsive genes that lack the HRE. Moreover, the role of HIF-1alpha in cell cycle control indicates a dual, yet seemingly conflicting, nature of HIF-1alpha: promoting cell growth and arrest in concomitance. We speculate that a dynamic balance between the two processes is achieved by a "stop-and-go" strategy to maintain cell growth and survival. Tumor cells may adopt such scheme to evade the killing by chemotherapeutic agents.  (+info)

Coordination of cell growth and cell division: a mathematical modeling study. (5/461)

Although there is general agreement that cell growth and division are functionally coordinated, the mechanisms that link the two processes are poorly understood. In this study, we have developed a mathematical model based on current biological concepts of the signaling transduction pathways involved in cell growth, which predicts that cell growth rate is proportional to cell surface area at birth. To investigate the relationship between growth control and cell division, we then applied our mathematical model to three classic experiments measuring cycle time versus cell birth size in fission yeast and Xenopus laevis, and the cell cycle delay in mammalian cells after serum withdrawal. When coupled to a cell cycle exhibiting 'sizer' and 'timer' phases, we show that a simple model in which growth rate is proportional to the cell surface area immediately after division reproduces the experimental observations including the relationship between cycle time and birth size in fission yeast and Xenopus laevis. The model also accounts for the cell cycle delay seen in restriction point experiments performed in HeLa cells.  (+info)

Cytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of growing colonies of human embryonic stem cells. (6/461)

The morphology of human embryonic stem (ES) cells changes with their colonial growth. For a better understanding of the growth of ES cell colonies in culture, we determined their cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics focusing on images of living cells under a phase contrast microscope. During the initial growth stages, the colonies exhibited a mosaic appearance with discernible cell-cell borders. PAS staining coupled with amylase digestion demonstrated that the bright granules and dark deposits in the cytoplasm contained glycogen. Ultrastructurally they were glycogen accumulations, and clustered open spaces associated with various amounts of glycogen. Although intercellularly heterogeneous, these structures were detectable throughout colony growth. As the colonies grew, compaction towards the centre emerged and increased, accompanied by heterogeneous increases in coarse particles with or without a halo. TUNEL showed these particles to consist at least in part of apoptotic cells/bodies. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that most apoptotic cells had been phagocytosed by intact ES cells. Spontaneous differentiation was detected occasionally in the periphery of the colonies. The presence of PAS-positive fibrous structures not susceptible to amylase digestion and laminin-immunoreactivity indicated the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the peripheral differentiated areas. These findings made it possible to determine the growth stage of human ES cell colonies.  (+info)

The mechanics of surface expansion anisotropy in Medicago truncatula root hairs. (7/461)

Wall expansion in tip-growing cells shows variations according to position and direction. In Medicago truncatula root hairs, wall expansion exhibits a strong meridional gradient with a maximum near the pole of the cell. Root hair cells also show a striking expansion anisotropy, i.e. over most of the dome surface the rate of circumferential wall expansion exceeds the rate of meridional expansion. Concomitant measurements of expansion rates and wall stresses reveal that the extensibility of the cell wall must vary abruptly along the meridian of the cell to maintain the gradient of wall expansion. To determine the mechanical basis of expansion anisotropy, we compared measurements of wall expansion with expansion patterns predicted from wall structural models that were either fully isotropic, transversely isotropic, or fully anisotropic. Our results indicate that a model based on a transversely isotropic wall structure can provide a good fit of the data although a fully anisotropic model offers the best fit overall. We discuss how such mechanical properties could be controlled at the microstructural level.  (+info)

Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic instruct polarized growth of cell extensions in the Drosophila trachea. (8/461)

The migration of cellular extensions is guided by signals from tissues with which they contact. Many axon guidance molecules regulate growth cone migration by directly regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Secreted morphogens control global patterns of cell fate decisions during organogenesis through transcriptional regulation, and constitute another class of guidance molecules. We have investigated the guidance roles of the morphogens Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic during directed outgrowth of cytoplasmic extensions in the Drosophila trachea. A subset of tracheal terminal cells adheres to the internal surface of the epidermis and elongates cytoplasmic processes called terminal branches. Hedgehog promotes terminal branch spreading and its extension over the posterior compartment of the epidermis. Decapentaplegic, which is expressed at the onset of terminal branching, restricts dorsal extension of the terminal branch and ensures its monopolar growth. Orthogonal expression of Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic in the epidermis instructs monopolar extension of the terminal branch along the posterior compartment, thereby matching the pattern of airway growth with that of the epidermis.  (+info)

It is pretty obvious from this behaviour that simply putting water around a tissue creates a system with several interacting factors. The growth rate could be affected not only by \(P\) but also by \(m\), \(L\), \(\Pi\), or \(P_{th}\). In an effort to simplify this system, scientists have sought single cells that could be surrounded by water. From a practical point of view this allows \(P\) and \(m\) to be the main factors controlling growth and minimises the effect of \(L\), as shown in Figure 7.27.
Cell expansion is a fundamental procedure in many cell culture applications. Watch this video to learn how to expand your cells in various vessels and different options for scale-up. You will discover how to make cell expansion more efficient, while also reducing the stress on your cells.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Growth is an irreversible increase in size and or dry mass. The basis of growth is cell division by mitosis, cell differentiation and cell enlargement. Growth in plant and animal
Global Cell Expansion Market - World Cell Expansion Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2020 - Cell Expansion Industry Research, Outlook, Application, Product, Share, Growth, Key Opportunities, Dynamics, Analysis, Cell Expansion Report - Grand View Research Inc
Cell, Knowledge, Lead, Tissues, Water, Mouse, Cellulose, Cell Division, Cell Enlargement, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cotyledon, Cotyledons, Cytokinins, Germination, Growth, Permits, Seedlings, Seeds, Senescence
Global Cell Expansion Market: Overview Cell expansion is the process of producing daughter cells, which fundamentally occur from a single cell. Cell expansion is useful in therapeutics as a drug screening tool and also for core research reason. Request Free Sample Report @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/sample/cell-expansion-market Global Cell Expansion Market: Growth Factors The prominent factors contributing to the global cell expansion…
... is present in every living cell, both plant and animal. It is required by all plants for growth. No other nutrient can be substituted for it. Phosphorus plays a role in all major metabolic processes in the plant including photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division and cell enlargement.. Phosphorus is critical for early root development and hence must be applied prior to or at planting for annual crops. Importantly it must be applied in the region where the seed will germinate as Phosphorus does not readily move in the soil. The root system must come into contact with Phosphorous for adsorption to occur.. ...
Pik3ip1 silencing-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is dependent on PI3K activity.NRCMs were transfected with siNegative and siPik3ip1 for 24 h and subsequently
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in glucose have larger average size than cells grown in ethanol. Besides, yeast must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size in order to enter S phase at Start. This control is of outmost physiological relevance, since it allows us to coordinate cell growth with cell cycle progression and it is responsible for cell size homeostasis. The cell sizer mechanism requires the overcoming of two sequential thresholds, involving Cln3 and Far1, and Clb5,6 and Sic1, respectively. When both thresholds are non-functional, carbon source modulation of cell size at Start is completely abolished. Since inactivation of extracellular glucose sensing through deletion of either the GPR1 or the GPA2 gene causes a marked, but partial, reduction in the ability to modulate cell size and protein content at Start, it is proposed that both extracellular and intracellular glucose signalling is required for properly setting the cell sizer in glucose media.. ...
Organic killer (NK) cells are good antitumor effector cells, but the generation of enough NK cell numbers for adoptive immunotherapy remains difficult. which was better than with NK cells turned on with IL-2 alone. Intriguingly, adoptively moved NK cells taken care of their improved creation of TNF- and IFN upon restimulation, although they quickly dropped their capability to degranulate and mediate growth cytotoxicity after the transfer. In bottom line, a process was 51-30-9 IC50 developed by us for NK cell enlargement that outcomes in excellent cell produces. The extended NK cells possess powerful antitumor 51-30-9 IC50 activity and and could end up being used at high amounts for adoptive immunotherapy in the center. in a way that is applicable in the treatment centers are essential absolutely. Many protocols used to time put into action interleukin (IL)-2 including mass media for NK cell account activation and enlargement. Although IL-2-including moderate can activate NK cells before their ...
Cell Expansion Market by Product (Reagent, Media, Flow Cytometer, Centrifuge, Bioreactor), Cell Type (human, animal), Application (Regenerative Medicine &...
The term myocardial hypertrophy, say the working group, lacks precision. In cell biology the term hypertrophy describes growth via cell enlargement as opposed to growth by cell division, where hyperplasia is the correct term. Currently in cardiology the term hypertrophy is commonly applied to the situation in the whole heart where myocardial enlargement is accompanied by both hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In addition the term hypertrophy does not take account of the fact that non myocytes in the heart are not passive bystanders and also change in number when the heart remodels. Additionally there may be an invasion of inflammatory cells into the heart, and angiogenesis may occur.. "The advantage of the term cardiac remodelling is that it simply defines reorganisation of the different cardiac tissue components, and can be used to describe an increase, or decrease in the size of the left ventricle, as well as a change to the cellular components," explained the first author of the paper, Ralph ...
0027]In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise removing the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly from a sterile package before detachably-attaching the support backing of the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly to the cell expansion machine. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise causing a fluid flow through at least a portion of the fluid conveyance system including into a rotatable bioreactor of the fluid conveyance system. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise rotating the rotatable bioreactor after detachably-attaching the support backing to the cell expansion machine. In at least one embodiment, the method may further comprise detaching the support backing of the first detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly from the cell expansion machine, and then attaching a second detachably-attachable premounted fluid conveyance assembly to the cell expansion machine. ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is independently related to insulin action and adipokine levels.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fat cells were prepared from abdominal subcutaneous biopsies obtained from 49 type 2 diabetic and 83 non-diabetic subjects and from omental biopsies obtained from 37 non-diabetic subjects. Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. Insulin sensitivity in vivo was assessed with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps. Fasting blood samples were collected and adipokines and NEFA were measured.. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between subcutaneous fat cell size and insulin sensitivity assessed as M-value during clamp and as insulin action on glucose uptake in fat cells in vitro. This was seen in non-diabetic subjects after including age, sex and BMI in the analyses. No such relationship was found in type 2 diabetic ...
RodZ interacts with MreB and both factors are required to maintain the rod shape of Escherichia coli. The assembly of MreB into filaments regulates the subcellular arrangement of a group of enzymes that synthesizes the peptidoglycan (PG) layer. Howev
definition of MIH, what does MIH mean?, meaning of MIH, Murine Imaging and Histology, MIH stands for Murine Imaging and Histology
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cuttingFor instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the . Rod mills are less common than ball mills for grinding minerals.. ...
Cell size trajectories for successive mother and daughter cells.Data is collected during the simulations with three different periods of forced CLN2 expression:
Hi, I have a table with 4 cells. I would like to make each cell of equal height and width. I have set the properties for the cells for the specific size. However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width or the lenght that I want them to stay. How can I properly control this through CSS? Thanks
China High Efficiency Ultra-Fine Mesh Cotton Fiber Micronizer, Find details about China Cotton Fiber Micronizer, Cotton Fiber Micromill from High Efficiency Ultra-Fine Mesh Cotton Fiber Micronizer - Zhejiang LEAP Pulverization Equipment Co., Ltd.
During longitudinal development of the long bone cartilage, periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, which adds cells to the columnar region, is followed by chondrocyte hypertrophy, which reduces cells in the columnar region. Therefore, the length of the columnar chondrocyte region is determined by three parameters: the pace of periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, the pace of chondrocyte hypertrophy and the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Fig. 7). As upregulated Ihh signaling promotes periarticular chondrocyte differentiation and increases the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Kobayashi et al., 2005b), the proliferating columnar chondrocyte region would be increased if chondrocyte hypertrophy were not altered. Our observation that the columnar chondrocyte region was shorter in the PTHrP-/-;Ptch1c/-; Col2a1-Cre double mutant than in the PTHrP-/- single mutant (Fig. 2B, Fig. 3A) demonstrates that Hh signaling also acts to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy in the absence ...
Both cell proliferation and cell size control are fundamental biological processes that must be carefully orchestrated, and dysregulation of either can lead to diseases such as cancer. In contrast to our understanding of the mechanisms that control cell proliferation, less is known about the mechanisms that control cell size and, particularly, the mechanisms by which cell proliferation and cell size are coordinately regulated. Recently, we identified a novel protein named FIP200, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Abbi et al., 2002). In this study, we showed that FIP200 can also regulate cell size through interaction with the TSC1-TSC2 complex and activation of S6K. These results identify FIP200 as a regulator that plays roles in both cell proliferation and cell size control.. Most other proteins known to play roles in both cell proliferation and cell size usually regulate these two cellular processes in a similar manner. For example, PTEN can inhibit cell ...
Hypertrophy - What is element hypertrophy? Hypertropphy. Just means that something is increased in size. For example lots of weight lifting leads to muscle hypertrophy.
Press Release issued May 27, 2015: Browse 149 Market Data Tables and 56 Figures spread through 224 Pages and in-depth TOC on Cell Expansion Market
Laboratory equipment supplier for research and industry needs. Access now to the largest scientific products database in our online store.
Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. DeleteCancel ...
Im working with a document I was given. There are currently 4 columns with cells of a certain size. When I try to insert a new column, it comes in
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
Younger cats tend to have T-cell lymphoma and older cats tend to have B-cell lymphoma. Older cats tend to have gastrointestinal ... Enlargement of the liver and spleen causes the abdomen to distend. Mediastinal lymphoma can cause fluid to collect around the ... Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. Polymerase chain ... "Distinct B-cell and T-cell lymphoproliferative disease prevalence among dog breeds indicates heritable risk". Cancer Res. 65 ( ...
A mature gastrotrich, with visible cells on the surface. Further growth now occurs by cell enlargement only ... Development proceeds by cell division until maturity; further growth occurs by cell enlargement only. ... Eutelic organisms have a fixed number of somatic cells when they reach maturity. The exact number is constant for any one ...
Giant cell fibroma • Gigantiform cementoma • Gingiva • Gingival and periodontal pockets • Gingival cyst of the adult • Gingival ... cyst of the newborn • Gingival enlargement • Gingival fibers • Gingival sulcus • Gingivectomy • Gingivitis • Giovanni Battista ... Dental pulp stem cells • Dental radiography • Dental restoration • Dental restorative materials • Dental sealant • Dental spa ... Acinic cell carcinoma • Acrodont • Adalbert J. Volck • Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor • Adhesive Dentistry • Aetna • Agar • ...
ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ... Nelson's syndrome, the rapid enlargement of the ACTH producing pituitary after the removal of both adrenal glands ... ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of ... Small cell carcinoma, a common cause of ACTH secreted ectopically. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diseases in the production ...
... calcium is required for cell division and enlargement and is particularly important for young plants and buds. An annual spring ...
... characteristics of the tumor cell, and (3) virological characteristics The demonstration of peripheral nerve enlargement along ... primitive reticular cells, and occasional plasma cells, as well as macrophage and plasma cells. The T cells are involved in the ... without stimulation by cell-mediated immunity, the humoral immunity conferred by the B-cell lines from the Bursa of Fabricius ... Pleomorphic lymphoid cells in nerves and tumors; and (9) T-cell lymphomas. In addition to gross pathology and histology, other ...
Liver cell death and severe lactic acidosis may be present as well. Caudate lobe enlargement is often present. The majority of ... liver enlargement, enlargement of the spleen, fluid accumulation within the peritoneal cavity, elevated liver enzymes, and ... It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites, and liver enlargement. The formation of a blood clot within ... Many patients have Budd-Chiari syndrome as a complication of polycythemia vera (myeloproliferative disease of red blood cells ...
Cells undergoing mitosis are common, as are cells undergoing apoptosis.[1] Intratubular growth of spermatocytic seminoma can be ... Most present with slow, painless testicular enlargement, which may involve both testes.[1] ... large cells (50-100 µm).. The cells are generally packed into nodules, and have a loose, sheet-like arrangement that is ... Histologically, spermatocytic seminomas consist of three cell populations:[2] *small cells with a large nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ...
Development proceeds by cell division until maturity; further growth occurs via cell enlargement only. In nematodes the number ... Eutelic organisms have a fixed number of somatic cells when they reach maturity, the exact number being constant for any one ... ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. How many cells are there in an organism? Miscellaneous characters - Contributions to Zoology. ... including the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans whose male individuals have 1031 cells), tardigrades, larvacea and ...
IPSPs can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. ... this maturation occurs during the perinatal period when brain stem projects reach the lumbar enlargement. Descending modulatory ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells.[10][11] In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been ... They can also block calcium ion channels to hyperpolarize postsynaptic cells. Significance[edit]. There are many applications ...
The larva consists of a small, fixed number of cells, and grows by enlargement of these rather than cell division. Development ... In contrast, the amphioxus and vertebrates show cell determination relatively late in development and cell cleavage is ... where the fate of the cells is set early on with reduced cell numbers and genomes that are rapidly evolving. ... There are no sense organs but there are sensory cells on the siphons, the buccal tentacles and in the atrium.[8] ...
Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, bud formation and root initiation. They also promote the ... They affect cell elongation by altering cell wall plasticity. They stimulate cambium, a subtype of meristem cells, to divide ... induced death in lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Methyl jasmonate has been found to induce cell death in a number of cancer cell ... Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth ...
This is caused by bilirubin (one of the end products of red blood cell destruction). Enlargement of the newborn's liver and ... Red blood cells lacking Rh/RhAG proteins have structural abnormalities (such as stomatocytosis) and cell membrane defects that ... All Rh antibodies except D display dosage (antibody reacts more strongly with red cells homozygous for an antigen than cells ... or breaking down of red blood cells Erythroblastosis refers to the making of immature red blood cells Fetalis refers to the ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... The orifice of the invagination remains open, and undergoes enlargement and modification to form the abdominal ostium of the ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ... The immature ova originate from cells from the dorsal endoderm of the yolk sac. Once they have reached the gonadal ridge they ...
doi:10.1016/S1096-4959(03)00221-5. Sorrosa, J. M.; M. Satoh; Y. Shiraiwa (2005). "Low temperature stimulates cell enlargement ... Prymnesiophyceae)". Plant and Cell Physiology. 40 (7): 762-766. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a029603. DeBose, J. L.; S. C. ... During massive blooms (which can cover over 100,000 square kilometers), EHUX cell concentrations can outnumber those of all ... Plant Cell Physiology. 45 (10): 1434-1441. doi:10.1093/pcp/pch164. PMID 15564527. Retrieved 2008-03-21. Read, B.; J. Kegel; MJ ...
It works in two ways, first by disrupting cell membranes and mitochondria resulting cell death, and then by inducing antibody- ... rapid enlargement), B (bleeding), E (erythema) and U (ulceration).[21] AKs are usually diagnosed clinically, but because they ... These cells have been observed to proliferate into the dermis as buds and duct-like structures.[22] ... Moy, RL (Jan 2000). "Clinical presentation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma". Journal of the American Academy ...
Cell division stops at the end of embryonic development and further growth is only by cell enlargement.[3] ... Gastrotrichs develop to a particular number of cells; further growth comes only from an increase in cell size. As is typical ... Some gastrotrichs also possess light sensitive cells in the brain that work as primitive ocelli (eye spots).[2] ... Gastrotrichs are eutelic: each species has a genetically fixed number of cells as adults. ...
... the degree of host nucleus displacement and the degree of host cell enlargement. DNA studies should help to clarify this area ... straight gametocytes that normally occur in anucleate cells and are almost as long as the host cell (H. enucleator) The species ... Once the vector bites a new host, the sporozoites enter the blood stream and invade endothelial cells of blood vessels within ... Within the endothelial cells, the sporozoites undergo asexual reproduction becoming schizonts. These in turn produce numerous ...
Hyperplasia is the enlargement of a plant tissue due to excessive increase in the number of plant cells produced. Hyperplasia ... Localized swellings or enlargement of epidermal cells due to excessive accumulation of water is termed intermuscence and the ... Hypertrophy is excessive growth due to the enlargement of individual cells. This condition also results in the overdevelopment ... Hyperplasia and hypertrophy could result in the enlargement of leaves and fruits, and the enlargement of stems and roots. ...
... the cells that defend the body from foreign invaders) count. Neutropaenia a reduced neutrophil (the white blood cells that kill ... Breast enlargement (in either sex). This is a complication of hyperprolactinaemia. Galactorrhoea (expulsion of milk from the ... which allows cells to utilise sugars for energy. This in turn forces the body to burn fats for energy and fats require ... a part of blood cells that is used to carry oxygen. In most people this is an indication of impaired liver function) Hepatitis ...
This enlargement of the cleft is caused by contraction of capillary endothelial cells, often by substances such as histamine ... which is important in cell-cell recognition and cell signaling, is more developed. The organization of the endocardial ... This method is especially useful in cell-to-cell propagation of infectious cytosolic protein aggregates. In one study, protein ... Hofmann, J., Denner, P., Naussbaum- Krammer, C., Kuhn, P., Suhre, M., Scheibel, T., ... Vorberg, I. (2013). Cell-to-cell ...
Vegetative cells are capable of enlargement and may also produce resting spores. However, samples from Puget Sound, WA display ... The D. brightwellii cell has a high length to diameter ratio. The cell wall is silicified, as is characteristic of all diatoms ... Oceanic currents and surface winds prevent D. brightwellii cells from sinking beneath the euphotic zone. Cells range in size ... This hard, porous covering is known as the frustule and causes the cell to be more dense than the surrounding water. ...
T cell or pre-B cell Large and heterogeneous (varied) cells ALL - L3 B cell Large and varied cells with vacuoles Mature B-cell ... The cancerous cell in ALL is the lymphoblast. Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells, ... Hyperdiploid cells are defined as cells with more than 50 chromosomes, while hypodiploid is defined as cells with less than 44 ... T cell or pre-B cell Small and homogeneous (uniform) cells ALL - L2 ...
Growth continues after the embryonic stage, and occurs through cell division, enlargement of cells or accumulation of ... The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ... The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). ...
The swelling is due to enlargement of the inner core of medulla cells. A recessive autosomal gene spf for sparse fur. As well ... which in addition to creating pigment-producing cells, develop into a variety of neurological cell types. White cats with one ... A higher frequency of deafness in white cats is due to a reduction in the population and survival of melanoblast stem cells, ... The white masking gene, W/w. The "W" gene prevents the normal replication and migration of pigment-producing cells during ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Early in the spring of the second year following egg-laying, the larvae, about 30 mm long, pupate in the tunnel enlargement ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ...
Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of Arabidopsis.. Donnelly PM1, Bonetta D, Tsukaya H, Dengler RE, Dengler ... Our results indicate that cell cycling related to leaf morphogenesis, tissue-specific patterns of cell proliferation, and cell ... Cell cycling plays an important role in plant development, including: (1) organ morphogenesis, (2) cell proliferation within ... Tissue layers differ in pattern of proliferative cell divisions: cell cycling of palisade mesophyll precursors is prolonged in ...
... Shintaro Yoshihara,1,2 Muneo Nakaya,2 and ... B. Burkhardt, "Paediatric lymphoblastic T-cell leukaemia and lymphoma: one or two diseases?" British Journal of Haematology, ... E. Coustan-Smith, J. T. Sandlund, S. L. Perkins et al., "Minimal disseminated disease in childhood T-cell lymphoblastic ... "Non-Hodgkins lymphoma in childhood presenting as thyroid enlargement," Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 152-154, 1987. ...
What does male enhancement rings do Aturan memakai titan gel Does vimax male enhancement work Glans enlargement exercises ... Penile enlargement elist. Can military mens get penis enlargement surgery. Dht cream and penis growth. Get my dick bigger. ... Penile enlargement surgery vancouver bc. Male enhancement fda approved. How to get s bigger dick. Penile enlargement surgery in ... Plastic surgery penile enlargement houston tx. How much does penis enlargement surgery cost. 15 day gold male enhancement pills ...
Electrophysiology, lateral-line hair-cell recordings.. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed from hair cells of the ... To investigate how enlarged ribbons altered hair-cell function, we performed whole-cell recordings from lateral-line hair cells ... B, I-V curves of whole-cell ICa in WT (black) and ribeye b-EGFP (gray) hair cells (5-8 dpf) (n = 13 WT and n = 10 ribeye b-EGFP ... 2006) Hair cell ribbon synapses. Cell Tissue Res 326:347-359. doi:10.1007/s00441-006-0276-3 pmid:16944206. ...
Fat cell enlargement is an independent marker of insulin resistance and hyperleptinaemia.. Lundgren, M ... Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. Insulin sensitivity in ... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Fat cell enlargement is associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals ... AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is ...
... enlargement by cell growth, get bigger by cell growth, unnecessary complexity in English->English dictionary. Search nearly 14 ... abnormal enlargement of a part or organ; excessive growth, affect with hypertrophy; be affected with hypertrophy, ... Biology) cell which creates gametes, cell that produces reproductive cells, cell producing male or female cells, malaria ... enlargement by cell growth, get bigger by cell growth, unnecessary complexity. abnormal enlargement of parts of the body ( ...
... or unspecialised cells that can produce tissue, are currently used to help patients with damage to their bodies, reports the ... Stem cells, or unspecialised cells that can produce tissue, are currently used to help patients with damage to their bodies, ... One of the reasons for this is that the body is far less likely to reject material thats been provided by its own skin cells. ... In near future, the similar process may be used for the people who are looking to modify their bodies such as penis enlargement ...
Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of cardiac muscle cell proliferation in the neonate.. R T Dowell, R E ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ... Pressure-induced cardiac enlargement in neonatal and adult rats. Left ventricular functional characteristics and evidence of ...
Lymph node enlargement was initially identified in 20 of the total 55 patients during the follow-up; 9 patients were finally ... Note that lymph node enlargements (except metastatic recurrence) are often detected during the follow-up period after CRT. The ... It is important to accurately distinguish between benign lymph node enlargement and recurrent lymph nodes to avoid unnecessary ... purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of lymph node enlargement after CRT. In this retrospective ...
1988). Cell-type-specific glycoconjugates of collecting duct cells during maturation of the rat kidney. Cell Tiss. Res 253, 305 ... I. Uncoupling the roles of cell-cell and cell-substratum contact in establishing plasma membrane polarity in multicellular ... galectin-3 exerts its effect on MDCK cells in a three-dimensional environment through modulation of both cell-cell and cell- ... Galectin-3 expression and effects on cyst enlargement and tubulogenesis in kidney epithelial MDCK cells cultured in three- ...
Potential for tumor cell mobilization [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. *Splenic enlargement [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] ... Potential For Tumor Cell Mobilization. When Mozobil is used in combination with G-CSF for HSC mobilization. tumor cells may be ... Once in the marrow, stem cell CXCR4 can act to help anchor these cells to the marrow matrix, either directly via SDF-1α or ... Data on the fold increase in peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (cells/mcL) by apheresis day were evaluated in two placebo- ...
... there are some overall consistencies in patterns of cell division and enlargement, as well as tissue differentiation and fruit ... Growth at this time is mainly the result of cell division. In many commercial fruit (e.g. ... enlargement (Figure 11.3). During the first 1-4 weeks, flesh volume increases rapidly and embryo volume remains small. ... Cell enlargement is not a uniform process. Cells in various regions of a fruit often enlarge at different rates and in ...
Yepes, J. F., DeRossi, S. S., & Pinto, A. (2003). B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. The Penn dental journal, ... Yepes, J. F. ; DeRossi, Scott S. ; Pinto, A. / B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. In: The Penn dental journal. ... title = "B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement.",. author = "Yepes, {J. F.} and DeRossi, {Scott S.} and A. Pinto", ... Yepes JF, DeRossi SS, Pinto A. B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. The Penn dental journal. 2003 Jan 1;103. ...
... growth and differentiation of infected plant cells involve extreme cell enlargement. This cell enlargement is predominantly ... cell division activity and production of new sets of meristematic cells are balanced with the exit of the same number of cells ... Bacteroid Endoreduplication and Cell Enlargement Are Specific for Galegoid Legumes.. Microscopic observations have shown that ... In the infected cells, both partners differentiate progressively along the 12-15 cell layers of the infection zone (or zone II ...
... scientists have sought single cells that could be surrounded by water. From a practical point of view this allows \(P\) and \(m ... 7.3 - Cell growth. Back to top 7.3.4 - Search for molecular mechanism of cell enlargement. It is pretty obvious from this ... Figure 7.29 Proposed mechanism of cell enlargement in Chara. The diagram shows the calcium pectate cycle occurring in the cell ... In the internode cells of Chara or Nitella, microfibrils are oriented normal to the cell axis and the walls expand mostly in ...
Cell enlargement. The size of cells are typically 5-10µm in diameter. However, cell enlargement has been observed in vivo, ... Dendritic cells function as major antigen-presenting cells and also initiate cell-mediated immunity. T-cell response by ... and ste3aΔ pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. DNA analysis shows that these enlarged cells are ... Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity. PLoS Pathog 2. Karkowska-Kuleta, J, Rapala-Kozik ...
Cell-bound molecules include Intracellular Adhesion Molecules (ICAMs), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules (VCAMs), E selectin, ... Pro-cell intra-cavity therapeutic agent delivery device. US5713860 *. Jun 5, 1995. Feb 3, 1998. Localmed, Inc.. Intravascular ... The induction of arteriogenesis includes an actual structural enlargement of the vessel involved (i.e. as opposed to a more ... Saunders M. et al., "Release of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor by Human Cultured Airway Smooth Muscle Cells: ...
liver function abnormalities, massive cell damage toxic chemical hepatitis, jaundice, liver enlargement, sensation of pressure ... blood cell changes; fatty degeneration of liver; liver dysfunction; death. pentachloroethane. cat. liver, kidney, and lung ... anorexia; diarrhea; blood cell fluctuation; weight loss. mouse. staggering gait; breathing difficulty; fatty degeneration of ... anemia, increase in white blood cells, (and blood platelets). dermatologic. dryness, cracking, scaliness, inflamation, purpuric ...
2.1.1. inc in cell @. 2.2. Hypertrophy. 2.2.1. cell enlargement without division. 2.3. metaplasia. 2.3.1. irreversible change ... 5.1.1. Tumor specific (tumor cells only). 5.1.2. Tumor associated (tumor/normal cells). 5.1.3. classification. 5.1.3.1. ... dysplastic cells breach basement membrane. 3.2.10. example. 3.2.11. example. 3.3. Tumor Grade. 3.3.1. level of morphologic ...
In mice taken off rapamycin, there is recurrence of cell enlargement. K, L, Higher-power view of cells from images G and H ... Note abnormal SMI311+ cells that are enlarged and dysplastic in the untreated mutant mice. These cells have reduced cell size ... pS6 expression and cell enlargement recur in the on/off treated mutant mice. Scale bar, 20 μm. All images are Z-stacked 630× ... Whereas cell enlargement and biochemical and signaling profiles reverted to their pretreatment patterns within 2 weeks (Figs. 2 ...
Elephantiasis - Gross enlargement of the body, especially the limbs, due to lymphatic obstruction by a nematode parasite ... A beta-hemolytic streptococci (which elaborate a toxin with an affinity for red blood cells) and characterized by a scarlet ... Ague-cake - A form of enlargement of the spleen, resulting from the action of malaria on the system. American plague - Yellow ... Hypertrophic - Enlargement of organ, like the heart. Hypertropy of heart - Enlarged heart. Hysteria - Wild uncontrollable ...
Here, we elaborate the cell-type specificity of a broad connectivity matrix from the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) to the dorsal ... Here, the authors elucidate the connectivity between deep cerebellar nuclei and specific cell types in the striatum via the ... c Overview (left) and enlargement (right) of ILN in mice four weeks post-infection. Cells expressing mCherry (orange) are ... 51 DCN cells for D1R-cre, N = 9 mice and n = 350 DCN cells for A2A-cre, and N = 7 mice and n = 226 DCN cells for ChAT-cre. Mean ...
Ipsilateral hilar (N1 enlargement). While ipsilateral hilar (N1) lymph node involvement can sometimes be confirmed ... Are you sure your patient has non-small-cell lung cancer? What should you expect to find?. Please see the chapter, "Lung Cancer ... If you decide the patient has non-small-cell lung cancer, how should the patient be managed?. Please see the chapter, "Lung ... What pathology/cytology/genetic studies will be helpful in making or excluding the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer? ...
... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ... Comparison of single cell methylation sequencing methods in terms of coverage as at 2015.png 823 × 871; 112 KB. ... Media in category "Cell biology". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 474 total. ... Cell-type specificity of TIP-YFP expression in the root axis cropped.jpg 1,050 × 565; 120 KB. ...
Enlargement of a Pore.. The patients own cells are seeded onto the scaffold and allowed to attach and start producing new bone ...
  • Here, we elaborate the cell-type specificity of a broad connectivity matrix from the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) to the dorsal striatum in mice. (nature.com)
  • Purkinje cell axons converge onto the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), and elicit a time-locked firing response when Purkinje cells are synchronized 16 . (nature.com)
  • Only a subset of luminal cell nuclei show ER staining (examples indicated by arrows). (nih.gov)
  • Ovocytes appear to be among the infected cells and their nuclei are hypertrophic, and the host does not noticeably respond with an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal neurons of the MNTB are glycinergic, thus hyperpolarizing the superior olivary complex (SOC) nuclei in nearby cells and producing tonotopic inhibitory effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle memory is probably related to the cell nuclei residing inside the muscle fibers, as is described below. (wikipedia.org)
  • To support this large volume, the muscle cells are one of the very few in the mammalian body that contain several cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently it was believed that during muscle wasting (atrophy) muscle cells lost nuclei by a nuclear self-destruct mechanism called apoptosis, but recent observations using time laps in vivo imaging in mice do not support this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct observation indicated that no nuclei are lost under such conditions, and the apoptosis observed in the muscle tissue were demonstrated to occur only in other cell nuclei in the tissue, e.g. connective tissue and muscle stem cells called satellite cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since in vivo imaging has confirmed that cell nuclei are added during strength training and not lost upon subsequent detraining, the nuclei might provide a mechanism for muscle memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell lymphoma presenting a gingival enlargement. (elsevier.com)
  • Gingival enlargement can be caused by a number of factors, including inflammatory conditions and the side effects of certain medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are not precise descriptions of gingival enlargement because these terms are strictly histologic diagnoses, and such diagnoses require microscopic analysis of a tissue sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these identifications obviously cannot be performed with a clinical examination and evaluation of the tissue, the term gingival enlargement is more properly applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gingival enlargement may be caused by a multitude of causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common is chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, when the gingivae are soft and discolored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gingivitis and gingival enlargement are often seen in mouth breathers, as a result of irritation brought on by surface dehydration, but the manner in which it is caused has not been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation and retention of plaque is the chief cause of inflammatory gingival enlargement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gingival enlargement may also be associated with the administration of three different classes of drugs, all producing a similar response: Gingival overgrowth is a common side effect of phenytoin, termed "Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth" (PIGO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many systemic diseases can develop oral manifestations that may include gingival enlargement, some that are related to conditions and others that are related to disease: Conditioned enlargement pregnancy puberty vitamin C deficiency nonspecific, such as a pyogenic granuloma Systemic disease causing enlargement leukemia granulolomatous diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, or orofacial granulomatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Situations in which the chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement include significant fibrotic components that do not respond to and undergo shrinkage when exposed to scaling and root planing are treated with surgical removal of the excess tissue, most often with a procedure known as gingivectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cell gingivitis appears as mild gingival enlargement and may extend from the free marginal gingiva on to the attached gingiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA damage checkpoint in metazoans ensures genome integrity by delaying cell-cycle progression to repair damaged DNA or by inducing apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • neoplasm benign neoplasms, such as fibromas, papillomas and giant cell granulomas malignant neoplasms, such as a carcinoma or malignant melanoma false gingival enlargements, such as when there is an underlying bony or dental tissue lesion Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth: Fibrotic Type: Elevated CTGF (a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant mast cells overexpress the anti-apoptosis gene, bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other plasma cell dyscrasias that, for example, lead to multiple myeloma, WM is commonly preceded by two clinically asymptomatic but progressively more pre-malignant phases, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia depends on a significant monoclonal IgM spike evident in blood tests and malignant cells consistent with the disease in bone marrow biopsy samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcitonin is produced by the "C" cells of the thyroid, which, because they are always hyperplastic or malignant in MEN2B, produce more calcitonin than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cell ensembles organized in cerebellar lobules and rostro-caudal stripes process information related to different sensory modalities and body parts 13 . (nature.com)
  • Misplacement of Purkinje Cells during Postnatal Development in Bax Knock-Out Mice: A Novel Role for Programmed Cell Death in the Nervous System? (jneurosci.org)
  • As they run along, the parallel fibers pass through the dendritic trees of Purkinje cells, contacting one of every 3-5 that they pass, making a total of 80-100 synaptic connections with Purkinje cell dendritic spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive branching in white matter and synapses to granular cells ensures that input from a single mossy fiber axon will influence processing in a very large number of Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to compositions that enhance or inhibit the interactions of galectin-8 and galectin-8-like proteins with other extracellular matrix proteins or cell surface receptors, to the use thereof as physiological modulators of cell adhesion and in treatment of tumors, either in vivo or ex vivo. (google.com)
  • This group embodies proteins such as thrombospondin, tenascin, and hevin that do not serve as integral components of matrix elements but rather function through binding to matrix proteins as well as to cell surface receptors. (google.com)
  • Analysis of the data for potential paracrine interacting factors showed that the basal/myoepithelial cells, remarkably, expressed over twice as many ligands and cell surface receptors as the other two populations combined. (nih.gov)
  • The cleft contains gap junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes, and adheren proteins, all of which help to propagate and/or regulate cell communication through signal transduction, surface receptors, or a chemogradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • left untreated, they may turn into a type of cancer called Squamous cell skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A whole transcriptome analysis of basal/myoepithelial cells, luminal estrogen receptor negative cells and luminal estrogen receptor positive cells isolated from the virgin mouse mammary epithelium identified 861, 326 and 488 genes as highly differentially expressed in the three cell types, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The mouse mammary epithelium is composed of three main cell types with distinct gene expression patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Sherwood, D. R. & Sternberg, P. W. Anchor cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans . (nature.com)
  • At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although intercellular connections mechanisms such as gap junctions and tight junctions are formed in the cells of the segmental plates, tight junctions are not involved in large network of cells as observed commonly in mature epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the testis pure embryonal carcinoma is also uncommon, and accounts for approximately ten percent of testicular germ cell tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not to say that wall structure is irrelevant for control of growth, but rather that growing cells can evidently regulate specific "loosening" processes that result in wall stress relaxation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • ATM and ATR relay the damage signal to transducer kinases Chk2 and Chk1, respectively, which then amplify the signal and regulate an overlapping set of substrates that trigger cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • that is, they work locally to regulate the function of the cells that produce them (i.e. they are autocrine agents) or of nearby cells (i.e. they are paracrine agents). (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, our work indicates that hair-cell ribbon size influences the spontaneous spiking and the precise encoding of stimulus onset in afferent neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies support that hair-cell ribbon size corresponds with functional sensitivity differences in afferent neurons and, in the case of inner hair cells of the cochlea, vulnerability to damage from noise trauma. (jneurosci.org)
  • Considering that a substantial number of neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during cerebellar development, it seems likely that neuronal loss could have a significant role in the histogenesis of the cerebellum. (jneurosci.org)
  • whereas the PCD of proliferating neuronal progenitor cells is less affected by Bax deletion, suggesting that the molecular cell death machinery differs for mitotic versus postmitotic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The term granule cell is used for several unrelated types of small neurons in various parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These principal cells then project to the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO), where they inhibit postsynaptic neurons and provide a basis for interaural level detection (ILD), required for high frequency sound localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calyx of Held is a part of the auditory system, connecting the globular bushy cells (GBCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus to the principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). (wikipedia.org)
  • The large diameter size of the bushy cell axons allows the inhibitory signal produced by the MNTB neurons to reach the SOC approximately 0.2 ms following the initial cochlear excitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated lesions have up to a 20% risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, so treatment by a dermatologist is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the diversity and anatomical organization of thalamic relay cells and targets of sub-cortical cerebellar outputs remain poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • We also observed a subpopulation of PCs that were misplaced in the inner granule cell layer of Bax-KO mice on postnatal day 5 (P5) to P10 and that, by the end of the major period of cerebellar histogenesis (P14), lose expression of the PC marker calbindin. (jneurosci.org)
  • The cell bodies are packed into a thick granular layer at the bottom of the cerebellar cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though mitotic cell divisions create more cells within these plates, the length of the plates is maintained constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. neoformans capsule enlargement required expression of fungal phospholipase B, but not phospholipase C. Purified phospholipids, in particular, phosphatidylcholine, and derived molecules triggered capsular enlargement with the subsequent formation of giant cells. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, phospholipids are the first host-derived molecules identified to trigger capsular enlargement. (nih.gov)
  • For localized movement, cytoplasmic streaming within cells and slow diffusion of ions and molecules between cells are utilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer instrument can examine the expression of molecules on individual cells in fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Schwann cells arise from the neural crest and are led by the axons to their destination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globular bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) send axons to the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), where they synapse via these calyces on MNTB principal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations suggest that varying ribbon size alone can influence sensory encoding, and give further insight into how hair cells transduce signals that cover a wide dynamic range of stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Analysis of amoebae extracts showed that the likely stimuli for capsule enlargement were protozoan polar lipids. (nih.gov)
  • This differs from neoplasia (the process underlying cancer and benign tumors), in which genetically abnormal cells manage to proliferate in a non-physiological manner which is unresponsive to normal stimuli. (wikipedia.org)